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Ubuntu Linux User Guide

Produced by ISCA Vision Ltd - November 2008 European Resettlement Training & Education for Prisoners (E-Step) Project Number: 133925-LLP-1-2007-1-UK-GRUNDTVIG-GMP
This project has been funded with the support of the European Commission. This document reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Ubuntu Linux User Guide Contents Page No

About this Guide ...................................................................................... 1 Introduction to the Desktop ....................................................................... 1 Panels.................................................................................................. 1 Applets ................................................................................................ 1 Launchers ............................................................................................ 1 Adding to a Panel .................................................................................. 2 Add a Panel .......................................................................................... 2 Panel Properties .................................................................................... 3 Windows ................................................................................................. 4 Workspaces............................................................................................. 4 File Manager............................................................................................ 5 File Browser Window................................................................................. 6 Location Bar ......................................................................................... 6 Text Location Bar .................................................................................. 6 Search Bar ........................................................................................... 7 Adding ................................................................................................. 7 Removable Media ..................................................................................... 8 Emblems .............................................................................................. 8 Permissions .......................................................................................... 9 Changing File Permissions....................................................................... 9 Changing Permissions for a Folder ......................................................... 10 Applications........................................................................................... 10 Tomboy ................................................................................................ 12 To Add a New Note .............................................................................. 12 View / Search All Notes ........................................................................ 12 Editing / Formatting Text ...................................................................... 13 Linking............................................................................................... 13 F Spot .................................................................................................. 14 Importing Photos................................................................................. 15 Tags .................................................................................................. 15 Viewing Photos.................................................................................... 16 Editing Photos ..................................................................................... 17 Shortcut Keys ........................................................................................ 20

Ubuntu Linux User Guide

About this Guide


This Guide is designed to introduce new users to the Ubuntu operating system & its desktop (Gnome) environment. This training guide is designed to help you get started quickly, giving you the basic features & navigation techniques.

Introduction to the Desktop


The desktop screen is made up of the following components:

Panels
These are the two bars that appear at the top & bottom of the desktop screen. By default, the panel at the top displays the GNOME menu bar, the date & time as well as application icons.

The bottom panel displays a list of any open windows, the button that allows you to switch between workspaces & the trashcan.

These panels can be customised to add other tools, such as other menus, launchers & other small utility applications, called panel applets. For example, you could set up the panel to display the current weather for your location. You can add applets, launchers and/or buttons to a panel.

Applets
An applet is a mini-application which you can add to a panel for easy access. Some of the default active applets are: Main Menu, Fast User Switcher. Notification Area, Volume Control, Clock, Quit, Show Desktop, Window List, Workspace Switcher & a Trashcan.

Launchers
A launcher is an item that allows you to carry out a specific action, such as access an application, open a folder etc.

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Adding to a Panel
You can add more items to the panel: RIGHT click on a blank area of a panel Select ADD TO PANEL

Select the required item Click ADD The new item will now appear on the panel. You can move the item anywhere on the panel by dragging it. To remove an item: RIGHT click on the item Choose REMOVE FROM PANEL

Add a Panel
You can add new panels to your desktop at any time, to do this: RIGHT click on any blank area on any panel Select ADD NEW PANEL

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Ubuntu Linux User Guide

Panel Properties
You can use the panel properties window to reposition, resize & change background colour. RIGHT click on the panel you wish to modify Select PROPERTIES

The GENERAL tab allows you to: Select the position (orientation) for the panel Modify the SIZE (increase pixels) The third option allows you to switch on EXPAND, AUTOHIDE or add the SHOW/HIDE buttons on the panel itself

You can also MOVE any panel by holding the SHIFT key down whilst dragging the panel to its new location. The BACKGROUND tab allows you to:

Change the Background COLOUR Choose SOLID COLOR Select Colour from palette BACKGROUND IMAGE allows you to use a stored graphic file for your background

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Ubuntu Linux User Guide

Windows
You are able to display multiple windows on the desktop at any one time. These windows can be moved & resized as needed. At the top of each window is a titlebar & maximise, minimise & close buttons.

You can change the size & position of any window on the screen; this will allow you to see more than one application at any one time. You may be reading a web page & typing notes into a word processor. To move a window, simply drag the TITLEBAR to its new location. To resize the window, drag one of the borders to expand or shrink the window on that side. The change two sides at the same time drag the corner. The RESIZE pointer appears when your mouse is in the correct position to begin a drag. To maximise a window quickly, double-click the TITLEBAR.

Workspaces
Workspaces enable you to manage which windows are on the screen, they are almost virtual screens which you can switch between. Each workspace will contain the same panels & menus but will run different applications & open different windows. By default, there are two workspaces available which you can switch between, To do this you use the WORKSPACE SWITCHER applet which is located on the bottom-right of the panel.

The two workspaces are represented as a two rectangles; you simply click on one to change workspace. To change the default of how many workspaces are available: RIGHT click on any one of the workspace rectangles Select PREFERENCES from the fly out menu key in number of rows/columns required

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File Manager
The file manager facility of Ubuntu is known as Nautilus & provides easy access to your applications, folders & files. To access the Nautilus file manager, you simply click on the PLACES menu which is located on the top panel of the desktop. The places menu contains: Home Folder Desktop Bookmarks Computer CD/DVD Creator Network

The last three items on the places menu carry out actions rather than open locations, they are: Connect to Server Search Recent Documents

The Nautilus file manager provides a quick & easy way to manage your files & applications. You can use it to: Create Folders/Document Display Files/Folders Search & Manage Files Write Data to CD/DVD Launch Applications Customise File/Folder Appearance Open Specific Locations Install/Remove Fonts

The file manager enables you to organise your files into folders. Folders can also contain sub-folders, using these effectively will ensure that you can find files quickly & easily when you need them. Nautilus also manages the desktop which is always positioned behind all the other visible items on the screen. Every user will have a HOME folder; this contains all the users files. The DESKTOP is another folder which will contain icons allowing quick access to the users home folder, trash & also removable media such as CDs &/or USB flashdrives. To open a new Nautilus window: Double-left click an icon, such as HOME or DESKTOP or Select an item from the PLACES menu Remember that many things are files, such as word processed documents, photos, movies, music files etc. There maybe times when you are working that you will have many windows open at any one time & this can make it difficult to return to your desktop quickly. To get back to the desktop quickly, press: CTRL+ALT+D or click on the SHOW DESKTOP BUTTON which is located at the far left of the bottom panel.

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Ubuntu Linux User Guide

File Browser Window

ToolBar Location Bar Places Side Pane System Places

Bookmarks

Read only folder with emblem

Location Bar
The Location Bar displays a location field, button bar or search facility. The default display is the BUTTON BAR which shows a row of buttons that represent your current locations hierarchy. You can use these buttons to move quickly between folders.

Text Location Bar


Although the button bar is the default, you can switch to a text location bar by clicking the toggle button from the button bar. The text location bar displays the current location as a text path e.g. /home/user/Documents. To move to a new location: Key in the new path Press ENTER

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Search Bar
The Nautilus file manager contains a search facility. To access this: OR Click the SEARCH button on the toolbar Press CTRL+F Key in the text you wish to search for Press ENTER (The results of the search will be displayed.)

If the search does not find the desired file then you can narrow it down by using the FILE TYPE & LOCATION buttons.

You can add Notes to your files / folders in two ways, either by using the Nautilus SIDE PANE or by using the PROPERTIES window. Side Pane Open the FILE / FOLDER you wish to add the note to Select NOTES from the drop down list in the side pane Key in the NOTES in the side pane (A note EMBLEM will be displayed on the file) To DELETE a note Delete the text from the Notes pane Properties Window Right-click the FILE / FOLDER you wish to add the note to Select PROPERTIES from the fly-out menu & choose the NOTES tab Key in the Notes text Click CLOSE

Adding Notes

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Removable Media
When you insert a removable media device, such as a CD or Memory Stick & icon representing this device will be displayed on the Desktop.

To DISPLAY the contents Double click the icon To EJECT the device Right-click on icon choose UNMOUNT VOLUME

Emblems
By default your files & folders are displayed as icons, you can also add emblems to files & folders. For example, you can use an emblem to mark a document as important or urgent, there are many such emblems available. To add an emblem: Right click the FILE / FOLDER you wish to add the emblem Select PROPERTIES from the fly-out menu Select the EMBLEMS tab & choose from the displayed list

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Permissions
Permissions can be assigned to any file / folder; they determine what types of access other users are allowed. For example, you can ensure that a user is only able to read your file & not edit or delete it. Every file is owned / created by a user & that user is associated with a group that they belong to. You can set permissions for three user categories: Owner This is the user that created the file Group A group of users to which the owner belongs Others All others not already included

Changing File Permissions


Different permissions can be set for each of the three categories: None No access Read Only File can be accessed for reading but no changes can be made Read & Write - Files can be modified and / or deleted & changes can be saved Execute - Executable files can be run as a program Right-click the FILE Choose PROPERTIES Select options as required

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Changing Permissions for a Folder


Changing permissions to a folder is the same process as changing file permissions; the options are: None No access List Files User can view the folder items is not allowed access to them Access Files All folder items with allowable permissions can be accessed & changed. Create / Delete Files User can create new files & delete the files contained in the folder. Right-click the FOLDER Choose PROPERTIES Select options as required

Applications
An application is a computer programme that will allow you to perform a task such as, create a text document or view images etc. You simply choose the appropriate application to carry out a particular task. To access an application, open the applications menu & choose from the sub menus:

Some of the applications provided by default with Ubuntu, Gnome are: Calculator Screenshot Text Editor Games Internet Tools Office Sound & Video System Tools

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Ubuntu Linux User Guide As well as the default applications provided you can add more at any time. To do this: Choose ADD or REMOVE from the APPLICATIONS Menu Bar

To refine your search criteria for a particular application, choose from the CATEGORIES located on the left-side of the window. For example, if you are looking for an image editor which would allow you to edit photographs etc, then choose GRAPHICS from the category list. The right-hand side of the screen will now only display graphic applications & you can scroll through the list until you find the most suitable. Once you have selected the application by clicking the checkbox (a tick will appear) then: Click APPLY CHANGES button you will be asked to confirm the changes - Click APPPLY Enter your PASSWORD click OK & CLOSE The newly installed application is now displayed on the APPLICATIONS menu

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Tomboy
Tomboy is a note taking applet which you can add to your panel for easy access. To add Tomboy to a Panel: Right-click on the Panel Choose ADD TO PANEL Select TOMBOY NOTES Click ADD - An icon now appears on the panel

To Add a New Note


Click the TOMBOY icon displayed on the panel Select CREATE NEW NOTE from the menu The NEW NOTE window will be displayed with a title of New Note & its number. This first line is the default title & can be changed to a more appropriate document title.

View / Search All Notes


Click the TOMBOY icon displayed on the panel Select SEARCH ALL NOTES from the Menu (will display in date modification order)

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Ubuntu Linux User Guide Tomboy provides a search facility for you to find specific notes quickly by simply entering in text into the field. Select SEARCH ALL NOTES from the TOMBOY menu Enter in search text

The search RESULTS will be displayed on the right-hand side of the window. Double-click the required note to open it.

Editing / Formatting Text


All available options for text formatting can be found on the TEXT menu within an open notes document. However, there are some shortcut keys available which are often quicker than using a menu. They are: Key CTRL+Z SHIFT+CTRL+Z CTRL+H Undo Redo Highlight Action Key CTRL+B CTRL+I CTRL+S Bold Italic Strikeout Action

Font Size There are four options Small, Normal, Large & Huge. These can only be changed from the Text menu.

Linking
The link option will allow you to create a link to a NEW note from the CURRENT one. To do this: Highlight a piece of relevant text (this text will become the title of the new linked note) Select the LINK button (A new note will be created)

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Ubuntu Linux User Guide Tomboy also carries out automatic linking if you key in the name of another note in your current note. A link is displayed as blue text & when clicked will open the linked notes document.

F Spot
FSpot is a photo management tool which allows you to import, organise & enhance your photographs. To access FSpot: Select APPLICATIONS / GRAPHICS / FSPOT from the Menu If you have never used FSpot before then no photos will be displayed in the window, however if you have launched the application previously, then you will see all photos contained in the FSpot database.

Toolbar

Timeline

Tags

Photo details

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Importing Photos
You can import photos from your computer hard drive or from a removable device, such as a camera or memory stick. When FSpot imports the photos it will always make a copy of them. If you do not want this to happen then UNCHECK the COPY option on the IMPORT DIALOG window. You can also do this by holding down the SHIFT key when dragging photos to FSpot. To import: Select FILE / IMPORT from the FSpot menu Select the IMPORT SOURCE from the top-right of the window UNCHECK the COPY option if you want to MOVE rather than copy

Tags
Tags can be used to help you organise your photos, they are simply labels that are displayed as a named icon. FSpot provides you with some default tags, for example, people, places etc. But you can create your own tags to make it easier to locate files later. To create a tag: Select TAGS / CREATE NEW TAG from the menu If you have a photo selected then this will be used as the tag ICON Key in the TAG NAME There are many ways to tag photos, you can: Right-click on the photo Choose ATTACH TAG select from list Drag & drop the photos to a TAG Drag & drop the tag to the PHOTO

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Ubuntu Linux User Guide Once your photos have been tagged it becomes easy to display specific tagged photos. You simply select from the TAGS PANE which is displayed on the lefthand side of the FSpot window. If no tags are selected FSpot will display your entire photo collection.

Selected tag

Viewing Photos
You can use the FSpot main window to browse through your collection which is displayed by default in date order from oldest to newest. This order can be reversed using the VIEW menu options.

Slider

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The slider tool on the lower right of the window allows you to alter the number of photos on view at any one time. Timeline This is the band that is displayed at the top of the display pane & enables you to move from month to month. Clicking on a month bar will immediately move you to the first photo of the chosen month. Slideshow & Fullscreen Both of these views utilise the entire screen to display your photos. Click the FULLSCREEN icon from the toolbar OR Press the shortcut key F11 The selected photo will now be displayed using the full screen. Use the mouse SCROLL button to ZOOM in or out. To exit fullscreen mode Press the ESC key OR Click the SLIDESHOW icon from the toolbar OR Press the shortcut key F5

Both of these views provide an on-screen toolbar which offers additional options when using the views, for example changing slide transition, rotation etc.

Editing Photos
To edit a photo: Double-click the photo OR Select EDIT IMAGE icon from the toolbar Cropping Using the CROP tool allows you to remove specific parts of an image. You do this by selecting the parts of the photo that you wish to keep. Use the mouse to draw a rectangle shape around the part of the photo you wish to keep.

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Crop Tool

Click the CROP tool you will now see only the area you selected

Your original photo will be retained in FSpot to view the original: Click the drop-down list which is located at the bottom-left of the window Choose ORIGINAL from the list

Red Eye To remove redeye from a photo: Use the mouse to select the area of the photo which needs adjusting

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Redeye Tool

Click the REDEYE tool which is located at the bottom-left of the screen (The Redeye will now be removed) Sepia / Black & White To convert colour photos to sepia or black & white: Click the appropriate icon from the toolbar
Blk & White Sepia

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Shortcut Keys
Key ALT+F1 PRINTSCRREN ALT+PRINTSCREEN CTRL+ALT+ARROW KEYS CTRL+ALT+D ALT+TAB CTRL+ALT-TAB Action Opens the Applications menu Takes a screenshot of entire Desktop Takes a screenshot of active Window Switches Workspace to arrow direction Minimise all windows Switch between Windows Switch between Panels & Desktop

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