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PROJECT REPORT ON STUDY OF EMPLOYEES ABSENTEEISM

ABSTRACT

The project report entitle A STUDY ON EMPLOYEES ABSENTEEISM IN LIFESTYLE SHOWROOM CHENNAI CITICENTER. is intended to determine the employees condition, salary, Facilities, attendance program, training programme, motivation techniques and promotions

To achieve this defined objective structured questionnaire based on the preliminary study made is prepared. The prepared questionnaire is used to get the direct responses from the employees of Lifestyle store chennai citicenter.

The response given by the employees of Lifestyle store chennai citicenter analyzed and interpreted using different type of statistical tools used are percentage analysis , weighted average method , chi square , correlation .

After analysis and interpretation it reveals the following points are important in improving the working condition ,increasing the salary , transport facilities , introduction of attendance programme , promotion incentives , increasing leave , welfare facilities , the above all conclusion will helpful for management to improve the presenteeism.

INTRODUCTION

INDUSTRY PROFILE

THE RETAIL SECTOR IN INDIA Retailing in India is one of the pillars of its economy and accounts for 14 to 15 percent of its GDP. The Indian retail market is estimated to be US$450 billion and one of the top five retail markets in the world by economic value. India is one of the fastest growing retail market in the world, with 1.2 billion people. India's retailing industry is essentially owner manned small shops. In 2010, larger format convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for about 4 percent of the industry, and these were present only in large urban centers. India's retail and logistics industry employs about 40 million Indians (3.3% of Indian population). Until 2012, Indian central government denied foreign direct investment (FDI) in multi-brand retail, forbidding foreign groups from any ownership in supermarkets, convenience stores or any retail outlets. Even single-brand retail was limited to 51% ownership and a bureaucratic process. In November 2012, India's central government announced retail reforms for both multi-brand stores and single-brand stores. These market reforms paved the way for retail innovation and competition with multi-brand retailers such as Walmart, Carrefour and Tesco, as well single brand majors such as IKEA,Nike, and Apple. The announcement sparked intense activism, both in opposition and in support of the reforms. In December 2011, under pressure from the opposition, Indian government placed the retail reforms on hold till it reaches a consensus. In January 2012, India approved reforms for single-brand stores welcoming anyone in the world to innovate in Indian retail market with 100% ownership, but imposed the requirement that the single brand retailer source 30 percent of its goods from India. Indian government continues the hold on retail reforms for multi-brand stores.

In June 2012, IKEA announced it has applied for permission to invest $1.9 billion in India and set up 25 retail stores. Fitch believes that the 30 percent requirement is likely to significantly delay if not prevent most single brand majors from Europe, USA and Japan from opening stores and creating associated jobs in India.

Growth over 1997-2010 India in 1997 allowed foreign direct investment (FDI) in cash and carry wholesale. Then, it required government approval. The approval requirement was relaxed, and automatic permission was granted in 2006. Between 2000 to 2010, Indian retail attracted about $1.8 billion in foreign direct investment, representing a very small 1.5% of total investment flow into India. Single brand retailing attracted 94 proposals between 2006 and 2010, of which 57 were approved and implemented. For a country of 1.2 billion people, this is a very small number. Some claim one of the primary restraint inhibiting better participation was that India required single brand retailers to limit their ownership in Indian outlets to 51%. China in contrast allows 100% ownership by foreign companies in both single brand and multi-brand retail presence. Indian retail has experienced limited growth, and its spoilage of food harvest is amongst the highest in the world, because of very limited integrated cold-chain and other infrastructure. India has only 5386 stand-alone cold storages, having a total capacity of 23.6 million metric tons. However, 80 percent of this storage is used only for potatoes. The remaining infrastructure capacity is less than 1% of the annual farm output of India, and grossly inadequate during peak harvest seasons. This leads to about 30% losses in certain perishable agricultural output in India, on average, every year. Indian laws already allow foreign direct investment in cold-chain infrastructure to the extent of 100 percent. There has been no interest in foreign direct investment in cold storage infrastructure build out. Experts claim that cold storage infrastructure will become economically viable only when there is strong and contractually binding demand from organized retail. The risk of cold storing perishable food, without an assured way to move and sell it, puts the economic viability of expensive cold storage in doubt. In the absence of organized retail competition and with a ban on foreign direct investment in multi-brand retailers, foreign direct investments are unlikely to begin in cold storage and farm logistics infrastructure.

Until 2010, intermediaries and middlemen in India have dominated the value chain. Due to a number of intermediaries involved in the traditional Indian retail chain, norms are flouted and pricing lacks transparency. Small Indian farmers realize only 1/3rd of the total price paid by the final Indian consumer, as against 2/3rd by farmers in nations with a higher share of organized retail. The 60%+ margins for middlemen and traditional retail shops have limited growth and prevented innovation in Indian retail industry. India has had years of debate and discussions on the risks and prudence of allowing innovation and competition within its retail industry. Numerous economists repeatedly recommended to the Government of India that legal restrictions on organized retail must be removed, and the retail industry in India must be opened to competition. For example, in an invited address to the Indian parliament in December 2010, JagdishBhagwati, Professor of Economics and Law at the Columbia University analysed the relationship between growth and poverty reduction, then urged the Indian parliament to extend economic reforms by freeing up of the retail sector, further liberalisation of trade in all sectors, and introducing labor market reforms. Such reforms Professor Bhagwati argued will accelerate economic growth and make a sustainable difference in the life of India's poorest., A 2007 report noted that an increasing number of people in India are turning to the services sector for employment due to the relative low compensation offered by the traditional agriculture and manufacturing sectors. The organized retail market is growing at 35 percent annually while growth of unorganized retail sector is pegged at 6 percent. The Retail Business in India is currently at the point of inflection. As of 2008, rapid change with investments to the tune of US $ 25 billion were being planned by several Indian and multinational companies in the next 5 years. It is a huge industry in terms of size and according to India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF), it is valued at about US$ 395.96 billion. Organised retail is expected to garner about 16-18 percent of the total retail market (US $ 65-75 billion) in the next 5 years. India has topped the A.T. Kearneys annual Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) for the third consecutive year, maintaining its position as the most attractive market for retail investment. The Indian economy has registered a growth of 8% for 2007. The predictions for 2008 is 7.9%. The enormous growth of the retail industry has created a huge demand for real estate.

Property developers are creating retail real estate at an aggressive pace and by 2010, 300 malls are estimated to be operational in the country. Growth after 2011 Before 2011, India had prevented innovation and organized competition in its consumer retail industry. Several studies claim that the lack of infrastructure and competitive retail industry is a key cause of India's persistently high inflation. Furthermore, because of unorganized retail, in a nation where malnutrition remains a serious problem, food waste is rife. Well over 30% of food staples and perishable goods produced in India spoils because poor infrastructure and small retail outlets prevent hygienic storage and movement of the goods from the farmer to the consumer. One report estimates the 2011 Indian retail market as generating sales of about $470 billion a year, of which a miniscule $27 billion comes from organized retail such as supermarkets, chain stores with centralized operations and shops in malls. The opening of retail industry to free market competition, some claim will enable rapid growth in retail sector of Indian economy. Others believe the growth of Indian retail industry will take time, with organized retail possibly needing a decade to grow to a 25% share. A 25% market share, given the expected growth of Indian retail industry through 2021, is estimated to be over $250 billion a year: a revenue equal to the 2009 revenue share from Japan for the world's 250 largest retailers. The Economist forecasts that Indian retail will nearly double in economic value, expanding by about $400 billion by 2020. The projected increase alone is equivalent to the current retail market size of France. In 2011, food accounted for 70% of Indian retail, but was under-represented by organized retail. A.T. Kearney estimates India's organized retail had a 31% share in clothing and apparel, while the home supplies retail was growing between 20% to 30% per year. These data correspond to retail prospects prior to November announcement of the retail reform. The Indian market offers endless possibilities for investors.

Major Indian Retailers Indian apparel retailers are increasing their brand presence overseas, particularly in developed markets. While most have identified a gap in countries in West Asia and Africa, some

majors are also looking at the US and Europe. Arvind Brands, Madura Garments, Spykar Lifestyle and Royal Classic Polo are busy chalking out foreign expansion plans through the distribution route and standalone stores as well. Another denim wear brand, Spykar, which is now moving towards becoming a casualwear lifestyle brand, has launched its store in Melbourne recently. It plans to open three stores in London by 2008-end. The low-intensity entry of the diversified Mahindra Group into retail is unique because it plans to focus on lifestyle products. The Mahindra Group is the fourth largest Indian business group to enter the business of retail after Reliance Industries Ltd, the Aditya Birla Group, and Bharti Enterprises Ltd. The other three groups are focusing either on perishables and groceries, or a range of products, or both.

REI AGRO LTD Retail: 6TEN and 6TEN kirana stores Future Groups-Formats: Big Bazaar, Food Bazaar, Pantaloons, Central, Fashion Station, Brand Factory, Depot, aLL, E-Zone etc.

Raymond Ltd.: Textiles, The Raymond Shop, Park Avenue, Park Avenue Woman, Parx, Colourplus, Neck Ties & More, Shirts & More etc.

Fabindia: Textiles, Home furnishings, handloom apparel, jewellery RP-SanjivGoenka Group Retail-Formats: Spencers Hyper, Spencer's Daily, Music World, Au Bon Pain (Internaional bakery cafeteria), Beverly Hills Polo Club

The Tata Group-Formats: Westside, Star India Bazaar, Steeljunction, Landmark, Titan Industries with World of Titans showrooms, Tanishq outlets, Croma.

Reliance Retail-Formats: Reliance MART, Reliance SUPER, Reliance FRESH, Reliance Footprint, Reliance Living, Reliance Digital, Reliance Jewellery, Reliance Trends, Reliance Autozone, iStore

Reliance ADAG Retail-Format: Reliance World K Raheja Corp Group-Formats: Shoppers Stop, Crossword, Hyper City, Inorbit Mall Nilgiris-Formats: Nilgiris supermarket chain Marks & Spencer: Clothing, lifestyle products, etc.

ShriKannan Departmental Store (P) Ltd ., : Groceries, Clothing, Cosmetics [Western Tamilnadu's Leading Retailer]

Lifestyle International-Lifestyle, Home Centre, Max, Fun City and International Franchise brand stores.

COMPANY PROFILE
Lifestyle International (P) Ltd, part of the prestigious Dubai based Landmark Group, started its operations in India with the launch of the first Lifestyle store in Chennai in 1999. In little over a decades time, Lifestyle has established itself amongst the leading retail companies in India. Positioned as a youthful, stylish and a vibrant brand, Lifestyle Departmental stores offers its customers not just the ease of shopping but also an enjoyable shopping experience. Each Lifestyle store brings together five concepts under one roof Apparel, Footwear, Childrens Wear & Toys, Furniture & Home Furnishings, Beauty & Fashion Accessories - offering a convenience of a one-stop shop and a wide choice of national & international brands. Home Centre by Lifestyle is a one stop destination for Furniture, Home Dcor and Soft Furnishings that truly represent style, comfort and individuality. Home Centre uses a unique Concept Room display model to give customers a practical idea of how each piece of furniture would look in a particular room. In keeping with the Groups tradition of making every shopping experience rewarding and memorable, The Inner Circle Landmark Groups Loyalty program allows members, to enjoy exclusive benefits and privileges such as reward points and exciting offers. The Inner Circle is today recognized amongst the leading Loyalty Program in the country with an ever increasing base of customers. The card is accepted across all Landmark Group Stores in India including Lifestyle, Home Centre by Lifestyle, Max Fashion, Bossini, Spar Hypermarket, Polynation Food Court & Gloria Jeans Coffees. Lifestyle and Home Centre offer a truly international shopping experience, a fact borne by numerous accolades:

Lifestyle receives Most Admired Large Format Fashion Retailer at the Images Fashion Awards for two consecutive years 2011 & 2012

Lifestyle awarded Most Admired Retailer of the Year, Department Store Category at the Images Retail Awards 2011

Home Centre awarded Most Admired Retailer of the Year, Home and Interiors Category at the Images Retail Awards 2009 & 2010 Most Admired Retailer of the Year - Department Store for Lifestyle from Images Retail in 2008 Reid and Taylor Retailer of the Year award for the year 2006 for Lifestyle. Lycra Images Fashion Awards for the Most Admired Large Format Retailer of the Year in 2006 for Lifestyle ICICI KSA Technopak Award for Retail Excellence in 2005 for Lifestyle Most Respected Company in the Retail Sector by Business World IMRB in 2003 and 2004 for Lifestyle

Present across major metros in India, Lifestyle and Home Centre are rapidly expanding their footprint across the country. LifeStyle is an Indian department store chain promoted by the Landmark Group which is a Dubai, based Group, started in the year 1999 with its first store in Chennai.[1] It has rapidly grown to a major Retail Stores in India. Lifestyle Stores is Based in Andheri, Mumbai as its Corporate Headquarters.It has now operate in all major Cities of India and totally overall in 19 cities with more than 75 stores all across India. History Lifestyle Stores started as Lifestyle stores in Chennai and Mumbai.[3] Then spread to all major stores in over a Decade.It got a very strong compiticion from Pantaloon Retail in starting year.But now has become made itself as a major Retail Stores chain due to its such as factor pricing,Good location and International contemporary stores look.It started from a Two stores as of 2012 it has now operate more than 75 Stores.[4] Store Lifestyle Stores is one of the leading retail stores in India. Lifestyle Stores began by operating a chain of department stores under the name Lifestyle Retail Pvt Ltd. in India. Lifestyle Stores has 75 stores across the country.Lifestyle Stores retails a range of branded apparel and private

label under the following categories of apparel, footwear, fashion jewellery, leather products, accessories and home products. These are complemented by cafe, food, entertainment, personal care and various beauty related services.[5] Products Lifestyle Stores products of domestic and international brands such as Louis Philippe, Pepe, Arrow, BIBA, Gini & Jony, Carbon, Corelle, Magppie Nike, Reebok, LEGO, and Mattel. The company also licensees for Austin Reed (London), an international brand, whos men's and women's outerwear are retailed in India exclusively through the chain. Inner Circle loyalty program Inner Circle is an a loyalty program which can be used in Lifestyle by using points and in any other Landmark Groups stores. Corporate sturctaure Lifestyle International is headed by Micky Jagtiani who Chairman & CEO of the company as well as Chairman & CEO of the its parent group Landmark Group which is based in Dubai.Life stores headquarters are based in Andheri, Mumbai.As of 2012 it has 29,000 employees and has 75 stores across 17 Cities all across the India.[8] Home centre Stores Main article: Home Centre Stores Home centre stores is an part of Lifestyle stores which has products such as furniture and home Decorative.Home centre Stores is spread on a totall area of over 3 million sq. ft. of retail space as of 2012

An overview of all departments in Lifestyle Store

1. Apparel 2. Home Centre 3. Footwear, Handbags & Travel 4. Beauty & Fashion Accessories 5. Children

Apparel

Apparels in lifestyle adds a major contribution in overall sales, Apparels divided into three categories:

Women Lifestyle has a great variety of stuff to offer for women for just every occasion, Be it a party, college, work, nightwear, wedding. You name it, they have it! A few brands include, Code, Melange, Biba, W, Remanika, Ginger etc.

o ETHNIC & FUSIONWEAR o WESTERN WEAR o LINGERIE

Men Men's section has one of the major contribution in lifestyle store overall sales. There are a number of brands available in this section. Some of the brands are as studio code, Louis Philippe, Park Avenue & Levis; P&Q Men's apparel is divided into following categories

o FORMAL WEAR

o CASUAL WEAR o DENIM o SPORTS WEAR o INNERWEAR o ACCESSORIES o ETHNIC

Children How can children be left behind when it comes to style. Lifestyle an eye goggling range to offer for the little ones out there!

HOME CENTER

Home Centre by Lifestyle is a one-stop destination for furniture, furnishings and home decoratives that truly represent style, comfort and individuality. The design of all Home Centre stores model international retail standards and are spacious and easy to browse through. Built along Concept Rooms comprising bed, living and dining rooms, customers are given a hands-on touch and feel of their own personal spaces.

Using international sourcing, Home Centre showcases the A-Z of home improvement under one roof: contemporary and classic styled furniture, soft furnishings, cutlery and crockery, home decor and gift ideas, appealing to a variety of taste and preferences. o Home Center belongs to Landmark Group, Dubai - the group that owns Lifestyle in India. o Home Centre has over 50 stores across Middle East and India - spanning a retail area of over 2.4 million square feet. o There are currently 12 Home Centre stores in India across Bangalore, Chennai, Gurgaon, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Noida, Delhi and Pune. o Home Centre is the winner of the Images Retail Most Admired Retailer of the year award in the Home & Office Improvement Category for 2008 and

2009.

1. Footwear, Handbags & Travel Just apparel will not do the magic right? Lifestyle brings to you the most exotic range of footwear and bags. Something that one would not stop flaunting. o Men o Women o Children o Handbags o Travel

2. Beauty & Fashion Accessories o Sunglasses o Accessories o Pens o Watches o Beauty

3. Children o Apparel o Toys o School & Stationary

PRIVATE LABLES OF LIFESTYE

1. MELANGE 2. CODE

3. GINGER 4. FAME FOREVER 5. FORCA 6. JUNIORS

NEED FOR THE STUDY

The success of any retail company depends largely on the workers, the employees are considered as the backbone of LIFESTYLE INTERNATIONAL PVT LTD.

The study is on employee absenteeism in Lifestyle store Chennai citicenter. The employee absenteeism is booming HR issue in many industries .It helps to know the employee satisfactions level and it help to find cause of employee absenteeism, based on certain factor like working condition, leadership style, work stress, leave days, and salary level. This study can be helpful to the management to improve its core weaknesses by the suggestions and recommendations prescribed in the project. The need of this study can be recognized when the result of the related study need suggestions and recommendations to the similar situation.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. An absence refers to time an employee is not on the job during scheduled working hours, except for a granted leave of absence, holiday, or vacation time. However, employee absenteeism is not just an employee issue it is an organizational problem and therefore becomes everyone's responsibility.

2.1 Says FRANCES DAVIES Absenteeism can have an enormous effect on the productivity of an organization. The average American worker takes six days sick leave a year, and although this is significantly less than in places such as Europe it is still having a big impact on US staffing resources and productivity. The loss of productivity due to short/long-term illness, disability is therefore proving to be a major headache for companies. Effective absence management programs can be the best remedy for reducing absenteeism. Every time an employee is absent from work there is a loss of productivity to the organization, explains Sharon Kaleta, President and CEO of the Disability Management Employers Coalition (DMEC). One person absent from work may not create a problem, but several people absent for one or more days can have a significant financial impact to the organization. IMPACT OF ABSENTEEISM There are many forms of absenteeism, ranging from short-term illness, long-term illness, unauthorized absence and persistent lateness, to other authorized absences such as annual leave, paternity leave, time off to care for dependents and compassionate leave. Other causes might also include low morale, stress and poor working conditions, many of which are preventable. The effect absenteeism can have on a business can be wide-ranging, but particularly affects those employees left to pick up the pieces. According to Wayne Wendling, Senior Director of Research at the International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans.

The workings of a company have changed and employees are now much more interconnected than previously and, as a result, organizations are much more dependent on their employees. When someone is absent, the entire web of interaction among employees can be disturbed in terms of workflows and the availability of information, he explains. Part of that is overcome as more files are now open to people who can fill in and help with the tasks that the individual may have been performing. However, there is a definite ripple effect through the organization when someone is unexpectedly ill. The productivity of others is also being impacted. WORKING WELL There are many measures that an employer can take to help mitigate the rippling effects of absenteeism on the workforce. Sometimes it really is the little things that make the most difference. Allowing employees to visit doctors and dentists, health surveillance, health education and stress management interventions are all good examples. Once they are measuring absence and then reducing it, they will find that a fitter workforce will perform better and productivity will increase giving them a competitive edge in any business environment, enthuses Bawden. One of the most effective ways to combat absenteeism, however, is to maintain a happy working environment where people actually enjoy coming to work. Have a workplace that people love to come to work in and they feel they are doing something meaningful, Wendling recommends. Although not always preventable, absenteeism is something that can be mitigated to a certain degree, and absence management programs can definitely help. Fostering a caring working environment where workers are supported during any illness or disability can only work in the favor of the company and ensures that work isnt something for employees to be sick of. Report Author: ANNE COUGHLAN Senior Research Executive, IBEC Research and Information Service

IBEC WORKPLACE ABSENCE SURVEY 2004


The report contains data from the IBEC WORKPLACE ABSENCE SURVEY 2004, which was based on responses received from 557 private sector companies employing 147,000 employees.

Absence affects more than just the person who is absent. The absent employees themselves and their dependants may have a reduced income as a result of absence, besides incurring possible additional medical expenses. Employers are affected by direct costs such as sick pay, overtime and staff replacement costs, plus the indirect costs associated with the effects of absence on, for example, production and quality, management time and the potential loss of customers. The co-workers of an absent employee may have to work under increased pressure,in order to meet deadlines.

Many organizations appear to accept a certain level of absence i.e. where a proportion of their employees are away on any particular day. The recent IBEC study found that over half of the respondents did not consider they had a problem with absence. However, more than four out of ten companies in the survey considered their absence levels to be a cause for concern. As only a portion of absence days are subject to organization control it is important to determine what portion of employee absence is avoidable.

Employees can feel they have been treated unfairly when they perceive other absent employees as getting away with it. Absence can also be a symptom of a more serious underlying problem, such as bullying and/or harassment, communication breakdown, stress, etc., which could, if not investigated, lead to significant costs to the organization, as well as causing long-term damage to the employee.

A recent IBEC survey showed that personal problems were cited as a cause of absence in a significant number of companies, for both males and females. Nowadays, apart from sickness, employees can be absent from work for any one of a number of reasons, either under statutory leave entitlement (such as annual leave, maternity or adoptive leave, parental leave), or under arrangements agreed at an individual company level (such as compassionate or bereavement leave, study and/or exam leave, marriage leave, training, etc.).

2.2 HOW TO DEAL WITH EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM For Employees Who Are Absent For Supervisors/Managers: Recently, I was asked by a manager how he should deal with the fact that on any given day 10% of his employees are absent from work. I informed the manager that the problem of employee absenteeism is a problem best resolved by taking the following four positive interventions versus taking a negative or punitive approach. Change Management Style: We are all aware of the fact that when employees call in ill, it does not mean they are truly too physically ill to work. One reason, outside of illness, that employees are absent is stress, and the number one reason employees are stressed has to do with their relationship with their manager/supervisor. Management styles that are too authoritarian tend to promote high levels of absenteeism among employees. Authoritarian managers are managers who have poor listening skills, set unreachable goals, have poor communication skills, and are inflexible. In other words, they yell too much, blame others for problems, and make others feel that it must be their way or the "highway." Authoritarian managers tend to produce high absenteeism rates. By identifying managers who use an authoritarian style, and providing them with management training, you will be taking a positive step not only toward reducing absenteeism, but also reducing turnover, job burnout, and employee health problems such as backaches and headaches.

Change Working Conditions: The employees in your company probably work in a well-lighted climate controlled building. The working conditions I am referring to relate to coworker relationships. Not only does relationship stress occur between the employee and manager, but it also exists between employees. Frequently I hear employees say they did not go to work because they are fearful of or angry with another employee. These employees usually report they just could not deal with "so and so" today, so they called in ill. Companies that adopted policies and values that promote employee respect and professionalism, and promote an internal conflict resolution procedure, are companies that reduce employee stress. A reduction in employee stress reduces employee absenteeism. Provide Incentives: Giving employees incentives for reduced absenteeism is not the same as rewarding or giving employees bonuses for reduced absenteeism. An incentive provides an employee with a boost to their motivation to avoid unnecessary absenteeism. It simply helps the employee decide to go to work versus staying home and watching Jerry Springer. The types of incentive programs used by companies are numerous. Some companies allow employees to cash-in unused sick days at the end of every quarter, others give an employee two hours of bonus pay for every month of perfect attendance; and still others provide employees with a buffet lunch, a certificate of achievement, or even a scratch-off card concealing prizes. The type of incentive program that your company uses should be one created especially for your company. You can create an incentive program tailored to your unique company by allowing employees to help you develop the incentive program. The duration of the incentive program is also very important. Some companies find that they can simply reward employees with perfect attendance once a year, while others decide once a month is best, and still others decide once a week works best. Develop an Attendance Policy: Every company should have an attendance policy. An attendance policy allows a manager to intervene with an employee who is frequently absent. Besides stress as a primary reason for

employee absenteeism, other causes relate to alcoholism, domestic violence, and family problems. If you confront an employee about his or her frequent absenteeism, and they inform you it is due to personal problems, consider referring the employee to an Employee Assistance Program (EAP). If the employee's absenteeism relates to a medical problem or a family member with a medical problem, you may have to consider allowing the employee to use the benefits allowed to them under the American's with Disability Act (ADA) or the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Early identification of these employees will get them back to work as fast as possible. Lastly, make sure that you have an attorney review your attendance policy to make sure it does not violate any State or Federal labor laws. By incorporating the above four strategies into your company you will not only reduce absenteeism you will reduce employee burnout, turnover, poor morale, and workplace negativism. By GARY VIKESLAND, MA LP CEAP For Employees Who Are Frequently Absent

One of the most important steps you can take if you are frequently absent is to keep your employer informed. Employees who are frequently absent without good cause are generally absent due to numerous frivolous reasons. Employees who are absent for good cause have legitimate reasons, e.g. sickness or family member illness, and the employee needs time off to resolve their personal problems. Most employers generally understand the need to be gone from work due to a legitimate reason; therefore, it is important to communicate clearly and accurately so your employer does not assume you are out for frivolous reasons. As an employee you are allowed to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave under the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). The 12 weeks of leave may be taken continuous or intermittently, thereby allowing the employee to work on a less than full-time schedule. FMLA can be used for the care of a child after birth, adoption, or foster care placement. FMLA is available to care for an immediate family member (spouse, child, and parent) who has a serious health condition.

FMLA can be used for your own serious health concerns. It does not cover for the common cold, flu, ear aches, upset stomach, common headache, or routine dental care. In order to be covered by FMLA you must be considered an "eligible" employee. An

eligible employee must have 12 months (1,250 hours) of employment, and your employer must employ 50 or more employees within 75 miles of the worksite. Employees must provide 30 days of advance notice for foreseeable events. There are different exemptions present for both school teachers and state/local government employees. If you are an eligible employee, your employer must maintain your benefits, allow you to return to the same or equivalent position, and not decrease your pay or benefits at the conclusion of 12 weeks. If you believe you are eligible for FMLA, inform your supervisor or HR department that you are requesting FMLA coverage. Your employer is required to provide you with written notice, within two business days, informing you if you are eligible or not. By GARY VIKESLAND, MA LP CEAP 2.3 ABSENTEEISM Information regarding absenteeism among workers in an industrial establishment on account of reasons other than strikes, lockouts, lay-off, weekly rest or suspension, provide a sound database for gauging the employees morale, commitment and level of job satisfaction which have a direct bearing on productivity of the establishment. It is one of the indicators to monitor and evaluate various labour welfare programs and labour policies. 2.3.1 Instill enthusiasm to curb absenteeism, the Hindu EVERY organization, irrespective of size and composition, is plagued by the problem of absenteeism. Managers know that employees are not always genuinely sick when they fail to turn up for work, yet they cannot stop them from calling in sick or saying that they have to attend to some personal work. There could be a hordes of reasons for absenteeism. Sometimes an employee may not simply turn up for work because his morale is low or he is just not motivated to work.

It is observed that if employees were happy doing their work, they would be less inclined to take even a day off. Many employers think that paying their workers handsomely or providing better working conditions or improving job security can reduce absenteeism. But such benefits do not guarantee a reduction in employee absenteeism. The solution actually lies in understanding and meeting the emotional needs of workers and trying to find out what really motivates them to come to work and give their best. A wise manager would endeavor to understand the needs of workers at the recruiting stage itself. The manager can try and choose the right person for the right job. Getting to know the applicant well by focusing on the human side rather than on their qualifications and experience can do this. Efforts should be made to find out the kind of work and responsibilities that make an employee happy, the enthusiasm for work and ability to get along with other people. The manager must ascertain that the job suits the candidate. The next step would be to build employee's trust. As an employer if you have taken efforts to choose the right candidates for the job, then it is equally important that you believe in them and trust them to do their job. This trust, though, has to be communicated to the employees. If the employer believes that the employees cannot do their jobs well, cannot take decisions on their own and do not do a fair day's work then this is what they will actually do. On the contrary, if the manager's perception of employees is that they are efficient workers, independent thinkers and able decision makers, then they will go to any extent to prove it. The most important step to counter absenteeism is for the manager to constantly give the employees feedback and motivate them to perform better. But most are woefully lacking in this ability, they simply are not comfortable telling their staff about their performance. So it is important that managers provide feedback to employees on a regular basis on what they are doing well and the areas of improvement. If you notice something that requires mention tell the employee about it and tell it immediately lest the significance of the feedback should be lost.

If you postpone your feedback on things the employee is not doing rightthen it will be assumed what is being done is right or that you do not notice such things or you do not care. Some more tips on giving the right kind of feedback: Do it in private, on a one-to one basis Focus your feedback on one or two things Do not personally attack the employee Be honest and prompt with feedback Reducing employee absenteeism is in the employer's hands. If the staff has to be motivated enough to think twice about taking a day off, their work has to be made interesting. In short, they need regular feedback and be made to feel that they play an important part in the business. This can be done by giving the employees greater responsibility, training and developing their skills and focusing on what they are doing right. Involving employees both formally and informally in the aspects of the business will create a sense of belonging. These measures make employees feel good about what they are doing and thus increase job satisfaction. Organizations would be prudent if they tackle absenteeism before it becomes a contagion. Title: LABOUR ABSENTEEISM Author(s): Michael J. Peel, Nick Wilson Journal: International Journal of Manpower Year: 1990 Publisher: MCB UP Ltd

Abstract: Using a random sample of 49 UK engineering companies, the influence of profit sharing, share-option schemes and the perceived degree of employee participation in decision making on inter-firm lab our absenteeism rates are investigated. After controlling for a number of firm-specific factors, suggested as theoretically appropriate in the extant literature, the key empirical results indicated that firms which had adopted sharing schemes appeared to experience significantly lower absenteeism rates than their non-sharing counterparts..

2.4 GUIDE LINES FOR ABSENTEEISM CONTROL There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach.

2.4.1 INNOCENT ABSENTEEISM Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their control; like sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is blameless. In a lab our relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by disciplinary measures.

2.4.2 CULPABLE ABSENTEEISM

Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for reasons which are within their control. For instance , an employee who is on sick leave even though he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable absenteeism. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. In a lab our relations context this means that progressive discipline can be applied.

For the large majority of employees, absenteeism is legitimate, innocent absenteeism which occurs infrequently. Procedures for disciplinary action apply only to culpable absenteeism. Many organizations take the view that through the process of individual absentee counseling and treatment, the majority of employees will overcome their problems and return to an acceptable level of regular attendance.

2.4.3 IDENTIFYING EXCESSIVE ABSENTEEISM Attendance records should be reviewed regularly to be sure that an employee's sick-leave days are excessive compared to other employees. If a supervisor suspects that an employee is excessively absent, this can be confirmed through reviewing the attendance records.

If all indications show that an employee is excessively absent, the next step is to gather as much information as possible in order to get a clearer picture of the situation. The employees' files should be reviewed and the employees immediate supervisor should document all available information on the particular employee's history.

2.4.4 INDIVIDUAL COMMUNICATION After all available information has been gathered, the administrator or supervisor should individually meet with each employee whom has been identified as having higher than average or questionable (or pattern) absences. This first meeting should be used to bring concerns regarding attendance to the employee's attention. It is also an opportunity to discuss with the employee, in some depth, the causes of his or her attendance problem and possible steps he or she can take to remedy or control the absences. Listen carefully to the employee's responses.

2.4.5 PROOF OF ILLNESS Sometimes it is helpful in counseling employees with excessive innocent or culpable absenteeism to inquire or verify the nature and reasons of their absence. The extent to which an employer may inquire into the nature of and reasons for an employee's absence from the workplace is a delicate issue. The concepts of an employee's privacy and an employer's need for information affecting the workplace often come into conflict. Seldom is the conflict more difficult to resolve than where personal medical information is involved. Unions will often strongly object to any efforts by management to inquire more deeply into the nature of an employee's illness. You will need to consider the restraints of any language in collective agreements in relation to this issue.

2.5 COUNSELING INNOCENT ABSENTEEISM The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows: 1. Initial counseling(s) 2. Written counseling(s) 3. Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification 4. Discharge 2.5.1 Initial Counseling: If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he/she returns to work. If absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status of his/her condition. (Indicate your willingness to assist.) You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical assessments. This will enable you to judge whether or not there is any likelihood of the employee providing regular attendance in future. Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the employee is taking to seek medical or other assistance. Formal meetings in which verbal warnings are given should be given as appropriate and documented. If no improvement occurs written warning may be necessary. 2.5.2 Written Counseling If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee formally and provide him/her with a letter of concern. If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should be given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be stronger worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves, termination may be necessary.

2.5.3 Reduction(s) of hours and or job reclassification In between the first and second letters the employee may be given the option to reduce his/her hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. This option must be voluntarily accepted by the employee and cannot be offered as an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a reduction in pay and therefore can be looked upon as discipline. 2.5.4 Discharge Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything has been done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered. An Arbitrator would consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case. 1. Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health and return to work? 2. Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (i.e. counselling, support, time off.) 3. Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable situation resulting from their sickness? 4. Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by offering a more suitable position (if available) or a reduction of hours? 5. Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of recovery? Corrective Action for Culpable Absenteeism As already indicated, culpable absenteeism consists of absences where it can be demonstrated that the employee is not actually ill and is able to improve his/her attendance. Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally, have identified the employee as a problem, have met with him/her as part of your attendance program, made your concerns on his specific absenteeism known and have offered counselling as appropriate, with no improvement despite your positive efforts, disciplinary procedures may be appropriate. The procedures for corrective/progressive discipline for culpable absenteeism are generally the same as for other progressive discipline problems. The discipline should not be prejudicial in any way.

The general procedure is as follows: [Utilizing counseling memorandum] 1. Initial Warning(s) 2. Written Warning(s) 3. Suspension(s) 4. Dismissal Verbal Warning Formally meet with the employee and explain that income protection is to be used only when an employee is legitimately ill. Advise the employee that his/her attendance record must improve and be maintained at an improved level or further disciplinary action will result. Offer any counseling or guidance as is appropriate. Give further verbal warnings as required. Review the employee's income protection records at regular intervals. Where a marked improvement has been shown, commend the employee. Where there is no improvement a written warning should be issued.

Written Warning Interview the employee again. Show him/her the statistics and point out that there has been no noticeable (or sufficient) improvement. Listen to the employee to see if there is a valid reason and offer any assistance you can. If no satisfactory explanation is given, advise the employee that he/she will be given a written warning. Be specific in your discussion with him/her and in the counseling memorandum as to the type of action to be taken and when it will be taken if the record does not improve. As soon as possible after this meeting provide the employee personally with the written warning and place a copy of his/her file. The written warning should identify any noticeable pattern

Suspension (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors) If the problem of culpable absenteeism persists, following the next interview period and immediately following an absence, the employee should be interviewed and advised that he/she is to be suspended.

The length of the suspension will depend again on the severity of the problem, the credibility of the employee's explanation, the employee's general work performance and length of service. Subsequent suspensions are optional depending on the above condition.

Dismissal (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors) Dismissals should only be considered when all of the above conditions and procedures have been met. The employee, upon displaying no satisfactory improvement, would be dismissed on the grounds of his/her unwillingness to correct his/her absence

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The main objective of the study is to find the various studies on absenteeism of man hour and suggestion to reduce absenteeism.

To analyze the master attendance and to find the rate of absenteeism. To improve the production level by reducing absenteeism. To find the reason for major absenteeism in particular department. To suggest controlling tools to reduce absenteeism. To find out the reason for avoidable and unavoidable absenteeism. To know the types of facilities and welfare activities for the employees benefit.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the researcher purpose with economy in procedure. It constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. As such the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do form writing the hypothesis and its operational implication to the final analysis of data. More explicitly, the design decisions happen to be in respect of; What is the study about? Why is the study being made? Where will the study be carried out? What type of data is required? Where can the data are found? What periods of time will the study include? What will be the sample design? How will the data be analyzed? In what style will the report be prepared? What techniques of data collection will be used? The Research Design undertaken for the study is Descriptive one. A study, which wants to portray the characteristics of a group or individuals or situation, is known as Descriptive study. It is mostly qualitative in nature.

4.2 TYPES OF DATA COLLECTED Primary Data Questionnaires are prepared and personal interview was conducted. Most of the questions are consist of multiple choices. The structured interview method was undertaken. The interview was conducted in English as well as in Tamil. Proper care was taken to frame the interview schedule in such a manner it should be easily understood in view of educational level of the employees. Generally 25 questions are prepared and asked to the employees of the Lifestyle store chennai citicenter.

Secondary Data Secondary data was collected from Internets, various books, Journals, and Company Records.

4.3 QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION Questionnaires were constructed based on the following types Open ended questions Close ended questions Multiple choice questions

4.4 DEFINING THE POPULATIONS The Population or Universe can be Finite or infinite. The population is said to be finite if it consist of a fixed number of elements so that it is possible to enumerate it in its totality. So In this projects consist of finite population. nearly 630 workers working in the mill

4.5 SAMPLING PLAN A sampling plan is a definite design for obtaining a sample from the sampling frame. It refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting some sampling units from which inferences about the population is drawn. Sampling design is determined before any data are collected. Convenient Sampling technique was adopted. In this method the researcher select those units of the population in the sample, which appear convenient to him or the management of the organization where he is conducting research.

4.6 SAMPLE SIZE Nearly 110 samples are taken in Lifestyle store chennai citicenter., 4.7 FIELD WORK The field works is done at Lifestyle store chennai citicenter.

4.8 PERIOD OF SURVEY The period is from December 2012 to February 2013.

4.9 DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICAL TOOLS USED Percentage method Chi-square test Correlation Weighted average method Analysis of variance (TWO-WAY ANOVA)

4.9.1 PERCENTAGE METHOD

In this project Percentage method test was used. The percentage method is used to know the accurate percentages of the data we took, it is easy to graph out through the percentages. The following are the formula No of Respondent Percentage of Respondent = Total no. of Respondents From the above formula, we can get percentages of the data given by the respondents. x 100

4.9.2 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS

In this project chi-square test was used. This is an analysis of technique which analyzed the stated data in the project. It analysis the assumed data and calculated in the study. The Chisquare test is an important test amongst the several tests of significant developed by statistical. Chi-square, symbolically written as x2 (Pronounce as Ki-Spare), is a statistical measure used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing a variance to a theoretical variance.

Formula (O-E) 2 2 = E O E = = Observed frequency Expected frequency

4.9.3 CORRELATION

Correlation analysis deals with the association between two or more variables. It does not tell anything about cause and effect relationship. Correlation is classified in two types as Positive and Negative correlation. SPEARMAN Correlation method, it also can be said as Rank Correlation. It is defined by the symbol r
6 di r = 1- ______________ n (n-1) Correlation value shall always lie between +1 and-1. When r =1, it shows there is perfect positive correlation between variables. When r = 0, There is no correlation.

FORMULA

4.9.4 WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD Weighted average can be defined as an average whose component items are multiplied by certain values (weights) and the aggregate of the products are divided by the total of weights. One of the limitations of simple arithmetic mean is that it gives equal importance to all the items of the distribution. Certain cases relative importance of all the items in the distribution is not the same. Where the importance of the items varies. It is essential to allocate weight applied but may vary in different cases. Thus weightage is a number standing for the relative importance of the items.

4.9.5 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA) Analysis of variance is an extremely useful technique concerning research. This is used when multi sample are involved. Anova is extremely a procedure for testing the difference among different groups of data for homogeneity. The essence of ANOVA is that the total amount of variation in a set of data is broken down into two types such as ONE-WAY ANOVA TWO-WAY ANOVA If we take only one factor and investigate the differences amongst its various categories having numerous possible values one-way anova can be used. When we investigate two factors at the same time then we can use two-way anova. Steps involved in ANOVA are 1. Name of the Row samples as x1, x2, x3, x4 2. Name of the Column samples as y1, y2, y3, y4 3. Calculate the sum of all items by T = x1 + x2 + x3. 4. Correction factor CF = T N 5. Calculate Total sum of squares SST = x1 + x2 + x3. 6. Sum of squares between column samples SSC = ( y1) + ( y2) + ( y3) n n n 7. Sum of squares between column samples SSR = ( x1) + ( x2) + ( x3) n 8. Calculating Residual or Error SSE = [ SST- (SSC+SSR) ] n n T N T N

The basic principle of the Anova is to test for differences amongst the means of the population by examine the amount of variation within the samples, relation to the amount of variation between the samples.

TWO-WAY ANOVA TABLE

SOURCE OF VARIATION Between Columns Treatment Between Rows Treatment Residual or Error

Sum of Squares

Degrees of Freedom (d.f)

Mean Square (MS)

F-ratio

SSC

V1

SSC MSC = K-1 F1 =

MSC MSE

SSR

V2

SSR MSR = R-1 MSR

SSE

(K-1) (R-1)

SSE MSE = (K-1) (R-1)

F2 = MSE

If the calculated value (C.V) of F1 < tabulated value (T.V) of F1 then H0 is ACCEPTED. If the calculated value (C.V) of F1 > tabulated value (T.V) of F1 then H0 is REJECTED.

ANALYSIS AND INTREPRETATION 5.1 ANALYSIS USING PERCENTAGE METHOD


TABLE 5.1.1 RESPONDENT BASED ON AGELEVEL S.No 1 2 3 4 Age 18-25 26-35 36-45 Above 45 Total
Source: primary data

No. of Respondents 48 32 21 09 110

Percentage 43.63 29.09

12 100

Inference: The above table infers that, 08 % belongs to the age group of 18-25 years, 36 % belongs to the age group of 26-35 years, 44 % belongs to the age group of 36-45 years and 12 % belongs to the age group of above 45 year CHART-5.1.1

TABLE 5.1.2 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EDUCATION

S.No 1 2 3 4

Education SSLC HSC ITI Others

No. of Respondents 10 22 18 00

Percentage 20 44 36 00

Total
Source: primary data

50

100

Inference: The above table infers that, 20 %belongs to SSLC, 44 % belongs to HSC, 36 %belongs to ITI and 0 % belongs to other degrees. CHART-5.1.2

EDUCATION
50

40

30

20

10

Percent

0 ss lc hs c iti

EDUCATI ON

TABLE 5.1.3 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXPERIENCE

S.No 1 2 3

Experience Below2years 3-5 years Above 5 years

No. of Respondents 11 07 32

Percentage 22 14 64

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

50

100

22 % to below 2 years; 14 % belongs to 3-5years, 64 %belongs to above 5 years

CHART-5.1.3

EXPERIENCE
70 60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10 0 be low 2years 3-5 ye ars ab ove 5 years

EXPERIENCE

TABLE 5.1.4 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NUMBER

OF WORKING DAYS
Percentage 20 30

S.No 1 2

Working Days 20-22 23 -25

No. of Respondents 10 15

3 4 Total Source: primary data Inference:

25-28 29-31

22 03 50

44 06 100

The above table infers that 20 % belongs to 20-22 days, 30 % belongs to 23-25 days, 44 % belongs to 25- 28days, and 06 % belong to above 29-31 days.

CHART-5.1.4
NUMBER OF W ORKING DAYS
50

40

30

20

10

Percent

0 20 -22 23 -25 25 -28 29 -31

NUMBER OF WORKING DAY S

TABLE 5.1.5 Respondents Based On Their Leave S.No 1 2 3 Taken leave in month 0 1 -5 6-10

In A Month
Percentage 20 46 08

No. of Respondents 10 23 04

4 5 Total Source: primary data Inference:

10-15 16-20

10 03 50

20 06 100

The above table infers that 20 %belongs to 0 days, 46 % belongs to 1-5days, 08 %belongs to 6-10 days, 20 %belongs to

10-15 days, and 06 %belongs to 16-20 days. CHART-5.1.5

LEAVE IN MONTH
50

40

30

20

10

Percent

0 0 1-5 6-1 0 10 -15 16 -20

LEAVE I N MONTH

TABLE 5.1.6 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NUMBER OF WORKING YEARS IN THE COMPANY

S.No

WORKING YEARS

No. of Respondents

Percentage

<5YEARS

16

32

<10 years

30

60

>10 years

04

08

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

50

100

32 % belongs to <5 years, 60 % belongs to <10years and 08 %belongs to >10 years. CHART-5.1.6

number of working years in the company


70 60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10 0 <5 years <10 years >10 years

number worki ng years i n the company

TABLE 5.1.7 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR WORK S.No 1 2 Work load Highly satisfied Satisfied No. of Respondents 04 03

LOAD
Percentage 08 06

3 4 5

Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

13 25 05

26 50 10

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 08 % belongs to

50

100

highly satisfied, 06 % belongs to satisfied

26 %belongs to neutral, 50 % belongs to dissatisfied and10 % belongs to highly dissatisfied. CHART-5.1.7


WORK LOAD
60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10 0 hig hly sati sfied sa tisfie d ne utral hig hlydiss atisfi ed dis satis fied

WORK LOAD

TABLE 5.1.8 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR WORKING HOURS

S.No 1

Working Hours Highly satisfied

No. of Respondents 10

Percentage 20

2 3 4 5

Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied

12 05 13 10 50

24 10 26 20 100

Highly Dissatisfied Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that,

20 %belongs to highly satisfied, 24 % belongs to satisfied, 10 % belongs to neutral, 26 %belongs to dissatisfied and 20 % belongs to highly dissatisfied. CHART-5.1.8

WORKING HOURS
30

20

10

Percent

0 hig hly sati sfied sa tisfie d ne utral hig hlydiss atisfi ed dis satis fied

WORKI NG HOURS

TABLE 5.1.9 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR MANAGEMENT POLICY


S.No 1 2 Management policy Highly satisfied Satisfied No. of Respondents 20 10 Percentage 40 20

3 4 5

Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total

05 10 05 50

10 20 10 100

Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 40 % belongs to highly satisfied, 20 %belongs to satisfied 10 % belongs to neutral, 20 % belongs to dissatisfied and 10 % belongs to highly dissatisfied.

CHART-5.1.9

MANAGEMENT POLICY
50

40

30

20

Percent

10

0 hig hly sati sfied sa tisfie d ne utral hig hlydiss atisfi ed dis satis fied

MANAGEMENT POLI CY

TABLE 5.1.10 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR WORKING ENVIRONMENT

S.No

Working environment

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1 2 3 4 5

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

28 10 04 05 03 50

56 20 08 10 06 100

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

46 % belongs to highly satisfied, 20 %belongs to satisfied, 08 %belongs to neutral, 10 % belongs to dissatisfied and 06 %belongs to highly dissatisfied. CHART-5.1.10
WORKING ENVIRONM ENT
60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10 0 hig hly sati sfied sa tisfie d ne utral hig hlydiss atisfi ed dis satis fied

WOR KI N G EN VI R ON MEN T

TABLE 5.1.11 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR SUPERVISOR S.No Relation ship with their supervisor No. of Respondents Percentage

1 2 3 4 5

Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

02 05 10 20 13 50

04 10 20 40 26 100

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

04 % belongs to highly satisfied, 10 %belongs to satisfied, 20 % belongs to neutral, 40 %belongs to dissatisfied and 26 % belongs to highly dissatisfied. CHART5.1.11
RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR SUPERVISOR
50

40

30

20

Percent

10

0 highly satisf ied satisf ied neutral dissatisf ied highlydissatisf ied

RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR SUPERVISOR

TABLE 5.1.12 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR LEAVE AFFECTING THEIR COMPANY OUTPUT

S.No 1 2

Leave affect company Yes No

No. of Respondents 39 11 50

Percentage 78 22 100

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 78 %says yes, 22 %says no.

CHART-5.1.12

leave affecting their company output


100

80

60

40

Percent

20

0 yes no

leave affecting their company output

TABLE 5.1.13 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EMPLOYEES SKILL

S.No 1 2 3

Employee skill Good Fair Poor

No. of Respondents 35 10 05 50

Percentage 70 20 10 100

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

70 % belongs to Good, 2 0%belongs to Fair and 10 % belongs to Poor

CHART-5.1.13

EMPLOYEES SKILL
80

60

40

20

Percent

0 good fair poor

EMPLOYEES SKILL

TABLE 5.1.14 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR SALARY PAID

S.No 1 2 3 4

Salary paid Sufficient In sufficient Neutral Moderately Insufficient

No. of Respondents 20 10 05 15 50

Percentage 40 20 10 30 100

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

40 % belongs to Sufficient, 20 % belongs to Insufficient, 10 %belongs to Neutral and 30% belongs to moderately insufficient. CHART-5.1.14

SALARY PAID
50

40

30

20

10

Percent

0 su fficie nt ins uffic ient ne utral mo dera tely suff icien

SALARY PAID

TABLE 5.1.15 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR COMPENSATION PROVIDED

S.No 1 2 3 4 5

Compensation provided Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

No. of Respondents 03 04 10 27 06 50

Percentage 06 08 20 54 12 100

Total Source: primary data Inference:

The above table infers that 06 % belongs to highly satisfied, 08 %belongs to satisfied, 20 % belongs to neutral, 54 %belongs to dissatisfied and 12 % belongs to highly dissatisfied. CHART-5.1.15

COMPENSATION PROVIDED
60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10 0 highly satisf ied satisf ied neutral dissatisf ied highlydissatisf ied

COMPENSATION PROVIDED

TABLE 5.1.16 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXISTING JOB

S.No 1 2 3 4 5

Existing job Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

No. of Respondents 03 04 10 27 06 50

Percentage 06 08 20 54 12

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

100

06 %belongs to highly satisfied, 08 % belongs to satisfied, 20 % belongs to neutral, 54 % belongs to dissatisfied and12 % belongs to highly dissatisfied.

CHART-5.1.16

TABLE 5.1.17 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY

S.No 1 2 3 4 5

Facilities provide by the company Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total

No. of Respondents 07 23 12 06 02 50

Percentage 14 46 24 12 04 100

Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 14 %belongs to highly satisfied, 46% belongs to satisfied, 24% belongs to neutral l2 %belongs to dissatisfied and 4 % belongs to highly dissatisfied. CHART-5.1.17
FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY
50

40

30

20

Percent

10

0 highly satisf ied satisf ied neutral dissatisf ied highlydissatisf ied

FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY

TABLE 5.1.18 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR FLEXIBILITY AND INDEPENDENCE

S.No 1 2 3 4 5

Flexibility & independence Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total

No. of Respondents 05 04 31 06 04 50

Percentage 10 08 62 12 08 100

Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 10 % belongs to highly satisfied, 08% belongs to satisfied, 62%belongs to neutral, 12 % belong to dissatisfied and 08 % belongs to highly dissatisfied.

CHART-5.1.18

FLEXIBILITY AND INDEPENDENCE


70 60 50 40 30 20

Percent

10 0 highly satisf ied satisf ied neutral dissatisf ied highlydissatisf ied

FLEXIBILITY AND INDEPENDENCE

TABLE 5.1.19 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR PROCEDURE FOR TAKING LEAV E

S.No 1 2 3 4

Procedure for taking leave Giving a Leave Letter Not Giving a Leave Letter Asking Permission No Leave

No. of Respondents 39 04 07 0 50

Percentage 78 08 14 0 100

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

78 % belongs to giving a leave letter; 08 % belongs to not giving leave letter 14 % belongs to asking permission and 0 % belongs to no leave CHART 5.1.19

PROCEDURE FOR TAKING LEAVE


10 0

80

60

40

20

Percent

0 giving a le ave lett e no t giving leave le t as kin gperm issi on

PROCEDURE FOR TAKI NG LEAVE

TABLE 5.1.20 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR REASON FOR TAKING LEAVE

S.No 1 2 3 4 5

Reason for taking leave Personal Problem Health Problem Finance Problem Working Environment Others Total

No. of Respondents 15 20 07 04 04 50

Percentage 30 40 14 08 08 100

Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 30% belongs to Personnel problem, 40% belongs to Health problem, 14 % belongs to Finance problem, 08 % belongs to working environment and 08 % belongs to others CHART-5.1.20

REASON FOR TAKING LEA VE


50

40

30

20

Percent

10

0 pe rsonn el problem fin ance prob lem working environ men t oth ers he alth p roble m

R EASON FOR T AKI N G LEAVE

TABLE 5.1.21 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR ABSENT DUE TO TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM

S.No

Absent due to transportation problem In Some cases Often Rare Not at All

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1 2 3 4

23 05 12 10 50

46 10 24 20 100

Total Source: primary data Inference:

The above table infers that, 46 %belongs to in some cases, 10% belongs to often, 24 % belongs to rare and, 20 %belongs to not at all CHART-5.1.21 ABSENT DUE TO TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM
50

P E R C E N T

40

30

20

10

0 in some case often rare not at all

ABSENT DUE TO TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM . TABLE 5.1.22 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR INFECTIOUS DISEASE

S.No 1 2

Infectious diseases Yes No Total

No. of Respondents 11 39 50

Percentage 22 78 100

Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 22 % says yes, 78 % says no.

CHART-5.1.22

AFFECTED BY INFECTIOUS DISEASES


100

80

60

40

Percent

20

0 yes no

AFFECTED BY INFECTIOUS DISEASES

TABLE 5.1.23 RESPONDENTS BASED ON LEAVE WHENEVER YOU WANT

Leave S.No 1 Yes

No. of Respondents

Percentage

04

08

2 Total Source: primary data Inference:

No

46 50

92 100

The above table infers that 08 % says yes, 92 % says no. CHART 5.1.23

TO GET LEAVE W HENEVER YOU W ANT


100

80

60

40

20

Percent

0 yes no

TO GET LEAVE WHENEVER Y OU WANT

TABLE 5.1.24 RESPONDENTS BASED ON INSUFFICIENT REST PAUSE

S.No

Insufficient rest pause

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1 2 3

More Less Tolerable

29 05 16 50

58 10 32 100

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

58 % belongs to more, 10 % belongs to less and 32 % belongs tolerable.

CHART-5.1.24

REST PAUSE IS ONE OF THE REASON


70 60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10 0 more less tolerable

REST PAUSE IS ONE OF THE REASON

TABLE 5.1.25

RESPONDENTS BASED ON MOTIVATION TECHNIQUE

S.No

Motivation technique

No. of Respondents 29 0 21 50

Percentage

1 2 3

Incentives Bonus Allowance

58 0 42 100

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

58% belongs to incentives, 0 % belongs to bonus and 42 % belongs to allowance.

CHART-5.1.25

MOTIVATION TECHINIQUE
60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10

0 inc entives all owances

MOTIVATION TECHINIQUE

TABLE 5.1.26 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR PERSONAL PROBLEM

S.No 1 2 3

Personal problem In Some cases Often Not at All

No. of Respondents 31 04 15 50

Percentage 62 08 30 100

Total Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that

62 % belongs to in some cases, 08 % belongs to often and 30 % belongs to not at all. CHART-5.1.26

PERSONAL PROBLEM
70 60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10 0 in some cases often not at all

PERSONAL PROBLEM

TABLE 5.1.27 RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR COUNSELING PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY

S.No

Counseling provided by the company Yes No

No. of Respondents

Percentage

1 2 Total Source: primary data

31 19 50

62 38 100

Inference: The above table infers that 62% says yes, 38 % says no. CHART-5.1.27

counseling provided by the company


70 60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10 0 yes no

counseling provided by the company

TABLE 5.1.28

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR PREFERENCE OF SHIFTS TO REDUCE ABSENTEEISM

Sl.No

Preference of shift

No. of Respondents

Percentage

General Shift

22

44

Weekly Shift

21

42

Monthly Shift Total

07 50

14 100

Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 44 % prefers general shift, 42 % prefers weekly shift and 14 % prefers monthly shift

CHART-5.1.28

WHICH SHIFT DO YOU PREFER


50

40

30

20

Percent

10

0 general shif t w eekly shif t monthlyshif t

WHICH SHIFT DO YOU PREFER

TABLE 5.1.29

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR FREEDOM TO CHANGE THE SHIFTS

S.No

Freedom to change the shift

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

13

26

No

11

22

3 Total

Rare

26 50

52 100

Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 26 % belongs to yes, 22% belongs to no and 52 %belongs to rare

CHART-5.1.29

FREEDOM TO CHANGE
60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10

0 yes no rare

FREEDOM TO CHANGE

TABLE 5.1.30

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NEED OF ADDITIONAL LEAVE

S.No

Need of additional leave

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

25

50

No Total

25 50

50 100

Source: primary data Inference:

The above table infers that 50 % says yes, 50%says no.

CHART-5.1.30

NEED OF ADDITIONAL LEAVE


60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10

0 yes no

NEED OF ADDITIONAL LEAVE

TABLE 5.1.31

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXPECTED FACILITIES NEEDED

S.No

Expected facilities needed

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Medical Facilities Transport Facilities Others Total

11

22

2 3

30 09 50

60 18 100

Source: primary data Inference: The above table infers that 22 %belongs to medical facilities, 60 %t belongs to transport facilities and 18 % belongs to others. CHART-5.1.31

TYPE OF FACILITES
70 60

50

40

30

20

Percent

10 0 medicalf acilites transport f acilites others

TYPE OF FACILITES

5.2 ANALYSIS USING CHI-SQUARE- 2


TO FIND WHETHER THERE IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OPINION OF RESPONDENTS REGARDING THEIR WORKING HOURS

Null Hypothesis There is no significant difference in the variable among the employees about their working hours.

TABLE 5.2.1

S.No 1 2 3 4 5

Working Hours Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied Total

No. of Respondents 10 12 05 13 10 50

Source: primary data FORMULA (O-E) 2 2 =

E
O E = = Observed frequency Expected frequency

COMPUTATION OF CHI-SQUARE ( 2 )
TABLE No: 5.2.2

S.No 1 2 3 4 5

O 10 12 05 13 10

E 10 10 10 10 10 TOTAL

(O-E) 0 2 -5 3 0

(O-E)2 0 4 25 9 0

(O-E)2 /E 0 0.4 2.5 0.9 0 3.8

Source: Primary Data

The calculated value is 3.8 Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (5-1) =4 Level of significance = 5% Table value 4 of DGF and 5% level of significance = 9.48 3.8 < 9.48 - Calculated Value is lesser than Tabulated Value. Hence, Null hypothesis is ACCEPTED.

INFERENCE Thus Chi-Square test infers that there is no significant difference in the variable among the employees about their working hours.

5.3 ANALYSIS USING CORRELATION ANALYSIS


TO FIND WHETHER THERE IS CORRELATION BETWEEN AFFECTED BY INFECTIOUS DISEASES Vs LEAVE AFFECTING THE COMPANY OUTPUT

Let X be the respondent affected by Infectious diseases. Let Y be the Leave affecting the company output.

TABLE 5.3.1 S.no 1 2 Yes No Total


Source: Primary Data

Factors

X 11 39 50

Y 39 11 50

RANKS TABLE 5.3.2 S.no 1 2 Rank of X 2 1 Total (Xi-Yi) 1-6 di Formula r = 1N (n-1) ,By substituting the data to the formula, we get r = -1 Rank of Y 1 2 di = (Xi-Yi) 1 1 2

INFERENCE The value obtained is in negative, where it infers that a change in one variable has an opposite change in another variable. From the correlation analysis it is inferred that, if the employees get affected by Infectious diseases then the company output will be get decreased.

5.4 ANALYSIS USING ANOVA


TO FIND WHETHER THERE IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OPINION OF RESPONDENTS REGARDING THEIR SALARY PAID VS ABSENT DUE TO TRANSPORTATION

Null Hypothesis i. There is no any significance difference between Salary paid. ii. There is no any significance difference between absent due to Transportation. TABLE 5.4.1 Absent due to Transportation Salary paid 1 2 3 4 Sufficient In-Sufficient Neutral Moderately Sufficient Total
Source: Primary Data

S.no

In some cases

Often

Rare

Not at all

Total

7 6 3 7 23

1 1 2 1 5

8 1 0 3 12

20

2 0 4 10

10 5 15 50

STEPS Number of all items N = 16 Sum of all items are T= 50 T Correction factor CF = N Total sum of squares SST = 153.75 Sum of squares between column samples SSC = 43.25 Sum of squares between column samples SSR = 31.25 Residual or Error SSE = 79.25 = 156.25

ANOVA TABLE 5.4.2

Source Of Variation Treatment between Salary paid Treatment between Absent due to Transportation Residual or Error

Sum of Squares 43.25

Degrees of Freedom (d.f) 3

Mean Square (MS)

F-ratio

14.41 1.637

31.25

3 10.41

79.25

8.80

1.182

Tabulated value for (3,9) d.f at 5% level of Significance is 3.86

INFERENCE i. Calculated value (1.637) < Tabulated value (3.86) Therefore H0 is ACCEPTED. This shows that there is no any significance difference between Salary paid.

ii. Calculated value (1.182) < Tabulated value (3.86) Therefore H0 is ACCEPTED. This shows that there is no any significance difference between Absent due to Transportation

5.5 ANALYSIS USING WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD


TO FIND THE RANKS OF DIFFERENT FACTORS WHICH ARE LISTED BELOW ACCORDING TO THE OPINION OF RESPONDENTS TABLE No: 5.5.1

FACTORS

Highly Satisfied 10

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Highly Dissatisfied 10

WORKING HOURS MANAGEMENT POLICY WORKING ENVIRONMENT RELATION WITH SUPERVISOR


Source: Primary Data

12

05

13

20 28 02

10 10 05

05 04 10

10 05 20

05 03 13

Table 5.5.2

POINT WEIGHTAGE FACTORS WORKING HOURS MANAGEMENT POLICY WORKING ENVIRONMENT RELATION WITH SUPERVISOR
Source: Primary Data

H.S 50 100 140 10

S 48 40 40 20

N 15 15 12 30

D 26 20 10 40

H.D 10 05 03 13

TOTAL 149 180 205 113

AVG 2.98 3.6 4.1 2.26

RANK 3 2 1 4

INFERENCE The above table infers that the company gives more weight age first to the working environment, second to the management policy, third to the working hours, and finally to the relationship with supervisors. This shows that the employees are very much satisfied with their working environment.

6.1 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY


1. The age group of employees from group of 36-45 persons is 44% 2. The employee education from HSC is 44% 3. The Experience of the employee from above 5 years is 64% 4. The number of working days by employee is 25-28 is 44% 5. The number leave taken in a month averagely 1-5 is 45% 6. The employee working years <10 years is 60% 7. The work load given to employee at dissatisfied level is 50% 8. The working hours is at dissatisfied to employee is 26% 9. The employee are highly satisfied with management policy is 40% 10. The employee are highly satisfied with working environment is 46% 11. About 40%are dissatisfied with supervisor 12. The absenteeism will affect the company out put at 78% 13. The employee skills in the work is good at 70% 14. About 40%were dissatisfied with compensation provide at the time of absent. 15. Exiting job is satisfied to employee is at 34%. 16. About 46%were satisfied with facilities provided by the company. 17. The flexibility and indepence is neutral is 62%. 18. About 78% were giving a leave letter and taking a leave. 19. The employees are absent due to Health problems 40%. 20. About 46% were absent due to transportation problem 21. The study shows that the infected diseases affected to employees are none at 78%. 22. About 45% says that they take leave whenever they need. 23. The rest pause is more at 58%. 24. The employees are motivated by incentives is 58% 25. In some cases the employees are absent due to personnel problem is 62%.

26. About 62% says they need counseling in the company. 27. About 42% percent prefer weekly shift. 28. The employees change the shift fort the convinces at rare at 52%. 29. About 50% says they need additional leave and 50% says they did not need additional leave. 30. The most of the respondence says that they need transport facilities at 60% 31. From the Chi-Square test it is inferred that there is no significant difference in the variable among the employees about their working hours. 32. From the correlation analysis it is inferred that, if the employees get affected by Infectious diseases then the company output will be get decreased. 33. From the Analysis of variance it is inferred that there is no any significance difference between Salary paid and between Absent due to Transportation. 34. From the weighted average method it is inferred that the company gives more weight age first to the working environment, second to the management policy, third to the working hours, and finally to the relationship with supervisors. This shows that the employees are very much satisfied with their working environment.

6.2 SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION


In order to minimize the rate of absenteeism the company could take care of employees healths especially in production unit. Introducing attendance management programme. I suggest that by taking disciplinary action which will minimize absenteeism. Introducing medical facilities for employees and employees family member. Providing transport facilities for all employees Motivating the employee by monetary and non monetary awards for those who are completed 100% attendance. To improve safety awareness among employee by educating them on health aspects conducting safety work shop and to reduce noise pollution in few department.

CONCLUSION
The study is carried out to determine the level of employees absenteeism in LIFESTYLE PVT LTD. Even though company is providing with sufficient facilities to the employees to an extent. The company may provide some more facilities like proper ventilation, medical facilities transport facilities and welfare actives which would reduce absenteeism and enhances the employees to work more efficiently and effectively for achieving the orginisational objectives.

8.1 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


Even though the studies have conducted properly more is some limitation occurring more over factory Time constrain was a major limitation of the study Some of the respondent are not co- operative to fill the answer for the question The area of operation in LIFESTYLE PVT LTD. The study is based upon small population like 50 sample

8.2 SCOPE FOR THE FURTHER STUDY


As the data is collected from Lifestyle store Chennai citicenter, this result cannot correlate to the entire spinning mill industry. So further researcher may concentrate on other regions. This project conducted survey to measure the level of employees absenteeism. This project is help full for those further those who are under going the project in the concept of employees absenteeism and to know the reason for the absenteeism in LIFESTYLE INTERNATIONAL PVT LTD.

APPENDICES
QUESTIONNAIRE A STUDY ON EMPLOYEES ABSENTEEISM LIFESTYLE STORE CHENNAI CITICENTER. Personal Details: 1. I) Name II) Gender III) Address IV) Department V) Martial Status VI) Annual Income VII) Age: a) 18 25 : : Male : : : : b) 26 35 c) 36 45 Female

d) above 45

VIII) Education: a) SSLC b) HSC

c) UG degree

d) PG degree

e) Others, please Specify______

IX) Experience a) Below 2 years Other Details:

b) 3 - 5 years

c) above 5 years

2.

Number of working days per month: a) 20 - 22 b) 23 - 25 c) 25 - 28 d) 29 - 31

3.

How many days do you take leave in a month? a) 0 e) 16 - 20 b) 1 - 5 c) 6 - 10 d) 1 0 - 1 5

4. How long you are working in the company? a) < 5 years b) < 10 years c) > 10 years

5. Rate the factors below according to the satisfaction level. Highly Satisfied WORKLOAD WORKING HOURS MANAGEMENT POLICY WORKING ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIP WITH SUPERVISORS 6. Does your leave will affect the company out put? a) Yes b) no Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly Dissatisfied

7. How much your company utilizing the employee skills? a) Good b) Fair c) Poor

8. About the salary paid by the company? a) Sufficient b) Insufficient c) Neutral d) Moderately sufficient

9. Are you satisfied your compensation at the time of your leave? a) Highly Satisfied e) Highly dissatisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied

10.

Are you satisfied with your existing job? a) Highly Satisfied e) Highly dissatisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied

11. How do you feel about your facilities provided by the company? a) Highly Satisfied e) Highly dissatisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied

12. Flexibility and Independence allowed? a) Highly Satisfied e) Highly dissatisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied

13. What is the procedure for taking leave in your organization? a) Giving a leave letter c) Asking a permission b) Not giving a leave letter d) No leave

14. Reason for taking leave? a) Personal Problem d) Working environment b) Health problem e) Others c) Finance problem

15. How often do you absent due to transportation problem? a) In some cases b) Often c) Rare d) Not at all

16. Are you affected by infectious diseases? a) Yes b) No

17. Is it possible to get leave whenever you want? a) Yes b) No

18. Do you tell insufficient rest pause is one of the reasons for absent? a) More b) Less c) Tolerable

19. What type of motivation techniques adopted for employees regular to the work? a) Incentives b) Bonus c) Allowances

20. Does the company helps in your personal problem? a) In some cases b) Often c) Not at all

21. Do you need counseling in the company for your personal matter affecting you in taking leave often? a) Yes b) No

22. To reduce absenteeism which shifts do you prefer if it is adopted? a) General Shift b) Evening Shift

23. Do you have freedom to change your shift for your convenience? a) Yes b) No c) Rare

24. Do you need additional leave? a) Yes b) No

25. What type facilities do you except from the management to reduce absenteeism? a) Medical facilities b) Transport facilities c) Others, please specify____ 26. Any suggestion to reduce absenteeism_____________________________

BIBILIOGRAPHY

BOOKS:
Kothari, C.R., Research Methodology - Methods & Techniques, New Age international (P) Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi ,Second Edition ,2004. Gupta, S.P., Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand & Sons Publishers, New Delhi, Thirty Fourth Editions, 2005. Prasath L.M.,Human resources management , Sultan Chand & Sons Publishers, , New Delhi, Thirty Fourth Editions, 2005. Reddy& Rao Absenteeism in India , Deep , publication , New Delhi Aswathappa.k, Human Resource and Personnel Management, Tata Mc Graw Hill, New Delhi, 1999.

WEBSITES:

www.google.com www.wikepidia.com www.absenteeism.com