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Summary of first journal article Jeffrey D.Karpicke . (2009) .

Metacognitive strategies in student learning : Do students practice retrievel when they study on their own? . Purdue University : West Lafayette, in, USA Andrew C.Butler and Henry L.Roediger III. (2009) . Metacognitive strategies in student learning : Do students practice retrievel when they study on their own? . Washington University : St. Louis, MO, USA

Many researches show that practicing retrieval of information has powerful effects on learning process. A laboratory research said that students lack metacognitive awareness of the mnemonic benefits of testing. Metacognition can increase engagement. Metacognition has the potential to empower students take to charge of their learning and to increase the meaningfulness of students learning. (Amado Gama, 2007). Testing effect that is retrieving information from memory can enhance long term memory in learning process. But most of the students use repeated reading strategy and only a few students engage in self-testing strategy in learning process. According to authors, the objective of this research was to determine the extent to which students practice recall relative to other study strategies in real world educational settings. They also wanted to examine whether students who choose to engage in retrieval practice do so because they know that testing promotes long-term retention. Another reason students may use testing during studying is to determine what information is known and what is not known so that future study time can be allocated to the unknown material. To accomplish these goals, the researchers created new study strategies questionnaire and surveyed a large sample of undergraduate students. In this research, the researchers provide a brief overview on repeated reading, repeated testing and students metacognitive awareness of the the testing effect.

According to the author, self testing while studying enhances long-term retention if compare with repeated studying. Most of the students failed to identify that testing has powerful effects on learning and they lack in metacognitive awareness of the testing effect.

The author mentioned that in the research that conduct by Karpicke & Roediger, shows that repeated retrieval practice even after students were able to successfully recall items in the learning phase produced large positive effects on long-term retention. The writers propose that based on some laboratory research showed that the students may not practice retrieval when they study in real-world educational settings. Instead they may spend their time repeatedly reading material when they study. According to the researchers, research on testing effect can enhances learning is obvious to the instructors and not obvious to the students. So that, the intent of this survey was to determine whether students self-reported study behaviors would converge with their laboratory findings. The results showed that repeated reading is the most popular study strategy among college students, more popular than practicing retrieval even though retrieval practice is a more effective study strategy. On the other hand, taking a recall test, even without feedback, enhances long-term retention more than spending the same amount of time restudying. In addition, most of the students were unaware of the mnemonic benefits of self-testing. In conclusion, the authors stated that a challenge for instructional practice is to encourage students to base their study strategies on theories about why a particular strategy like practicing repeated retrieval promotes learning and long-term retention. Summary of second journal article Steven V.S, Wayne A.C . (2008) . Using Metacognitive Strategies and Learning Styles to Create Self-Directed Learners. Institute for learning styles journal.

This action research project was conducted by Steven and Wayne to help students become selfdirected learners. The researcher found that what metacognitive strategies would be the most effective for a students specific learning styles. In this action research, the researchers were surveyed students by using the Perceptual Modality Preference Survey (PMPS) to determine their dominant learning styles. After that, students were then introduced to a new metacognitive strategy each week and asked to apply the strategy to their daily learning processes. Finally, the researchers were determined which strategies were preferred within the seven learning style groups.

At beginning of this article, the researchers describes about some important key ideas about this research. The researchers were give a brief overview about self-directed learning, characteristics of self-directed learner, student motivation, goal orientation, self-efficacy, locus of control, self-regulation, metacognition and learning styles. After researching the concepts of self-directed learning, learning styles, and metacognition, the goal for this research study was to determine the chemistry students individual learning styles using the PMPS. Next, a new metacognitive strategy was introduced to the students each week. Then the students reflected on each strategy to see if it positively affected their learning process, with the overall focus of helping the students to become more self-directed learners.

This study took place at a high school in a Midwestern Class C-1 school district. The districts enrollment is approximately 282 students in grades nine through twelve, with a 27% free/reduced lunch population and 14% of students receiving special education services. For this study, a total of 40 students participated in the action research project within the three chemistry classes. Of the 40 students, there were 20 females and 20 males. There were a total of four seniors, 28 juniors, eight sophomores, and no freshmen. Only one of the students participating in the study was on a modified special education plan and was able to receive services in the special needs room. The teacher collected research data throughout the study in the form of anecdotal notes, teacher & student reflections, and classroom observations. The PMPS was administered at the beginning of the study, while teacher observations, reflections, and anecdotal notes occurred daily. In order to analyze the data, the PMPS results were analyzed and individual findings separated into the seven learning style groups and percentages were compiled. The researcher proceeded to determine which metacognitive strategies were preferred within each learning style group through the use of student comments and classroom observations. Comments were also sought from participants regarding the study.

This research show that, after analyzing the data from student lab journals and metacognitive forms, four themes were apparent and they included the connection between learning styles and metacognitive strategies, self-assessment, and student motivation. First, the connections between a students learning styles and preferred metacognitives strategies, as determined by students,

were determined. Next, the concept of motivation, related to metacognition and the self-directed learner was addressed. Finally, the students ability to self-regulate themselves to become selfdirected learners was reviewed. The PMPS results were analyzed and there were 73% students who had kinesthetic as one of their top two ranked learning styles. This was followed by interactive with 45%, haptic with 38%, visual with 30%, print with 15% aural with 10%, and finally olfactory with no students represented. These learning styles were then used to help classify which metacognitive strategies were preferred by each learning style later in the study. Throughout the study, the researcher found that no matter the learning style a student might prefer, all of the students, whether consciously or unconsciously, were continuously evaluating their performance and their progress.

The key ideas that the author(s) highlighted in first article The testing effect refers to the higher probability of recalling an item resulting from the act of retrieving the item from memory (testing) versus additional study trials of the item. However, in order for this effect to be demonstrated the test trials must have a medium to high retrieval success. Logically if the test trials are so difficult that no items are recalled or if the correct answers to the non-recalled items are not given to the test subject, then minimal or no learning will occur. This is by no means a new concept in the field of human memory, with the first documented empirical study occurring in 1917 by Gates. The effect is also sometimes referred to as retrieval practice or test-enhanced learning. ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Testing_effect) Meaning of retrieval is the act or process of retrieving and the process of accessing information from memory or other storage devices. (http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/retrieval) A strategy is a plan of action designed to achieve a vision. Strategy is all about gaining (or being prepared to gain)a position of advantage over adversaries or best exploiting emerging possibilities. As there is always an element of uncertainty about future, strategy is more about a set of options ("strategic choices") than a fixed plan. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategy)

A metacognition is thinking about thinking. Metacognition goes beyond thinking (meta + cognition) in that it is the active awareness and knowledge of ones own thinking processes. Metacognitive skills are sometimes referred to as self-direction skills (Burke, 2007, 151). The word metacognition was invented by an American psychologist, J. H. Flavell who emphasized its important role in communication, reading comprehension, language acquisition, social cognition, attention, selfcontrol, memory, self-instruction, writing, and problem solving (Flavell, 1979). Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) maintain that metacognition is more difficult to teach and assess than factual, conceptual, and procedural categories of knowledge because it is the most abstract.

The key ideas that the author(s) highlighted in second article The researchers stated that, Self-directed learning integrates self management (management of the context, including social setting, resources, and actions) with selfmonitoring (the process whereby learners monitor, evaluate, and regulate their cognitive learning strategies) (Bolhuis, 1996; Garrison, 1997). According to Nelson & Conner (2008), teachers and administrators, along with parents and students, must have an understanding of the following characteristics of becoming a self-directed learner: student motivation, goal orientation, selfefficacy, and locus of control, self-regulation, and metacognition. The researchers were said that student motivation deals with a students desire to actively participate in the learning process. But student motivation also focuses on the reasons that underlie a persons involvement or noninvolvement in academic activities. A student who is intrinsically motivated undertakes an activity "for its own sake, for the enjoyment it provides, the learning it permits, or the feelings of accomplishment it evokes" (Lepper, 1988, p. 292). In contrast, an extrinsically motivated student performs "in order to obtain some reward or avoid some punishment external to the activity itself," such as grades, stickers, or teacher approval (Lepper, 1988, p. 292).

At the same time the researcher noted that, one theory that focuses on the components of goal orientation is the target achievement goal theory, developed by Dr. Donna Woolard.

According to this theory, there are three factors that act together to determine a persons motivation: development of achievement goals, a persons self-perceived ability level, and the achievement behavior of the individual. In following this theory, individuals in an achievement setting are usually driven to follow one of two possible goals when determining whether or not they have been successful in goal setting. A person may have a task goal orientation, where the focus is on improving performance relative to past performance, not on comparison with others. They have a stronger work ethic, are more persistent, and are better motivated because the factors they focus on are internal and more controllable (Woolard, 2008, p. 1).

Perceived self-efficacy is defined as people's beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives (Bandura, 1994). Self-efficacy beliefs determine how people behave, think, feel, and motivate themselves. Self-efficacy, although somewhat similar to self-esteem, differs in one main concept. Self-efficacy is a personal belief of competency, rather than ones emotional reaction to an actual accomplishment (Nelson & Conner, 2008).

Locus of control as defined by Miller, Fitch, and Marshall (2003) is "the tendency students have to ascribe achievements and failures to either internal factors that they control (effort, ability, motivation) or external factors that are beyond control (chance, luck, others' actions)" (p. 549). A person who is considered a self-directed learner would be described as having a greater internal locus of control then that of an external locus of control.

Zimmerman (2001) stated "self-regulated learning refers to learning that results from students self-generated thoughts and behaviors that are systematically oriented toward the attainment of their learning goals" (p. 125). In order for students to be self-regulated they need to be aware of their own thought process, and be motivated to actively participate in their own learning process (Zimmerman, 2001). Metacognition can be loosely defined as thinking about ones own thinking. More specifically, metacognition is an appreciation of what one already knows, together with a correct apprehension of the learning task and what knowledge and skills it requires combined

with the ability to make correct inferences about how to apply ones strategic knowledge to a particular situation and to do so efficiently and reliably (Peirce, 2003, p. 2). In effective classrooms, teachers are responsible for helping students develop better metacognitive skills by incorporating active reflection throughout the learning process. DarlingHammond, Austin, Cheung, and Martin (2008) listed the following examples of effective metacognitive strategies: Predicting outcomes Helps students to understand what kinds of information they might need to successfully solve a problem. Evaluating work Reviewing of work to determine where their strengths and weaknesses lie within their work. Questioning by the teacher The teacher asks students as they work. What are you working on now?, Why are you working on it?, and How does it help you? have learned something. Self-questioning Students use questions to check their own knowledge as they are learning. Selecting strategies Students decide which strategies are useful for a given task. Using directed or selective thinking Students choose consciously to follow a specific line of thinking. Using discourse Students discuss ideas with each other and their teacher. Critiquing Students provide feedback to other students about their work in a constructive way. Revising Students return their work after receiving feedback.

Learning styles refer to the concept that we, as individuals, process and perceive information in different ways. There are many different factors that can lead to the differences that arise within learning styles. These factors include, but are not limited to, personality, ability to process information, self-efficacy, sensory intake processes or some complex combination of these and other differences (Institute for Learning Styles Research, 2003). . One assessment tool that canbe used in establishing a persons learning style is the Perceptual Modality Preference Survey (PMPS).

Method and Finding of first journal article In first journal, the researchers used survey method to determine the students selfreported study behaviors. They surveyed 177 undergraduate students at Washington University in St.Loius about strategies they use to study for exams. Their survey got two questions which the first question was an open-ended free report question in which students listed the strategies they used studying and rank ordered the strategies in terms of how frequently they used them. In question 2, the researchers used forced report question that asked students to choose one of three alternatives when studying a text book for an exam. The three alternatives are repeated reading of the chapter, practicing recall of material from the chapter and engaging in some other study activity. All 177 students answered question 1. Around 101 students answered version 1 of question 2 which testing without restudy and the other 76 students answered version 2 which testing with restudy. The results showed that repeated reading is the most popular study strategy among college students, more popular than practicing retrieval even though retrieval practice is a more effective study strategy. On the other hand, taking a recall test, even without feedback, enhances long-term retention more than spending the same amount of time restudying. In addition, most of the students were unaware of the mnemonic benefits of self-testing. In conclusion, the authors stated that a challenge for instructional practice is to encourage students to base their study strategies on theories about why a particular strategy like practicing repeated retrieval promotes learning and long-term retention.

Method and Finding of second journal article The study took place at a high school in a Midwestern Class C-1 school district. The districts enrollment is approximately 282 students in grades nine through twelve, with a 27% free/reduced lunch population and 14% of students receiving special education services. For this study, a total of 40 students participated in the action research project within the three chemistry classes. Of the 40 students, there were 20 females and 20 males. There were a total of four seniors, 28 juniors, eight sophomores, and no freshmen. Only one of the students participating in the study was on a modified special education plan and was able to receive services in the special

needs room. The teacher collected research data throughout the study in the form of anecdotal notes, teacher & student reflections, and classroom observations. The PMPS was administered at the beginning of the study, while teacher observations, reflections, and anecdotal notes occurred daily. In order to analyze the data, the PMPS results were analyzed and individual findings separated into the seven learning style groups and percentages were compiled. The researcher proceeded to determine which metacognitive strategies were preferred within each learning style group through the use of student comments and classroom observations. Comments were also sought from participants regarding the study.

The PMPS results were analyzed and there were 73% students who had kinesthetic as one of their top two ranked learning styles. This was followed by interactive with 45%, haptic with 38%, visual with 30%, print with 15% aural with 10% and finally olfactory with no students represented. These learning styles were then used to help classify which metacognitive strategies were preferred by each learning style later in the study. Throughout the study, the researcher found that no matter the learning style a student might prefer, all of the students, whether consciously or unconsciously, were continuously evaluating their performance and their progress.

Similarities and differences that could find from both articles The similarities that I found in both articles are, both articles emphasize metacognitive strategies in students learning process. Learners need practice to develop automaticity. Conscious practice with metacognitive strategies can lead learners to become unconsciously metacognitive a position in which they are always reflecting on and evaluating the standards of their own thinking and learning and their strategies for personal development (Claxton, 1996). From both articles, I can say that the students can enhance their learning by using metacognitive strategies. Five basic principles for instruction in metacognition are: 1. Build an inclusive, positive, and stimulating classroom environment, e.g., by exhibiting a positive and enthusiastic approach to learning and by modeling thinking skills and habits of mind.

2. Construct teacher-driven metacognitive activities initially, with an emphasis on developing awareness of metacognitive processes, but also use the gradual release model as a guide so that students become capable of effectively selecting, using, monitoring, and evaluating their use of these strategies (Graham and Harris, 1993). 3. Create opportunities for students to talk about their thinking and to build a thinking vocabulary. To think and talk about their thinking, students need help to sort out thinking skills and terms associated with decision making, e.g., global terms like metacognition and specific terms like classifying, formulating questions, and having self-knowledge and selfcontrol. 4. Engage students in talking about metacognitive strategies, e.g., through conference, interview, or survey questions. Israel cautions: it is not wise to assume that students intrinsically have the metacognitive ability to respond to questions in a reflective manner. (Israel, 2007, 33) 5. Provide students with ample practice so that they can become automatic users of metacognitive strategies. For example, making the discussion of metacognitive knowledge part of the everyday classroom discourse will raise the awareness of their own metacognitive knowledge and increase their skill (Pintrich, 2002). Both articles said that metacognitive strategies can encourage self-regulated learning among students. Besides that, the most effective learning styles than I can found from both articles is the students must do self testing or self assessment to enhance their learning process. The differences that I can found in both articles are, in first article, the researcher only emphasizing the metacognitive strategy with self testing to enhance the learning process. In second articles, the writer emphasizing the metacognitive strategies more in different learning styles including self assessment. The researcher used survey method to support their idea. They were using questionnaires with open ended questions and forced task question. In second article, the researcher used action research to support their ideas. The research fully conducted with classroom observation and reflection by teachers and students. Other than this, in first article, the researchers choose their respondents from universities students. In second article, the researchers choose their respondents among high school students.

Discussion on Both Articles

In my point of view, the students very rarely were using metacognitive strategis in their learning process. I think that, the instructors should encourage students to using metacognitive strategies in learning process. At the same time, the students should combine both cognitive and metacognitive strategies for effective learning process. The teachers should plan opportunities for students to learn metacognitive skills while they are involved in learning something else. For example, when developing a piece of writing in a particular discipline, students can reflect on their progress in relation to the criteria and then set new goals in order to move forward. Metacognitive and cognitive strategies may overlap depending on the purpose for using the strategy. A self-questioning strategy used while reading to obtain information would be a cognitive strategy, while a self-questioning strategy used to monitor understanding of what was read would be a metacognitive strategy (Livingston, 1996). If teachers hope to help all students become self-directed learners, its necessary to help them develop fluency in both cognitive and metacognitive skills (Pintrich, 2002). Instruction in metacognitive skills promotes the self-monitoring and self-regulation that can lead to intellectual growth, increase academic achievement, and support transfer of skills so that students are able to use any strategy at any time and for any purpose. (Bransford, 1986; Robinson, 1987). Metacognition contributes to successful learning and moves students toward independence, interdependence, and self-efficacy. Through metacognitive strategies, students learn to master information and solve problems more easily (Block, C. et. al. 2005; Scruggs, 1985). Metacognitive strategies are already in teachers repertoires; however, teachers can become aware of and consciously model these strategies for students. Although using metacognitve techniques requires that teachers be attentive and capitalize on classroom opportunities, the investment of time and energy results in students becoming more purposeful, flexible, and creative problem solvers. Besides that, self testing is most important part in developing metacognitive skills. The teachers must encourage students in to do self testing in order to get a good result in their exams and solving problem effectively.

Reference
Andrew C.Butler and Henry L.Roediger III. (2009) . Metacognitive strategies in student learning : Do students practice retrievel when they study on their own? . Washington University : St. Louis, MO, USA Anonymous 1.( no date). Metacognition online accessed on 10 Mei 2012. Available at (http://education.yahoo.com/reference/dictionary/entry/retrieval) Anonymous 2.( no date). Metacognition online accessed on 10 Mei 2012. Available at (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategy) Jeffrey D.Karpicke . (2009) . Metacognitive strategies in student learning : Do students practice retrievel when they study on their own? . Purdue University : West Lafayette, in, USA

Steven V.S, Wayne A.C . (2008) . Using Metacognitive Strategies and Learning Styles to Create Self-Directed Learners. Institute for learning styles journal. Willamson B. What is metacognition - A brief guide to some jargon. Online Accessed on 10 May 2012. Available at: www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/publications_reports_articles/web_articles/Web_Articles

MPF1153 (COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY) CRITICAL REVIEW


Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practice retrievel when they study on their own? Using Metacognitive Strategies and Learning Styles to Create Self-Directed Learners
PREPARED FOR:

Dr. Narina Binti A. Samah

PREPARED BY: THAVAMALAR A/P BALAKRISHNAN (MP111029)