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SCIENTIFIC WORKING PAPER 2

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERPESONAL COMMUNICATION APPROACH IN HEALTH COMMUNICATION

GROUP D
Instructor : Roesanto Heroe Soebekti, drg., MS.

Dita Rana Widati Wilda Safira Masha Andina Aghnia Alma Larasati Isna Nur Inayatur R. Nabiela Rahardia

021211131046 021211131047 021211131048 021211131049 021211131050 021211131052

FACULTY OF DENTISTRY AIRLANGGA UNIVERSITY 2011/2012

Preface

First of all, we would like to express our gratitude to God for all of the guidance, opportunity, and blessings so we can finish our discussion activity and make a conclusion paper about The Effectiveness of Interpersonal Communication Approach in Health Communication. We arrange this paper in order to complete the module subject task. By making this paper, we learn how to improve our communication skills and think critically. We also answer our curiosity by collecting facts and discuss it together until we get the answer and the conclusion. This is not a new experience for us yet still very precious. Our special regards goes to Hanindio Soelarso, drg, MS, as our lecturer and Roesanto Heroe Soebekti, drg, MS, as our instructor in discussion class. We are also indebted to Prof. Dr. Arifzan Razak, drg., Sp.Pros, Dr. R. Darmawan Setijianto, drg., M.Kes, Agus Subiwahyudi, drg., MS., Sp.KG, Prawati Nuraini, drg., M.Kes, Sp.KGA, Adi Hapsoro, drg., MS, Retno Palupi, drg., M.Kes, Ninuk Hariyani, drg., M.Kes, and Taufan Bramantoro, drg., M.Kes. who gave us knowledge and information in module subject, and all persons who were related to this discussion. We confess honestly that this work is far from perfect and therefore, all constructive criticisms on this paper would be appreciated. We hope this paper will be useful for every reader.

Surabaya, November 2012

Writer

Contents
COVER ...............................................................................................i PREFACE............................................................................................ii CONTENT..........................................................................................iii ABSTRACT........................................................................................1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION.........................................................1 1.1.Background....................................................................................1 1.2.Problems Statements.....................................................................2 1.3.Objective........................................................................................3 1.4.Scientific Methods.........................................................................5 CHAPTER II GLOSARRY.................................................................7 2.1. Communication............................................................................8 2.2. Interpersonal communication.......................................................9 2.3. Self Concepts................................................................................12 2.4. Communication Components.......................................................16 2.5. Cause of Gap Communication......................................................19 2.6. Interpersonal relationship.............................................................20 2.7. Interpersonal Relationship in Denstistry......................................25 2.8. Anamnesis....................................................................................28 CHAPTER III CONCEPT OF MAPPING..........................................30 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION..............................................................32 CHAPTER V SUMMARY.................................................................35 3.1. Conclusion....................................................................................36 3.2. Advice...........................................................................................36 REFERENCES....................................................................................36

Abstract It cannot be denied that the importance of interpersonal communication to the development of our society. Without interpersonal communication, people are unable to understand each other, cooperate with each other and promote the development of human society unceasingly. Therefore, the study of interpersonal communication has great significance. Interpersonal communication is fulfilled through two forms: one is verbal behaviors, the other one is nonverbal behaviors. Verbal communication is the most common and significant form of communication. But it does not mean that we can ignore the importance of nonverbal communication. In interpersonal communication, many messages and meanings are expressed through touch, eye contact and gaze, slight diversity of tone, gesture and facial expressions with or without the help of verbal behaviors .We often try to understand ones heart thoroughly and make important judgment and decision to others according to nonverbal behaviors. So, the study of nonverbal communication and the effect on interpersonal communication has great practical significance. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Communication plays an important role in human being life. Almost all of our activity happens through it. We can make friends and socialize with them by communicating. We can obtain and understand more knowledge if we communicate well with the lecturers. Even we can argue and get enemies from communication process, too.

The study of interpersonal communication is gaining importance in this milieu globalization. We all need to develop interpersonal communication skills since personal communication is woven trough all aspects of living and is meaningful only in the context of living. As a multidisciplinary activity, the study of interpersonal communication includes much of psychology, sociology, anthropology, medicine, social psychology, psychiatry, clinical psichology, and touches on many facets of the language studies as well. The primary objective behind the conception of this article is not to assess the theories that show the relationship between psychology and interpersonal communication but to bring forth the intelligibility and coherence to the process and progress of research in the field of interpersonal communication. One of communication types that we use commonly and also the most important is interpersonal communication. It occurs when two persons or a small group of people communicate intensely in order to reach certain purposes. This skill is needed especially by people who work in medical sector, including doctors and dentists. Unfortunately, sometimes they still do not consider this skill is important to be learnt. As dentistry students, learning about interpersonal communication is a demand since in the future we will interact with lots of people. We will need the interpersonal communication skills to examine the patient and make a good relationship with them at the same time. In wider scope, we also have to communicate with our dentist colleagues and the society. Based on those purposes, we make this interpersonal communication working paper. In this paper, a constellation of theories and principles that share common assumptions and concepts are taken for study and analysis to understand the issues related to interpersonal communication. After we know about the importance of interpersonal communication skills, especially for dentists, we hope we can learn further about it from this paper. We also hope we can improve our interpersonal communication skills that will be useful for us as a dentist in the future.
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1.2

Problems Statement 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 What is interpersonal communication? What are the components of interpersonal communication? What are the purposes of interpersonal communication? What are the characteristic of interpersonal communication? How the process of interpersonal communication? What is the relationship between communication an Interpersonal communication?

1.3

Objective 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. To know what interpersonal communication is To know what the components of interpersonal communication are To know what the purposes of interpersonal communication are To know what characteristic of interpersonal communication are To know how the process of interpersonal communication are To know what the relationship between communication an Interpersonal communication

1.4

Benefits 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 We know what interpersonal communication is We know the components of interpersonal communication We know what the purposes of interpersonal communication We know what characteristic of interpersonal communication We know the process of interpersonal communication We know the relationship between communication an Interpersonal communication

1.5

Scientific Methods Our working paper can be finished is based on journals and textbooks that we get not only from mass but also electronic media. So, we get references credibly.
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CHAPTER II GLOSSARY 2.1 Definition of Interpersonal Communication a. Interpersonal communication is a kind of communication where people interact face to face that allows each participant captures the reactions of others directly, either verbal or nonverbal (Mulyana, 2004). This type of communication is considered as the most effective to change attitudes, opinions, or behavior, because of its dialogical form of conversation (Effendi, 1993). b. Interpersonal communication is also defined as communication that occurs between two persons who have obvious relationship, such as father and daughter conversation, teacher and student conversation, and so on (Devito, 1997). 2.2 Components of Interpersonal Communication 1. Interpersonal Perception Perception is giving the meaning of sense, in stimuli or interpreting information sense. Interpersonal perception is giving meaning to stimuli sense that derived from a person (communicant), which is in the form of a verbal message and nonverbal. Conscientiousness in perception interpersonal communication, will impact on the success of a participant a communication that any give meaning to a message will impact to failure of communication. An object of perception interpersonal are human. Peception is affected by various factors. Factors that influence the perceptions against others can be grouped into two, namely external factors and the personal. The external factor is clues that could be observed. This factor will help us to do a close perception. Including

the external factor is an indicator of verbal and instructions nonverbal. A factor of personal is characteristic of a person who gives response to stimulation perception. Including the external factor is an indicator of verbal and instructions nonverbal. Meanwhile, including personal factors are: a) Experience The experience is affecting the ability of perception. The experience did not always pass the formal learning process. Our experience also grew through a series of events that we have ever faced. b) Motivation Process that influences the perceptions interpersonal also involve the elements of motivation. c) Personality In psychoanalysis is known projection, as one way of defense ego. A projection is externalize subjective experience unconsciously. Men throw their guilty feeling to others. On perceptual interpersonal, people impose on others traits that there is to himself, that is undesirable. Obviously, one who did a lot of projection will not respond the stimuli persona , in response to stimuli even actually obscure the picture. On the contrary, a person who accepts himself as it is, one who does not burdened guilt feelings, tending to interprete others more closely.

Our behavior in communication interpersonal very dependent on perceptual interpersonal. Because the wrong perception, often occur failure in communication. Failure communication repairable if the people realize that their perception might be wrong. Interpersonal communication will be better if we know that our perception is subjective and tends mistaken. We rarely examined back our perception. Due to another of our perception that unexamined: distort
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the message not as we are. Our perception about others is stable, the perceptual stimuli are a always changing. The gap between perception with reality it actually causes not only attention selective, but also interpretation message that isnt true.

2. Self Concept Self-concept is perception about ourselves; the physical, psychological or socially; that comes from experience and our interactions with others. The tendency of a person to behave in accordance with the concept of himself called self fulfilling prophecy. Self-concept has two qualities or valence, namely positive self concept and negative self concept. A positive self concept, characterized by five things, namely: a. Believe on the ability of fixing the problem; b. Feel equivalent to others; c. Accept compliments without sense of shame; d. Realize that everyone has different feelings, desires and behavior that is not entirely accepted by the community; e. Able to fix himself because he was able to reveal aspects of personality that he likes and try to change. While the characteristics of people who have negative self concept is: a. sensitive to the criticism, responsive to praises b. have an hypercritis attitude c. tend to be feel disliked by others d. feel unnoticed
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e. be pessimistic against competition

The Formation of Self Concept

The concept of the self is not carried since birth but gradually gradually arise in line with the development of the ability of perception of the individual. The concept of the human self is formed through a process of learning from the time a person's growth from small to mature. Newborns have no concept of self because they can't tell the difference between himself and his environment. According to Allport (in Darmayekti Thesis, 2006: 21) a newborn does not know about him.

In addition to the establishment and development of the self-concept is influenced by the people around oneself. The greatest influence comes from those closest to (significant others), such as parents, siblings, and others who have an emotional attachment (affective others). Factors that influence later. the concept of self extends to the following parties, amongst others: friends, groups, organizations, and so on.

Self-concept has three dimensions, namely:

a. Self knowledgeis information owned about ourselves. Suppose gender, appearance, and so on. b. Hope of yourself, is the possibility of what you will bw in the future.

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c. An assessment of self, is the measurement of self about the state of yourself compared to what according to themselves could and should happen to yourself. The results of such measurement is a sense of selfrespect.

3. Interpersonal Attraction We can predict the flow of interpersonal communication that is going to happen. The increase of our interestion to someone,the bigger propensity that we will communicate with him. Hence, interpersonal attraction is pleasure in others, positiveness and attractiveness of a person. The attraction of this formed a taste like. The taste of love with somebody generally makes people that we like to be significant for us.

Interpersonal Attraction Theory

a. Reinforcement theory explains that someone who like another person is a result of study. b. Equity theory suggests that in a relationship, people always tend to maintain a balance between the price (cost) incurred with the compensation(reward) is obtained. c. Exchange theory made it clear that social interaction like as trade transactions. If people know someone who brings an advantage economically and psychologically, it would be preferable. d. Gain-loss theory states that people tend to like people who has benefit than the people who hurt us.

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Factors that affect interpersonal attraction is divided into two, namely, personal factors and situational factors. The following is a description of those factors: a. Personal factors that affects attraction interpersonal

Similarity personal characteristics

People who have in common the values, attitudes, beliefs, level of socioeconomic differences, religious, and ideological trend of mutual love. According to the theories of Cognitive consistency of Fritz Heider in Jalaluddin Rakhmat (2011), human beings are always trying to achieve consistency in attitude and behavior. Example: when we're riding public transportation and met a new acquaintance. Then our conversation took place and starts from the demographic problems (where you live, your job, etc.) until the political issues and so on.

Emotional pressure (stress) When someone is worrying or have the emotional distress, then he will want the presence of others. This emotional distress is evidenced by Stanley Schacter in Jalaluddin Rakhmat (2011) by making an experiment. He collected two Sorority groups. To the first group he states that they will be the subject of an experiment to examine the effect of a very painful electric shocks. As for the second group he informed me that they only got a mild shock. Of the two groups, the first group discovers that Schacter has anxiety by 63%, whereas the second group had the anxiety levels of 33%.
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From these data Schacter concludes that a situation that makes people anxious will increase the need for affection. Low self-esteem

When a person's self esteem is lowered, affiliate passion (join with others) is growing, and it is more responsive to receive the affection of others. People low self-esteem tend to be easy to love others.

Social isolation

Humans are social creatures. Human life may hold the estranged for some time and not for a long time. Social isolation is an unpleasant experience. Several studies have concluded that the level of social isolation great influence on our preferences on others.

b. Situational factors

Physical Attractiveness

Some researchers concluded that physical attractiveness is often a major cause of personal attraction. We tend to like the people that handsome or beautiful. They are very easy to gain the attention of
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the surrounding environment. So, not one that many companies that use beautiful women and handsome men to be employees in the promotion, advertising, and even the community relations.

Reward

We would like people who like us and we will favor those who praise us. According to social exchange theory, social interaction is a kind of commercial transaction. We will continue the transaction if we get a lot of profit. According to Thibault and Kelley in Jalaluddin Rahmat (2011), when our association was very pleasant, very favorable in terms of psychological and economical, we loved each other.

Familiarity

The principle of familiarity is reflected in Indonesian proverb, "if you do not know, it was love". As we often meet someone and there is nothing to talk pentik then we would love it. Robert B. Zajonc the Jalaluddin Rahmat (2011) showed pictures of faces in the experimental subjects. He found the more cheerfully given subject saw the face he would disliked it. From these studies gave birth to a theory of "more exposure" (exposure only). The hypothesis was used as the scientific basis of the importance of repetition messages in influencing opinions and attitudes.

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Proximity

Proximity is closely associated with familiarity. People tend to favor those who lived nearby. People who place other would tend to like each other. It is often taken for granted. However, in terms of psychology it is remarkable because the place looks neutral to influence human psychological order. That means, they can manipulate space or architectural design to create friendship and sympathy. Competence We tend to favor people who have a higher capacity than we are, or more successful in life. Aronson in Jalaluddin Rahmat (2011) found in his research that the most favored are those who have high ability, but showed some weaknesses. Aronson created four experimental conditions, namely: -

People who have high ability and error Capable of high but not error People who have average ability and error People who are capable of average and have done nothing wrong

Effect of interpersonal attraction on interpersonal communication

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a. Message interpretation and assessment It is known that the opinion and judgment of others is not solely based on rational considerations. We are also emotional creatures. Therefore, when our loved one, we also look at all things related to him positively. Conversely, if we hate it, we tend to see the negative characteristics.

b. Effectiveness of communication Declared effective interpersonal communication when meeting

communication is fun for the communicant. When we get together with a group mamiliki lot in common with us, then we will favor them. And vice versa. According to the Jalaluddin Wolosin Grace (2011), communication will be more effective if the communicant to like each other.

Interpersonal Relationship
The unique characteristics of interpersonal communication can be explored by tracing the meaning of the word interpersonal. It is derived from the prefix inter meaning between, and the word person. So, interpersonal communication literally occurs between people. On one sense, all communication happens among people, yet many interactions dont involve us personally. Communication exists on a continuum from impersonal to interpersonal. The heart of interpersonal communication is shared meanings between people. We dont just exchange words when we

communicate. Instead, we create meanings as we figure out what each others words and behaviours stand for, represent, or imply. Meanings grow out of histories of interactions between unique persons.
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The Oxford English Dictionary (1989, Vol. III, p. 578), for example, defines communication as "the imparting, conveying, or exchange of ideas, knowledge, information, etc. (whether by speech, writing, or signs)". Gergen (1991) argues that the notion that people have ideas, formed in the mind, which are then conveyed to others by a process of communication, is pervasive in all cultures. In 1928 the English literary critic and author I.A. Richards (cited in www.britannica.com) offered one of the first and in some ways still the best definitions of communication as a discrete aspect of human enterprise: Communication takes place when one mind so acts upon its environment that another mind is influenced, and in that other mind an experience occurs which is like the experience in the first mind, and is caused in part by that experience. Richardss definition clearly presents the link between psychology and the study of communication skills. M. E. Roloff defines interpersonal communication as a symbolic interaction between people rather than between a person and an inanimate object. Mark L. Knapp and John Augustine Daly in their Handbook of Interpersonal Communication (2002) state: Interpersonal communication can mean the ability to relate to people in written as well as verbal communication. This type of communication can occur in both a one-on-one and a group setting. This also means being able to handle different people in different situations, and making people feel at ease. Gestures such as eye contact, body movement, and hand gestures are also part of interpersonal communication. The most common functions of interpersonal communication are listening, talking and conflict resolution. Types of interpersonal communication vary from verbal to non-verbal and from situation to situation. Interpersonal communication involves face-toface communication in a way that accomplishes the purpose and is appropriate. Stewart & Angelo in their book Together: Communicating Interpersonally defines communication in the following manner: Interpersonal communication is

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a mutual relational, co-constructed process, as opposed to something that one person does to someone else. Foa & Foa's Resource Theory (Societal Structures of the Mind, 1974) focuses on the development of cognitive structures in the mind. Behavior is guided by motivational states. People are motivated to engage in certain behaviors whenever quantities of resources fall outside the optimal range. They posit that every interpersonal behavior consists of giving or taking away one or more resources, and that closely allied resources exchanges occur more frequently (i.e. love for love). Michael Cody defines interpersonal communication (cited in Myers & Myers, 1972) as the exchange of symbols used to achieve interpersonal goals (p.28). An interpersonal communication focus emphasizes the process of the person interacting rather than the verbal content of the interaction, accentuates behaviours and skills which extend the alternatives available for interpersonal communication. It includes affective as well as cognitive dimensions drawn from the behavioural and other sciences as well as from the humanities. It is concerned about both verbal and nonverbal human messages and responses, and represents an emphasis on the objective investigation of the experience of person-to-person communication. Effective communication is characterized by interpersonal relationships. According to Anita Taylor in Jalaluddin Rahmat (2011), effective interpersonal communication include many elements but interpersonal relationships perhaps the most important. Every communication, we not just deliver the message (content), but also determine the level of interpersonal relationships (relationship). The view that defines the relationship of interpersonal communication has been presented by Ruesch and Bateson (1951) in the 1950s. The idea was popularized by the communication among Waulawuck, Beavin, and Jackson (1967). In addition, the psychologists also began to take great interest in interpersonal relationships as shown in the writings Gordon W. Allport (1960),

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Erich Fromm's (1962), Martin Buber (1975), Carl Rogers (1951). All figures represent the school of humanistic psychology. In terms of the psychology of communication, we can state that the better interpersonal relationships, the more open people to express themselves, the more accurate perception of others and self-perception, so that more effective communication that takes place between the communicant. Interpersonal relationships take place in three stages, namely:
a. The establishment of relationships

This stage is often referred to as the introductory stage (acquaintance process). Some researchers such as Newcomb (1961), Berger (1973), Zunin (1972), and Duck (1976) have found interesting things from the introduction. The first phase is the beginning of the contact phase (initial contact phase) is characterized by the efforts of both parties to capture information from the reaction of his friends. Each side tried to explore identity, attitudes, and values of others. If there are similarities, they begin a process of self-disclosure. The process is called Newcomb watch each other as mutually investigate (reciprocal scanning). At this stage the information sought about the demographic data, age, occupation, residence, etc. According to Charles R. Berger in Jalaluddin Rahmat (2011), information on the introductory stage can be grouped in seven categories:

Demographic information Attitudes and opinions (about the person or object)

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Plan for the future Personality The behavior in the past Other people Hobbies and interests

It is not always that we get the information obtained from verbal communication. We also formed an impression from the instructions proksemik, kinesik, paralinguistic, and artifactual. According to William Brooks and Philip Emmert in Jalaluddin Rahmat (2011), the first impression is crucial, because it's the first thing that seems crucial first impression.
b. Confirmation of the relationships

Interpersonal relationship is not static, but always changing. To maintain and strengthen interpersonal relationships, changes require the existence of certain actions to restore the balance. There are four factors that are important in maintaining the balance, namely:

Familiarity Familiarity is the fulfillment of the need for love. Interpersonal relationships will be maintained if both parties agree on the necessary familiarity.

Control
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Control include an agreement on who will control what, and when. Conflict occurs in general when each wants power, or neither side budge.

The accuracy of responses The accuracy of the response means the response A response of B should be followed accordingly. This response not only with regard to verbal messages, but also nonverbal messages.

c. Termination of relationships

Termination can occur, and can also lead to conflict. R.D. Nye in Jalaluddin Rahmat (2011) mentions, there are five sources of conflict, namely:

Competition, namely the existence of one of the parties bersaha gain something at the expense of others.

Domination, namely the existence of one of the parties seeking to control the other party so that people feel their rights are violated.

Failure, ie, each trying to blame the other party if common goals are not achieved.

Provocation, namely the existence of one of the parties constantly doing something that he knew to offend others.

The difference in value, that the two parties do not agree on the values they believed.

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Factors that increase interpersonal relations in interpersonal communication:

Trust

Of all the factors, trust is the most important. According to the Jalaluddin Rahmat Giffin (2011), trust is defined as relying on people's behavior in order to achieve the desired objectives, the achievement is uncertain and risky situations. The definition mentions believe that there are three elements, namely:

There is a situation that poses a risk People who put faith in others is to realize that the consequences depend on the behavior of others

People who believe that the behavior of others will be good for him

Benefits put trust in others are improving interpersonal communication due to open channels of communication, sending and receiving clarifying information, and communicants expand
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opportunities to reach the point. In addition, the loss of trust in others will hinder the development of intimate interpersonal relationships. In addition to personal factors, there are several factors related to the attitude of trust such as the characteristics and intentions of others, the existence of power relations, the nature and quality of communication, as well as the honesty of each communicant. In addition, there are also three main things that can foster trust and develop communication attitudes that are based on mutual trust, namely:
-

Receive, is the ability to relate to others without judging and trying to control. According to Anita Taylor in Jalaluddin Rahmat (2011), receiving is the attitude that seeing others as human family, as individuals are commendable. Accepting does not mean agreeing all the behavior of others or are willing to bear the consequences of his behavior.

Empathy, is regarded as the attitude to understand others who do not have emotional meaning for us. In empathy, we do not put ourselves in the position of others, but we are emotionally and intellectually involved in the experience of others. Empathize means imagining ourselves at what happened to other people.

Honesty, can diartikna as a gesture for what it is. Receive and empathy may be perceived incorrectly by others. Acceptance we can be perceived indifference, cold and unfriendly. While empathy we can respond as a sham. So that is actually addressed, then we must be honest in expressing ourselves to others. Honesty cause
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unpredictable behavior, so as to encourage others to believe in us.

Supportive attitude Supportive attitude is the attitude that reduces

defensiveness in communication. People who get defensive when he did not receive, dishonest, and empathetic. Defensive communication can occur due to personal factors (fear, anxiety, low self-esteem, defensive experience, etc.) and situational factors (communication behavior of others). Jack R. Gibb in Jalaluddin Rahmat (2011) says there are six behaviors that create supportive behavior. Briefly behaviors that create defensive and supportive climates found in the following list: Defensive climate Evaluation Control Strategy Neetrality Superiority Certainty Supportive climate Description Problem orientation Spontanity Empathy Equation Professionality

Table 1. Behaviors that lead to defensive and supportive climate

The following is an explanation of the list above, namely:


-

Evaluation and description

Evaluation means assessing others (praise or censure). While the

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description means submission feelings and perceptions without judgment.

Control

and

orientation

problems

Behavioral control means trying to change others, controlling behavior, changing attitudes, opinions, and actions. While orientation is opposite problem communicating keninginan to work together to find solutions to problems.

Strategy

and

spontanity

The strategy is the use of deceit or manipulation to affect the others. While spontaneity means being honest and considered not envelop the hidden motive.

Neutrality

and

empathy

Neutrality means impersonal attitude that treats people not as a person, but rather as an object. While empathy is the opposite of neutrality.

Superiority

and

equations

Superiority High temperatures mean attitude shows more or better than others. While the equation is the attitude of treating

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others

horizontally

and

democratically.

Certainty

and

professionalisity

Near certainty with an attitude of superiority. People who tend to be dogmatic certainty, to be selfish, and see their opinions as the absolute truth. While professionalism is the opposite, namely a willingness to revisit our opinion, to recognize that human opinion is a mistake.

Openness attitude

Openness is very influential in fostering effective interpersonal communication. The opposite of being open is dogmatism. According to Brooks and the Jalaluddin Rahmat Emmert (2011), there are some characteristics of an open and opinionated, namely:

Table 2. Characteristics of openness and dogmatic No 1. Openness Attitude Assessing objectively messages using Closed Attitude

(dogmatis) Assessing messages based personal motives


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data 2. 3.

and

logic Think simply. Leaning rather more on the the

regularity Differentiating with ease, seeing shades, etc. Orientated to the content.

source of the message than message. Looking for information about the beliefs of others from the source itself, not from other 5. More professional and willing 6. to change your beliefs. Seeks to understand the message that is incompatible with a series of beliefs. people's trust. Rigidly maintain uphold the and belief

4.

Search for information from various sources.

system. Reject, ignore, distort the message that is inconsistent with his belief system.

2.3 Purposes of Interpersonal communication


1. convey information and make sense

the purpose of communication is giving information and make the receiver undertands what we want to inform.
2. produce pleasure

each other of communicant and receiver should be pleasant to have a communication and theres not a barrier to communicate each other.
3. affect attitudes

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from communication, attitudes change are hopefully there. By communication they are affecting each other and in result, it affecting their attitudes.
4. resulted in better social

by communicating, there will be a exercise to a real life. The more we communicate, the more we learn the life and its people. 5. generate real action by communicating, we are generate real action because we are surface the real thing of real life, knowing what people inside, learn, and informate each other. 2.4 Characteristic of Interpersonal Communication 1. We cannot NOT communicate. In other words, interpersonal communication always takes place when two or more people are together. Think about it: if you are in a elevator with one other person, communication is taking place. So long as the other person is aware of you, you are communicating. You communicate friendliness or apathy or any number of things through the way you stand, your eye contact, an many other nonverbal cues. Even if you say nothing, you cannot not communicate. Assume you choose not to say anything at all. Isnt that communicating something about your attitude to the other person? 2. Interpersonal communication includes both content and information about the content. In other words, at the same time we are saying something, we are giving many cues about how what we are saying should be interpreted. For example, youve heard students say to teachers many times, Do we have a test today? That is the content of the message, but the student can do many things to provide information about the content and change how the message is received. If the student adds a bit of whine to her voice, the message isnt a question at all; the student really means I dont want to have a test today. If the student furrows her brow while asking the question, the teacher will conclude the student truly doesnt know if there is a test. The whine and the furrowed brow are examples
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of metacommunication (pp. 79-80). They are nonverbal cues for the listener on how to communicate your message. 3. Interpersonal communication is contextual. In addition to the use of context youve encountered so far (pp. 13-14), you can view interpersonal communication as occurring in a very fluid context subject to reinterpretation. Some things are, of course, fixed. If we are alone in an elevator, the physical context is unlikely to change. But consider an example in which we are constantly interpreting our interpersonal exchanges in ways that clarify (and sometimes confuse) our exchange of meaning. In other words, we are constantly tagging our interactions to define ourselves in relationship to others. Take the example of two people who are studying together. As they exchange information and ask each other questions, the constantly define their roles. One person is dependent on another, then the roles switch. One person is using the study session to express dissatisfaction with the class, and so becomes a confessor. And so forth. As the two people communicate, they constantly redefine the relationship, and so they redefine how they interpret their own communication. 4. Interpersonal communication is irreversible. Once youve said something, itcant be unsaid. You can explain what youve said, apologize for what youve said, or anything else to modify it, but you cant really take it back. An old saying holds that words are like stones, and once flown can ne'er be recalled. So it is with communicationand not just with words. As a result, we note thatin interpersonal communication we constantly build on what has recently occurred. Your comment to your best friend about what you are doing tonight can change depending on the communication youve recently exchanged. 5. Interpersonal communication is complex. As you can tell for the first four principles, interpersonal communication involves so much that we are often communicating instinctively. We are
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registering verbal and nonverbal cues, we are tagging and defining our roles and relationships, we are building on communication that just happenedwe are doing so much that we cant be thinking about everything thats happening at the time it is happening.

2.5 Process of Interpersonal Communication 1. Target Audience Those within the organization whose roles require them to achieve results by being able to influence other people such as colleagues, senior managers, or clients. Also anyone who has a responsibility for managing, supervising, or leading staff. 2. Course Objective It is almost impossible to be productive in today's business environment without being an effective communicator. This is particularly true if achievement of your goals depends on your ability to influence others. You need to be able to communicate your ideas, instructions, thoughts, and feelings accurately. This is not as easy as it may seem, and ineffective communication is often at the core of a high proportion of the errors, misunderstandings, and conflicts that occur in the workplace. This course is designed to give you an understanding of the prime causes of poor communication, and, more importantly, the skills required to minimize their impact. Topics Covered The Communication Process a. identify the benefits of improving the effectiveness of interpersonal communication. b. sequence the stages of the communication process in the correct order.
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c. identify the objectives for the aiming, encoding, and transmission stages of the communication process. d. analyze the details of an interaction between two people to determine which communication e. objective(s) were not achieved. f. characterize the various types of feedback which can be given in relation to a communicated message. g. give probing and understanding feedback in response to a communicated message, in a given scenario. h. determine the methods of building rapport to improve the clarity of interpersonal communication, in a given scenario. Using Communication Styles to Connect a. identify the benefit of being able to recognize and respond to the preferred communication styles of staff, colleagues, and clients. b. identify the characteristics of people with a preference for the auditory communication style. c. respond appropriately to a person with an auditory communication style, in a given situation. d. identify the characteristics of people with a preference for the visual communication style. e. respond appropriately to someone who prefers the visual communication style, in a given situation. f. identify the characteristics of people with a preference for the kinesthetic communication style. g. respond appropriately to someone with a preference for the kinesthetic communication style, in a given situation. CHAPTER III CONCEPT OF MAPPING

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CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION 1. Why communication gap occured on three such person ? 2. What factors that play a role in communication gap ? How is the role of communication ? 3. How to solve communication gap ? 1. Causes of Communication Gap in communicant and receiver 1) Both are busy : if both of communicant and receiver are busy of their selves, busy of what they doing, the communication will not be clear and probability of missunderstanding is arrised. 2) Contradicting opinion and decision: There will never be a smooth communication if there are two contradicting opinions that might send a couple arguing. If they do not argue, someone or both might

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just keep quiet which can create a crisis in the relationship if not given solution. 3) Fear: This fear may involve many things. One might be afraid to be rejected by the other so instead of talking he/she would keep silent. Or one might have poor communication skills that make receiver afraid to express ideas. communicator may be afraid to upset your spouse so youll shut up even if there is an issue that needs to be resolved. 4) Carefree attitude of one or both: One or both have no involvement and feels free that they dont care to communicate with each other They dont care to talk because they dont feel the need to share things to the other. Whatever relationship problems come and storm your life as couple, you need to work it out by fixing the issue through constant communication. Leaving the work to nature cannot help you bridge the communication gap. 2.Cause of Gap Communication There are four main causes of communication gaps. The first is that communication is so fundamental to our very existence, that nobody stops to think about the role it plays when misunderstandings happen. Secondly, most people assume they are good communicators, so they deny responsibility for problems caused by communication gaps. They put it down to being one of those things or that it could have happened to anybody. Even better, we blame it on somebody else, They should have known, or They should have asked. Thirdly, there are those few people who know they are unskilled communicators, but dont really care. They arent motivated to improve this skill because they probably dont make the link between how they communicate and why they constantly create confusion.

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The final reason is that most people dont take the time to make an effort to understand each other. Take a conversation between 2 people, what could be more simple? Yet the opportunity for misinterpretation is endless. So what can we do differently to avoid falling into communication gaps? In a nutshell dont make assumptions, clarify, clarify, clarify, take responsibility for how you communicate and balance your needs and goals for communicating with those you are communicating with. Communication is the basis of every relationship. A relationship starts with communication which can be verbal, body language, gestures or actions. A relationship goes on with communication and it also ends upon communicating. Communication is throughout the relationship form start to end (if there is one). In short, communication is the key to a relationship that unlocks, I mean solves, so many problems (however, if not used properly many locks are jammed resulting in a series of nosolution problems). A couple who communicate effectively can solve most of the problems. More importantly, a couple who communicate constantly are open. They share everything with their partner; they speak out their love, concerns, emotions, joy, success, failures and so on. So it is really bad to not to communicate in a relationship. Communication gap is a big problem since this will ignite so many issues in due course. What are the reasons that a couple suffer from communication gap? 1) Lack of involvement When one or both of the couple have no involvement in the relationship, they dont care to communicate with their partner. They dont realize the need to share things of their life with their partner. Persons without involvement in a relationship dont care to talk and they dont actually feel that they have something to share with their partner.
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2)

Busy schedule A couple who have a busy schedule may either not have the time to communicate even if they wanted to, or they may not feel the need to communicate since there are many other things in their schedule that keeps them occupied. A person who is very busy with work may also have the chance to have work buddies to share things with so that they wont have new things to talk about with their partner. Further some wont like to speak about things repeatedly.

3)

Difference of opinion When there is difference of opinion, communication will not be so smooth and this also depends on how the couple deal with difference of opinion. Some couple end up in arguing over a difference while some others would want to just be silent when a difference arises. In any case the communication is the victim.

4)

Fear of rejection Sometimes one or both of the couple have a fear of rejection from the other which hinders them from communicating. One may have the fear that their partner may altogether avoid them or get away from them due to poor communication. Some may also do not have enough confidence on their communication skill, which again puts them in the fear of rejection. What if I say something that might irritate my partner? What if I could not bring up an issue effectively? What if I upset my partner because of my poor wording? All these questions naturally put one in hesitation towards communication, which leads to a communication gap eventually.

5)

Problems General problems can cause communication gaps. When your partner does something that you dont like, when he/she behaves in a chaotic manner, when he/she is crazy about something, when he/she is so
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criticizing and so on, it is really hard to establish successful communication. Also, when there is infidelity in the relationship, a problem where a third person comes in, it is really hard to communicate openly. The cheating partner will have to hide so many things and hence will restrict from communicating to the other. Similarly a suspicious partner would want to catch the other one without asking explicitly about the cheating sometimes. In some other cases, the couple try to fix an issue by constant communication and then when they are not able to fix it, they ultimately give up and hesitate to talk about such issues in the future. One of the most important keys to having a successful relationship is the ability to relate, communicate and discuss relationship problems. Do you have a lot of heated arguments with your spouse? Do you avoid discussing issues with your partner? Do you find it getting more difficult to connect in the relationship? Conflicts are common to all couples and relationships, but you can manage them if you communicate properly. Poor or lack of communication can cause a breakdown to any relationship whether it is between parents and children, employer and staff, or couples in love. When people cannot talk about things, problems will build up. Couples can find solutions to problems if they can communicate effectively and learn to be open to share everything with each other. Communication gap is sometimes taken lightly by people without realizing it will cause big problems and many issues may spark in due time. There are definite reasons why a relationship can suffer from communication gap. CHAPTER V SUMMARY

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3.1 Conclusion 3.1.2 Communication There are some essential components in communication to get the good interpersonal relations, especially in doing anamnesis or health communication between dentist and the patient, they are : a. Self concept Self-concept is perception about ourselves; the physical, psychological or socially; that comes from experience and our interactions with others. There must be a balance self concept between dentist and patient so there will be not a trouble in communication/anamnesis
b. Communication components :

The presence of all components and inter-component communication ; Sender, message, channel, communicant, receiver, feedback, and agreed rules. They should support each other.
c.

Communication process Message Communicator Channel Feedback Communicant

d. Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication is the sending and receiving of messages between two parties, usually in close visual and aural which allows for immediate feedback and close attention to verbal and nonverbal cues. To built the good interpersonal communication, we should : ~ know what we want from interpersonal communication, or knowing the purpose of interpersonal communication so well. ~ built communication supporting factors, by trust, supportive behaviour, open mindedness, equality, positiveness on communicant and receiver
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~ avoid the communication barrier by physical, psychological, and semantic approach ~ make sure that each communicant and receiver have the same perception and sensation, so there will be not a missunderstanding ~ need to be considered in effective comunication 3.1.3 Anamnesis One of the communication activities carried out by a doctor when dealing with patients is anamnesa, the digging history of the disease has ever suffered by the patient. Purpose of anamnesis is to obtain data and information for medical decisions and gain the trust of patients. Anamnesis have some steps, they are :

preparation opening stage work termination (closing)

in order to get a good anamnesis, dentist should considering a good communication and approaching the good interpersonal relationship by using intrapersonal communications. 5.2 Advice
1. Communication between doctors with patients, should be woven in such a way,

so there is no gap between the patient's doctor.


2. To foster good communication, the dentist should be aware that patient is not

just a set of teeth but the whole person people who really want to be treated like that is supposed to be heard, cared for and neglected. 3. Be a wise doctor, A wise doctor is able to communicate effectively with the patient. Want to listen to patient complaints, answer questions and explain the

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situation for patients, giving advice is not enough merely prescribe that the patient was satisfied.

http://www.findallanswers.com/communication-gap-relationship/ 26 November 2012 19:02:23 GMT http://ikhwanalim.wordpress.com/2009/03/05/3-cara-mengatasigap-komunikasi/ 26 November 2012 20:48:115 GMT http://www.findallanswers.com/communication-gap-relationship/ 27 November 2012 20:32:15 GMT

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