Dr. M. Sreekanth
Associate Professor
SMBS
VIT University, Chennai Campus
UnitI
Energy Transfer
TurbomachineDefinition
A Turbomachine is device in which energy is
transferred either to or from a continuously flowing
fluid by the dynamic action of one or more moving
blade rows
Turbo/Turbinis is a Latin word for something that
spins or whirls around
All turbomachines essentially have a rotating blade
row, known as a rotor or an impeller, changes the
stagnation enthalpy of the fluid by doing work
positive or negative
3
Classification of Turbomachines
Turbomachines
Direction
of Power
Power
Producing
Power
Absorbing
Flow
Direction
Axial Radial Mixed
Pressure
Change
Impulse Reaction
Type of
Fluid
Compressible
In
compressi
ble
4
Classification (Direction of Power)
Turbomachines produce (positive) power by
reducing the pressure (head) of the fluid (e.g.
Wind, hydraulic, steam and gas turbines)
Machines absorb (negative) power by
increasing the pressure of the fluid (e.g. Fans,
compressors and pumps)
5
Classification (Pressure Change)
Impulse Machine: The pressure change takes
place outside the rotor. Most often, the pressure
change takes place in the nozzles and the high
velocity jet is directed onto the rotor blades (e.g.
Pelton turbine)
Reaction Machine: The pressure change takes
place entirely in the rotor itself (e.g. Francis,
Kaplan turbines)
6
Classification (Direction of Flow)
Axial Flow: The direction of flow is entirely or
mostly parallel to the axis of rotation (e.g. Single
stage compressor, table fan, wind mill)
Radial Flow: The direction of flow is entirely or
mostly in a plane perpendicular to the axis of
rotation (e.g. Multistage centrifugal compressor,
steam turbine)
Mixed Flow: The flow components in the radial and
axial directions are in significant amounts (e.g.
Francis , Kaplan turbines)
7
Classification (Type of Fluid)
Incompressible Fluid: The fluid flowing is
incompressible (e.g. Water). In cases where the
pressure changes are low, the fluid is treated to be
incompressible (e.g. Hydraulic turbines, pumps, fans,
low pressure blowers, wind mills)
Compressible Fluid: The fluid flowing is compressible
(e.g.. Air, gas). The pressure and temperature changes
are high. The machines dealing with such fluids are
known as Compressible Flow or Thermal
Turbomachines (e.g. centrifugal compressors)
8
Examples
9
Applications
10
Simple Turbine
11
A Simple Turbine
Exploded View
Operation of a Turbomachine
The fluid flows directly into the device axially
The stator blades turn the flow so as to align
the flow into the rotor blades
The turbine blades turn the flow in the axial
direction and turn the output shaft
12
The power extraction
arises from turning the
flow
TS and hS Diagrams
For Ideal and Perfect gases, the enthalpy is
dependant on the temperature. Therefore, an
expansion process can be shown as below:
13
1
2S 2
Entropy, S
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
o
r
E
n
t
h
a
l
p
y
(
T
o
r
h
)
P=P1
P=P2
12S: Isentropic Expansion Process
12: Actual Expansion Process
P: Pressure
Fundamental Laws Applicable to
Turbomachines
Continuity Equation
1
st
Law of Thermodynamics and the Steady
Flow Energy Equation (SFEE)
Momentum Equation and
2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics
These laws are general and are applicable to
compressible as well as incompressible fluids
14
Continuity Equation
For a fluid having a density and steadily
flowing at a velocity c across an infinitesimal
cross sectional area dA, the differential mass
flow rate dm is gives as:
dm=c dA
In cases where the density and velocity are
constant across two sections 1 and 2, the
continuity equation simplifies to
cA
1
= cA
2
15
1
st
Law of Thermodynamics
(Closed System)
If a system undergoes a cycle during which it has
heat (Q) and work (W) interactions, then
If the system undergoes a process between two
states 1 and 2, then
16
( )
}
= 0 dW dQ
( )
mgz
2
1
U
Energy Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Internal Energy Total E
2
1 2
+ + =
+ + = =
=
}
mc
where
dW dQ E E
1
st
Law of Thermodynamics
(Open SystemSFEE)
When the 1
st
law of thermodynamics is applied
to a steady flow process, the flow work is
involved. In the resulting equation, on grouping
terms u and pV, the property enthalpy is
obtained
SFEE:
17
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
(
+ + =
+ + =
1 2
2
1
2
2 1 2
2
1
m
2 and 1 points between g integratin On
z z g c c h h W  Q
PE d KE d h d W d Q d
s
s
SFEE (a special case)
In an adiabatic process, Heat Transferred = 0
If the fluid is brought to rest, Work Done = 0
(happens in stators)
In most turbomachines, especially in non
hydraulic machines, the affect of change in
elevation would be negligible
In such a case, the SFEE becomes
18
2
1 1 2
2
1
c h h + =
Stagnation Enthalpy (h
0
)
Stagnation Enthalpy (h
0
) is the enthalpy of a gas
or vapour when it is adiabatically decelerated to
zero velocity
Mathematically,
Remember that for hydraulic machines, the
change in internal energy is negligible and hence
the enthalpy contains only the flow work (pV)
19
2
0
2
1
c h h + =
Stagnation Temperature (T
0
)
Stagnation enthalpy is given by
From definition, h=C
p
T
Therefore
20
2
0
2
1
c h h + =
2
0
2
0
2
1
or
2
1
c
C
T T
c T C T C
p
p p
+ =
+ =
Stagnation Pressure
The pressure of a fluid which is obtained by
decelerating it in a reversible adiabatic process
to zero velocity is known as the Stagnation
Pressure
It can be calculated using the relation for
isentropic processes
21
1
0 0

.

\

=
T
T
P
P
SFEE (rewritten)
Neglecting the change in potential energy and
conveniently using the equation for stagnation
enthalpy, the SFEE can be written as
If there is no work or heat transfer involved, the
stagnation enthalpy remains constant
For machines operating adiabatically,
22
( )
01 02
h h m W Q
s
=
( )
01 02
h h m W
s
=
Momentum Equation
The Momentum Equation relates the sum of
external forces acting on it to its acceleration
In turbomachines, it is used to calculate the
force exerted on a blade by the deflection or
acceleration of fluid passing through
In a control volume, for a mass of fluid flowing
in x direction, the Momentum Equation is
23
( )
=
1 2 x x x
c c m F
2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics
The 2
nd
Law is useful in describing ideal processes
The Clausius inequality for a cycle is
If all the processes in the cycle are reversible,
For a reversible process between two states,
Entropy is defined as
24
}
s 0
T
dQ
}
= 0
T
dQ
r
}
=
2
1
1 2
T
dQ
S S
r
2
nd
Law of Thermodynamics
If the process is adiabatic, dQ=0, hence
If the process is reversible,
For a process that is reversible and adiabatic, the
entropy remains constant (isentropic)
Most turbomachinery operate close to adiabatic
and hence isentropic compression or expansion is
the best possible process that must be achieved
25
1 2
s s >
1 2
s s =
Entropy
Entropy is a useful property to analyze
turbomachines
Any creation of entropy in a flow process
implies loss of work and hence loss of
efficiency
Some useful relations obtained by combining
1
st
and 2
nd
laws are
Tds = du + pdV
Tds = dhvdp
26
Turbine Efficiencies
Overall Efficiency
Isentropic Efficiency
Mechanical efficiency
27
Time in Unit Fluid for the Possible Difference Energy Maximum
Time in Unit Shaft Output the of Coupling at the Available Energy Mechanical
0
= q
Time in Unit Fluid for the Possible Difference Energy Maximum
Time in Unit Rotort the to Supplied Energy Mechanical
=
t
q
t
m
q
q
q
0
=
Turbine Efficiencies
Total to Total Efficiency (q
tt
)
Total to Static Efficiency (q
st
)
28
s
tt
h h
h h
02 01
02 01
= q
s
tt
h h
h h
2 01
02 01
= q
Hydraulic Turbine
For a Hydraulic Turbine, the efficiency is defined
as the ratio of Actual Work and Maximum
Possible Work
29
( )
(
=
=
2 1
2
2
2
1 2 1
2
m
Work Actual
Work Possible Maximum
Work Actual
z z g
c c P P
h
q
Efficiencies of Compressors and Pumps
The Isentropic Efficiency of a Compressor (q
c
)
or Hydraulic Efficiency of a Pump (q
h
) is
Overall Efficiency of the Compressor or Pump
(q
o
) is
30
( )
rotor the input to Power
unit time in fluid input to energy mic) (hydrodyna Useful
=
h c
orq q
shaft the of coupling the input to Power
unit time in fluid input to energy mic) (hydrodyna Useful
=
o
q
Efficiencies of Compressors and
Pumps
Compressor Efficiency is
31
01 02
01 02
input work Actual
input work (minimum) Ideal
h h
h h
s
c
=
= q
Efficiencies of Compressors and
Pumps
For a pump, the hydraulic efficiency is
32
( )
Work Actual
2
P  P
m
Supplied Work Actual
Needed Work Minimum
1 2
2
1
2
2 1 2
(
+
=
=
z z g
c c
h
\



.

\

=
01
02
01
02
ln
ln
1
T
T
P
P
p
q


.

\



.

\

=
01
02
01
02
ln
ln
1
P
P
T
T
p
q
Small Stage or Polytropic Efficiency
Polytropic Efficiency is useful in fairly
comparing the performance of turbomachines
having different pressure ratios
For Compressors, q
c
< q
p
For Turbines, q
t
> q
p
34
Reheat Factor
The equations for compressors and gas
turbines basing on Perfect Gas relations
cannot be used for steam turbines as steam is
not a perfect gas
The Reheat Factor is used to determine the
Polytropic Efficiency of a Steam Turbine
35
Reheat Factor
The Reheat Factor is defined by the equation
36
( ) ( )
s
is
s
ys x xs
h
h h
h
h h
h h h h
R
2 1
2 1
1
...
A
=
+ +
=
Specific Work
Specific Work is the work capacity of a
turbomachine per unit mass of the fluid
For Hydraulic machines, W = W
pr
+ W
ke
+ W
pe
Specific work is the sum of the differences in the
static, kinetic and potential energy levels
between the suction and pressure sides of a
turbomachine
For Thermal Turbomachines, the internal energy
term will appear additionally
It is measured in J/kg
37
Equation of Energy Transfer
r
1
= Radius at inlet (m)
r
2
= Radius at outlet (m)
C
= Tangential velocity of
fluid (m/s)
()= Angular velocity of
the rotor (rad/s)
= Sum of all external
moments (Nm)
m = Mass flow rate (kg/s)
38
( )
1 1 2 2 u u
t c r c r m
A
=
Eulers Work Equation (also Eulers
Turbomachinery Equation)
For a pump or a compressor, running at an
angular velocity , the rate at which rotor
does work on the fluid is
Where the blade linear velocity is U = r
The work done per unit mass or the specific
work is
39
( )
1 1 2 2 u u
e t c U c U m
A
=
( )
1 1 2 2 u u
e t
c U c U
m m
W
A c
= =
( )
2 2 1 1 u u
e t
c U c U
m m
W
A c
= =
Problem
In a radial inward flow turbomachine, the radii
and the tangential velocity components at the
inlet and the outlet are 150 mm and 75 mm,
and 350 m/s and 60 m/s respectively. Find the
turning moment due to a mass flow rate of 1
kg/s.
Ans: 48 Nm
42
Losses in Turbomachines
Internal Losses: Those losses that occur in the
inner passages of the turbomachine and could
be attributed to the internal flow. They cause
a rise in fluid temperature
External Losses: Occur outside the main flow
passages and normally do not add heat to the
fluid
43
Internal Losses
Hydraulic Losses: Losses due to friction,
separation of the flow on the vane, diffusion,
eddies and mixing of different energy level fluids
are included
In the context of Thermal Turbomachinery, these
losses are called as aerodynamic losses
At offdesign conditions, the flow enters the
blade passages with incidence resulting in shock
loss which too is included in Hydraulic Loss
44
Internal Losses
Leakage Losses: Leakage of the fluid results in the
machine consume more power in case of power
absorbing machines (fan, pump, compressor) and
a loss in power developed in the case of a power
producing machine (turbine)
Leakage occurs as tip leakage and along the
casing from the pressure side to the suction side
of the impeller between the casing and the
impeller
45
Internal Losses
46
Leakage Losses
Internal Losses
Disc Friction Losses: When a disc is rotated in an
enclosed chamber surrounded by fluid, a resistive
torque is set up and the power consumption in
the case of a fan or pump increases in order to
overcome this resistive torque
This loss is high when the hub to tip dia ratio
(axial m/c) or outer to inner dia ratio (radial m/c)
is high
The friction is dependent on the clearance
between the casing and disc, diameter of
impeller, roughness of the disc surfaces and
viscosity and density of the fluid
47
Internal Losses
48
Disc Friction Loss
Internal Losses
Return Flow Losses: In turbomachines of the
axial flow type and more particularly in pumps
and compressors, a return flow of the energy
added fluid takes place under off design
conditions
This is severe at lesser discharges
49
Internal Losses
50
Return Flow Losses
External Losses
External losses, also known as mechanical
losses are external to medium
Mostly occur in bearings, sealings, couplings
that may be directly connected to the shaft of
the turbomachine
51
Aerofoil Blade
Aerofoil blade is a streamlined body having a
thick rounded leading edge and a thin trailing
edge
When suitably shaped and properly oriented
in the flow, the force acting normal to the flow
direction is larger than that resisting it
Aerofoil shapes are used in the blades (vanes)
of various turbomachines
52
Aerofoil Section
53
Chord: The straight line joining the centres of the curvature of the
leading and trailing edges
Camber Line: The meridian line of the section passing midway
between the upper and lower surfaces
Camber: Maximum height of the camber line above the chord line
Angle of Attack (or Incidence): The angle between the chord line and
the fluid flow
Forces on an Aerofoil
The aerodynamic force on an aerofoil can be
resolved into Lift (perpendicular to the
direction of flow) and Drag forces (in the
direction of the flow)
54
Lift and Drag Coefficients
The lift and drag forces are nondimensionally
represented by the respective coefficients:
The lift and drag coefficients are functions of
Reynolds number and angle of attack
55
A c
D
C
A c
L
C
d l
2 2
2
1
and
2
1
= =
Variation of C
l
and C
d
with Angle of
Attack ()
When is zero, the lift will be
low
As increases, the lift
increases, upto an optimum
value
Along with lift, the drag also
increases
Beyond the optimum value of
, the drag increases rapidly
and the lift decreases
The drag is maximum when
is 90
0
56
Cascade
A cascade is a construction of an assembly of a
number of blades of a given shape and size at
the required pitch and staggering
57
Isolated Aerofoil and a Cascade
58
Isolated Aerofoil Cascade
Cascading of Turbine Blades
59
References for UnitI
Turbines, Compressors and Fans, S.M. Yahya,
Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Ltd., 4
th
Edition, 2011
Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics of
Turbomachinery, S.L. Dixon and C.A. Hall,
ButterworthHeinemann, 6
th
Edition, 2010
Basic Concepts in Turbomachinery, Grant
Ingram, Grant Ingram & Ventus Publishing
ApS, free ebook from Bookboon.com, 2009
60
Projects in Turbomachines
Types of Projects
Make animations to demonstrate the working of
turbomachines
Make Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Calculations using software packages
Make simple working models
Develop software to carryout design and/or
performance calculations and simulations
Dismantle an existing turbomachine, explain the
function of various components and reassemble
62
Unit2
Fans, Blowers and Compressors
Definitions
Fan: A machine imparting only a small amount of
pressure rise to a flowing gas. The gas is
practically considered to be incompressible
Blower: Similar to a fan except the flow is radial.
Slightly higher pressures compared to fan
Compressor: A substantial amount of pressure
rise occurs. For a compressor, the density ratio
across the machine is above 1.05 and pressure
ratios above 2
64
Application of Centrifugal (Radial)
Compressors
Early supercharged aircraft reciprocating
engines
Smaller Gas Turbines
Large refrigeration units
Petrochemical plants
In small turboprop engines
Auxiliary Power Units and Air Conditioning
Systems of air crafts
65
Centrifugal CompressorSchematic
66
Working of a Centrifugal Compressor
The flow approaches the machine in the axial
direction
It is then turned through 90
0
and enters the impeller
The rotor increases the angular momentum of the
fluid and it exits in the radial direction into the volute
casing
In the volute casing, the cross sectional area
gradually increases, thus slowing down the fluid and
increasing the pressure
For large pressure rises, a stator is needed between
the rotor and the volute 67
Radial Compressor Impeller
68
Centrifugal Impeller
69
Detailed Schematic of a Centrifugal
Compressor
70
Detailed View
71
Function of Various Parts
Impeller: Increases the energy level of the fluid
by whirling it outwards, thereby rises the static
pressure and velocity
Diffuser: Converts the kinetic energy of the fluid
exiting the impeller to pressure energy
Scroll or Volute: Collects the flow from the
diffuser and delivers it to the outlet
In low speed compressors and where cost
matters, the volute casing follows immediately
after the impeller
72
Function of Various Parts
Hub: It is the curved surface of revolution of the
impeller ab. It divides the flow smoothly over
the impeller surface
Shroud: It is a curved surface cd forming the
outer boundary to the fluid. It prevents leakage
losses
Inducer: Acts as a guide vane in directing the
approaching flow (which is in axial direction) into
the impeller. It is an integral part of the impeller
73
Inlet and Exit Velocity Triangles
Backward Swept Blades
Radial Blades
Forward Swept Blades
Remember that the linear blade velocity (u) at
inlet and exit will be different due to radial
flow of the fluid
74
Velocity Triangles (No Whirl
Component)
75
In the above diagram, the tangential component (C
1
) is absent
due to no inducer