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CrossingovertheFlood OghataranaSutta(I.1) ThisdiscourseopenstheSamyuttaNikayawithaparadox.TheCommentaryinforms usthattheBuddhateachesthedevataintermsoftheparadoxinordertosubdueher pride.Togivethisparadoxsomecontext,youmightwanttoreadotherpassagesfromthe Canonthatdiscussrighteffort. IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearSavatthiin JetasGrove,Anathapindikasmonastery.Thenacertaindevata,inthefar extremeofthenight,herextremeradiancelightinguptheentiretyofJetas Grove,wenttotheBlessedOne.Onarrival,havingboweddowntohim,she stoodtooneside.Asshewasstandingthere,shesaidtohim,Tellme,dearsir, howyoucrossedovertheflood. Icrossedoverthefloodwithoutpushingforward,withoutstayingin place. Buthow,dearsir,didyoucrossoverthefloodwithoutpushingforward, withoutstayinginplace? WhenIpushedforward,Iwaswhirledabout.WhenIstayedinplace,I sank.AndsoIcrossedoverthefloodwithoutpushingforward,withoutstaying inplace. Thedevata: AtlonglastIsee abrahman,totallyunbound, who withoutpushingforward, withoutstayinginplace, hascrossed over theentanglements

2 oftheworld. Thatiswhatthedevatasaid.TheTeacherapproved.RealizingthatThe Teacherhasapprovedofme,sheboweddowntohim,circumambulated himkeepinghimtoherrightandthenvanishedrightthere.

TheWilderness AraaSutta(I.10) Standingtooneside,adevataaddressedtheBlessedOnewithaverse: Livinginthewilderness, stayingpeaceful,remainingchaste, eatingjustonemealaday: whyaretheirfaces sobright&serene? TheBuddha: Theydontsorrowoverthepast, dontlongforthefuture. Theysurviveonthepresent. Thatswhytheirfaces arebright&serene. Fromlongingforthefuture, fromsorrowingoverthepast, foolswitheraway likeagreenreedcutdown.

Conscience HiriSutta(I.18)

3 Whointheworld isamanconstrainedbyconscience, whoawakens tocensure likeafinestallion tothewhip? Thoserestrainedbyconscience arerare thosewhogothroughlife alwaysmindful. Havingreachedtheend ofsuffering&stress, theygothroughwhatisuneven evenly; gothroughwhatisoutoftune intune.

AboutSamiddhi SamiddhiSutta(SNI.20) ThePaliCanonisuniqueinitsapproachtothespiritworld.Whileconfirmingthe existenceofspiritsandothermorerefinedlevelsofbeings,itinsiststhattheyarenot worthyofworship.TheBuddha,afterall,istheteachernotonlyofhumanbeingsbut alsoofheavenlybeings;andmanyheavenlybeingsarenotespeciallyknowledgeableor spirituallyadvanced,inspiteoftheirrefinedstate.TheCanonillustratesthispointina numberofgentlesatires.ThemostfamousistheKevattaSutta(DN14),wherethe ignorance&pomposityofasupposedlyallknowingcreatorislampooned.Thisdiscourse isanotherentertainingexampleofthesamegenre,pointingoutthedifficultiesof teachingmoreadvancedDhammatoanybeinghumanordivinewhoisobsessedwith sensualpleasures.Onhearingsomeversesconcerningtheawakenedonesstateofmind whichisnotsubjecttotimeandisvisiblehere&nowthedevatacannotunderstand them,andisabletograsponlyafewverybasicprinciplesofDhammapractice.Its unusualfortheBuddhatoaimhiswordssofarovertheheadsofhislisteners.Perhapsin thiscase,asinSNI.1,hewantstosubduethedevataspride.Atanyrate,thereishope forher:astheCommentarypointsout,herunderstandingcoversinarudimentary

4 fashionalltheelementsoftheNobleEightfoldPath.Ifshefollowsthroughwithher understanding,shesontheroadtothehigherattainments. Thisdiscoursealsocontainssomewordplayonthewordstime(kala)and subjecttotime(kalika).Timecanmeannotonlytimeinthegeneralsense,but alsoonestimeofdeath(apersonwhohasdiedissaidtohavedonehis/hertime). ThesetwomeaningsofthewordunderliethefirstexchangebetweenVen.Samiddhiand thedevata.Subjecttotimecanmeanobtainableonlyafteracertaintimeor goodonlyforacertainlengthoftime:thesemeaningsunderlietheirsecond exchange.] IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearRajagahaat Tapodamonastery.ThenVen.Samiddhi,asnightwasending,gotup&wentto theTapodaHotSpringstobathehislimbs.Havingbathedhislimbsandgotten outofthesprings,hestoodwearingonlyhislowerrobe,lettinghislimbsdry. Thenacertaindevata,inthefarextremeofthenight,herextremeradiance lightinguptheentireTapodaHotSprings,approachedVen.Samiddhi.On arrival,whilestandingintheair,sheaddressedhimwiththisverse: Withouthavingenjoyed [sensualpleasures], yougoforalms,monk. Youdontgoforalms afterhavingenjoyed. Havingenjoyed,monk, thengoforalms. Dontlettimepassyouby. Ven.Samiddhi: Idontknowmytime. Mytime ishidden. Itcantbeseen. Thatswhy,nothavingenjoyed, Igoforalms: Dontletmytimepassmeby.

5 Thenthedevata,comingdowntoearth,saidtoVen.Samiddhi,Youhave goneforthwhileyoung,monkblackhaired,endowedwiththeblessingsof youthinthefirststageoflifewithouthavingplayedwithsensuality.Enjoy humansensuality,monk.Dontdropwhatisvisiblehere&nowinpursuitof whatssubjecttotime. Myfriend,Imnotdroppingwhatsvisiblehere&nowinpursuitof whatssubjecttotime.Imdroppingwhatssubjecttotimeinpursuitof whatsvisiblehere&now.FortheBlessedOnehassaidthatsensualityis subjecttotime,ofmuchstress,muchdespair,&greaterdrawbacks;whereasthis Dhammaisvisiblehere&now,notsubjecttotime,invitingalltocome&see, pertinent,tobeKnownbythewiseforthemselves. But,monk,inwhatwayhastheBlessedOnesaidthatsensualityissubject totime,ofmuchstress,muchdespair,&greaterdrawbacks?Andhowisthis Dhammavisiblehere&now,notsubjecttotime,invitingalltocome&see, pertinent,tobeKnownbythewiseforthemselves? Imnew,myfriend,notlonggoneforth,onlyrecentlycometothis Dhamma&discipline.Icantexplainitindetail.ButtheBlessedOne,worthy& rightlyselfawakened,isstayinghereinRajagahaatTapodamonastery.Having gonetohim,askhimthismatter.Asheexplainsit,thatshowyoushould rememberit. Monk,itsnoteasyforustogototheBlessedOne,asheissurroundedby otherdevasofgreatinfluence.ButifyougototheBlessedOneandaskhimthis matter,IwillcomealongtoheartheDhamma. Respondingtothedevata,Asyousay,myfriend,Ven.Samiddhiwentto theBlessedOne.Onarrival,heboweddowntotheBlessedOneandsattoone side.Ashewassittingthere[hetoldtheBlessedOnehisentireconversationwith thedevata].Now,lord,ifthatdevatawastellingthetruth,sheisnotfarfrom here. Whenthiswassaid,thedevatasaidtoVen.Samiddhi,Ask,monk!Ask! Ivegottenthrough. ThentheBlessedOnerecitedthisversetothedevata: Perceivingintermsofsigns,beings takeastandonsigns. Notfullycomprehendingsigns,they comeintothebonds ofdeath.

6 Butfullycomprehendingsigns,one doesntconstrue asignifier. Yetnothingexistsforhim bywhichonewouldsay, Tohimnothoughtoccurs. Ifyouknowthis,spirit,thensayso. Idontunderstand,lord,thedetailedmeaningoftheBlessedOnesbrief statement.ItwouldbegoodiftheBlessedOnewouldspeakinsuchawaythatI wouldunderstandthedetailedmeaningoftheBlessedOnesbriefstatement. [TheBlessedOnesaid:] Whoeverconstrues equal, superior,or inferior, bythatheddispute. Whereastooneunaffectedbythesethree, equal superior donotoccur. Ifyouknowthis,spirit,thensayso. Idontunderstand,lord,thedetailedmeaningoftheBlessedOnesbrief statement.ItwouldbegoodiftheBlessedOnewouldspeakinsuchawaythatI wouldunderstandthedetailedmeaningoftheBlessedOnesbriefstatement. [TheBlessedOnesaid:] Having shedclassifications, gonebeyondconceit,

hehashere cut throughcraving forname &form:

7 Thisone hisbondscutthrough, free fromtrouble, fromlonging thoughtheysearchtheycantfindhim, human&heavenlybeings, here&beyond, inheaven oranyabode. Ifyouknowthis,spirit,thensayso. Lord,hereshowIunderstandthedetailedmeaningoftheBlessedOnes briefstatement: Inalltheworld, everyworld, youshoulddonoevil with speech, body, ormind. Havingabandonedsensuality mindful,alert dontconsortwithsuffering&stress, withwhatdoesntpertain tothegoal. Seealso:DN11;SNV.1;SNV.4;SNV.7;Iti63;SnIV.9;SnV.6

TheStoneSliver SakalikaSutta(I.38) CullavaggaVIItellsofhowDevadatta,theBuddhascousin,triedunsuccessfullyin variouswaystowrestleadershipoftheSanghafromtheBuddha.InCvVII.3.9,hetries tokilltheBuddhabyhurlingarockdownamountainside.Therockiscrushed,andso

8 missestheBuddha,butsendsoutasplinterthatpiercestheBuddhasfoot,drawing blood.AccordingtotheCommentary,thisdiscoursetogetherwithSNIV.13describethe Buddhasreactiontothisattemptonhislife. IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearRajagahaat theMaddakucchiDeerReserve.Nowatthattimehisfoothadbeenpiercedbya stonesliver.Excruciatingwerethebodilyfeelingsthatdevelopedwithin himpainful,fierce,sharp,wracking,repellent,disagreeablebutheendured themmindful,alert,&unperturbed.Havinghadhisouterrobefoldedinfour andlaidout,helaydownonhisrightsideinthelionsposture,withonefoot placedontopoftheother,mindful&alert. Then700devatasfromtheSatullaparetinue,inthefarextremeofthenight, theirextremeradiancelightinguptheentiretyofMaddakucchi,wenttothe BlessedOne.Onarrival,havingboweddowntohim,theystoodtooneside. Asshewasstandingthere,oneofthedevatasexclaimedintheBlessedOnes presence:WhatanagaisGotamathecontemplative!Andlikeanaga,when bodilyfeelingshavearisenpainful,fierce,sharp,wracking,repellent, disagreeableheenduresthemmindful,alert,&unperturbed! ThenanotherdevataexclaimedintheBlessedOnespresence:Whatalion isGotamathecontemplative!Andlikealion,whenbodilyfeelingshave arisenpainful,fierce,sharp,wracking,repellent,disagreeableheendures themmindful,alert,&unperturbed! ThenanotherdevataexclaimedintheBlessedOnespresence:Whata thoroughbredisGotamathecontemplative!Andlikeathoroughbred,when bodilyfeelingshavearisenpainful,fierce,sharp,wracking,repellent, disagreeableheenduresthemmindful,alert,&unperturbed! ThenanotherdevataexclaimedintheBlessedOnespresence:Whata peerlessbullisGotamathecontemplative!Andlikeapeerlessbull,whenbodily feelingshavearisenpainful,fierce,sharp,wracking,repellent,disagreeablehe enduresthemmindful,alert,&unperturbed! ThenanotherdevataexclaimedintheBlessedOnespresence:Whata strongburdencarrierisGotamathecontemplative!Andlikeastrongburden carrier,whenbodilyfeelingshavearisenpainful,fierce,sharp,wracking, repellent,disagreeableheenduresthemmindful,alert,&unperturbed! ThenanotherdevataexclaimedintheBlessedOnespresence:Whata tamedoneisGotamathecontemplative!Andlikeatamedone,whenbodily

9 feelingshavearisenpainful,fierce,sharp,wracking,repellent,disagreeablehe enduresthemmindful,alert,&unperturbed! ThenanotherdevataexclaimedintheBlessedOnespresence:Seea concentrationwelldeveloped,amindwellreleasedneitherpresseddownnor forcedback,norwithmentalfabricationkeptblockedorsuppressed.Whoever wouldthinkthatsuchanagaofaman,lionofaman,thoroughbredofaman, peerlessbullofaman,strongburdencarrierofaman,suchatamedmanshould beviolated:whatelseisthatifnotblindness? FiveVedaBrahmans, livingausterely for100years: Theirminds arenotrightlyreleased. Lowlybynature, theyvenotgonebeyond. Overpoweredbycraving, boundupinprecepts&practices, performingwretchedausterities for100years: Theirminds arenotrightlyreleased. Lowlybynature, theyvenotgonebeyond. Foronefondofconceit, theresnotaming; foroneuncentered, nosagacity. Thoughaloneinthewilderness, ifonelivesheedlessly, onewontcrossover,beyondMarassway. Buthavingabandonedconceit, wellcenteredwithin, withrightawareness everywhere fullyreleased,

10 aloneinthewilderness, heedfullyliving, onewillcrossover,beyondMarassway.

Seealso:SNIV.13;SNXXXVI.6;ANV.129

OnFire AdittaSutta(I.41) IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearSavatthiin JetasGrove,Anathapindikasmonastery.Thenacertaindevata,inthefar extremeofthenight,herextremeradiancelightinguptheentiretyofJetas Grove,wenttotheBlessedOneand,onarrival,havingboweddowntohim, stoodtooneside.Asshewasstandingthere,sherecitedtheseversesinthe BlessedOnespresence: Whenahouseisonfire, thevesselsalvaged istheonethatwillbeofuse, nottheonelefttheretoburn. Sowhentheworldisonfire withaging&death, oneshouldsalvage[oneswealth]bygiving: whatsgiveniswellsalvaged. Whatsgivenbearsfruitaspleasure. Whatisntgivendoesnot: thievestakeitaway,orkings; itgetsburntbyfireorlost. Thenintheend oneleavesthebody togetherwithonespossessions.

11 Knowingthis,theintelligentman enjoyspossessions&gives. Havingenjoyed&given inlinewithhismeans, uncensuredhegoes totheheavenlystate.

AGiverofWhat KindadaSutta(I.42) Adeva: Agiverofwhatisagiverofstrength? Agiverofwhat,agiverofbeauty? Agiverofwhat,agiverofease? Agiverofwhat,agiverofvision? Andwhoisagiverofeverything? Beingasked,pleaseexplainthistome. TheBuddha: Agiveroffoodisagiverofstrength. Agiverofclothes,agiverofbeauty. Agiverofavehicle,agiverofease. Agiverofalamp,agiverofvision. Andtheonewhogivesaresidence istheoneswhosagiverofeverything. ButtheonewhoteachestheDhamma isagiverof theDeathless. Desire IcchaSutta(SNI.69) Adeva:

12 Withwhat istheworldtieddown?

Withthesubduing ofwhat isitfreed? Withtheabandoning ofwhat areallbonds cutthrough? TheBuddha: Withdesiretheworldistieddown. Withthesubduing ofdesire itsfreed. Withtheabandoning ofdesire allbonds arecutthrough. HavingKilled GhatvaSutta(SNI.71) Asshewasstandingtooneside,adevatarecitedthisversetotheBlessedOne: Havingkilledwhat doyousleepinease? Havingkilledwhat doyounotgrieve? Oftheslaying ofwhatonething doesGotamaapprove? TheBuddha: Havingkilledanger yousleepinease. Havingkilledanger youdonotgrieve.

13 Thenobleonespraise theslayingofanger withitshoneyedcrest &poisonroot forhavingkilledit youdonotgrieve.

UttaratheDevasSon UttaraSutta(II.19) AtRajagaha.Ashewasstandingtooneside,Uttarathedevassonrecitedthis verseintheBlessedOnespresence: Lifeissweptalong, nexttonothingitsspan. Foronesweptonbyaging nosheltersexist. Perceivingthisdangerindeath, oneshoulddodeedsofmerit thatbringaboutbliss. TheBuddha: Lifeissweptalong, nexttonothingitsspan. Foroneswepttooldage nosheltersexist. Perceivingthisdangerindeath, oneshoulddroptheworldsbait andlookforpeace.

Young DaharaSutta(III.1)

14 IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearSavatthiin JetasGrove,Anathapindikasmonastery.ThenKingPasenadiKosalawentto theBlessedOneand,onarrival,exchangedcourteousgreetingswithhim.After thisexchangeoffriendlygreetings&courtesies,hesatdowntooneside.Ashe wassittingtherehesaidtotheBlessedOne:Nowthen,doesMasterGotama claim,Ihaveawakenedtotheunexcelledrightselfawakening? If,greatking,onespeakingrightlycouldsayofanyone,Hehasawakened totheunexcelledrightselfawakening,onecouldrightlysaythatofme.ForI, greatking,haveawakenedtotheunexcelledrightselfawakening. ButMasterGotama,thosepriests&contemplativeseachwithhisgroup, eachwithhiscommunity,eachtheteacherofhisgroup,anhonoredleader,well regardedbypeopleatlargei.e.,PuranaKassapa,MakkhaliGosala,Ajita Kesakambalin,PakudhaKaccayana,SajayaBelatthitaputta,andtheNigantha Nathaputta:eventhey,whenIaskedthemwhethertheyclaimedtohave awakenedtotheunexcelledrightselfawakening,didntmakethatclaim.So whoisMasterGotamatodosowhenheisstillyoung&newlygoneforth? Therearethesefourthings,greatking,thatshouldntbedespised& disparagedforbeingyoung.Whichfour?Anoblewarrior,greatking,shouldnt bedespised&disparagedforbeingyoung.Asnake...Afire...Andamonk shouldntbedespised&disparagedforbeingyoung.Thesearethefourthings thatshouldntbedespised&disparagedforbeingyoung. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther: Youshouldntlookdownon forbeingyoung anoblewarriorofconsummatebirth, ahighbornprinceofgreatstatus. Apersonshouldntdisparagehim. Foritspossible thatthislordofhumanbeings, thisnoblewarrior, willgainthethrone and,angeredatthatdisparagement, comedownharshly withhisroyalmight.

15 So,guardingyourlife, avoidhim. Youshouldntlookdownon forbeingyoung aserpentyoumeet invillageorwilderness: Apersonshouldntdisparageit. Asthatpotentsnakeslithersalong withvibrantcolors, itmaysomedayburnthefool, whetherwomanorman. So,guardingyourlife, avoidit. Youshouldntlookdownon forbeingyoung ablazethatfeedsonmanythings, aflamewithitsblackenedtrail: Apersonshouldntdisparageit. Forifitgainssustenance, becomingagreatmassofflame, itmaysomedayburnthefool, whetherwomanorman. So,guardingyourlife, avoidit. Whenafireburnsdownaforest thatflamewithitsblackenedtrail theshootsthere takebirthoncemore withthepassageofdays&nights. Butifamonk, hisvirtueconsummate, burnsyouwithhispotency,1 youwontacquiresonsorcattle norwillyourheirsenjoywealth. Theybecome barren,

16 heirless, likepalmtreestumps. Soapersonwhoswise, outofregardforhisowngood, shouldalwaysshowduerespect for aserpent, afire, anoblewarriorwithhighstatus, & amonk,hisvirtueconsummate. Whenthiswassaid,KingPasenadiKosalasaidtotheBlessedOne: Magnificent,lord!Magnificent!Justasifheweretoplaceuprightwhatwas overturned,torevealwhatwashidden,toshowthewaytoonewhowaslost,or tocarryalampintothedarksothatthosewitheyescouldseeforms,inthesame wayhastheBlessedOnethroughmanylinesofreasoningmadetheDhamma clear.IgototheBlessedOneforrefuge,totheDhamma,andtotheCommunity ofmonks.MaytheBlessedOneremembermeasalayfollowerwhohasgoneto himforrefuge,fromthisdayforward,forlife. Note:1.Thepotencyofavirtuousmonkishisunwillingnesstoseek redresswhenhehasbeentreatedwrongly.Thebadkammaofhavingmistreated amonkpureinhisvirtueiswhatreturnstoburnthepersonwhodidit.

Dear PiyaSutta(III.4) AtSavatthi.Ashewassittingtooneside,KingPasenadiKosalasaidtothe BlessedOne:Justnow,lord,whileIwasaloneinseclusion,thistrainofthought aroseinmyawareness:Whoaredeartothemselves,andwhoarenotdearto themselves?Thenitoccurredtome:Thosewhoengageinbodilymisconduct, verbalmisconduct,&mentalmisconductarenotdeartothemselves.Even thoughtheymaysay,Wearedeartoourselves,stilltheyarentdearto themselves.Whyisthat?Oftheirownaccord,theyacttowardthemselvesasan

17 enemywouldacttowardanenemy;thustheyarentdeartothemselves.But thosewhoengageingoodbodilyconduct,goodverbalconduct,&goodmental conductaredeartothemselves.Eventhoughtheymaysay,Wearentdearto ourselves,stilltheyaredeartothemselves.Whyisthat?Oftheirownaccord, theyacttowardthemselvesasadearonewouldacttowardadearone;thusthey aredeartothemselves. Thatsthewayitis,greatking!Thatsthewayitis!Thosewhoengagein bodilymisconduct,verbalmisconduct,&mentalmisconductarenotdearto themselves.Eventhoughtheymaysay,Wearedeartoourselves,stillthey arentdeartothemselves.Whyisthat?Oftheirownaccord,theyacttoward themselvesasanenemywouldacttowardanenemy;thustheyarentdearto themselves.Butthosewhoengageingoodbodilyconduct,goodverbalconduct, &goodmentalconductaredeartothemselves.Eventhoughtheymaysay,We arentdeartoourselves,stilltheyaredeartothemselves.Whyisthat?Oftheir ownaccord,theyacttowardthemselvesasadearonewouldacttowardadear one;thustheyaredeartothemselves. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther: Ifyouholdyourselfdear thendontfetteryourself withevil, forhappinessisnteasilygained byonewhocommits awrongdoing. WhenseizedbytheEndmaker asyouabandonthehumanstate, whatstrulyyourown? Whatdoyoutakealongwhenyougo? Whatfollowsbehindyou likeashadow thatneverleaves? Boththemerit&evil thatyouasamortal performhere: thats whatstrulyyourown, whatyoutakealongwhenyougo;

18 thats whatfollowsbehindyou likeashadow thatneverleaves.

Sodowhatisadmirable, asanaccumulation forthefuturelife. Deedsofmeritarethesupportforbeings whentheyarise intheotherworld.

Selfprotected AttarakkhitaSutta(III.5) AtSavatthi.Ashewassittingtooneside,KingPasenadiKosalasaidtothe BlessedOne:Justnow,lord,whileIwasaloneinseclusion,thistrainofthought aroseinmyawareness:Whohavethemselvesprotected,andwholeave themselvesunprotected?Thenitoccurredtome:Thosewhoengageinbodily misconduct,verbalmisconduct,&mentalmisconductleavethemselves unprotected.Eventhoughasquadronofelephanttroopsmightprotectthem,a squadronofcavalrytroops,asquadronofchariottroops,asquadronofinfantry troopsmightprotectthem,stilltheyleavethemselvesunprotected.Whyisthat? Becausethatsanexternalprotection,notaninternalone.Thereforetheyleave themselvesunprotected.Butthosewhoengageingoodbodilyconduct,good verbalconduct,&goodmentalconducthavethemselvesprotected.Eventhough neitherasquadronofelephanttroops,asquadronofcavalrytroops,asquadron ofchariottroops,norasquadronofinfantrytroopsmightprotectthem,stillthey havethemselvesprotected.Whyisthat?Becausethatsaninternalprotection, notanexternalone.Thereforetheyhavethemselvesprotected. Thatsthewayitis,greatking!Thatsthewayitis!Thosewhoengagein bodilymisconduct,verbalmisconduct,&mentalmisconductleavethemselves unprotected.Eventhoughasquadronofelephanttroopsmightprotectthem,a squadronofcavalrytroops,asquadronofchariottroops,asquadronofinfantry troopsmightprotectthem,stilltheyleavethemselvesunprotected.Whyisthat? Becausethatsanexternalprotection,notaninternalone.Thereforetheyleave themselvesunprotected.Butthosewhoengageingoodbodilyconduct,good

19 verbalconduct,&goodmentalconducthavethemselvesprotected.Eventhough neitherasquadronofelephanttroops,asquadronofcavalrytroops,asquadron ofchariottroops,norasquadronofinfantrytroopsmightprotectthem,stillthey havethemselvesprotected.Whyisthat?Becausethatsaninternalprotection, notanexternalone.Thereforetheyhavethemselvesprotected. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther: Restraintwiththebodyisgood, goodisrestraintwithspeech. Restraintwiththeheartisgood, goodisrestraint everywhere. Restrainedeverywhere, conscientious, oneissaidtobe protected.

Seealso:ANX.17 Few AppakaSutta(III.6) AtSavatthi.Ashewassittingtooneside,KingPasenadiKosalasaidtothe BlessedOne:Justnow,lord,whileIwasaloneinseclusion,thistrainofthought aroseinmyawareness:Fewarethosepeopleintheworldwho,when acquiringlavishwealth,dontbecomeintoxicated&heedless,dontbecome greedyforsensuality,anddontmistreatotherbeings.Manymorearethose who,whenacquiringlavishwealth,becomeintoxicated&heedless,become greedyforsensuality,andmistreatotherbeings. Thatsthewayitis,greatking!Thatsthewayitis!Fewarethosepeople intheworldwho,whenacquiringlavishwealth,dontbecomeintoxicated& heedless,dontbecomegreedyforsensuality,anddontmistreatotherbeings. Manymorearethosewho,whenacquiringlavishwealth,becomeintoxicated& heedless,becomegreedyforsensuality,andmistreatotherbeings. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther:

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Impassioned withsensualpossessions, greedy,dazed bysensualpleasures, theydontawakentothefact thattheyvegonetoofar likedeerintotraplaidout. Afterwardsitsbitterforthem: evilforthem theresult.

InJudgment AtthakaranaSutta(III.7) AtSavatthi.Ashewassittingtooneside,KingPasenadiKosalasaidtothe BlessedOne:Justnow,lord,asIwassittinginjudgment,Isawthateven affluentnobles,affluentbrahmans,&affluenthouseholdersrich,withgreat wealth&property,withvastamountsofgold&silver,vastamountsof valuables&commodities,vastamountsofwealth&graintelldeliberatelies withsensualityasthecause,sensualityasthereason,simplyforthesakeof sensuality.Then,thethoughtoccurredtome:Ivehadenoughofthisjudging! Letsomeotherfinefellowbeknownforhisjudgments! Thatsthewayitis,greatking!Thatsthewayitis!Evenaffluentnobles, affluentbrahmans,&affluenthouseholderstelldeliberatelieswithsensuality asthecause,sensualityasthereason,simplyforthesakeofsensuality.Thatwill leadtotheirlongtermharm&pain. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther: Impassioned withsensualpossessions, greedy,dazed bysensualpleasures, theydontawakentothefact thattheyvegonetoofar likefishintotrapsetout. Afterwardsitsbitterforthem:

21 evilforthem theresult.

ABattle(1) SangamaSutta(SNIII.14) StayingatSavatthi.ThenKingAjatasattuofMagadha,thesonofQueenVideha, raisingafourfoldarmy,marchedtowardKasiagainstKingPasenadiKosala. KingPasenadiheard,KingAjatasattuofMagadha,thesonofQueenVideha, theysay,hasraisedafourfoldarmyandismarchingtowardKasiagainstme. SoKingPasenadi,raisingafourfoldarmy,launchedacounterattacktoward KasiagainstKingAjatasattu.ThenKingAjatasattu&KingPasenadifoughta battle,andinthatbattleKingAjatasattudefeatedKingPasenadi.KingPasenadi, defeated,marchedbacktohiscapitalatSavatthi. Thenintheearlymorning,alargenumberofmonks,havingputontheir robesandcarryingtheirbowls&outerrobes,wentintoSavatthiforalms. HavinggoneforalmsinSavatthi,afterthemeal,returningfromtheiralms round,theywenttotheBlessedOneand,onarrival,havingboweddowntohim, sattooneside.Astheyweresittingthere,theysaidtotheBlessedOne:Just now,lord,KingAjatasattuofMagadha,thesonofQueenVideha,raisinga fourfoldarmy,marchedtowardKasiagainstKingPasenadiKosala.King Pasenadiheard,KingAjatasattuofMagadha,thesonofQueenVideha,they say,hasraisedafourfoldarmyandismarchingtowardKasiagainstme.So KingPasenadi,raisingafourfoldarmy,launchedacounterattacktowardKasi againstKingAjatasattu.ThenKingAjatasattu&KingPasenadifoughtabattle, andinthatbattleKingAjatasattudefeatedKingPasenadi.KingPasenadi, defeated,marchedbacktohiscapitalatSavatthi. Monks,KingAjatasattuhasevilfriends,evilcomrades,evilcompanions, whereasKingPasenadihasfinefriends,finecomrades,finecompanions.Yetfor now,KingPasenadiwillliedowntonightinpain,defeated. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther: Winninggivesbirthtohostility.

22 Losing,oneliesdowninpain. Thecalmedliedownwithease, havingset winning&losing aside.

ABattle(2) SangamaSutta(SNIII.15) StayingatSavatthi.ThenKingAjatasattuofMagadha,thesonofQueenVideha, raisingafourfoldarmy,marchedtowardKasiagainstKingPasenadiKosala. KingPasenadiheard,KingAjatasattuofMagadha,thesonofQueenVideha, theysay,hasraisedafourfoldarmyandismarchingtowardKasiagainstme. SoKingPasenadi,raisingafourfoldarmy,launchedacounterattacktoward KasiagainstKingAjatasattu.ThenKingAjatasattu&KingPasenadifoughta battle,andinthatbattleKingPasenadidefeatedKingAjatasattuandcaptured himalive. ThethoughtthenoccurredtoKingPasenadi:EventhoughKingAjatasattu haswrongedmewhenIhavedonehimnowrong,stillheismynephew.Whatif I,havingconfiscatedallhiselephanttroops,allhiscavalry,allhischariots,&all hisinfantry,weretolethimgowithjusthislife?SoKingPasenadihaving confiscatedallhiselephanttroops,cavalry,chariots,&infantryletKing Ajatasattugowithjusthislife. Thenintheearlymorning,alargenumberofmonks,havingputontheir robesandcarryingtheirbowls&outerrobes,wentintoSavatthiforalms. HavinggoneforalmsinSavatthi,afterthemeal,returningfromtheiralms round,theywenttotheBlessedOneand,onarrival,havingboweddowntohim, sattooneside.Astheyweresittingthere,they[reportedtheseeventstothe BlessedOne]. Then,onrealizingthesignificanceofthat,theBlessedOneonthatoccasion exclaimed: Amanmayplunder aslongasitserveshisends, butwhenothersareplundered, hewhohasplundered

23 getsplunderedinturn. Afoolthinks, Nowsmychance, aslongashisevil hasyettoripen. Butwhenitripens, thefool falls intopain. Killing,yougain yourkiller. Conquering,yougainone whowillconqueryou; insulting, insult; harassing, harassment. Andso,throughthecycleofaction, hewhohasplundered getsplunderedinturn. Seealso:Mv.X.2.320;Dhp69.

Heedfulness AppamadaSutta(III.17) AtSavatth.Ashewassittingtooneside,KingPasenadiKosalasaidtothe BlessedOne:Isthere,lord,anyonequalitythatkeepsbothkindsofbenefit securebenefitsinthislife&benefitsinlivestocome? Thereisonequality,greatking,thatkeepsbothkindsofbenefitsecure benefitsinthislife&benefitsinlivestocome. Butwhat,venerablesir,isthatonequality...? Heedfulness,greatking.Justasthefootprintsofalllivingbeingswithlegs canbeencompassedbythefootprintoftheelephant,andtheelephantsfootprint isdeclaredtobesupremeamongthemintermsofitsgreatsize;inthesameway, heedfulnessistheonequalitythatkeepsbothkindsofbenefitsecure benefitsinthislife&benefitsinlivestocome. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther:

24 Foronewhodesires longlife,health, beauty,heaven,&noblebirth, lavishdelights,oneafteranother thewisepraiseheedfulness indoingactsofmerit. Whenheedful,wise, youachievebothkindsofbenefit: benefits inthislife, &benefits inlivestocome. Bybreakingthroughtoyourbenefit, yourecalledenlightened, wise. Seealso:ANX.15

Heirless(1) AputtakaSutta(SNIII.19) AtSavatthi.ThenKingPasenadiKosalawenttotheBlessedOneinthemiddleof thedayand,onarrival,havingboweddowntotheBlessedOne,sattooneside. AshewassittingtheretheBlessedOnesaidtohim,Wellnow,greatking, whereareyoucomingfrominthemiddleoftheday? Justnow,lord,amoneylendinghouseholderdiedinSavatthi.Ihavecome fromconveyinghisheirlessfortunetotheroyalpalace:eightmillioninsilver,to saynothingofthegold.Buteventhoughhewasamoneylendinghouseholder, hisenjoymentoffoodwaslikethis:heatebrokenrice&picklebrine.His enjoymentofclothingwaslikethis:heworethreelengthsofhempencloth.His enjoymentofavehiclewaslikethis:herodeinadilapidatedlittlecartwithan awningofleaves. Thatsthewayitis,greatking.Thatsthewayitis.Whenapersonofno integrityacquireslavishwealth,hedoesntprovideforhisownpleasure& satisfaction,norforthepleasure&satisfactionofhisparents,norforthepleasure &satisfactionofhiswife&children;norforthepleasure&satisfactionofhis slaves,servants,&assistants;norforthepleasure&satisfactionofhisfriends.He doesntinstituteforpriests&contemplativesofferingsofsupremeaim, heavenly,resultinginhappiness,leadingtoheaven.Whenhiswealthisnt properlyputtouse,kingsmakeoffwithit,orthievesmakeoffwithit,orfire

25 burnsit,orwatersweepsitaway,orhatefulheirsmakeoffwithit.Thushis wealth,notproperlyputtouse,goestowasteandnottoanygooduse. Justaswithapondinaplacehauntedbynonhumanbeings,withclear water,coolwater,freshwater,clean,withgoodfords,delightful:Nopeople woulddrawwaterfromitordrinkitorbatheinitorapplyittotheirneeds.And sothatwater,notproperlyputtouse,wouldgotowasteandnottoanygood use.Inthesameway,whenapersonofnointegrityacquireslavishwealth...his wealth,notproperlyputtouse,goestowasteandnottoanygooduse. Butwhenapersonofintegrityacquireslavishwealth,heprovidesforhis ownpleasure&satisfaction,forthepleasure&satisfactionofhisparents,the pleasure&satisfactionofhiswife&children;thepleasure&satisfactionofhis slaves,servants,&assistants;andthepleasure&satisfactionofhisfriends.He institutesforpriests&contemplativesofferingsofsupremeaim,heavenly, resultinginhappiness,leadingtoheaven.Whenhiswealthisproperlyputto use,kingsdontmakeoffwithit,thievesdontmakeoffwithit,firedoesnt burnit,waterdoesntsweepitaway,andhatefulheirsdontmakeoffwithit. Thushiswealth,properlyputtouse,goestoagooduseandnottowaste. Justaswithapondnotfarfromatownorvillage,withclearwater,cool water,freshwater,clean,withgoodfords,delightful.Peoplewoulddrawwater fromitordrinkitorbatheinitorapplyittotheirneeds.Andsothatwater, properlyputtouse,wouldgotoagooduseandnottowaste.Inthesameway, whenapersonofintegrityacquireslavishwealth...hiswealth,properlyputto use,goestoagooduseandnottowaste. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther: Likewater inahauntedplace that,withoutbeingimbibed, driesup: suchisthewealth acquiredbyaworthlessman whoneitherenjoysithimself norgives. Butoneenlightened&knowing, onacquiringwealth, enjoysit&performshisduties.

26 He,abullamongmen, havingsupportedhiskin, withoutblame goestothelandofheaven. Seealso:ANV.41.

Heirless(2) AputtakaSutta(SNIII.20) ItmightcomeassomethingofasurprisethattheBuddha,inthisdiscourse,seemsto speakfavorablyofthelavishenjoymentofsensualpleasures.Takeninlightofhis teachingsinANV.41,hisremarksherearelesssurprising.Therehepointsoutthatthe enjoymentofpleasureisoneofthelegitimaterewardsofwealth,althoughtheproper enjoymentofwealthdoesntendthere.Inthisdiscourse,hespeaksofamanwho,because ofhispastkamma,couldntevenenjoysensualpleasures.Thisisausefuldiscoursefor illustratingthepointthattheBuddhasultimaterejectionofsensualpleasureisnotthat ofamanwhowastooaversiveorstingytoenjoythem.Rather,herejectsthembecausehe wascapableofenjoyingthembutrealizedthatthissortofenjoymentwasnotthepathto truehappiness. Asforthemoneylendermentionedinthisdiscourse,eventhoughhisinabilityto enjoyhiswealthcanbetracedtoattitudesinthepast,hisunwillingnesstomakemeritin thislifetimeisnotthefaultofhispastkamma.Peoplearealwaysfreetochooseto practicetheDhammaatanytime.Inhiscase,hechosenotto.Thushegotnolegitimate useoutofhiswealthatall. AtSavatthi.ThenKingPasenadiKosalawenttotheBlessedOneinthemiddleof thedayand,onarrival,havingboweddowntotheBlessedOne,sattooneside. AshewassittingtheretheBlessedOnesaidtohim,Wellnow,greatking, whereareyoucomingfrominthemiddleoftheday? Justnow,lord,amoneylendinghouseholderdiedinSavatthi.Ihavecome fromconveyinghisheirlessfortunetotheroyalpalace:tenmillioninsilver,to saynothingofthegold.Buteventhoughhewasamoneylendinghouseholder, hisenjoymentoffoodwaslikethis:heatebrokenrice&picklebrine.His enjoymentofclothingwaslikethis:heworethreelengthsofhempencloth.His

27 enjoymentofavehiclewaslikethis:herodeinadilapidatedlittlecartwithan awningofleaves. Thatsthewayitis,greatking.Thatsthewayitis.Onceinthepastthat moneylendinghouseholderprovidedalmsforthePrivateBuddhanamed Tagarasikhi.Saying[tohisservant],Givealmstothecontemplative,hegot upfromhisseatandleft.Aftergiving,though,hefeltregret:Itwouldhave beenbetterifmyslavesorservantshadeatenthosealms.Andhealso murderedhisbrothersonlyheirforthesakeofhisfortune.Now,theresultof hisactioninhavingprovidedalmsforthePrivateBuddhanamedTagarasikhi wasthatheappearedseventimesinagooddestination,theheavenlyworld. Andthroughtheremainingresultofthatactionheactedasmoneylenderseven timesinthisverysameSavatthi.Buttheresultofhisactioninfeelingregretafter giving[those]almsItwouldhavebeenbetterifmyslavesorservantshad eatenthosealmswasthathisminddidntlenditselftothelavishenjoyment offood,didntlenditselftothelavishenjoymentofclothing,didntlenditself tothelavishenjoymentofavehicle,didntlenditselftothelavishenjoymentof thefivestringsofsensuality.Theresultofhisactioninhavingmurderedhis brothersonlyheirforthesakeofhisfortunewasthatheboiledinhellformany years,manyhundredsofyears,manythousandsofyears,manyhundred thousandsofyears.Andthroughtheremainingresultofthatactionhehasleft thisseventhheirlessfortunetotheroyaltreasury. Now,becauseofthewastingawayofthatmoneylendinghouseholders oldmeritandhisnonaccumulationofnewmerit,heistodayboilingintheGreat Roruvahell. SohehasreappearedintheGreatRoruvahell,lord? Yes,greatking.HehasreappearedintheGreatRoruvahell. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther: Grain,wealth,silver,gold, orwhateverotherbelongingsyouhave; slaves,servants,errandrunners, &anydependents: youmustgowithouttaking anyofthem; youmustleave allofthem

28 behind. Whatyoudo withbody,speech,ormind: that isyours; taking that yougo; thats yourfollower, likeashadow thatneverleaves. Thusyoushoulddowhatisfine asastashforthenextlife. Actsofmerit arethesupportforbeings intheirafterdeathworld.

(Qualitiesof)theWorld LokaSutta(SNIII.23) AtSavatthi.Ashewassittingtooneside,KingPasenadiKosalasaidtothe BlessedOne:Howmanyqualitiesoftheworldthat,whenarising,arisefor harm,stress,&discomfort? Threequalitiesoftheworld,greatking,whenarising,ariseforharm,stress, &discomfort.Whichthree?Greed,greatking,isaqualityoftheworldthat, whenarising,arisesforharm,stress,&discomfort.Aversion...Delusionisa qualityoftheworldthat,whenarising,arisesforharm,stress,&discomfort. Thesearethethreequalitiesoftheworld,greatking,thatwhenarising,arisefor harm,stress,&discomfort. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther: Greed,aversion,&delusion bornfromoneself destroy thepersonofevilawareness,

29 asitsownfruit,thereed.

ArcherySkills IssatthaSutta(SNIII.24) AtSavatthi.Ashewassittingtooneside,KingPasenadiKosalasaidtothe BlessedOne:Where,lord,shouldagiftbegiven? Whereverthemindfeelsconfidence,greatking. Butagiftgivenwhere,lord,bearsgreatfruit? This[question]isonething,greatkingWhereshouldagiftbegiven? whilethisAgiftgivenwherebearsgreatfruit?issomethingelse entirely.Whatisgiventoavirtuouspersonratherthantoanunvirtuous onebearsgreatfruit.Inthatcase,greatking,Iwillaskyouacounterquestion. Answerasyouseefit. Whatdoyouthink,greatking?Thereisthecasewhereyouhaveawarat hand,abattleimminent.Anoblewarrioryouthwouldcomealonguntrained, unpracticed,undisciplined,undrilled,fearful,terrified,cowardly,quicktoflee. Wouldyoutakehimon?Wouldyouhaveanyuseforamanlikethat? No,lord,Iwouldnttakehimon.Iwouldnthaveanyuseforamanlike that. Thenabrahmanyouth...amerchantyouth...alaboreryouthwouldcome alonguntrained,unpracticed,undisciplined,undrilled,fearful,terrified, cowardly,quicktoflee.Wouldyoutakehimon?Wouldyouhaveanyusefora manlikethat? No,lord,Iwouldnttakehimon.Iwouldnthaveanyuseforamanlike that. Now,whatdoyouthink,greatking?Thereisthecasewhereyouhavea warathand,abattleimminent.Anoblewarrioryouthwouldcome alongtrained,practiced,disciplined,drilled,fearless,unterrified,notcowardly, notquicktoflee.Wouldyoutakehimon?Wouldyouhaveanyuseforaman likethat? Yes,lord,Iwouldtakehimon.Iwouldhaveuseforamanlikethat. Thenabrahmanyouth...amerchantyouth...alaboreryouthwouldcome alongtrained,practiced,disciplined,drilled,fearless,unterrified,notcowardly,

30 notquicktoflee.Wouldtakeyouhimon?Wouldyouhaveanyuseforaman likethat? Yes,lord,Iwouldtakehimon.Iwouldhaveuseforamanlikethat. Inthesameway,greatking.Whensomeonehasgoneforthfromthehomelife intohomelessnessnomatterfromwhatclanandhehasabandonedfivefactors andisendowedwithfive,whatisgiventohimbearsgreatfruit. Andwhichfivefactorshasheabandoned?Hehasabandonedsensual desire...illwill...sloth&drowsiness...restlessness&anxiety...uncertainty. Thesearethefivefactorshehasabandoned.Andwithwhichfivefactorsishe endowed?Heisendowedwiththeaggregateofvirtueofonebeyondtraining... theaggregateofconcentrationofonebeyondtraining...theaggregateof discernmentofonebeyondtraining...theaggregateofreleaseofonebeyond training...theaggregateofknowledge&visionofreleaseofonebeyond training.Thesearethefivefactorswithwhichheisendowed. Whatisgiventoonewhohasabandonedfivefactorsandisendowedwith fivefactorsinthiswaybearsgreatfruit. ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,saidfurther: Asakingintentonbattle wouldhireayouth inwhomthereare archeryskills, persistence, &strength, andnot,onthebasisofbirth, acoward; so,too,youshouldhonor apersonofnobleconduct,wise, inwhomareestablished composure &patience, eventhough hisbirthmaybelowly. Letdonorsbuild pleasanthermitages andthereinvitethelearnedtostay.

31 Letthemmakereservoirs indryforests andwalkingpaths whereitsrough Letthem,withaclear,calmawareness, givefood,drink,snacks, clothing,&lodgings tothosewhovebecome straightforward. Justasahundredpeaked, lightninggarlanded, thunderingcloud, rainingonthefertileearth, fillstheplateaus&gullies, evenso apersonofconviction&learning, wise, havingstoredupprovisions, satisfieswayfarers withfood&drink. Delightingindistributingalms, Givetothem! Give! hesays. That ishisthunder, likearainingclouds. Thatshowerofmerit, abundant, rainsbackontheone whogives. Seealso:Iti76.

TheSimileoftheMountains

32 PabbatopamaSutta(III.25) AtSavatthi.ThenKingPasenadiKosalaapproachedtheBlessedOneinthe middleofthedayand,onarrival,havingboweddown,satdowntooneside.As hewassittingthere,theBlessedOnesaidtohim:Wellnow,greatking,where areyoucomingfrominthemiddleoftheday? Justnow,lord,Iwasengagedinthesortofroyalaffairstypicalofhead anointednoblewarriorkingsintoxicatedwiththeintoxicationofsovereignty, obsessedbygreedforsensuality,whohaveattainedstablecontrolintheir country,andwhorulehavingconqueredagreatsphereofterritoryonearth. Whatdoyouthink,greatking?Supposeaman,trustworthy&reliable, weretocometoyoufromtheeastandonarrivalwouldsay:Ifitpleaseyour majesty,youshouldknowthatIcomefromtheeast.ThereIsawagreat mountain,ashighastheclouds,comingthisway,crushingalllivingbeings[in itspath].Dowhateveryouthinkshouldbedone.Thenasecondmanwereto cometoyoufromthewestThenathirdmanweretocometoyoufromthe northThenafourthmanweretocometoyoufromthesouthandonarrival wouldsay:Ifitpleaseyourmajesty,youshouldknowthatIcomefromthe south.ThereIsawagreatmountain,ashighastheclouds,comingthisway, crushingalllivingbeings.Dowhateveryouthinkshouldbedone.If,your majesty,suchagreatperilshouldarise,suchaterribledestructionofhuman lifethehumanstatebeingsohardtoobtainwhatshouldbedone? If,lord,suchagreatperilshouldarise,suchaterribledestructionofhuman lifethehumanstatebeingsohardtoobtainwhatelseshouldbedonebut Dhammaconduct,rightconduct,skillfuldeeds,meritoriousdeeds? Iinformyou,greatking,Iannouncetoyou,greatking:aging&deathare rollinginonyou.Whenaging&deatharerollinginonyou,whatshouldbe done? Asaging&deatharerollinginonme,lord,whatelseshouldbedonebut Dhammaconduct,rightconduct,skillfuldeeds,meritoriousdeeds? Thereare,lord,elephantbattles[foughtby]headanointednoblewarrior kingsintoxicatedwiththeintoxicationofsovereignty,obsessedbygreedfor sensuality,whohaveattainedstablecontrolintheircountry,andwhorule havingconqueredagreatsphereofterritoryonearth;butthereisnousefor thoseelephantbattles,noscopeforthem,whenaging&deatharerollingin. Therearecavalrybattleschariotbattlesinfantrybattlesbutthereisnouse forthoseinfantrybattles,noscopeforthem,whenaging&deatharerollingin.

33 Inthisroyalcourttherearecounsellorswho,whentheenemiesarrive,are capableofdividingthembytheirwits;butthereisnouseforthosebattlesof wits,noscopeforthem,whenaging&deatharerollingin.Inthisroyalcourt thereisabundantbullion&goldstoredinvaults&depositories,andwithsuch wealthwearecapableofbuyingoffenemieswhentheycome;butthereisnouse forthosebattlesofwealth,noscopeforthem,whenaging&deatharerollingin. Asaging&deatharerollinginonme,lord,whatelseshouldbedonebut Dhammaconduct,rightconduct,skillfuldeeds,meritoriousdeeds? Soitis,greatking!Soitis,greatking!Asaging&deatharerollinginon you,whatelseshouldbedonebutDhammaconduct,rightconduct,skillful deeds,meritoriousdeeds? ThatiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthat,theOneWellGone,the Teacher,furthersaidthis: Likemassiveboulders, mountainspressingagainstthesky, movinginfromallsides, crushingthefourdirections, soaging&death comerollingoverlivingbeings: noblewarriors,priests,merchants, workers,outcastes,&scavengers. Theysparenothing. Theytrampleeverything. Hereelephanttroopscanholdnoground, norcanchariotsorinfantry, norcanabattleofwits orwealthwinout. Soawiseperson, seeinghisowngood, steadfast,securesconfidence intheBuddha,Dhamma,&Sangha. OnewhopracticestheDhamma inthought,word,&deed, receivespraisehereonearth andafterdeathrejoicesinheaven.

34

Delight NandanaSutta(IV.8) Inthisdiscourse,MaraandBuddhaarespeakingdifferentlanguages.By acquisitionsMarameansonesfamilyandphysicalpossessions.TheBuddhauses thesamewordtomeanasenseofpossessionforanythingphysicalormentalatall. IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearSavatthiin JetasGrove,Anathapindikasmonastery.ThenMaratheEvilOnewenttothe BlessedOneandrecitedthisverseinhispresence: Thosewithchildren delight becauseoftheirchildren. Thosewithcattle delight becauseoftheircows. Apersonsdelight comesfromacquisitions, sinceapersonwithnoacquisitions doesntdelight. TheBuddha: Thosewithchildren grieve becauseoftheirchildren. Thosewithcattle grieve becauseoftheircows. Apersonsgrief comesfromacquisitions, sinceapersonwithnoacquisitions doesntgrieve.

35 ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,TheBlessedOne knowsme;theOneWellGoneknowsmevanishedrightthere.

TheStoneSliver SakalikaSutta(IV.13) SeetheintroductorynotetoSNI.38. IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearRajagahaat theMaddakucchiDeerReserve.Nowatthattimehisfoothadbeenpiercedbya stonesliver.Excruciatingwerethebodilyfeelingsthatdevelopedwithin himpainful,fierce,sharp,wracking,repellent,disagreeablebutheendured themmindful,alert,&unperturbed.Havinghadhisouterrobefoldedinfour andlaidout,helaydownonhisrightsideinthelionsposturewithonefoot placedontopoftheothermindful&alert. ThenMaratheEvilOnewenttotheBlessedOneandrecitedthisverseinhis presence: Areyoulyingthereinastupor, ordrunkonpoetry? Areyourgoalssoveryfew? Allaloneinasecludedlodging, whatisthisdreamer,thissleepyface? TheBuddha: Iliehere, notinastupor, nordrunkonpoetry. Mygoalattained, Iamsorrowfree. Allaloneinasecludedlodging, Iliedownwithsympathy forallbeings. Eventhosepiercedinthechest

36 withanarrow, theirheartsrapidly, rapidly beating: eventheywiththeirarrows areabletosleep. SowhyshouldntI, withmyarrow Imnotawakewithworry, norafraidtosleep. Days&nights dontoppressme. Iseenothreatofdecline inanyworldatall. ThatswhyIsleep withsympathy forallbeings. ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,TheBlessedOne knowsme;theOneWellGoneknowsmevanishedrightthere. Seealso:SNI.38;SNXXXVI.6;ANV.129

removed?

TheFarmer KassakaSutta(SNIV.19) AtSavatthi.NowatthattimetheBlessedOnewasinstructing,urging,rousing, &encouragingthemonkswithaDhammatalkconcerningUnbinding.The monksattentive,interested,lendingear,focusingtheirentireawarenesswere listeningtotheDhamma. ThenthethoughtoccurredtoMara,theEvilOne:Gotamathe contemplativeisinstructing,urging,rousing,&encouragingthemonkswitha DhammatalkconcerningUnbinding.Themonksattentive,interested,lending ear,focusingtheirentireawarenessarelisteningtotheDhamma.WhatifIwere togotoGotamathecontemplativetoobscurehisvision?

37 ThenMaratheEvilOne,takingontheformofafarmerwithalarge plowshareoverhisshoulder,carryingalonggoadstickhishairdisheveled,his clothesmadeofcoarsehemp,hisfeetsplatteredwithmudwenttotheBlessed Oneand,onarrival,said,Hey,contemplative.Haveyouseenmyoxen? Andwhatareyouroxen,EvilOne? Minealoneistheeye,contemplative.Mineareforms,mineisthesphereof consciousness&contactattheeye.Wherecanyougotoescapeme?Minealone istheear...thenose...thetongue...thebody....Minealoneistheintellect, contemplative.Mineareideas,mineisthesphereofconsciousness&contactat theintellect.Wherecanyougotoescapeme? Yoursaloneistheeye,EvilOne.Yoursareforms,yoursisthesphereof consciousnessofcontactattheeye.Wherenoeyeexists,noformsexist,no sphereofconsciousness&contactattheeyeexists:there,EvilOne,youcannot go.Yoursaloneistheear...thenose...thetongue...thebody....Yoursaloneis theintellect,EvilOne.Yoursareideas,yoursisthesphereofconsciousness& contactattheintellect.Wherenointellectexists,noideasexist,nosphereof consciousnessofcontactattheintellectexists:there,EvilOne,youcannotgo. Mara: Ofwhattheysay, Thisismine; andthosewhosay, Mine: Ifyourintellectshere, contemplative, youcantescape fromme. TheBuddha: Whattheyspeakof isntmine, andImnotoneofthose whospeakit. Knowthis,EvilOne: youwontevensee mytracks.

38

ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,TheBlessedOne knowsme;theOneWellgoneknowsmevanishedrightthere.

Rulership RajjaSutta(SNIV.20) IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingamongthe KosalansinawildernesshutinaHimalayandistrict.Then,ashewasalonein seclusion,thistrainofthoughtaroseinhisawareness:Isitpossibletoexercise rulershipwithoutkillingorcausingotherstokill,withoutdispossessingor causingotherstodispossess,withoutsorrowingorcausingothers sorrowrighteously? ThenMara,theEvilOne,knowingwithhisawarenessthetrainofthoughtin theBlessedOnesawareness,wenttohimandonarrivalsaidtohim:Exercise rulership,BlessedOne!Exerciserulership,OOneWellgone!withoutkillingor causingotherstokill,withoutdispossessingorcausingotherstodispossess, withoutsorrowingorcausingotherssorrowrighteously! Butwhatdoyouseeinme,EvilOne,thatyousaytome,Exercise rulership,BlessedOne!Exerciserulership,OOneWellgone!withoutkillingor causingotherstokill,withoutdispossessingorcausingotherstodispossess, withoutsorrowingorcausingotherssorrowrighteously!? Lord,theBlessedOnehasdevelopedthefourbasesofpower,pursued them,giventhemameansoftransport,giventhemagrounding,steadiedthem, consolidatedthem,andundertakenthemwell.Ifhewantedto,hecouldresolve ontheHimalayas,kingofmountains,asgold,anditwouldbecomeamountain ofgold. TheBuddha: Theentirety ofamountainofgold, ofsolidbullion: eventwicethat wouldntsuffice foroneperson.

39 Knowingthis, liveevenly, intunewiththecontemplativelife. Whenyouseestress, andfromwhereitcomes, howcanyouincline tosensuality? Knowingacquisition tobeabondintheworld, trainfor itssubduing. ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,TheBlessedOne knowsme;theOneWellgoneknowsmevanishedrightthere.

SisterAlavika AlavikaSutta(V.1) AtSavatthi.Then,earlyinthemorning,Alavikathenunputonherrobesand, takingherbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalms.Whenshehadgone foralmsinSavatthiandhadreturnedfromheralmsround,afterhermealshe wenttotheGroveoftheBlindtospendtheday.Havinggonedeepintothe GroveoftheBlind,shesatdownatthefootofatreeforthedaysabiding. ThenMaratheEvilOne,wantingtoarousefear,horripilation,&terrorinher, wantingtomakeherfallawayfromsolitude,approachedher&addressedherin verse: Theresno escape intheworld, sowhatareyoutryingtodo withsolitude? Enjoysensualdelights. Dontbesomeone

40 wholaterregrets. ThenthethoughtoccurredtoAlavikathenun:Nowwhohasrecitedthis verseahumanbeingoranonhumanone?Thenitoccurredtoher:Thisis MaratheEvilOne,whohasrecitedthisversewantingtoarousefear, horripilation,&terrorinme,wantingtomakemefallawayfromsolitude. Then,havingunderstoodthatThisisMaratheEvilOne,sherepliedto himinverses: Thereis anescapeintheworld, welltouchedbyme withdiscernment somethingthatyou, youEvilOne, kinsmanoftheheedless, dontknow. Sensualpleasures arelikeswords&spears; theaggregates, theirexecutionersblock. Whatyoucallsensualdelight isnodelightforme. ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,Alavikathenun knowsmevanishedrightthere.

SisterSoma SomaSutta(V.2) AtSavatthi.Then,earlyinthemorning,Somathenunputonherrobesand, takingherbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalms.Whenshehadgone foralmsinSavatthiandhadreturnedfromheralmsround,afterhermealshe

41 wenttotheGroveoftheBlindtospendtheday.Havinggonedeepintothe GroveoftheBlind,shesatdownatthefootofatreeforthedaysabiding. ThenMaratheEvilOne,wantingtoarousefear,horripilation,&terrorinher, wantingtomakeherfallawayfromseclusion,approachedher&addressedher inverse: That whichis tobeattainedbyseers theplacesoveryhardtoreach women cant withtheirtwoinchdiscernment attain. ThenthethoughtoccurredtoSomathenun:Nowwhohasrecitedthis verseahumanbeingoranonhumanone?Thenitoccurredtoher:Thisis MaratheEvilOne,whohasrecitedthisversewantingtoarousefear, horripilation,&terrorinme,wantingtomakemefallawayfrom concentration. Then,havingunderstoodthatThisisMaratheEvilOne,sherepliedto himinverses: What difference doesbeingawomanmake whenthemindswellcentered, whenknowledgeisprogressing, seeingclearly,rightly, intotheDhamma. Anyonewhothinks Imawoman oraman orAmIanythingatall? thatswhoMaras fittoaddress.

42

ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,Somathenunknows mevanishedrightthere.

SisterGotami GotamiSutta(V.3) AtSavatthi.Then,earlyinthemorning,KisaGotamithenunputonherrobes and,takingherbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalms.Whenshehad goneforalmsinSavatthiandhadreturnedfromheralmsround,afterhermeal shewenttotheGroveoftheBlindtospendtheday.Havinggonedeepintothe GroveoftheBlind,shesatdownatthefootofatreeforthedaysabiding. ThenMaratheEvilOne,wantingtoarousefear,horripilation,&terrorinher, wantingtomakeherfallawayfromconcentration,approachedher&addressed herinverse: Why, withyoursonskilled, doyousitallalone, yourfaceintears? Allalone, immersedinthemidstoftheforest, areyoulooking foraman? ThenthethoughtoccurredtoKisaGotamithenun:Nowwhohasrecited thisverseahumanbeingoranonhumanone?Thenitoccurredtoher:This isMaratheEvilOne,whohasrecitedthisversewantingtoarousefear, horripilation,&terrorinme,wantingtomakemefallawayfrom concentration. Then,havingunderstoodthatThisisMaratheEvilOne,sherepliedto himinverses: Ivegottenpast thekillingofsons,

43 havemadethattheend to[mysearchfor]men. Idontgrieve, Idontweep andImnotafraidofyou, myfriend. Itseverywheredestroyeddelight. Themassofdarknessisshattered. Havingdefeatedthearmyofdeath, free offermentations Idwell. ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,KisaGotamithenun knowsmevanishedrightthere.

SisterVijaya VijayaSutta(V.4) AtSavatthi.Then,earlyinthemorning,Vijayathenunputonherrobesand, takingherbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalms.Whenshehadgone foralmsinSavatthiandhadreturnedfromheralmsround,afterhermealshe wenttotheGroveoftheBlindtospendtheday.Havinggonedeepintothe GroveoftheBlind,shesatdownatthefootofatreeforthedaysabiding. ThenMaratheEvilOne,wantingtoarousefear,horripilation,&terrorinher, wantingtomakeherfallawayfromconcentration,approachedher&addressed herinverse: You,abeautifulyoungwoman. I,ayoungman. Come,mylady, letsenjoyourselves tothemusicofafivepieceband.

44 ThenthethoughtoccurredtoVijayathenun:Nowwhohasrecitedthis verseahumanbeingoranonhumanone?Thenitoccurredtoher:Thisis MaratheEvilOne,whohasrecitedthisversewantingtoarousefear, horripilation,&terrorinme,wantingtomakemefallawayfrom concentration. Then,havingunderstoodthatThisisMaratheEvilOne,sherepliedto himinverses: Lovelysights,sounds, smells,tastes, &tactilesensations Ileaveto you,Mara. I havenoneed forthem. Imdisgusted,ashamed ofthisputridbody disintegrating,dissolving. Sensualcraving isrootedout. Beingswhohavecometoform, &thosewithashareintheformless, &thepeacefulattainments: theirdarkness iscompletelydestroyed. ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,Vijayathenunknows mevanishedrightthere.

SisterUppalavanna UppalavannaSutta(V.5) AtSavatthi.Then,earlyinthemorning,Uppalavannathenunputonherrobes and,takingherbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalms.Whenshehad

45 goneforalmsinSavatthiandhadreturnedfromheralmsround,afterhermeal shewenttotheGroveoftheBlindtospendtheday.Havinggonedeepintothe GroveoftheBlind,shesatdownatthefootofatreeforthedaysabiding. ThenMaratheEvilOne,wantingtoarousefear,horripilation,&terrorinher, wantingtomakeherfallawayfromconcentration,approachedher&addressed herinverse: Youvecome,nun, tothissaltree withitsfinefloweringcrest, andstandalone atitsroot, withnoone tomatchyouinbeauty. Inyourfoolishness, arentyouafraid ofrape? ThenthethoughtoccurredtoUppalavannathenun:Nowwhohasrecited thisverseahumanbeingoranonhumanone?Thenitoccurredtoher:This isMaratheEvilOne,whohasrecitedthisversewantingtoarousefear, horripilation,&terrorinme,wantingtomakemefallawayfrom concentration. Then,havingunderstoodthatThisisMaratheEvilOne,sherepliedto himinverses: Ifevenahundredthousandrapists cameacrossmelikethis, Iwouldntstirahair. Idfeelnoterror, andImnotafraidofyou,Mara, evenalonelikethis. HereIdisappear. Islipintoyourbelly orstandbetweenyoureyebrows, andyou dontseeme.

46 Ihavemastery overthemind, havewelldeveloped thebasesofpower. Imreleasedfromallbonds, andnotafraidofyou, myfriend. ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,Uppalavannathenun knowsmevanishedrightthere.

SisterCala CalaSutta(V.6) AtSavatthi.Then,earlyinthemorning,Calathenunputonherrobesand, takingherbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalms.Whenshehadgone foralmsinSavatthiandhadreturnedfromheralmsround,afterhermealshe wenttotheGroveoftheBlindtospendtheday.Havinggonedeepintothe GroveoftheBlind,shesatdownatthefootofatreeforthedaysabiding. ThenMaratheEvilOne,wantingtoarousefear,horripilation,&terrorinher, wantingtomakeherfallfromsolitude,approachedher&said,Whatisitthat youdontapproveof,nun? Idontapproveofbirth,myfriend. Mara: Whydontyouapproveofbirth? Onewhoisborn enjoyssensualpleasures. Whoonearth everpersuadedyou: Nun,dontapproveofbirth? SisterCala: Foronewhoisborn

47 theresdeath. Onewhoisborn seespain. Itsabinding,aflogging,atorment. Thatswhyoneshouldntapprove ofbirth. TheAwakenedOnetaughtmetheDhamma theovercomingofbirth fortheabandoningofallpain, heestablishedmein thetruth. Butbeingswhohavecometoform &thosewithashareintheformless, iftheydontdiscerncessation, returntobecomingagain. ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,Calathenunknows mevanishedrightthere.

SisterUpacala UpacalaSutta(V.7) AtSavatthi.Then,earlyinthemorning,Upacalathenunputonherrobesand, takingherbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalms.Whenshehadgone foralmsinSavatthiandhadreturnedfromheralmsround,afterhermealshe wenttotheGroveoftheBlindtospendtheday.Havinggonedeepintothe GroveoftheBlind,shesatdownatthefootofatreeforthedaysabiding. ThenMaratheEvilOne,wantingtoarousefear,horripilation,&terrorinher, wantingtomakeherfallfromsolitude,approachedher&said,Wheredoyou wanttoreappear[bereborn],nun? Idontwanttoreappearanywhere,myfriend. Mara: ThedevasoftheThirtythree,

48 theHours,theContented, thosewhodelightincreation, &thoseincontrol: directyourmindthere anditwillenjoy delight. SisterUpacala: ThedevasoftheThirtythree, theHours,theContented, thosewhodelightincreation, &thoseincontrol: theyarebound withthebondsofsensuality; theycomeagain underMarassway. Thewholeworldis burning. Thewholeworldis aflame. Thewholeworldis blazing. Thewholeworldis provoked. TheUnprovoked,Unblazing thatpeoplerunofthemill dontpartake, whereMaras neverbeen thatswheremyheart trulydelights. ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,Upacalathenun knowsmevanishedrightthere.

SisterSisupacala SisupacalaSutta(V.8)

49 AtSavatthi.Then,earlyinthemorning,Sisupacalathenunputonherrobesand, takingherbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalms.Whenshehadgone foralmsinSavatthiandhadreturnedfromheralmsround,afterhermealshe wenttotheGroveoftheBlindtospendtheday.Havinggonedeepintothe GroveoftheBlind,shesatdownatthefootofatreeforthedaysabiding. ThenMaratheEvilOne,wantingtoarousefear,horripilation,&terrorinher, wantingtomakeherfallfromsolitude,approachedher&said,Whose philosophydoyouapproveof,nun? Idontapproveofanyonesphilosophy,myfriend. Mara: Forwhosesake haveyoushavedyourhead? Youlooklikeacontemplative butdontapproveofaphilosophy, sowhyareyouwanderinghere confused? SisterSisupacala: Outsidephilosophersplace theirconfidenceinviews. Idontapprove oftheirteaching. Theyrenotadept intheDhamma. Butthereis theAwakenedOne, bornintheSakyanclan, apersonwithoutpeer: allconquering, Marassubduer, everywhereundefeated, everywherefreed,independent; endowedwithanEye allseeing,reachingtheendof allkamma

50 withtheendingofacquisitions, released. He,thatBlessedOne, ismyteacher. ItsinhisDhamma thatIdelight. ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,Sisupacalathenun knowsmevanishedrightthere.

SisterSela SelaSutta(V.9) AtSavatthi.Then,earlyinthemorning,Selathenunputonherrobesand, takingherbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalms.Whenshehadgone foralmsinSavatthiandhadreturnedfromheralmsround,afterhermealshe wenttotheGroveoftheBlindtospendtheday.Havinggonedeepintothe GroveoftheBlind,shesatdownatthefootofatreeforthedaysabiding. ThenMaratheEvilOne,wantingtoarousefear,horripilation,&terrorinher, wantingtomakeherfallawayfromconcentration,approachedher&addressed herinverse: Bywhom Where Where Where wasthisdollcreated? isthedollsmaker? hasthedolloriginated? doesitcease?

ThenthethoughtoccurredtoSelathenun:Nowwhohasrecitedthis verseahumanbeingoranonhumanone?Thenitoccurredtoher:Thisis MaratheEvilOne,whohasrecitedthisversewantingtoarousefear, horripilation,&terrorinme,wantingtomakemefallawayfrom concentration. Then,havingunderstoodthatThisisMaratheEvilOne,sherepliedto himinverses:

51 Thisdollisntselfmade, noristhismiserymadebyanother.* Independenceonacause itcomesintoplay. Withthedissolutionofthecause itceases. Justasaseedgrows whenplantedinafield becauseofthesoilssavor togetherwithmoisture; inthesameway,these aggregates, properties, sensemedia independenceonacause comeintoplay. Withthedissolutionofthecause theycease. ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,Selathenunknows mevanishedrightthere. *Alternativereading: Thisdoll,thismisery, isntcreated. SisterVajira VajiraSutta(V.10) Thisdiscoursedramatizesaproblemthatoftenarisesinmeditationpracticea speculativequestionarisesthat,iffollowed,pullsoneoutofconcentration.SisterVajira showshowtodealwiththesituation:recognizethatthetermsinwhichthequestionis expressedarejustthattermsandthatwhateverrealitythereisintheissueraisedby

52 thequestioncanbereducedtophenomenaobservableintheimmediatepresent.In ultimateterms,thiscomesdowntothearisingandpassingawayofstress,whichshould beobservedandcomprehendedtothepointwhereonecanseethroughtothatwhich neitherarisesnorpassesaway. AtSavatthi.Then,earlyinthemorning,Vajirathenunputonherrobesand, takingherbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalms.Whenshehadgone foralmsinSavatthiandhadreturnedfromheralmsround,afterhermealshe wenttotheGroveoftheBlindtospendtheday.Havinggonedeepintothe GroveoftheBlind,shesatdownatthefootofatreeforthedaysabiding. ThenMaratheEvilOne,wantingtoarousefear,horripilation,&terrorinher, wantingtomakeherfallawayfromconcentration,approachedher&addressed herinverse: Bywhom Where Where Where wasthislivingbeingcreated? isthelivingbeingsmaker? hasthelivingbeingoriginated? doesthelivingbeing cease?

ThenthethoughtoccurredtoVajirathenun:Nowwhohasrecitedthis verseahumanbeingoranonhumanone?Thenitoccurredtoher:Thisis MaratheEvilOne,whohasrecitedthisversewantingtoarousefear, horripilation,&terrorinme,wantingtomakemefallawayfrom concentration. Then,havingunderstoodthatThisisMaratheEvilOne,sherepliedto himinverses: What?Doyouassumealivingbeing,Mara? Doyoutakeaposition? Thisispurelyapileoffabrications. Herenolivingbeing canbepinneddown. Justaswhen,withanassemblageofparts, therestheword, chariot, evensowhenaggregatesarepresent,

53 therestheconventionof livingbeing. Foronlystress stress, Nothingbutstress Nothingceases iswhatcomestobe; whatremains&fallsaway. comestobe. butstress.

ThenMaratheEvilOnesad&dejectedatrealizing,Vajirathenunknows mevanishedrightthere. Seealso:SNXXII.36;SNXXIII.2

TheRequest AyacanaSutta(VI.1) Ihaveheardthatononeoccasion,whentheBlessedOnewasnewlySelf awakened,hewasstayingatUruvelaonthebankoftheNerajaraRiver,atthe footoftheGoatherdsBanyanTree.Then,whilehewasalone&inseclusion, thislineofthinkingaroseinhisawareness:ThisDhammathatIhaveattained isdeep,hardtosee,hardtorealize,peaceful,refined,beyondthescopeof conjecture,subtle,tobeexperiencedbythewise.Butthisgenerationdelightsin attachment,isexcitedbyattachment,enjoysattachment.Forageneration delightinginattachment,excitedbyattachment,enjoyingattachment,this/that conditionality&dependentcoarisingarehardtosee.Thisstate,too,ishardto see:theresolutionofallfabrications,therelinquishmentofallacquisitions,the endingofcraving;dispassion;cessation;Unbinding.AndifIweretoteachthe Dhammaandifotherswouldnotunderstandme,thatwouldbetiresomeforme, troublesomeforme. Justthentheseverses,unspokeninthepast,unheardbefore,occurredtothe BlessedOne: Enoughnowwithteaching what onlywithdifficulty Ireached.

54 ThisDhammaisnoteasilyrealized bythoseovercome withaversion&passion. Whatisabstruse,subtle, deep, hardtosee, goingagainsttheflow thosedelightinginpassion, cloakedinthemassofdarkness, wontsee. AstheBlessedOnereflectedthus,hismindinclinedtodwellingatease,not toteachingtheDhamma. ThenBrahmaSahampati,havingknownwithhisownawarenessthelineof thinkingintheBlessedOnesawareness,thought:Theworldislost!The worldisdestroyed!ThemindoftheTathagata,theArahant,theRightlySelf awakenedOneinclinestodwellingatease,nottoteachingtheDhamma!Then, justasastrongmanmightextendhisflexedarmorflexhisextendedarm, BrahmaSahampatidisappearedfromtheBrahmaworldandreappearedinfront theBlessedOne.Arranginghisupperrobeoveroneshoulder,hekneltdown withhisrightkneeontheground,salutedtheBlessedOnewithhishandsbefore hisheart,andsaidtohim:Lord,lettheBlessedOneteachtheDhamma!Letthe OneWellGoneteachtheDhamma!Therearebeingswithlittledustintheireyes whoarefallingawaybecausetheydonotheartheDhamma.Therewillbethose whowillunderstandtheDhamma. ThatiswhatBrahmaSahampatisaid.Havingsaidthat,hefurthersaidthis: Inthepast thereappearedamongtheMagadhans animpureDhamma devisedbythestained. ThrowopenthedoortotheDeathless! LetthemheartheDhamma realizedbytheStainlessOne! Justasonestandingonarockycrag mightseepeople

55 allaroundbelow, So,Owiseone,withallaroundvision, ascendthepalace fashionedoftheDhamma. Freefromsorrow,beholdthepeople submergedinsorrow, oppressedbybirth&aging. Riseup,hero,victorinbattle! OTeacher,wanderwithoutdebtintheworld. TeachtheDhamma,OBlessedOne: Therewillbethosewhowillunderstand. ThentheBlessedOne,havingunderstoodBrahmasinvitation,outof compassionforbeings,surveyedtheworldwiththeeyeofanAwakenedOne. Ashedidso,hesawbeingswithlittledustintheireyesandthosewithmuch, thosewithkeenfacultiesandthosewithdull,thosewithgoodattributesand thosewithbad,thoseeasytoteachandthosehard,someofthemseeingdisgrace &dangerintheotherworld.Justasinapondofblueorredorwhitelotuses, somelotusesborn&growinginthewatermightflourishwhileimmersedin thewater,withoutrisingupfromthewater;somemightstandatanevenlevel withthewater;whilesomemightriseupfromthewaterandstandwithout beingsmearedbythewatersotoo,surveyingtheworldwiththeeyeofan AwakenedOne,theBlessedOnesawbeingswithlittledustintheireyesand thosewithmuch,thosewithkeenfacultiesandthosewithdull,thosewithgood attributesandthosewithbad,thoseeasytoteachandthosehard,someofthem seeingdisgrace&dangerintheotherworld. Havingseenthis,heansweredBrahmaSahampatiinverse: OpenarethedoorstotheDeathless tothosewithears. Letthemshowtheirconviction. Perceivingtrouble,OBrahma, Ididnottellpeopletherefined, sublimeDhamma.

56 ThenBrahmaSahampati,thinking,TheBlessedOnehasgivenhisconsent toteachofDhamma,boweddowntotheBlessedOneand,circlinghimonthe right,disappearedrightthere.

Reverence GaravaSutta(VI.2) Ihaveheardthatononeoccasion,whentheBlessedOnewasnewlySelf awakened,hewasstayingatUruvelaonthebankoftheNerajaraRiver,atthe footoftheGoatherdsBanyanTree.Then,whilehewasalone&inseclusion, thislineofthinkingaroseinhisawareness:Onesuffersifdwellingwithout reverenceordeference.NowonwhatpriestorcontemplativecanIdwellin dependence,honoring&respectinghim? Thenthethoughtoccurredtohim:Itwouldbeforthesakeofperfectingan unperfectedaggregateofvirtuethatIwoulddwellindependenceonanother priestorcontemplative,honoring&respectinghim.However,inthisworldwith itsdevas,Mara,&Brahma,inthisgenerationwithitspriests&contemplatives, itsroyalty&commonfolk,Idonotseeanotherpriestorcontemplativemore consummateinvirtuethanI,onwhomIcoulddwellindependence,honoring& respectinghim. Itwouldbeforthesakeofperfectinganunperfectedaggregateof concentrationthatIwoulddwellindependenceonanotherpriestor contemplative,honoring&respectinghim.However,inthisworldwithits devas,Mara,&Brahma,inthisgenerationwithitspriests&contemplatives,its royalty&commonfolk,Idonotseeanotherpriestorcontemplativemore consummateinconcentrationthanI,onwhomIcoulddwellindependence, honoring&respectinghim. Itwouldbeforthesakeofperfectinganunperfectedaggregateof discernmentthatIwoulddwellindependenceonanotherpriestor contemplative,honoring&respectinghim.However,inthisworldwithits devas,Mara,&Brahma,inthisgenerationwithitspriests&contemplatives,its royalty&commonfolk,Idonotseeanotherpriestorcontemplativemore consummateindiscernmentthanI,onwhomIcoulddwellindependence, honoring&respectinghim.

57 Itwouldbeforthesakeofperfectinganunperfectedaggregateofrelease thatIwoulddwellindependenceonanotherpriestorcontemplative,honoring &respectinghim.However,inthisworldwithitsdevas,Mara,&Brahma,inthis generationwithitspriests&contemplatives,itsroyalty&commonfolk,Idonot seeanotherpriestorcontemplativemoreconsummateinreleasethanI,on whomIcoulddwellindependence,honoring&respectinghim. Itwouldbeforthesakeofperfectinganunperfectedaggregateof knowledge&visionofreleasethatIwoulddwellindependenceonanother priestorcontemplative,honoring&respectinghim.However,inthisworldwith itsdevas,Mara,&Brahma,inthisgenerationwithitspriests&contemplatives, itsroyalty&commonfolk,Idonotseeanotherpriestorcontemplativemore consummateinknowledge&visionofreleasethanI,onwhomIcoulddwellin dependence,honoring&respectinghim. WhatifIweretodwellindependenceonthisveryDhammatowhichI havefullyawakened,honoring&respectingit? Then,havingknownwithhisownawarenessthelineofthinkinginthe BlessedOnesawarenessjustasastrongmanmightextendhisflexedarmor flexhisextendedarmBrahmaSahampatidisappearedfromtheBrahmaworld andreappearedinfrontoftheBlessedOne.Arranginghisupperrobeoverone shoulder,hesalutedtheBlessedOnewithhishandsbeforehisheartandsaidto him:Soitis,BlessedOne!Soitis,OneWellGone!ThosewhowereArahants, RightlySelfawakenedOnesinthepastthey,too,dwelledindependenceonthe veryDhammaitself,honoring&respectingit.ThosewhowillbeArahants, RightlySelfawakenedOnesinthefuturethey,too,willdwellindependence ontheveryDhammaitself,honoring&respectingit.AndlettheBlessedOne, whoisatpresenttheArahant,theRightlySelfawakenedOne,dwellin dependenceontheveryDhammaitself,honoring&respectingit. ThatiswhatBrahmaSahampatisaid.Havingsaidthat,hefurthersaidthis: PastBuddhas, futureBuddhas, &hewhoistheBuddhanow, removingthesorrowofmany allhavedwelt, willdwell,hedwells, reveringthetrueDhamma. This,forBuddhas,isanaturallaw.

58 Thereforeonewhodesireshisowngood, aspiringforgreatness, shouldrespectthetrueDhamma, recollectingtheBuddhasTeaching.

TotalUnbinding ParinibbanaSutta(VI.15) ThisdiscoursereportsthewaytheBuddhapassedaway,givingfourversesutteredby thosewhowitnessedtheevent.Itisinterestingtonotethattheversesascribedto heavenlybeingsmakegeneralcommentsonhowthenatureofallbeingsevena Buddhaistopassaway,whereastheversesascribedtothemonkscommentspecifically ontheBuddhasdisplayofmentalmasteryimmediatelypriortothemomentofhistotal Unbinding.Forsomereason,theorderoftheversesherediffersslightlyfromthatinDN 16. OnoneoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearKusinarainUpavattana,the SalTreeGroveoftheMallans,ontheoccasionofhistotalUnbinding.Thenthe BlessedOneaddressedthemonks,Iexhortyou,monks:Allfabricationsare subjecttodecay.Bringaboutcompletionbybeingheedful.Thosewerethe Tathagataslastwords. ThentheBlessedOneenteredthefirstjhana.Emergingfromthatheentered thesecondjhana.Emergingfromthat,heenteredthethird...thefourthjhana... thedimensionoftheinfinitudeofspace...thedimensionoftheinfinitudeof consciousness...thedimensionofnothingness...thedimensionofneither apperceptionnornonapperception.Emergingfromthat,heenteredthe cessationofapperception&feeling. Thenemergingfromthecessationofapperception&feeling,heenteredthe dimensionofneitherapperceptionnornonapperception.Emergingfromthat, heenteredthedimensionofnothingness...thedimensionoftheinfinitudeof consciousness...thedimensionoftheinfinitudeofspace...thefourthjhana...the third...thesecond...thefirstjhana.Emergingfromthefirstjhanaheenteredthe second...thethird...thefourthjhana.Emergingfromthefourthjhana,he immediatelywastotallyUnbound.

59 WhentheBlessedOnewastotallyUnbound,simultaneouslywiththetotal Unbinding,SahampatiBrahmautteredthisverse: Allbeingsallintheworld, willcastoffthebodilyheap intheworld whereaTeacherlikethis withoutpeerintheworld theTathagata,withstrengthattained, theRightlySelfAwakenedOne, hasbeentotally Unbound. WhentheBlessedOnewastotallyUnbound,simultaneouslywiththetotal Unbinding,Sakka,rulerofthegods,utteredthisverse: Howinconstantarecompoundedthings! Theirnature:toarise&passaway. Theydisband astheyarearising. Theirtotalstillingisbliss. WhentheBlessedOnewastotallyUnbound,simultaneouslywiththetotal Unbinding,Ven.Anandautteredthisverse: Itwasaweinspiring. Itwashairraising when,displayingtheforemost accomplishmentinallthings, theRightlySelfAwakenedOne wastotallyUnbound. WhentheBlessedOnewastotallyUnbound,simultaneouslywiththetotal Unbinding,Ven.Anuruddhautteredthisverse: Hehadnoin&outbreathing, theonewhowasSuch,thefirmmindedone, imperturbable

60 &bentonpeace: thesagecompletinghisspan. Withheartunbowed heenduredthepain. Likeaflamesunbinding wastheliberation ofawareness.

Insult AkkosaSutta(SNVII.2) IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearRajagahain theBambooGrove,theSquirrelsSanctuary.ThenthebrahmanAkkosaka (Insulter)BharadvajaheardthatabrahmanoftheBharadvajaclanhadgone forthfromthehomelifeintohomelessnessinthepresenceoftheBlessedOne. Angered&displeased,hewenttotheBlessedOneand,onarrival,insulted& cursedhimwithrude,harshwords. Whenthiswassaid,theBlessedOnesaidtohim:Whatdoyouthink, brahman:Dofriends&colleagues,relatives&kinsmencometoyouasguests? Yes,MasterGotama,sometimesfriends&colleagues,relatives&kinsmen cometomeasguests. Andwhatdoyouthink:Doyouservethemwithstaple&nonstaplefoods &delicacies? Yes,sometimesIservethemwithstaple&nonstaplefoods&delicacies. Andiftheydontacceptthem,towhomdothosefoodsbelong? Iftheydontacceptthem,MasterGotama,thosefoodsareallmine. Inthesameway,brahman,thatwithwhichyouhaveinsultedme,whois notinsulting;thatwithwhichyouhavetauntedme,whoisnottaunting;that withwhichyouhaveberatedme,whoisnotberating:thatIdontacceptfrom you.Itsallyours,brahman.Itsallyours. Whoeverreturnsinsulttoonewhoisinsulting,returnstauntstoonewhois taunting,returnsaberatingtoonewhoisberating,issaidtobeeatingtogether, sharingcompany,withthatperson.ButIamneithereatingtogethernorsharing yourcompany,brahman.Itsallyours.Itsallyours.

61 ThekingtogetherwithhiscourtknowthisofMasterGotamaGotama thecontemplativeisanarahantandyetstillMasterGotamagetsangry.1 TheBuddha: Whenceisthereanger foronefreefromanger, tamed, livingintune onereleasedthroughrightknowing, calmed &Such. Youmakethingsworse whenyouflareup atsomeonewhosangry. Whoeverdoesntflareup atsomeonewhosangry winsabattle hardtowin. Youliveforthegoodofboth yourown,theothers when,knowingtheothersprovoked, youmindfullygrowcalm. Whenyouworkthecureofboth yourown,theothers thosewhothinkyouafool knownothingofDhamma. Whenthiswassaid,thebrahmanAkkosakaBharadvajasaidtotheBlessed One,Magnificent,MasterGotama!Magnificent!Justasifheweretoplace uprightwhatwasoverturned,torevealwhatwashidden,toshowthewayto onewhowaslost,ortocarryalampintothedarksothatthosewitheyescould seeforms,inthesamewayhasMasterGotamathroughmanylinesof reasoningmadetheDhammaclear.IgotoMasterGotamaforrefuge,tothe Dhamma,&tothecommunityofmonks.LetmeobtainthegoingforthinMaster Gotamaspresence,letmeobtainadmission.

62 ThenthebrahmanAkkosakaBharadvajareceivedthegoingforth&the admissionintheBlessedOnespresence.Andnotlongafterhis admissiondwellingalone,secluded,heedful,ardent,&resoluteheinnolong timereached&remainedinthesupremegoaloftheholylife,forwhich clansmenrightlygoforthfromhomeintohomelessness,knowing&realizingit forhimselfinthehere&now.Heknew:Birthisended,theholylifefulfilled, thetaskdone.Thereisnothingfurtherforthesakeofthisworld.AndsoVen. BharadvajabecameanotheroneoftheArahants.

NOTE:1.AkkosakathinksthattheBuddhaiscursinghimandthus angrywhenactuallytheBuddhaissimplystatingafactinlinewiththelawof kamma.

TheTangle JataSutta(VII.6) AtSavatthi.ThenthebrahmanJata(Tangle)BharadvajawenttotheBlessed Oneand,onarrival,exchangedcourteousgreetingswithhim.Afterthis exchangeoffriendlygreetings&courtesies,hesattooneside.Ashewassitting thereheaddressedtheBlessedOnewithaverse: Atangle within, atangle without, peopleareentangled inatangle. Gotama,Iaskyouthis: whocanuntanglethistangle? TheBuddha: Amanestablishedinvirtue, discerning, developingdiscernment&mind, amonkardent,astute: hecanuntanglethistangle.

63 Thosewhose passion, aversion, &ignorance havefadedaway, Arahants,theireffluentsended: forthemthetanglesuntangled. Wherename&form, alongwithapperception ofimpingement&form, totallystopwithouttrace: thatswherethetangle iscut. Whenthiswassaid,thebrahmanJataBharadvajasaidtotheBlessedOne, Magnificent,MasterGotama!Magnificent!Justasifheweretoplaceupright whatwasoverturned,torevealwhatwashidden,toshowthewaytoonewho waslost,ortocarryalampintothedarksothatthosewitheyescouldseeforms, inthesamewayhasMasterGotamathroughmanylinesofreasoningmade theDhammaclear.IgotoMasterGotamaforrefuge,totheDhamma,&tothe communityofmonks.LetmeobtainthegoingforthinMasterGotamas presence,letmeobtainadmission. ThenthebrahmanJataBharadvajareceivedthegoingforth&theadmission intheBlessedOnespresence.Andnotlongafterhisadmissiondwelling alone,secluded,heedful,ardent,&resoluteheinnolongtimereached& remainedinthesupremegoaloftheholylife,forwhichclansmenrightlygo forthfromhomeintohomelessness,knowing&realizingitforhimselfinthe here&now.Heknew:Birthisended,theholylifefulfilled,thetaskdone. Thereisnothingfurtherforthesakeofthisworld.AndsoVen.Bharadvaja becameanotheroneofthearahants.

VeryRich MahasalaSutta(VII.14)

64 AtSavatthi.Thenacertainveryrichbrahmanshabby,shabbilydressedwent totheBlessedOneand,onarrival,exchangedcourteousgreetingswithhim. Afterthisexchangeoffriendlygreetings&courtesies,hesattooneside.Ashe wassittingtheretheBlessedOnesaidtohim,Why,brahman,areyoushabby &shabbilydressed? Justnow,MasterGotama,myfoursonsattheirwivesinstigationthrew meoutofthehouse. Inthatcase,brahman,memorizetheseversesandthenrecitethemwhena largeassemblyofpeoplehavegatheredinthetownhallandyoursonsaresitting there,too. Thosewhosebirth Idelightedin whosegrowthIdesired attheirwivesinstigation havechasedmeaway, asdogswouldswine. Wicked&vile, thoughtheycallmeDad: demonsinthedisguiseofsons whoabandonmeinoldage. Asanoldhorse ofnomoreuse isdeprivedoffodder, sotheelderlyfather ofthosefoolishboys begsatotherpeopleshomes. Mystaffservesmebetter thanthosedisobedientsons. Itfendsoff ferociousbulls &ferociouscurs. Inthedarkitgoesbeforeme; downsteepslopes,itgivessupport. Throughthepowerofmystaff, whenIstumble

65 Istillstandfirm. Thentheveryrichbrahman,havingmemorizedtheseversesinthepresence oftheBlessedOne,recitedthemwhenalargeassemblyofpeoplehadgathered inthetownhallandhissonsweresittingthere,too: Thosewhosebirth Idelightedin whosegrowthIdesired attheirwivesinstigation havechasedmeaway, asdogswouldswine. Wicked&vile, thoughtheycallmeDad: demonsinthedisguiseofsons whoabandonmeinoldage. Asanoldhorse ofnomoreuse isdeprivedoffodder, sotheelderlyfather ofthosefoolishboys begsatotherpeopleshomes. Mystaffservesmebetter thanthosedisobedientsons. Itfendsoff ferociousbulls &ferociouscurs. Inthedarkitgoesbeforeme; downsteepslopes,itgivessupport. Throughthepowerofmystaff, whenIstumble Istillstandfirm. Thenthebrahmanssons,havingledhimhome,bathedhim,andeach providedhiminapairofcloths.Sothebrahman,takingonepairofcloths,went totheBlessedOneand,onarrival,exchangedcourteousgreetingswithhim.

66 Afterthisexchangeoffriendlygreetings&courtesies,hesattooneside.Ashe wassittingtherehesaidtotheBlessedOne,Webrahmans,MasterGotama, lookforateachersfeeforourteacher.MayMasterGotamaacceptthis teachersportionfromme. TheBlessedOneaccepteditoutofsympathy. ThentheveryrichbrahmansaidtotheBlessedOne:Magnificent,Master Gotama!Magnificent!Justasifheweretoplaceuprightwhatwasoverturned,to revealwhatwashidden,toshowthewaytoonewhowaslost,ortocarryalamp intothedarksothatthosewitheyescouldseeforms,inthesamewayhasMaster GotamathroughmanylinesofreasoningmadetheDhammaclear.Igoto MasterGotamaforrefuge,totheDhamma,&tothecommunityofmonks.May MasterGotamaremembermeasalayfollowerwhohasgoneforrefugefrom thisdayforward,forlife.

TheBuilder NavakammikaSutta(VII.17) OnoneoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingamongtheKosalansinacertain forestthicket.NowatthattimethebrahmanNavakammika(Builder) Bharadvajawasgettingsomeworkdoneinthatforestthicket.Hesawthe BlessedOnesittingunderasalatreehislegsfoldedcrosswise,hisbodyheld erect,withmindfulnesssettothefore.Onseeinghim,thethoughtoccurredto thebrahman:HereIam,takingdelightingettingworkdoneinthisforest thicket.Butwhatdoesthiscontemplativetakedelightingettingdone? SohewenttotheBlessedOneandonarrivalrecitedthisverse: Whatjobsaregettingdone, monkinthesalaforest? Aloneinthewilderness, inwhatdoesGotama finddelight? TheBuddha: Ihavenowork todointheforest.

67 Theforestofrestlessdancingabout Ivecut attheroot. Thoughintheforest,Im deforested, dearrowed. Idelight alone, discontentcastaway. Whenthiswassaid,thebrahmanNavakammikaBharadvajasaidtothe BlessedOne:Magnificent,MasterGotama!Magnificent!Justasifhewereto placeuprightwhatwasoverturned,torevealwhatwashidden,toshowtheway toonewhowaslost,ortocarryalampintothedarksothatthosewitheyes couldseeforms,inthesamewayhasMasterGotamathroughmanylinesof reasoningmadetheDhammaclear.IgotoMasterGotamaforrefuge,tothe Dhamma,&tothecommunityofmonks.MayMasterGotamaremembermeasa layfollowerwhohasgoneforrefugefromthisdayforward,forlife.

Ananda(InstructionstoVangisa) AnandaSutta(VIII.4) OnoneoccasionVen.AnandawasstayingnearSavatthiinJetasGrove, Anathapindikasmonastery.Thenearlyinthemorningheputonhisrobesand, carryinghisbowl&outerrobe,wentintoSavatthiforalmswithVen.Vangisaas hisattendantmonk.Nowatthattimedissatisfaction(withthechastelife)had ariseninVen.Vangisa.Lustinvadedhismind.SoheaddressedVen.Ananda withthisverse: Withsensuallust Iburn. Mymind isonfire. Please,Gotama, fromcompassion, tellmehow toputitout. Ven.Ananda:

68 Fromdistortedperception yourmindisonfire. Shunthetheme ofthebeautiful accompaniedbylust. Seementalfabrications asother, asstress, &notself. Extinguishyourgreatlust. Dontkeepburningagain&again. Developthemind wellcentered&one inthefoul, throughthefoul. Haveyourmindfulness immersedinthebody. Beonewhopursues disenchantment. Developthethemeless. Castoutconceit. Then,frombreakingthrough conceit, youwillgoonyourway atpeace.

Seclusion VivekaSutta(IX.1) Ihaveheardthatononeoccasionacertainmonkwasdwellingamongthe Kosalansinaforestthicket.Nowatthattime,ashehadgonetospendtheday [inthethicket],hewasthinkingunskillfulthoughts,connectedwiththe householdlife. Thenthedevatainhabitingtheforestthicket,feelingsympathyforthemonk, desiringhisbenefit,desiringtobringhimtohissenses,approachedhimand addressedhimwiththisverse:

69

Desiringseclusion youveenteredtheforest, andyetyourmind goesrunningoutside. You,aperson: subdueyourdesireforpeople. Thenyoullbehappy, free frompassion. Dispeldiscontent, bemindful. Letmeremindyou ofthatwhichisgood forthedust oftheregionsbelow ishardtotranscend. Dontletthedust ofthesensual pull you down. Asabird spatteredwithdirt shedstheadheringdustwithashake, soamonk energetic&mindful shedstheadheringdust.

Themonk,chastenedbythedevata,cametohissenses.

Anuruddha AnuruddhaSutta(IX.6) IhaveheardthatononeoccasionVen.Anuruddhawasdwellingamongthe Kosalansinaforestthicket.Nowatthattime,adevatafromtheretinueofthe

70 heavenoftheThirtythreenamedJalini,oneofVen.Anuruddhasformer consorts,wenttohimand,onarrival,addressedhimwiththisverse: Directyourmind towhereyouusedtolive, amongthedevasoftheThirtythree, empowered withallsensualpleasures. Honored,surrounded bydevamaidens, you willshine. Ven.Anuruddha: Theyvegoneastray, devamaidens establishedinselfidentity. Andtheyvegoneastray, thosebeingswithdevamaidens astheiraim. Jalini: Theydontknowbliss whohaventseenNandana, abodeoftheeminentdevas, glorious, oftheThirtythree. Ven.Anuruddha: Youfool,dontyouknow thearahantsmaxim? Howinconstantarecompoundedthings! Theirnature:toarise&passaway. Theydisband astheyarearising. Theirtotalstilling isbliss.

71 Jalini,thereisnow indevacompany nofurtherabode [forme]. Withtheutterending ofwanderingoninbirth, thereisnow nofurtherbecoming. Seealso:SNV.7;SNVI.15

TheVajjianPrinceling VajjiputtaSutta(IX.9) Ononeoccasionacertainmonk,aVajjianprinceling,wasdwellingnearVesaliin aforestthicket.Andonthatoccasionanallnightfestivalwasbeingheldin Vesali.Themonklamentingasheheardtheresoundingdinofwindmusic, stringmusic,&gongscomingfromVesali,onthatoccasionrecitedthisverse: Iliveinthewilderness allalone likealogcastawayintheforest. Onanightlikethis, whocouldtherebe moremiserable thanme? Thenthedevatainhabitingtheforestthicket,feelingsympathyforthemonk, desiringhisbenefit,desiringtobringhimtohissenses,approachedhimand addressedhimwiththisverse: Asyouliveinthewildernessallalone likealogcastawayintheforest, manyarethosewhoenvyyou, ashellbeingsdo,

72 thoseheadedforheaven. Themonk,chastenedbythedevata,cametohissenses.

InappropriateAttention AyonisomanasikaraSutta(IX.11) Ihaveheardthatononeoccasionacertainmonkwasdwellingamongthe Kosalansinaforestthicket.Nowatthattime,hespentthedaysabiding thinkingevil,unskillfulthoughts:i.e.,thoughtsofsensuality,thoughtsofillwill, thoughtsofdoingharm. Thenthedevatainhabitingtheforestthicket,feelingsympathyforthemonk, desiringhisbenefit,desiringtobringhimtohissenses,approachedhimand addressedhimwiththisverse: Frominappropriateattention yourebeingchewedbyyourthoughts. Relinquishingwhatsinappropriate, contemplate appropriately. KeepingyourmindontheTeacher, theDhamma,theSangha,yourvirtues, youwillarriveat joy, rapture, pleasure withoutdoubt. Then, saturated withjoy, youwillputanend tosuffering&stress. Themonk,chastenedbythedevata,cametohissenses.

73

TheThiefofaScent GandhatthenaSutta(IX.14) Ihaveheardthatononeoccasionacertainmonkwasdwellingamongthe Kosalansinaforestthicket.Nowatthattime,afterhismeal,returningfromhis almsround,hewentdowntoalotuspondandsniffedaredlotus. Thenthedevatainhabitingtheforestthicket,feelingsympathyforthemonk, desiringhisbenefit,desiringtobringhimtohissenses,approachedhimand addressedhimwiththisverse: Yousniffthiswaterbornflower thathasntbeengiventoyou. This,dearsir, isafactorofstealing. You areathiefofascent. Themonk: Idonttake,dontdamage. Isniffatthelotus fromfaraway. Sowhydoyoucallme athiefofascent? Onewho digsupthestalks, damagesflowers, oneofsuchruthlessbehavior: whydontyousayitofhim? Thedevata: Apersonruthless&grasping, smearedlikeanursingdiaper: tohim Ihavenothingtosay. Itsyou towhomIshouldspeak.

74 Toapersonunblemished, constantlysearchingforpurity, ahairtipsworthofevil seemsaslarge asacloud. Themonk: Yes,yakkha,youunderstandme andshowmesympathy. Warnmeagain,yakkha, wheneveragain youseesomethinglikethis. Thedevata: Idontdependonyou formyliving noramI yourhiredhand. You,monk, youyourselfshouldknow howtogotothegooddestination. Themonk,chastenedbythedevata,cametohissenses. Seealso:SNIX.1;SNIX.9

AboutSudatta(Anathapindika) SudattaSutta(X.8) ManydiscoursesaresetinJetasGrove,themonasterydonatedbyAnathapindika. HerewelearnhowAnathapindikafirstmettheBuddha.Adramaticpointinthestory revolvesaroundthefactthatmostpeopleknewofhimbyhisepithetAnathapindika meansAlmsgivertothosewithoutprotectionratherthanbyhisgivenname.Thus heissurprisedtoheartheBuddha,attheirfirstmeeting,addresshimcorrectly.

75 TheCullavagga(VI)givesthissamestoryingreaterdetailandaddsmoreincidents: Afterrecitingtheversewithwhichthisdiscourseends,theBuddhagivesAnathapindika astepbystepteaching,culminatinginanexplanationofthefournobletruths.Atthe endoftheteaching,Anathapindikaattainsstreamentry.Hethenreturnshometo Savatthi,purchasesagrovefromPrinceJetaatimmenseprice,andestablishesa monasteryfortheBuddhaandtheSangha.There,accordingtothecommentaries,the Buddhaspentmorerainsretreatsthanatanyothermonastery. IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearRajagahain theCoolGrove.NowatthattimeAnathapindikathehouseholderhadarrivedin Rajagahaonsomebusiness.Heheard,AnAwakenedOne,theysay,has appearedintheworld,andhewantedtogorightthentoseetheBlessedOne. Thenthethoughtoccurredtohim,Todayisnotthepropertimetogotoseethe BlessedOne.TomorrowIwillgotoseetheBlessedOneatthepropertime. WithhismindfulnessimmersedintheAwakenedOnehelaydowntosleep. Threetimeshegotupduringthenight,thinkingitwaslight.Thenhewenttothe gatetothecharnelground.Nonhumanbeingsopenedthegate. WhenAnathapindikathehouseholderhadleftthecity,thelightvanished anddarknessappeared.Fear,terror,&horripilationarose,andbecauseofthathe wantedtoturnback.ThenSivakatheyakkhaspirit,invisible,proclaimed: Ahundredelephants, ahundredhorses, ahundredmuledrawncarts, ahundredthousandmaidens adornedwithjewels&earrings arentworthonesixteenth ofonestepforward. Goforward,householder! Goforward,householder! Goingforwardisbetterforyou, notback! ThedarknessthenvanishedforAnathapindikaandthelightappeared.The fear,terror,&horripilationhehadfeltsubsided.

76 Forasecondtime...athirdtime,thelightvanishedanddarknessappeared. Fear,terror,&horripilationarose,andbecauseofthatAnathapindikawantedto turnback.Thenforathirdtime,Sivakatheyakkhaspirit,invisible,proclaimed: Ahundredelephants, ahundredhorses, ahundredmuledrawncarts, ahundredthousandmaidens adornedwithjewels&earrings arentworthonesixteenth ofonestepforward. Goforward,householder! Goforward,householder! Goingforwardisbetterforyou, notback! ThedarknessthenvanishedforAnathapindikaandthelightappeared.The fear,terror,&horripilationhehadfeltsubsided. SoAnathapindikawenttotheCoolGrove.Nowatthattime,theBlessed Onehavinggottenupasthenightwasendingwaspacingback&forthinthe openair.HesawAnathapindikathehouseholdercomingfromafar.Onseeing him,hegotdownfromhismeditationpathandsatonaseatmadeready.Ashe wassittingtherehesaidtoAnathapindika,Come,Sudatta. ThenAnathapindika,[thinking,]TheBlessedOneiscallingmebymygiven name!threwhimselfdownrightthereattheBlessedOnesfeetandsaidto him,Lord,IhopetheBlessedOnehassleptinease. TheBuddha: Always,always, hesleepsinease: thebrahmantotallyunbound, whodoesntadhere tosensualpleasures, whoswithoutacquisitions &cooled.

77 Having cutallties &subduedfearintheheart,

calmed, hesleepsinease,

havingreachedpeace ofawareness.

TotheAlavakaYakkha AlavakaSutta(X.12=SuttaNipataI.10) ThisdiscourseisthesourceofmanyproverbsfrequentlyquotedinTheravadin countries.In1982,whenThailandwascelebratingthe200 anniversaryofthefounding ofthecurrentdynasty,HisMajestytheKingstructuredhischiefaddresstotheThai peoplearoundthefourqualitiesmentionedintheBuddhaslastverse. IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingatAlaviinthe hauntoftheAlavakayakkha.ThentheAlavakayakkhawenttotheBlessedOne andonarrivalsaidtohim:Getout,contemplative! [Saying,]Allright,myfriend,theBlessedOnewentout. Comein,contemplative! [Saying,]Allright,myfriend,theBlessedOnewentin. Asecondtime.Athirdtime,theAlavakayakkhasaidtotheBlessedOne, Getout,contemplative! [Saying,]Allright,myfriend,theBlessedOnewentout. Comein,contemplative! [Saying,]Allright,myfriend,theBlessedOnewentin. Thenafourthtime,theAlavakayakkhasaidtotheBlessedOne,Getout, contemplative! Iwontgoout,myfriend.Dowhatyouhavetodo. Iwillaskyouaquestion,contemplative.Ifyoucantanswerme,Iwill possessyourmindorripopenyourheartor,grabbingyoubythefeet,hurlyou acrosstheGanges. Myfriend,Iseenooneinthecosmoswithitsdeities,Maras&Brahmas,its contemplatives&priests,itsroyalty&commonfolk,whocouldpossessmymind
th

78 orripopenmyheartor,grabbingmebythefeet,hurlmeacrosstheGanges.But nevertheless,askmewhatyouwish. Alavaka: What isapersonshighestwealth? What,whenwellpracticed,bringsbliss? What isthehighestofsavors? Livinginwhatway isoneslifecalledthebest? TheBuddha: Conviction isapersonshighestwealth. Dhamma, whenwellpracticed,bringsbliss. Truth isthehighestofsavors1. Livingwithdiscernment, oneslifeiscalledbest. Alavaka: How How How How doesonecrossovertheflood? crossoverthesea? doesoneovercomesuffering&stress? isapersonpurified?

TheBuddha: Throughconviction onecrossesovertheflood. Throughheedfulness, thesea. Throughpersistence oneovercomes suffering&stress. Throughdiscernment apersonispurified. Alavaka: How How How How doesonegaindiscernment? doesonefindwealth? doesoneattainhonor? bindfriendstooneself?

79 Passingfromthisworld to thenextworld, how doesonenotgrieve? TheBuddha: ConvincedofthearahantsDhamma forattainingUnbinding, heedful,observant onelisteningwell gainsdiscernment. Doingwhatsfitting, enduringburdens, onewithinitiative findswealth. Throughtruth oneattainshonor. Giving bindsfriendstooneself. Endowedwiththesefourqualities, truth, selfcontrol, stamina, relinquishment ahouseholderofconviction, onpassingaway,doesntgrieve. Now,goaskothers, commonpriests&contemplatives, ifanythingbetterthan truth, selfcontrol, endurance, &relinquishment herecanbefound. Alavaka:

80 HowcouldIgoask commonpriests&contemplatives? nowthattodayIunderstand whatbenefits thenextlife. Itwastrulyformywellbeing thattheAwakenedOnecame tostayinAlavi. TodayIunderstand wherewhatisgiven bearsgreatfruit. Illwanderfromvillagetovillage, towntotown, payinghomage totheSelfawakenedOne &thetruerightness oftheDhamma.

NOTE:1.Thisisapparentlyareferencetotheconceptofsavor(rasa)in Indianaesthetictheory.Formoreonthistopic,seetheIntroductionto Dhammapada:ATranslation.

TheTopoftheStandard DhajaggaSutta(XI.3) IhaveheardthatononeoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearSavatthiin JetasGrove,Anathapindikasmonastery.Thereheaddressedthemonks: Monks! Yes,lord!themonksresponded. TheBlessedOnesaid:Once,monks,thedevas&asuraswerearrayedfor battle.ThenSakka,lordofthedevas,addressedthedevasoftheThirtythree: If,dearsirs,whenthedevasareengagedinbattle,thereshouldarisefear, terror,orhorripilation,thenonthatoccasionyoushouldlookupatthetopofmy standard.Forwhenyoulookupatthetopofmystandard,anyfear,terror,or horripilationyoumayhavewillbeabandoned.

81 Ifyoudontlookupatthetopofmystandard,thenyoushouldlookup atthetopofthestandardofPajapatithedevaking.Forwhenyoulookupatthe topofthestandardofPajapatithedevaking,anyfear,terror,orhorripilation youmayhavewillbeabandoned. IfyoudontlookupatthetopofthestandardofPajapatithedevaking, thenyoushouldlookupatthetopofthestandardofVarunathedevaking.For whenyoulookupatthetopofthestandardofVarunathedevaking,anyfear, terror,orhorripilationyoumayhavewillbeabandoned. IfyoudontlookupatthetopofthestandardofVarunathedevaking, thenyoushouldlookupatthetopofthestandardofIsanathedevaking.For whenyoulookupatthetopofthestandardofIsanathedevaking,anyfear, terror,orhorripilationyoumayhavewillbeabandoned. Monks,inthosewholookupatthetopofthestandardofSakka,lordofthe devas;inthosewholookupatthetopofthestandardofPajapatithedevaking; inthosewholookupatthetopofthestandardofVaruna,thedevaking;orin thosewholookupatthetopofthestandardofIsana,thedevaking,anyfear, terror,orhorripilationtheymayhavemightbeabandoned,oritmightnot.Why isthat?BecauseSakka,lordofthedevas,isnotfreeofpassion,freeofaversion, orfreeofdelusion.Hecanbefrightened,terrorized,cowardly,quicktoflee. But,monks,Itellyouthis:If,whenyouhavegonetothewilderness,tothe footofatree,ortoanemptydwelling,thereshouldarisefear,terror,or horripilation,thenonthatoccasionyoushouldrecollectmethus:Indeed,the BlessedOneisworthy&rightlyselfawakened,consummateinknowledge& conduct,wellgone,knowerofthecosmos,unexcelledtrainerofthosewhocan betamed,teacherofdevasandhumanbeings,awakened,blessed.Forwhen yourecollectme,monks,anyfear,terror,orhorripilationyoumayhavewillbe abandoned. Ifyoudontrecollectme,thenyoushouldrecollecttheDhammathus: TheDhammaiswellexpoundedbytheBlessedOne,tobeseenhere&now, timeless,invitingonetocome&see,pertinent,tobeseenbythewisefor themselves.ForwhenyourecollecttheDhamma,monks,anyfear,terror,or horripilationyoumayhavewillbeabandoned. IfyoucannotrecollecttheDhamma,thenyoushouldrecollecttheSangha thus:TheSanghaoftheBlessedOnesdiscipleswhohavepracticedwell, practicedstraightforwardly,practicemethodically,practicedmasterfully,i.e., thefourpairs,theeighttypes[ofNobleOnes]:thatistheSanghaoftheBlessed Onesdisciplesworthyofgifts,worthyofhospitality,worthyofofferings,

82 worthyofrespect,theunexcelledfieldofmeritfortheworld.Forwhenyou recollecttheSangha,monks,anyfear,terror,orhorripilationyoumayhavewill beabandoned. Whyisthat?BecausetheTathagata,worthy&rightlyselfawakened,isfree ofpassion,freeofaversion,freeofdelusion.Heisfearless,cannotbeterrorized, bold,notquicktoflee. ThisiswhattheBlessedOnesaid.Havingsaidthis,theOneWellgone,the Teacher,furthersaidthis: Inwilderness,monks, atthefootofatree, orinanemptydwelling, recollecttheBuddha: Youwillhavenofear. IfyoudontrecalltheBuddha bestintheworld, thebullofmen thenrecollecttheDhamma, leadingoutward, wellexpounded. IfyoudontrecalltheDhamma leadingoutward, wellexpounded thenrecollecttheSangha, thefieldofmerit unexcelled. Forthosewhohavethusrecalled theBuddha, Dhamma, &Sangha,monks, therewillbe noterror, horripilation, orfear.

83 VictoryThroughWhatisWellSpoken SubhasitajayaSutta(XI.5) OnoneoccasiontheBlessedOnewasstayingnearSavatthiatJetasGrove, Anathapindikasmonastery.Thereheaddressedthemonks,Monks! Yes,lord,themonksresponded. TheBlessedOnesaid,Onceinthepastthedevas&asuras1werearrayedfor battle.ThenVepacittitheasurakingsaidtoSakkathedevaking:Lettherebe victorythroughwhatiswellspoken. Yes,Vepacitti,lettherebevictorythroughwhatiswellspoken. Sothedevas&asurasappointedapanelofjudges,[thinking,]Thesewill decideforuswhatiswellspoken&poorlyspoken. ThenVepacittitheasurakingsaidtoSakkathedevaking,Sayaverse, devaking! Whenthiswassaid,SakkathedevakingsaidtoVepacittitheasuraking, Butyouaretheseniordeityhere,Vepacitti.Yousayaverse. Whenthiswassaid,Vepacittirecitedthisverse: Foolswouldflareupevenmore iftherewerenoconstraints. Thusanenlightenedone shouldrestrainthefool withaheavystick. WhenVepacittihadsaidthisverse,theasurasapplaudedbutthedevas weresilent.SoVepacittisaidtoSakka,Sayaverse,devaking! Whenthiswassaid,Sakkarecitedthisverse: This,Ithink, istheonlyconstraintforafool: When,knowingtheothersprovoked, youmindfullygrowcalm. WhenSakkahadsaidthisverse,thedevasapplaudedbuttheasuraswere silent.SoSakkasaidtoVepacitti,Sayaverse,Vepacitti! Whenthiswassaid,Vepacittirecitedthisverse:

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Vasava 2,Iseeafault inthisveryforbearance: Whenthefoolthinks, Hesforbearing outoffearofme, theidiotpursuesyouevenmore asacow,someonewhorunsaway. WhenVepacittihadsaidthisverse,theasurasapplaudedbutthedevas weresilent.SoVepacittisaidtoSakka,Sayaverse,devaking! Whenthiswassaid,Sakkarecitedthisverse: Itdoesntmatter whetherhethinks, Hesforbearing outoffearofme. Onesowntruegood istheforemostgood. Nothingbetter thanpatience isfound. Whoever,whenstrong, isforbearing toonewhoisweak: thatstheforemostpatience. Theweakmustconstantlyendure. Theycallthatstrength nostrengthatall: whoeversstrength isthestrengthofafool. Theresnoreproach foronewhoisstrong, guardingguardedbyDhamma. Youmakethingsworse whenyouflareup

85 atsomeonewhosangry. Whoeverdoesntflareup atsomeonewhosangry winsabattle hardtowin. Youliveforthegoodofboth yourown,theothers when,knowingtheothersprovoked, youmindfullygrowcalm. Whenyouworkthecureofboth yourown,theothers thosewhothinkyouafool knownothingofDhamma. WhenSakkahadsaidthisverse,thedevasapplaudedbuttheasuraswere silent.Thenthedeva&asurapanelofjudgessaid,TheversessaidbyVepacitti theasurakinglieinthesphereofswords&weaponsthencearguments, quarrels,&strife.WhereastheversessaidbySakkathedevakingliesoutside thesphereofswords&weaponsthencenoarguments,noquarrels,nostrife. ThevictorythroughwhatiswellspokengoestoSakkathedevaking. Andthat,monks,ishowthevictorythroughwhatwaswellspokenwentto Sakkathedevaking. NOTES 1.Thedevas&asurasweretwogroupsofdeitieswhofoughtforcontrolof heaven(likethegods&titansinGreekmythology).Thedevaseventuallywon. Theasuras,knownfortheirfierceanger,laterbecameclassedasangrydemons and,insomeBuddhistcosmologies,areregardedasaclassofbeinglowerthan human. 2.VasavaPowerfulisoneofSakkasepithets.