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Details of quality control charts.

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- E BOOKS ON SIX SIGMA 1

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http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stquacon.html#common

Control Chart

A graphical tool for monitoring changes that occur within a process, by distinguishing

variation that is inherent in the process(common cause) from variation that yield a

change to the process(special cause). This change may be a single point or a series of

points in time - each is a signal that something is different from what was previously

observed and measured.

The types of charts are often classified according to the type of quality characteristic

that they are supposed to monitor: there are quality control charts for variables and

control charts for attributes. Specifically, the following charts are commonly

constructed for controlling variables:

• X-bar chart. In this chart the sample means are plotted in order to control the

mean value of a variable (e.g., size of piston rings, strength of materials, etc.).

• R chart. In this chart, the sample ranges are plotted in order to control the

variability of a variable.

• S chart. In this chart, the sample standard deviations are plotted in order to

control the variability of a variable.

• S**2 chart. In this chart, the sample variances are plotted in order to control

the variability of a variable.

For controlling quality characteristics that represent attributes of the product, the

following charts are commonly constructed:

• C chart. In this chart (see example below), we plot the number of defectives

(per batch, per day, per machine, per 100 feet of pipe, etc.). This chart assumes

that defects of the quality attribute are rare, and the control limits in this chart

are computed based on the Poisson distribution (distribution of rare events).

• U chart. In this chart we plot the rate of defectives, that is, the number of

defectives divided by the number of units inspected (the n; e.g., feet of pipe,

number of batches). Unlike the C chart, this chart does not require a constant

number of units, and it can be used, for example, when the batches (samples)

are of different sizes.

• Np chart. In this chart, we plot the number of defectives (per batch, per day,

per machine) as in the C chart. However, the control limits in this chart are not

based on the distribution of rare events, but rather on the binomial distribution.

Therefore, this chart should be used if the occurrence of defectives is not rare

(e.g., they occur in more than 5% of the units inspected). For example, we

may use this chart to control the number of units produced with minor flaws.

• P chart. In this chart, we plot the percent of defectives (per batch, per day, per

machine, etc.) as in the U chart. However, the control limits in this chart are

not based on the distribution of rare events but rather on the binomial

distribution (of proportions). Therefore, this chart is most applicable to

situations where the occurrence of defectives is not rare (e.g., we expect the

percent of defectives to be more than 5% of the total number of units

produced).

All of these charts can be adapted for short production runs (short run charts), and for

multiple process streams.

The short run control chart, or control chart for short production runs, plots

observations of variables or attributes for multiple parts on the same chart. Short run

control charts were developed to address the requirement that several dozen

measurements of a process must be collected before control limits are calculated.

Meeting this requirement is often difficult for operations that produce a limited

number of a particular part during a production run.

For example, a paper mill may produce only three or four (huge) rolls of a particular

kind of paper (i.e., part) and then shift production to another kind of paper. But if

variables, such as paper thickness, or attributes, such as blemishes, are monitored for

several dozen rolls of paper of, say, a dozen different kinds, control limits for

thickness and blemishes could be calculated for the transformed (within the short

production run) variable values of interest. Specifically, these transformations will

rescale the variable values of interest such that they are of compatible magnitudes

across the different short production runs (or parts). The control limits computed for

those transformed values could then be applied in monitoring thickness, and

blemishes, regardless of the types of paper (parts) being produced. Statistical process

control procedures could be used to determine if the production process is in control,

to monitor continuing production, and to establish procedures for continuous quality

improvement.

For additional discussions of short run charts refer to Bothe (1988), Johnson (1987),

or Montgomery (1991).

Nominal chart, target chart. There are several different types of short run charts.

The most basic are the nominal short run chart, and the target short run chart. In these

charts, the measurements for each part are transformed by subtracting a part-specific

constant. These constants can either be the nominal values for the respective parts

(nominal short run chart), or they can be target values computed from the (historical)

means for each part (Target X-bar and R chart). For example, the diameters of piston

bores for different engine blocks produced in a factory can only be meaningfully

compared (for determining the consistency of bore sizes) if the mean differences

between bore diameters for different sized engines are first removed. The nominal or

target short run chart makes such comparisons possible. Note that for the nominal or

target chart it is assumed that the variability across parts is identical, so that control

limits based on a common estimate of the process sigma are applicable.

Standardized short run chart. If the variability of the process for different parts

cannot be assumed to be identical, then a further transformation is necessary before

the sample means for different parts can be plotted in the same chart. Specifically, in

the standardized short run chart the plot points are further transformed by dividing the

deviations of sample means from part means (or nominal or target values for parts) by

part-specific constants that are proportional to the variability for the respective parts.

For example, for the short run X-bar and R chart, the plot points (that are shown in the

X-bar chart) are computed by first subtracting from each sample mean a part specific

constant (e.g., the respective part mean, or nominal value for the respective part), and

then dividing the difference by another constant, for example, by the average range

for the respective chart. These transformations will result in comparable scales for the

sample means for different parts.

For attribute control charts (C, U, Np, or P charts), the estimate of the variability of

the process (proportion, rate, etc.) is a function of the process average (average

proportion, rate, etc.; for example, the standard deviation of a proportion p is equal to

the square root of p*(1- p)/n). Hence, only standardized short run charts are available

for attributes. For example, in the short run P chart, the plot points are computed by

first subtracting from the respective sample p values the average part p's, and then

dividing by the standard deviation of the average p's.

When the samples plotted in the control chart are not of equal size, then the control

limits around the center line (target specification) cannot be represented by a straight

line. For example, to return to the formula Sigma/Square Root(n) presented earlier for

computing control limits for the X-bar chart, it is obvious that unequal n's will lead to

different control limits for different sample sizes. There are three ways of dealing with

this situation.

Average sample size. If one wants to maintain the straight-line control limits (e.g., to

make the chart easier to read and easier to use in presentations), then one can compute

the average n per sample across all samples, and establish the control limits based on

the average sample size. This procedure is not "exact," however, as long as the sample

sizes are reasonably similar to each other, this procedure is quite adequate.

Variable control limits. Alternatively, one may compute different control limits for

each sample, based on the respective sample sizes. This procedure will lead to

variable control limits, and result in step-chart like control lines in the plot. This

procedure ensures that the correct control limits are computed for each sample.

However, one loses the simplicity of straight-line control limits.

Stabilized (normalized) chart. The best of two worlds (straight line control limits

that are accurate) can be accomplished by standardizing the quantity to be controlled

(mean, proportion, etc.) according to units of sigma. The control limits can then be

expressed in straight lines, while the location of the sample points in the plot depend

not only on the characteristic to be controlled, but also on the respective sample n's.

The disadvantage of this procedure is that the values on the vertical (Y) axis in the

control chart are in terms of sigma rather than the original units of measurement, and

therefore, those numbers cannot be taken at face value (e.g., a sample with a value of

3 is 3 times sigma away from specifications; in order to express the value of this

sample in terms of the original units of measurement, we need to perform some

computations to convert this number back).

Sometimes, the quality control engineer has a choice between variable control charts

and attribute control charts.

Advantages of attribute control charts. Attribute control charts have the advantage

of allowing for quick summaries of various aspects of the quality of a product, that is,

the engineer may simply classify products as acceptable or unacceptable, based on

various quality criteria. Thus, attribute charts sometimes bypass the need for

expensive, precise devices and time-consuming measurement procedures. Also, this

type of chart tends to be more easily understood by managers unfamiliar with quality

control procedures; therefore, it may provide more persuasive (to management)

evidence of quality problems.

Advantages of variable control charts. Variable control charts are more sensitive

than attribute control charts (see Montgomery, 1985, p. 203). Therefore, variable

control charts may alert us to quality problems before any actual "unacceptables" (as

detected by the attribute chart) will occur. Montgomery (1985) calls the variable

control charts leading indicators of trouble that will sound an alarm before the

number of rejects (scrap) increases in the production process.

Variable control charts can by constructed for individual observations taken from the

production line, rather than samples of observations. This is sometimes necessary

when testing samples of multiple observations would be too expensive, inconvenient,

or impossible. For example, the number of customer complaints or product returns

may only be available on a monthly basis; yet, one would like to chart those numbers

to detect quality problems. Another common application of these charts occurs in

cases when automated testing devices inspect every single unit that is produced. In

that case, one is often primarily interested in detecting small shifts in the product

quality (for example, gradual deterioration of quality due to machine wear). The

CUSUM, MA, and EWMA charts of cumulative sums and weighted averages

discussed below may be most applicable in those situations.

Capability Analysis - Process Capability Indices

Process range. First, it is customary to establish the ± 3 sigma limits around the

nominal specifications. Actually, the sigma limits should be the same as the ones used

to bring the process under control using Shewhart control charts (see Quality

Control). These limits denote the range of the process (i.e., process range). If we use

the ± 3 sigma limits then, based on the normal distribution, we can estimate that

approximately 99% of all piston rings fall within these limits.

acceptable values. In our example, it may have been determined that acceptable

values for the piston ring diameters would be 74.0 ± .02 millimeters. Thus, the lower

specification limit (LSL) for our process is 74.0 - 0.02 = 73.98; the upper specification

limit (USL) is 74.0 + 0.02 = 74.02. The difference between USL and LSL is called the

specification range.

Potential capability (Cp). This is the simplest and most straightforward indicator of

process capability. It is defined as the ratio of the specification range to the process

range; using ± 3 sigma limits we can express this index as:

Cp = (USL-LSL)/(6*Sigma)

Put into words, this ratio expresses the proportion of the range of the normal curve

that falls within the engineering specification limits (provided that the mean is on

target, that is, that the process is centered, see below).

Bhote (1988) reports that prior to the widespread use of statistical quality control

techniques (prior to 1980), the normal quality of US manufacturing processes was

approximately Cp = .67. This means that the two 33/2 percent tail areas of the normal

curve fall outside specification limits. As of 1988, only about 30% of US processes

are at or below this level of quality (see Bhote, 1988, p. 51). Ideally, of course, we

would like this index to be greater than 1, that is, we would like to achieve a process

capability so that no (or almost no) items fall outside specification limits.

Interestingly, in the early 1980's the Japanese manufacturing industry adopted as their

standard Cp = 1.33! The process capability required to manufacture high-tech products

is usually even higher than this; Minolta has established a Cp index of 2.0 as their

minimum standard (Bhote, 1988, p. 53), and as the standard for its suppliers. Note

that high process capability usually implies lower, not higher costs, taking into

account the costs due to poor quality. We will return to this point shortly.

1/Cp (the inverse of Cp).

Lower/upper potential capability: Cpl, Cpu. A major shortcoming of the Cp (and Cr)

index is that it may yield erroneous information if the process is not on target, that is,

if it is not centered. We can express non-centering via the following quantities. First,

upper and lower potential capability indices can be computed to reflect the deviation

of the observed process mean from the LSL and USL.. Assuming ± 3 sigma limits as

the process range, we compute:

Cpl = (Mean - LSL)/3*Sigma

and

Cpu = (USL - Mean)/3*Sigma

Obviously, if these values are not identical to each other, then the process is not

centered.

Specifically, we can compute:

where

D = (USL+LSL)/2.

This correction factor expresses the non-centering (target specification minus mean)

relative to the specification range.

Demonstrated excellence (Cpk). Finally, we can adjust Cp for the effect of non-

centering by computing:

Cpk = (1-k)*Cp

If the process is perfectly centered, then k is equal to zero, and Cpk is equal to Cp.

However, as the process drifts from the target specification, k increases and Cpk

becomes smaller than Cp.

Potential Capability II: Cpm. A recent modification (Chan, Cheng, & Spiring, 1988)

to Cp is directed at adjusting the estimate of sigma for the effect of (random) non-

centering. Specifically, we may compute the alternative sigma (Sigma2) as:

where:

Sigma2 is the alternative estimate of sigma

xi is the value of the i'th observation in the sample

TS is the target or nominal specification

n is the number of observations in the sample

We may then use this alternative estimate of sigma to compute Cp as before; however,

we will refer to the resultant index as Cpm.

http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/Total_Quality_Management-15.htm

When monitoring a process via a quality control chart (e.g., the X-bar and R-chart;

Quality Control) it is often useful to compute the capability indices for the process.

Specifically, when the data set consists of multiple samples, such as data collected for

the quality control chart, then one can compute two different indices of variability in

the data. One is the regular standard deviation for all observations, ignoring the fact

that the data consist of multiple samples; the other is to estimate the process's inherent

variation from the within-sample variability. For example, when plotting X-bar and R-

charts one may use the common estimator R-bar/d2 for the process sigma (e.g., see

Duncan, 1974; Montgomery, 1985, 1991). Note however, that this estimator is only

valid if the process is statistically stable. For a detailed discussion of the difference

between the total process variation and the inherent variation refer to ASQC/AIAG

reference manual (ASQC/AIAG, 1991, page 80).

When the total process variability is used in the standard capability computations, the

resulting indices are usually referred to as process performance indices (as they

describe the actual performance of the process), while indices computed from the

inherent variation (within- sample sigma) are referred to as capability indices (since

they describe the inherent capability of the process).

To say "a process is in control" you compare the process against itself. If its behavior

is consistent over the time then it is in control. You don't even need specifications to

see if it is in control or not.

When you compare the process output against a specification, then you are talking

about process capability or process performance.

Even when a good capability is needed, typically stability (another way to say "in

control") is needed first. If the process is stable, you can compare its performance

against the required performance and take corrective actions if needed. But if it is not

stable, you can hardly even compare the process against something, because a thing

such as "the process" does not even exist from a statistical point of view, as its

behavior is changing over the time so you don't have one distribution to model the

process.

For example, if the process is stable but not capable you can predict that you will have

let's say 20% scrap. This can be not acceptable but you know what you will get, where

you are and where you need to steer to. If the process is not stable, then you don't

know what you will get, where you are, and where to steer to, except that you need to

stabilize the process first.

As mentioned before, the higher the Cp index, the better the process -- and there is

virtually no upper limit to this relationship. The issue of quality costs, that is, the

losses due to poor quality, is discussed in detail in the context of Taguchi robust

design methods (see Experimental Design). In general, higher quality usually results

in lower costs overall; even though the costs of production may increase, the losses

due to poor quality, for example, due to customer complaints, loss of market share,

etc. are usually much greater. In practice, two or three well-designed experiments

carried out over a few weeks can often achieve a Cp of 5 or higher. If you are not

familiar with the use of designed experiments, but are concerned with the quality of a

process, we strongly recommend that you review the methods detailed in

Experimental Design.

The indices we have just reviewed are only meaningful if, in fact, the quality

characteristic that is being measured is normally distributed. A specific test of the

normality assumption (Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Chi-square test of goodness-of-fit)

is available; these tests are described in most statistics textbooks, and they are also

discussed in greater detail in Nonparametrics and Distribution Fitting.

quantile plots for the normal distribution. For more information, see Process Analysis

and Non-Normal Distributions.

Tolerance Limits

Before the introduction of process capability indices in the early 1980's, the common

method for estimating the characteristics of a production process was to estimate and

examine the tolerance limits of the process (see, for example, Hald, 1952). The logic

of this procedure is as follows. Let us assume that the respective quality characteristic

is normally distributed in the population of items produced; we can then estimate the

lower and upper interval limits that will ensure with a certain level of confidence

(probability) that a certain percent of the population is included in those limits. Put

another way, given:

2. the process mean,

3. the process standard deviation (sigma),

4. a confidence level, and

5. the percent of the population that we want to be included in the interval,

chart for nonconformities called a demenit control chart using a

distribution approximation technique called an Edgeworth

Expansion, is proposed. For a demerit control chart, an exact control

limit can be obtained in special cases, but not in general. A

proposed demerit control chart uses an Edgeworth Expansion to

approximate the distribution of the demerit statistic and to compute

the demerit control limits. A simulation study shows that the

proposed method yields reasonably accurate results in determining

the distribution of the demerit statistic and hence the control limits,

even for small sample sizes. The simulation also shows that the

performances of the demerit control chart constructed using the

proposed method is very close to the advertised for all sample sizes.

Since the demerit control chart statistic is a weighted sum of the

nonconformities, naturally the performance of the demerit control

chart will depend on the weights assigned to the nonconformities.

The method of how to select weights that give the best performance

for the demerit control chart has not yet been addressed in the

literature. A methodology is proposed to select the weights for a

one-sided demerit control chart with and upper control limit using

an asymptotic technique. The asymptotic technique does not

restrict the nature of the types and classification scheme for the

nonconformities and provides an optimal and explicit solution for the

weights.

are independent. When the nonconformities are correlated, a

multivariate Poisson lognormal probability distribution is used to

model the nonconformities. This distribution is able to model both

positive and negative correlations among the nonconformities. A

different type of multivariate control chart for correlated

nonconformities is proposed. The proposed control chart can be

applied to nonconformities that have any multivariate distributions

whether they be discrete or continuous or something that has

characteristics of both, e.g., non-Poisson correlated random

variables. The proposed method evaluates the deviation of the

observed sample means from pre-defined targets in terms of the

density function value of the sample means. The distribution of the

control chart test statistic is derived using an approximation

technique called a multivariate Edgeworth expansion. For small

sample sizes, results show that the proposed control chart is robust

to inaccuracies in assumptions about the distribution of the

correlated nonconformities.

How do you compare reliability and hazard rate of a product?

The Reliability FunctionR(t), also known as the Survival Function S(t), is defined

by:

R(t) = S(t) = the probability a unit survives beyond time t.

Since a unit either fails, or survives, and one of these two mutually exclusive

alternatives must occur, we have

Calculations using R(t) often occur when building up from single components to

subsystems with many components. For example, if one microprocessor comes from a

population with reliability function Rm(t) and two of them are used for the CPU in a

system, then the system CPU has a reliability function given by

Rcpu(t) = Rm2(t)

since both must survive in order for the system to survive. This building up to the

system from the individual components will be discussed in detail when we look at

the "Bottom-Up" method. The general rule is: to calculate the reliability of a system

of independent components, multiply the reliability functions of all the components

together.

The failure rate is defined for non repairable populations as the (instantaneous) rate of

failure for the survivors to time t during the next instant of time. It is a rate per unit of

time similar in meaning to reading a car speedometer at a particular instant and seeing

45 mph. The next instant the failure rate may change and the units that have already

failed play no further role since only the survivors count.

The failure rate (or hazard rate) is denoted by h(t) and calculated from

The failure rate is sometimes called a "conditional failure rate" since the denominator

1 - F(t) (i.e., the population survivors) converts the expression into a conditional rate,

given survival past time t.

Since h(t) is also equal to the negative of the derivative of ln{R(t)}, we have the

useful identity:

If we let

be the Cumulative Hazard Function, we then have F(t) = 1 - e-H(t). Two other useful

identities that follow from these formulas are:

It is also sometimes useful to define an average failure rate over any interval (T1, T2)

that "averages" the failure rate over that interval. This rate, denoted by AFR(T1,T2), is

a single number that can be used as a specification or target for the population failure

rate over that interval. If T1 is 0, it is dropped from the expression. Thus, for example,

AFR(40,000) would be the average failure rate for the population over the first 40,000

hours of operation.

http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/apr/apr_d.htm

The importance of average run length[ARL] in the control chart

called a “run.” The number of samples that is taken during a run is

called the “run length.” Clearly, the run length is of paramount

importance in evaluating how well a control chart performs. Because

run length can vary from run to run, even if the process mean is

held constant, statisticians generally focus on

the average run length (ARL) that would be obtained for any specific

set of underlying parameter values. If the process is in control, a

perfect control chart would never generate a signal – thus, the ARL

would be infinitely large. If the process is out of control, a quick

signal is desired – an ARL of 1 would be ideal.

to satisfy the first requirement we would need the control limits to

be extremely far away from the central value; inorder to satisfy the

second requirement we would need the control limits to be

indistinguishable from the central value. However, if we are more

reasonable in our demands and can use any sample size, charts can

be designed to meet ARL constraints. For example, it is possible to

design a chart with ARL = 500 if the true process mean is 80 and

ARL = 5 if the true process mean is 81. In designing a Shewhart

chart, two variables (k and n) are specified. The fact that we are

choosing values for two quantities means that if two ARL constraints

are stated, a Shewhart chart can be designed to meet them.

http://me.nmsu.edu/~aseemath/1465_04_1.PDF

The importance of GAGE R&R in control chart:

Gage R&R, which stands for gage repeatability and reproducibility, is a statistical tool that

measures the amount of variation in the measurement system arising from the measurement

device and the people taking the measurement.

systems."

http://www.isixsigma.com/forum/showmessage.asp?messageID=6070

When measuring the product of any process, there are two sources of variation: the variation

of the process itself and the variation of the measurement system. The purpose of conducting

the GR&R is to be able to distinguish the former from the latter, and to reduce the

measurement system variation if it is excessive.

Typically, a gage R&R is performed prior to using it. We repeat the gage R&R anytime we

have a new operator or inspector, it is part of our training and certification process. We also

repeat it annually to make sure we aren't experiencing any erosion of skills. It is used as part

of the Six Sigma DMAIC process for any variation project.

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