= 1,2(o
L
+ o
R
). . . . . . . . . . 14
2.4 Aircraft longitudinal eigenvalue conguration plotted in the complex plane. . 21
4.1 Schematic drawing of the Bristol F.2B Fighter (McRuer et al 1973). . . . . . 28
iii
iv LIST OF FIGURES
Chapter 1
Introduction
This note uses a vectorial notation to describe aircraft and satellites. The notation is similar
to the one used for marine craft (ships, highspeed craft and underwater vehicles). The
equations of motion are based on:
Fossen, T. I. (1994). Guidance and Control of Ocean Vehicles
(John Wiley & Sons Ltd), Chapter 2.
Fossen, T. I. (2011). Handbook of Marine Craft Hydrodynamics and Motion Control
(John Wiley & Sons Ltd.), Chapters 2 and 3.
The kinematic and kinetic equations of a marine craft can be modied to describe aircraft
and satellites by minor adjustments of notation and assumptions.
Figure 1.1: Sketch showing a modern ghter aircraft (Stevens and Lewis 1992).
The note is organized according to:
Chapter 2: Aircraft Modeling
Chapter 3: Satellite Modeling
Chapter 4: Matlab Simulation Models
1
2 CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
This note is in addition to the textbook Handbook of Marine Craft Hydrodynamics and
Motion Control in the course TTK4109 Guidance and Control that is given at the Depart
ment of Engineering Cybernetics, NTNU.
Other useful references on ight control are:
Blakelock, J. H. (1991). Aircraft and Missiles (John Wiley & Sons Ltd.)
Etkin, B. and L. D. Reid (1996). Dynamics of Flight: Stability and Control (John
Wiley & Sons Ltd.)
McLean, D. (1990). Automatic Flight Control Systems (Prentice Hall Inc.)
McRuer, D., D. Ashkenas and A. I. Graham (1973). Aircraft Dynamics and Auto
matic Control (Princeton University Press)
Nelson, R. C. (1998). Flight Stability and Automatic Control (McGrawHill int.)
Roskam, J. (1999). Airplane Flight Dynamics and Automatic Flight Controls (Darcor
poration)
Stevens, B. L. and F. L. Lewis (1992). Aircraft Control and Simulation (John Wiley
& Sons Ltd.)
Information about the author as well as the graduate coursesTTK4109 Guidance and Control
and TK8109 Advanced Guidance and Control are found on the webpages:
Thor I. Fossen: http://www.itk.ntnu.no/ansatte/Fossen_Thor
TTK4109 Guidance and Control: http://www.itk.ntnu.no/emner/ttk4190
TK8109 Advanced Guidance and Control: http://www.itk.ntnu.no/emner/tk8109
Thor I. Fossen
Trondheim 3 January 2011
Chapter 2
Aircraft Modeling
This chapter gives an introduction to aircraft modeling. The equations of motion are lin
earized using perturbation theory and the nal results are statespace models for the longi
tudinal and lateral motions. The models can be used for aircraft simulation and design of
ight control systems.
2.1 Denition of Aircraft StateSpace Vectors
The aircraft velocity vector is dened according to (see Figure 2.1):
:=
_
_
l
\
\
1
Q
1
_
_
=
_
_
longitudinal (forward) velocity
lateral (transverse) velocity
vertical velocity
roll rate
pitch rate
yaw rate
_
_
(2.1)
:=
_
_
A
1
1
1
2
1
. /
_
=
_
_
Earthxed rposition
Earthxed position
Earthxed .position (axis downwards), altitude
roll angle
pitch angle
yaw angle
_
_
(2.2)
Forces and moments are dened in a similar manner:
_
_
A
1
2
1
`
`
_
_
:=
_
_
longitudinal force
transverse force
vertical force
roll moment
pitch moment
yaw moment
_
_
(2.3)
Comment 1: Notice that the capital letters 1. `. ` for the moments are dierent from
3
4 CHAPTER 2. AIRCRAFT MODELING
Figure 2.1: Denition of aircraft body axes, velocities, forces, moments and Euler angles
(McLean 1990).
those used for marine craftthat is, 1. `. `. The reason for this is that 1 is reserved as
length parameter for ships and underwater vehicles.
Comment 2: For aircraft it is common to use capital letters for the states l. \. \. etc.
while it is common to use small letters for marine craft.
2.2 BodyFixed Coordinate Systems for Aircraft
For aircraft it is common to use the following bodyxed coordinate systems:
Body axes
Stability axes
Wind axes
The axis systems are shown in Figure 2.2 where the angle of attack c and sideslip angle ,
are dened as:
tan(c) :=
\
l
(2.4)
sin(,) :=
\
\
T
(2.5)
where
\
T
=
_
l
2
+ \
2
+ \
2
(2.6)
2.2. BODYFIXED COORDINATE SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT 5
Figure 2.2: Denition of stability and wind axes for an aircraft (Stevens and Lewis 1992).
is the total speed of the aircraft. Aerodynamic eects are classied according to the Mach
number:
` :=
\
T
c
(2.7)
where c = 340 m/s = 1224 km/h is the speed of sound in air at a temperature of 20
c
C on
the ocean surface. The following terminology is speed:
Subsonic speed ` < 1.0
Transonic speed 0.8 _ ` _ 1.2
Supersonic speed 1.0 _ ` _ 5.0
Hypersonic speed 5.0 _ `
An aircraft will break the sound barrier at ` = 1.0 and this is clearly heard as a sharp
crack. If you y at low altitude and break the sound barrier, windows in building will break
due to pressureinduced waves.
2.2.1 Rotation matrices for wind and stability axes
The relationship between vectors expressed in dierent coordinate systems can be derived
using rotation matrices. The bodyxed coordinate system is rst rotated a negative sideslip
angle , about the .axis. The new coordinate system is then rotated a positive angle of
attack c about the new axis such that the resulting raxis points in the direction of the
total speed \
T
. The rst rotation denes the wind axes while the second rotation denes
6 CHAPTER 2. AIRCRAFT MODELING
the stability axes. This can be mathematically expressed as:
p
wind
= R
:,o
p
stab
=
_
_
cos(,) sin(,) 0
sin(,) cos(,) 0
0 0 1
_
_
p
stab
(2.8)
p
stab
= R
j,c
p
body
=
_
_
cos(c) 0 sin(c)
0 1 0
sin(c) 0 cos(c)
_
_
p
body
(2.9)
The rotation matrix becomes:
R
wind
body
= R
:,o
R
j,c
(2.10)
Hence,
p
wind
= R
wind
body
p
body
(2.11)
p
wind
=
_
_
cos(,) sin(,) 0
sin(,) cos(,) 0
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
cos(c) 0 sin(c)
0 1 0
sin(c) 0 cos(c)
_
_
p
body
(2.12)
p
wind
=
_
_
cos(c) cos(,) sin(,) sin(c) cos(,)
cos(c) sin(,) cos(,) sin(c) sin(,)
sin(c) 0 cos(c)
_
_
p
body
(2.13)
This gives the following relationship between the velocities in body and wind axes:
v
body
=
_
_
l
\
\
_
_
= (R
wind
body
)
>
v
wind
= R
>
j,c
R
>
:,o
_
_
\
T
0
0
_
_
=
_
_
\
T
cos(c) cos(,)
\
T
sin(,)
\
T
sin(c) cos(,)
_
_
(2.14)
Consequently,
l = \
T
cos(c) cos(,)
\ = \
T
sin(,)
\ = \
T
sin(c) cos(,)
(2.15)
2.3 Aircraft Equations of Motion
2.3.1 Kinematic equations for translation
The kinematic equations for translation and rotation of a bodyxed coordinate system
ABC with respect to a local geographic coordinate system NED (NorthEastDown) can be
expressed in terms or the Euler angles:
_
_
_
A
1
_
1
1
_
2
1
_
_
= R
ned
abc
_
_
l
\
\
_
_
= R
:,+
R
j,O
R
a,4
_
_
l
\
\
_
_
(2.16)
2.3. AIRCRAFT EQUATIONS OF MOTION 7
Expanding this expression gives:
_
_
_
A
1
_
1
1
_
2
1
_
_
=
_
_
c : 0
: c 0
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
c 0 :
0 1 0
: 0 c
_
_
_
_
1 0 0
0 c :
0 : c
_
_
_
_
l
\
\
_
_
(2.17)
_
_
_
A
1
_
1
1
_
2
1
_
_
=
_
_
cc :c + c:: :: + cc:
:c cc + ::: c: + ::c
: c: cc
_
_
_
_
l
\
\
_
_
2.3.2 Kinematic equations for attitude
The attitude is given by:
_
_
1
Q
1
_
_
=
_
_
_
0
0
_
_
+R
>
a,4
_
_
0
_
0
_
_
+R
>
a,4
R
>
j,O
_
_
0
0
_
_
_
(2.18)
which gives:
_
_
_
_
_
=
_
_
1 :t ct
0 c :
0 :,c c,c
_
_
_
_
1
Q
1
_
_
. c ,= 0 (2.19)
2.3.3 Rigidbody kinetics
The aircraft rigidbody kinetics can be expressed as (Fossen 1994, 2011):
:( _
1
+
2
1
) =
1
(2.20)
I
CG
_
2
+
2
(I
CG
2
) =
2
(2.21)
where
1
:= [l. \. \]
T
.
2
:= [1. Q. 1]
T
.
1
:= [A. 1. 2]
T
and
2
:= [1. `. `]
T
. It is as
sumed that the coordinate system is located in the aircraft center of gravity (CG). The
resulting model is written:
M
11
_ +C
11
() =
11
(2.22)
where
M
11
=
_
:I
SS
O
SS
O
SS
I
CG
_
. C
11
() =
_
:S(
2
) O
SS
O
SS
S(I
CG
2
)
_
(2.23)
The inertia tensor is dened as (assume that 1
aj
= 1
j:
= 0 which corresponds to r.plane
symmetry):
I
CG
:=
_
_
1
a
0 1
a:
0 1
j
0
1
a:
0 1
:
_
_
(2.24)
The forces and moments acting on the aircraft can be expressed as:
11
= g() + (2.25)
8 CHAPTER 2. AIRCRAFT MODELING
where is a generalized vector that includes aerodynamic and control forces. The gravita
tional force f
G
= [0 0 :q]
T
acts in the CG (origin of the bodyxed coordinate system) and
this gives the following vector expressed in NED:
g() = (R
ned
abc
)
>
_
f
G
O
S1
_
=
_
_
:q sin()
:q cos() sin()
:q cos() cos()
0
0
0
_
_
(2.26)
Hence, the aircraft model can be written in matrix form as:
M
11
_ +C
11
() +g() = (2.27)
or in component form:
:(
_
l + Q\ 1\ + q sin()) = A
:(
_
\ + l1 \1 q cos() sin()) = 1
:(
_
\ + \ 1 Ql q cos() cos()) = 2
1
a
_
1 1
a:
(
_
1 + 1Q) + (1
:
1
j
)Q1 = 1 (2.28)
1
j
_
Q+ 1
a:
(1
2
1
2
) + (1
a
1
:
)11 = `
1
:
_
1 1
a:
_
1 + (1
j
1
a
)1Q+ 1
a:
Q1 = `
2.3.4 Sensors and measurement systems
It is common that aircraft sensor systems are equipped with three accelerometers. If the
accelerometers are located in the CG, the measurement equations take the following form:
c
a
CG
=
A
:
=
_
l + Q\ 1\ + q sin() (2.29)
c
j
CG
=
1
:
=
_
\ + l1 \1 q cos() sin() (2.30)
c
:
CG
=
2
:
=
_
\ + \ 1 Ql q cos() cos() (2.31)
In addition to these sensors, an aircraft is equipped with gyros, magnetometers and a sensor
for altitude / and wind speed \
T
. These sensors are used in inertial navigation systems (INS)
which again use a Kalman lter to compute estimates of l. \. \. 1. Q and 1 as well as the
Euler angles , and . Other measurement systems that are used onboard aircraft are
global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), radar and sensors for angle of attack.
2.4 Perturbation Theory (Linear Theory)
The nonlinear equations of motion can be linearized by using perturbation theory. This is
illustrated below.
2.4. PERTURBATION THEORY (LINEAR THEORY) 9
2.4.1 Denition of nominal and perturbation values
According to linear theory it is possible to write the states as the sum of a nominal value
(usually constant) and a perturbation (deviation from the nominal value). Moreover,
Total state = Nominal value + Perturbation
The following denitions are made:
:=
0
+ o =
_
_
A
0
1
0
2
0
1
0
`
0
`
0
_
_
+
_
_
oA
o1
o2
o1
o`
o`
_
_
. :=
0
+ o =
_
_
l
0
\
0
\
0
1
0
Q
0
1
0
_
_
+
_
_
n
n
j
:
_
_
(2.32)
Similar, the angles are dened according to:
_
_
_
_
:=
_
_
0
0
_
_
+
_
_
o
c
_
_
(2.33)
Consequently, a linearized statespace model will consist of the following states n. . n. j. . :. o. c
and .
2.4.2 Linearization of the rigidbody kinetics
The rigidbody kinetics can be linearized by using perturbation theory.
Equilibrium condition
If the aerodynamic forces and moments, velocities, angles and control inputs are expressed
as nominal values and perturbations =
0
+o. =
0
+o and =
0
+o. the aircraft
equilibrium point will satisfy (it is assumed that _
0
= 0):
C
11
(
0
)
0
+g(
0
) =
0
(2.34)
This can be expanded according to:
:(Q
0
\
0
1
0
\
0
+ q sin(
0
)) = A
0
:(l
0
1
0
1
0
\
0
q cos(
0
) sin(
0
)) = 1
0
:(1
0
\
0
Q
0
l
0
q cos(
0
) cos(
0
)) = 2
0
(1
:
1
j
)Q
0
1
0
1
0
Q
0
1
a:
= 1
0
(2.35)
(1
2
0
1
2
0
)1
a:
+ (1
a
1
:
)1
0
1
0
= `
0
(1
j
1
a
)1
0
Q
0
+ Q
0
1
0
1
a:
= `
0
10 CHAPTER 2. AIRCRAFT MODELING
Perturbed equations
The perturbed equationsthat is, the linearized equations of motion are usually derived by
a 1storder Taylor series expansion about the nominal values. Alternatively, it is possible
to substitute (2.32) and (2.35) into (2.27) and neglect higherorder terms of the perturbed
states. This is illustrated for the rst degree of freedom (DOF):
Example 1 (Linearization of surge using perturbation theory)
:[
_
l + Q\ 1\ + q sin()] = A
(2.36)
:[
_
l
0
+ _ n + (Q
0
+ )(\
0
+ n) (1
0
+ :)(\
0
+ ) + q sin(
0
+ o)] = A
0
+ oA
This can be written:
sin(
0
+ o) = sin(
0
) cos(o) + cos(
0
) sin(o)
0 small
 sin(
0
) + cos(
0
)o (2.37)
Since
_
l
0
= 0 and
:(Q
0
\
0
1
0
\
0
+ q sin(
0
)) = A
0
(2.38)
Equation (2.36) is reduced to:
:[ _ n + Q
0
n + \
0
+ n 1
0
\
0
: : + q cos(
0
)o] = oA (2.39)
If it is assumed that the 2ndorder terms n and : are negligible, the linearized model
becomes:
:[ _ n + Q
0
n + \
0
1
0
\
0
: + q cos(
0
)o] = oA (2.40)
_
: 0 0
: 0 0
SS
0 0 :
1
a
0 1
a:
0
SS
0 1
j
0
1
a:
0 1
:
_
_
N
11
=
_
_
0 :1
0
:Q
0
0 :\
0
:\
0
:1
0
0 1
0
\
0
0 l
0
:Q
0
:1
0
0 :\
0
:l
0
0
1
a:
Q
0
(1
:
1
j
)1
0
1
a:
1
0
(1
:
1
j
)Q
0
0
SS
(1
a
1
:
)1
0
21
a:
1
0
(1
a
1
:
)1
0
21
a:
1
0
(1
j
1
a
)Q
0
(1
j
1
a
)1
0
+ 1
a:
1
0
1
a:
Q
0
_
_
G =
_
_
0 :q cos(
0
) 0
0
SS
:q cos(
0
) cos(
0
) :q sin(
0
) sin(
0
) 0
:q cos(
0
) sin(
0
) :q sin(
0
) cos(
0
) 0
0
SS
0
SS
_
_
In addition to this, the kinematic equations must be linearized.
2.4.3 Linear statespace model based using wind and stability axes
An alternative statespace model is obtained by using c and , as states. If it is assumed
that c and , are small such that cos(c)  1 and sin(,)  ,. Equation (2.15) can be written
as:
l = \
T
\ = \
T
,
\ = \
T
c
=
l = \
T
, =
\
\
T
c =
W
\
T
(2.43)
Furthermore, the statespace vector:
x =
_
_
n
,
c
j
:
_
_
=
_
_
surge velocity
sideslip angle
angle of attack
roll rate
pitch rate
yaw rate
_
_
(2.44)
is chosen to describe motions in 6 DOF. The relationship between the bodyxed velocity
vector:
= [n. . n. j. . :]
T
(2.45)
and the new statespace vector x can be written as:
= Tx = diag1. \
T
. \
T
. 1. 1. 1. 1x (2.46)
12 CHAPTER 2. AIRCRAFT MODELING
where \
T
0. If the total speed is \
T
= l
0
= constant (linear theory), it is seen that:
_ c =
1
\
T
_ n (2.47)
_
, =
1
\
T
_ (2.48)
_
\
T
= 0 (2.49)
If nonlinear theory is applied, the following dierential equations are obtained:
_ c =
l
_
\ \
_
l
l
2
+ \
2
(2.50)
_
, =
_
\ \
T
\
_
\
T
\
2
T
cos ,
(2.51)
_
\
T
=
l
_
l + \
_
\ + \
_
\
\
T
(2.52)
In the linear case it is possible to transform the bodyxed statespace model:
_ = F +Gu (2.53)
to
_ x = Ax +Bu (2.54)
where
A = T
1
FT. B = T
1
G (2.55)
For
_
\
T
,= 0 this transformation is much more complicated. The linear statespace transfor
mation is commonly used by aircraft manufactures. An example is the Boeing B767 model
(see Chapter 4).
2.5 Decoupling in Longitudinal and Lateral Modes
For an aircraft it is common to assume that the longitudinal modes (DOFs 1, 3 and 5)
are decoupled from the lateral modes (DOFs 2, 4 and 6). The key assumption is that the
fuselage is slenderthat is, the length is much larger than the width and the height of the
aircraft. It is also assumed that the the longitudinal velocity is much larger than the vertical
and transversal velocities.
In order to decouple the rigidbody kinetics (2.41) in longitudinal and lateral modes it
will be assumed that the states . j. : and c are negligible in the longitudinal channel while
n. n. and o are negligible when considering the lateral channel. This gives two subsystems:
2.5. DECOUPLING IN LONGITUDINAL AND LATERAL MODES 13
2.5.1 Longitudinal equations
Kinetics:
:[ _ n + Q
0
n + \
0
+ q cos(
0
)o] = oA
:[ _ n l
0
Q
0
n + q sin(
0
) cos(
0
)o] = o2 (2.56)
1
j
_ = o`
_
_
: 0 0
0 : 0
0 0 1
j
_
_
_
_
_ n
_ n
_
_
_
+
_
_
0 :Q
0
:\
0
:Q
0
0 :l
0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
n
n
_
_
+
_
_
:q cos(
0
)
:q sin(
0
) cos(
0
)
0
_
_
o =
_
_
oA
o2
o`
_
_
(2.57)
Kinematics:
_
o = (2.58)
2.5.2 Lateral equations
Kinetics:
:[ _ + l
0
: \
0
j q cos(
0
) cos(
0
)c] = o1
1
a
_ j 1
a:
_ : + (1
:
1
j
)Q
0
: 1
a:
Q
0
j = o1 (2.59)
1
:
_ : 1
a:
_ j + (1
j
1
a
)Q
0
j + 1
a:
Q
0
: = o`
_
_
: 0 0
0 1
a
1
a:
0 1
a:
1
:
_
_
_
_
_
_ j
_ :
_
_
+
_
_
0 :\
0
:l
0
0 1
a:
Q
0
(1
:
1
j
)Q
0
0 (1
j
1
a
)Q
0
1
a:
Q
0
_
_
_
_
j
:
_
_
+
_
_
:q cos(
0
) cos(
0
)
0
0
_
_
c =
_
_
o1
o1
o`
_
_
(2.60)
Kinematics:
_
_
c
_
_
=
_
1 tan(
0
)
0 1, cos(
0
)
_ _
j
:
_
(2.61)
14 CHAPTER 2. AIRCRAFT MODELING
Figure 2.3: Control inputs for conventional aircraft. Notice that the two ailerons can be
controlled by using one control input: o
= 1,2(o
L
+ o
R
).
2.6 Aerodynamic Forces and Moments
In the forthcoming sections, the following abbreviations and notation will be used to describe
the aerodynamic coecients:
A
index
=
0A
0 index
1
index
=
01
0 index
1
index
=
0Y
0 index
`
index
=
0A
0 index
2
index
=
0Z
0 index
`
index
=
0.
0 index
In order to illustrate how control surfaces inuence the aircraft, an aircraft equipped with
the following control inputs will be considered (se Figure 2.3):
2.6. AERODYNAMIC FORCES AND MOMENTS 15
o
T
Thrust Jet/propeller
o
1
Elevator
Control surfaces on the rear of the aircraft used for pitch and
altitude control
o
Aileron
Hinged control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing used
for roll/bank control
o
1
Flaps
Hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings used for braking
and banktoturn
o
1
Rudder Vertical control surface at the rear of the aircraft used for turning
Linear theory will be assumed in order to reduce the number of aerodynamic coecients.
Control inputs and aerodynamic forces and moments are written as:
= M
1
_ N
1
+Bu (2.62)
where M
1
is aerodynamic added mass, N
1
ia aerodynamic damping and B is a matrix
describing the actuator conguration including the force coecients. The actuator dynamics
is modeled by a 1storder system:
_ u = T
1
(u
c
u) (2.63)
where u
c
is commanded input, u is the actual control input produced by the actuators and
T = diag{1
1
. 1
2
. .... 1
v
} is a diagonal matrix of positive time constants. Substitution of (2.62)
into the model (2.42) gives:
(M
11
+M
1
) _ + (N
11
+N
F
) +G = Bu
(2.64)
M_ +N +G = Bu
The matrices M and N are dened as M = M
11
+M
1
and N = N
11
+N
F
. The linearized
kinematics takes the following form:
_ = J
i
+J
j
(2.65)
The resulting statespace models are:
Linear statespace model with actuator dynamics
_
_
_
_
_ u
_
_
=
_
_
J
j
J
i
0
M
1
G M
1
N M
1
B
0 0 T
1
_
_
_
_
u
_
_
+
_
_
0
0
T
1
_
_
u
c
(2.66)
Linear statespace model neglecting the actuator dynamics
_
_
_
_
=
_
J
j
J
i
M
1
G M
1
N
_ _
_
+
_
0
M
1
B
_
u (2.67)
16 CHAPTER 2. AIRCRAFT MODELING
2.6.1 Longitudinal aerodynamic forces and moments
McLean [7] expresses the longitudinal forces and moments as:
_
_
dA
d2
d`
_
_
=
_
_
A
` &
A
` &
A
` q
2
` &
2
` &
2
` q
`
` &
`
` &
`
` q
_
_
_
_
_ n
_ n
_
_
_
+
_
_
A
&
A
&
A
q
2
&
2
&
2
q
`
q
`
&
`
q
_
_
_
_
n
n
_
_
+
_
_
A
c
T
A
c
E
A
c
F
2
T
2
c
E
2
c
F
`
c
T
`
c
E
`
c
F
_
_
_
_
o
T
o
1
o
1
_
_
(2.68)
which corresponds to the matrices M
1
. N
1
and B in (2.62). If the aircraft cruise speed
l
0
= constant, then o
T
= 0. Altitude can be controlled by using the elevators o
1
. Flaps o
1
can be used to reduce the speed during landing. The aps can also be used to turn harder
for instance by moving one ap while the other is kept at the zero position. This is common
in banktoturn maneuvers. For conventional aircraft the following aerodynamic coecients
can be neglected:
A
` &
. A
q
. A
` &
. A
c
E
. 2
` &
. 2
` &
. `
` &
(2.69)
Hence, the model for altitude control reduces to:
_
_
dA
d2
d`
_
_
=
_
_
0 0 A
` q
0 0 2
` q
0 `
` &
`
` q
_
_
_
_
_ n
_ n
_
_
_
+
_
_
A
&
A
&
0
2
&
2
&
2
q
`
q
`
&
`
q
_
_
_
_
n
n
_
_
+
_
_
A
c
E
2
c
E
`
c
E
_
_
o
1
(2.70)
If the actuator dynamics is important, aerodynamic coecients such as A
`
c
T
. A
`
c
E
. ... must
be included in the model.
2.6.2 Lateral aerodynamic forces and moments
The lateral model takes the form [7]:
_
_
d1
d1
d`
_
_
=
_
_
1
`
1
` j
1
` v
1
`
1
` j
1
` v
`
`
`
` j
`
` v
_
_
_
_
_
_ j
_ :
_
_
+
_
_
1
1
j
1
v
1
1
j
1
v
`
`
j
`
v
_
_
_
_
j
:
_
_
+
_
_
1
c
A
1
c
R
1
c
A
1
c
R
`
c
A
`
c
R
_
_
_
o
o
1
_
(2.71)
which corresponds to the matrices M
1
. N
1
and B in (2.62). For conventional aircraft
the following aerodynamic coecients can be neglected:
1
`
. 1
j
. 1
` j
. 1
v
. 1
` v
. 1
c
A
,
1
`
. 1
` v
. `
`
. `
` v
(2.72)
This gives:
_
_
d1
d1
d`
_
_
=
_
_
0 0 0
0 1
` j
0
0 `
` j
0
_
_
_
_
_
_ j
_ :
_
_
+
_
_
1
0 0
1
1
j
1
v
`
`
j
`
v
_
_
_
_
j
:
_
_
+
_
_
0 1
c
R
1
A
1
c
R
`
c
A
`
c
R
_
_
_
o
o
1
_
(2.73)
2.7. STANDARD AIRCRAFT MANEUVERS 17
2.7 Standard Aircraft Maneuvers
The nominal values depends on the aircraft maneuver. For instance:
1. Straight ight:
0
= Q
0
= 1
0
= 0
2. Symmetric ight:
0
= \
0
= 0
3. Flying with wings level:
0
= 1
0
= 0
Constant angular rate maneuvers can be classied according to:
1. Steady turn: 1
0
= constant
2. Steady pitching ight: Q
0
= constant
3. Steady rolling/spinning ight: 1
0
= constant
2.7.1 Dynamic equation for coordinated turn (banktoturn)
A frequently used maneuver is coordinated turn where the acceleration in the direction is
zero (
_
, = 0), sideslip , = 0 and zero steadystate pitch and roll anglesthat is,
, =
_
, = 0 (2.74)
0
=
0
= 0 (2.75)
Furthermore it is assumed that \
T
= l
0
= constant. Since , =
_
, = 0 and , = \,l
0
it
follows that \ =
_
\ = 0. This implies that the external forces o1 = 0. From (2.28) it is seen
that:
:[
_
\ + l1 \1 q cos() sin()] = 1 (2.76)
:[(l
0
+ n)(1
0
+ :) (\
0
+ n)(1
0
+ j) q cos(o) sin(c)] = 1
0
(2.77)
Assume that the longitudinal and lateral motions are decoupledthat is, n = n = = o = 0.
If perturbation theory is applied under the assumption that the 2ndorder terms n: = jn =
0.we get:
:(l
0
1
0
+ l
0
: \
0
1
0
\
0
j q sin(c)) = 1
0
(2.78)
The equilibrium equation (2.35) gives the steadystate condition:
:(l
0
1
0
\
0
1
0
) = 1
0
(2.79)
Substitution of (2.79) into (2.78) gives:
:(l
0
: \
0
j q sin(c)) = 0 (2.80)
or
: =
\
0
l
0
j +
q
l
0
sin(c) (2.81)
18 CHAPTER 2. AIRCRAFT MODELING
The aircraft is often trimmed such that the angle of attack c
0
= \
0
,l
0
= 0. This implies
that the yaw rate can be expressed as:
: =
q
l
0
sin(c)
small

q
l
0
c (2.82)
which is a very important result since it states that a roll angle angle c dierent from zero
will induce a yaw rate : which again turns the aircraft (banktoturn). With other words, we
can use a moment in roll, for instance generated by the ailerons, to turn the aircraft. The
yaw angle is given by:
_
= : (2.83)
An alternative method is of course to turn the aircraft by using the rear rudder to generate
a yaw moment. The banktoturn principle is used in many missile control systems since it
improves maneuverability, in particular in combination with a rudder controlled system.
Example 2 (Augmented turning model using rear rudders)
Turning autopilots using the rudder o
1
as control input is based on the lateral statespace
model. The dierential equation for is augmented on the lateral model as shown below:
_
_
_
_ j
_ :
_
c
_
_
=
_
_
c
11
c
12
c
1S
c
11
0
c
21
c
22
c
2S
0 0
c
S1
c
S2
c
SS
0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0
_
_
_
j
:
c
_
+
_
_
/
11
/
21
/
S1
0
0
_
_
o
1
(2.84)
= 1,2(o
L
+ o
R
). This is done by augmenting the bankto
turn equation (2.82) to the statespace model according to:
_
_
_
_ j
_ :
_
c
_
_
=
_
_
c
11
c
12
c
1S
c
11
0
c
21
c
22
c
2S
0 0
c
S1
c
S2
c
SS
0 0
0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0
j
l
0
0
_
_
_
j
:
c
_
+
_
_
/
11
/
21
/
S1
0
0
_
_
o
(2.85)
/ = oc
:
= l
0
_ n (2.91)
If we integrate this expression under the assumption that
_
/(0) = l
0
o(0) n(0) = 0, we get:
_
/ = l
0
o n (2.92)
The ight path is dened as:
:= o c (2.93)
where c = n,l
0
. This gives the resulting dierential equation for altitude control:
_
/ = l
0
(2.94)
Example 4 (Augmented model for altitude control using ailerons)
An autopilot model for altitude control based on the longitudinal statespace model with
states n. n(alt. c). and o is obtained by augmenting the dierential equation for / to the
statespace model according to:
_
_
_ n
_ n
_
_
o
_
/
_
_
+
_
_
c
11
c
12
c
1S
c
11
0
c
21
c
22
c
2S
c
21
0
c
S1
c
S2
c
SS
0 0
0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 l
0
0
_
_
_
_
n
n
o
/
_
_
+
_
_
/
11
/
12
/
21
/
22
/
S1
/
S2
0 0
0 0
_
_
_
o
T
o
1
_
(2.95)
+ c
1
`
1
+ c
S
`
S
+ c
2
`
2
+ c
1
` + c
0
= 0 (2.98)
1
j:
+ 1
a:
j 1
:
: 0 1
a:
: 1
aj
+ 1
a
j
1
j:
: 1
aj
j + 1
j
1
a:
: + 1
aj
1
a
j 0
_
_
(3.8)
3.2 Satellite Model Stability Properties
Consider the Lyapunov function candidate:
\ =
1
2
!
>
I
CG
! + /() (3.9)
where /() is a positive denite function depending of the attitude. Dierentiation of \
with respect to time gives:
_
\ = !
T
I
CG
_ ! +
_
>J/
J
(3.10)
= !
>
(S(!)! +) +!
>
J
>
()
J/
J
(3.11)
Since S(!) = S
>
(!). it follows that:
!
>
S(!)! = 0 \! (3.12)
This suggests that the control input should be chosen as:
_
\ = !
>
_
+J
>
()
J/
J
_
_ 0 (3.13)
One control law satisfying this is:
= K
o
! J
>
()
J/
J
(3.14)
where K
o
0. This nally gives:
_
\ = !
>
K
o
! _ 0 (3.15)
and stability and convergence follow from standard Lyapunov techniques.
3.3 Design of Satellite Attitude Control Systems
Design of nonlinear control systems based on the model (3.6) is quite common in the litera
ture. One example is the nonlinear and passive adaptive attitude control system of Slotine
and Di Benedetto [10]. An alternative representation is proposed by Fossen [3].
Chapter 4
Matlab Simulation Models
4.1 Boeing767
The longitudinal and lateral B767 statespace models are given below. The state vectors
are:
x
lang
=
_
_
n (ft/s)
c (deg)
(deg/s)
o (deg)
_
_
. x
lat
=
_
_
, (deg)
j (deg/s)
c (deg/s)
: (deg)
_
_
(4.1)
u
lang
=
_
o
1
(deg)
o
T
(%)
_
. u
lat
=
_
o
(deg)
o
1
(deg)
_
(4.2)
Equilibrium point:
Speed \
T
= 890 ft/s = 980 km/h
Altitude / = 35 000 ft
Mass : = 184 000 lbs
Machnumber ` = 0.8
4.1.1 Longitudinal model
a = [ 0.0168 0.1121 0.0003 0.5608
0.0164 0.7771 0.9945 0.0015
0.0417 3.6595 0.9544 0
0 0 1.0000 0];
b = [ 0.0243 0.0519
0.0634 0.0005
3.6942 0.0243
0 0 ];
25
26 CHAPTER 4. MATLAB SIMULATION MODELS
Eigenvalues:
lam = [
0.8678 + 1.9061i
0.8678  1.9061i
0.0064 + 0.0593i
0.0064  0.0593i];
4.1.2 Lateral model
a = [
0.1245 0.0350 0.0414 0.9962
15.2138 2.0587 0.0032 0.6458
0 1.0000 0 0.0357
1.6447 0.0447 0.0022 0.1416];
b = [
0.0049 0.0237
4.0379 0.9613
0 0
0.0568 1.2168];
Eigenvalues:
lam = [
0.1121 + 1.4996i
0.1121  1.4996i
2.0863
0.0143];
4.2 F16 Fighter
The lateral model of the F16 ghter aircraft is based on [11], pages 370371. The state
vectors are:
x
lat
=
_
_
, (ft/s)
c (ft/s)
j (rad/s)
: (rad)
o
(rad)
o
1
(rad)
:
&
(rad)
_
_
. u
lat
=
_
n
(rad)
n
1
(rad)
_
. y
lat
=
_
_
:
&
(deg)
j (deg,s)
, (deg)
c (deg)
_
_
(4.3)
Equilibrium point:
Speed \
T
= 502 ft/s = 552 km/h
Machnumber ` = 0.45
4.2. F16 FIGHTER 27
4.2.1 Longitudinal model
a = [
0.3220 0.0640 0.0364 0.9917 0.0003 0.0008 0
0 0 1 0.0037 0 0 0
30.6492 0 3.6784 0.6646 0.7333 0.1315 0
8.5396 0 0.0254 0.4764 0.0319 0.0620 0
0 0 0 0 20.2 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 20.2 0
0 0 0 57.2958 0 0 1 ];
b = [
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
20.2 0
0 20.2
0 0 ];
c= [
0 0 0 57.2958 0 0 1
0 0 57.2958 0 0 0 0
57.2958 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 57.2958 0 0 0 0 0 ];
Eigenvalues:
lam = [
1.0000
0.4224+ 3.0633i
0.4224 3.0633i
0.0167
3.6152
20.2000
20.2000 ];
Notice that the last two eigenvalues correspond to the actuator states.
28 CHAPTER 4. MATLAB SIMULATION MODELS
Figure 4.1: Schematic drawing of the Bristol F.2B Fighter (McRuer et al 1973).
4.3 F2B Bristol Fighter
The lateral model of the F2B Bristol ghter aircraft is given below [8]. This is a British
aircraft from World War I (see Figure 4.1). The aircraft model is for , = 0 (coordinated
turn). The statespace vector is:
x
lat
=
_
_
j (deg/s)
: (deg/s)
c (deg)
(deg)
_
_
. u
lat
= [o
(deg)] (4.4)
where the dynamics for satises the banktoturn equation:
_
=
q
l
0
c =
9.81
138 0.3048
c = 0. 233c (4.5)
Equilibrium point:
Speed \
T
= 138 ft/s = 151.4 km/h
Altitude / = 6 000 ft
Machnumber ` = 0.126
4.3. F2B BRISTOL FIGHTER 29
4.3.1 Lateral model
a = [
7.1700 2.0600 0 0
0.4360 0.3410 0 0
1.0000 0 0 0
0 0 0.2330 0];
b = [
26.1000
1.6600
0
0];
Eigenvalues:
lam = [
0
0
0.4752
7.0358];
30 CHAPTER 4. MATLAB SIMULATION MODELS
Bibliography
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[2] Etkin, B. and L. D. Reid (1996). Dynamics of Flight: Stability and Control (John
Wiley & Sons Ltd.)
[3] Fossen, T. I. (1993). Comments on Hamiltonian Adaptive Control of Spacecraft,
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[4] Fossen, T. I. (1994). Guidance and Control of Ocean Vehicles (John Wiley & Sons
Ltd.)
[5] Fossen, T. I. (2011). Handbook of Marine Craft Hydrodynamics and Motion Control.
(John Wiley & Sons Ltd.)
[6] Hughes, P. C. (1986). Spacecraft Attitude Dynamics (John Wiley & Sons Ltd.)
[7] McLean, D. (1990). Automatic Flight Control Systems (Prentice Hall Inc.)
[8] McRuer, D., D. Ashkenas og A. I. Graham (1973). Aircraft Dynamics and
Automatic Control. (Princeton University Press, New Jersey 1973).
[9] Nelson R. C. (1998). Flight Stability and Automatic Control (McGrawHill Int.)
[10] Slotine, J. J. E. og M. D. Di Benedetto (1990). Hamiltonian Adaptive Control
of Spacecraft, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, TAC35(7):848852.
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31