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Guide to using

ECO-it 1.3

By PR Consultants, the Netherlands, www.pre.nl

Contents
Overview
Introduction Support

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Getting started
Installation System requirements Running Set-up Register your licence

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How to use Eco-indicators


Introduction Step 1: Establish the purpose of the Eco-indicator calculation Step 2: Define the life cycle Step 3: Quantify materials and processes Step 4: Enter the data in ECO-it. Step 5: Interpret the results

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Guided tour
Your goal Precision Defining the functional unit Start a new project Production phase Working with parts Entering the product structure Entering materials and processes Collapsing and expanding the product structure Entering amounts Unit conversion First results Editing the tree Use phase The importance of the use phase How to enter processes and additional life cycles Use parts Use processes Entering additional life cycles Disposal phase Waste scenarios Negative values Defining the waste scenario
Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

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Chart window Auto scale Lock item

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Program reference
Starting the program Main window File menu New Project Open Project Save Project Save Project As Close Project Databases Print Register Exit Main window Edit menu Cut Copy Paste Delete Line Add Part Add Process Add Additional Life cycle Update processes Main window View menu Expand Whole Tree Additional life cycle project file Indicator Bars Indicator Values Chart Main window Help menu Contents Information On Database About Chart window speed buttons

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Index

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Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

Overview
Introduction
ECO-it, or Eco-indicator tool is a simple tool for Ecodesign. It works with Eco-indicators, these are single scores that express the seriousness of the environmental load of a process or material. The higher the score, the more serious the impact. More information on the Eco-indicator methodology and the supplied database is available in the help file supplied with the standard database (Choose menu option Help|Information On Databases). The program structure is simple. There is a Main window with four pages: 1. 2. Life cycle page, allowing you to describe the product life cycle under investigation. Production page, where you can enter the hierarchical structure of the product, and specify the materials and production processes per part. These materials and processes are chosen from the Select a process dialog box. The database holds the Eco-indicator values of material-, energy- and transport processes. Use page, where you can enter the energy and transport components. A unique feature is the additional life cycle. This allows you to link a pre-defined product like packaging, with its own life cycle, into the use phase. Disposal page, where you can specify the waste scenario for the product or for different parts and materials.

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When you enter data, you get immediate feedback on the environmental load. As a default this load is presented as a red (positive value) or yellow (negative value) bar at each line. A more sophisticated presentation can be created by using the bar or pie chart from a separate Chart window. The database of ECO-it can only be edited or expanded by LCA experts. In order to do that a separate program ECO-edit is needed.

Support
Support is limited to technical support during installation; please contact support@pre.nl In case you have received a licence via other suppliers or educational institutes, please do not contact PR, but contact these suppliers or institutes Support is only given on registered versions. Support does not include help on additional eco-indicators, for materials or processes For a better understanding of the methods we suggest you download the Eco-indicator reports found on www.pre.nl

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

Overview 2

Getting started
Installation
System requirements
This program requires a PC with Microsoft Windows 95 or up and 8 MB or more RAM memory. To install the program you need 1,5 MB free disk space. To store projects you need at least a few hundred KB free disk space. A typical project has a size between 10 and 100 KB.

Running Set-up
ECO-it is supplied as downloadable file, or on CD or diskette. In all cases the procedure is: 1. 2. Start the installation program SETUP.EXE

Follow the instructions of the installation program. The standard database is stored in the subdirectory MY DOCUMENTS\ECO-IT\DATABASE and the example projects are stored in the subdirectory MY DOCUMENTS\ECO-IT\PROJECTS. You can remove all installed files with the uninstall program that will be delivered with ECO-it in the same program group.

Register your licence


In case you have received a registered version via other suppliers or educational institutes you do not have to register, and you can skip this part and start right away. Please observe the licensing rules provided by your supplier, and never pass on your licence to others After you have installed the program and you start up, a message will be displayed, reminding you that this is an unregistered evaluation version. You are entitled to use this version for 10 days without registration. After that period, the software will only run as demo. This means that you cannot change any data anymore, but you can still inspect your old work. While running as unregistered evaluation licence, you will notice the following limitations: The reminder screen will remain visible during some time. On all print-outs you will get a message UNREGISTRED SHAREWARE VERSION To obtain a registration code, please use one of the following options: Register online via www.pre.nl, using a credit card Fax an order form to PR Consultants, +31 33 4555024. Order forms can be downloaded from the web site, or they can be requested via support@pre.nl , or per fax A licence code has three parts, the user name, the name of the organisation and a registration number. To get access to the full program, select Register from the File menu. A dialog box will be displayed with three fields. Please enter your name, the company name and the registration code, exactly as specified in the information from PR. After you have done this, the program will switch to the registered version. Your name and company name will be displayed in the About dialog box.
Guide to using ECO-it 1.3 Getting started 4

If your name or your company name is not spelled correctly, please fax or e-mail the proper name to PR Consultants. The licence is not transferable to other persons, it is not permitted to use a licence code for more than one installation.

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

Getting started 5

How to use Eco-indicators


Introduction
The following steps must always be followed to ensure correct application of the Eco-indicator: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Establish the purpose of the Eco-indicator calculation. Define the life cycle. Quantify materials and processes. Enter the data in ECO-it. Interpret the results.

In most cases it is recommended that in the first instance you start simply and carry out a rough calculation. Details can then be added and data can be revised or supplemented at a later stage. This ensures that you do not waste too much time with details.

Step 1: Establish the purpose of the Eco-indicator calculation



Describe the product or product component that is being analysed. Define whether an analysis of this product is being carried out or a comparison with another product. Define the level of accuracy required.

If the purpose of the calculation is to obtain a rapid overall impression of a products major environmentally-damaging processes, it is sufficient to include a number of core items. This will result in approximate assumptions being made and far from all details being included. At a later stage, however, you may well wish to look specifically and in detail for alternatives to aspects of the problem or, for example, to compare a new design with an existing one. In that case a more meticulous approach is necessary to allow a solid, fair basis for comparison. It is also possible with comparisons to disregard components or processes that are common to both product life cycles.

Step 2: Define the life cycle


Draw up a schematic overview of the products life cycle, paying equal attention to production, use and waste processing.

With a life cycle assessment the essential feature is to analyse the products life cycle and not just the product. It is therefore necessary to have not only an (outline) description of a product but also an outline of its life cycle. The performance provided by the product and the waste scenario are important elements of the description. An example is given below of a simplified life cycle of a coffee machine for domestic use. Such a process tree provides a useful insight for further analysis.

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

How to use Eco-indicators 6

coffee bean roasting

paper filter production

polystyrene injection moulding

aluminium

sheet steel stamping forming

glas

extrusion

forming

assembly + transport packaging electricity use water disposal of filters + coffee in org. waste disposal in municipal waste

Example of a simplified process tree for the life cycle of a coffee machine.

Step 3: Quantify materials and processes



Determine a functional unit. Quantify all relevant processes from the process tree. Make assumptions for any missing data.

In the LCA method the description of product, life cycle and performance is termed the functional unit. A quantity can now be determined for each process in the process tree on the basis of this functional unit and the product data. Particularly when making comparisons it is important that the performance delivered by both products is the same. Not all details of a product life cycle are generally known; a number of estimates are therefore needed. These estimates can have two results:

The omission of a component or process. This is only acceptable if its contribution is minor compared with the rest. The user estimates a quantity himself.

In general it is better to make a number of estimates first and then later to seek more accurate data if this turns out to be necessary. Examples of functional unit 1. A functional unit for a domestic coffee machine is determined as follows. What is the purpose of the coffee machine? to make coffee and keep it hot for 30 minutes. What is its life cycle? The coffee machine needs to last for 5 years, 5 cups of coffee twice a day and it uses new paper filter each time. The functional unit is then: A coffee machine which brews 5 cups of coffee 2 times a day and keeps this coffee hot for 30 minutes after brewing.

2. A disposable nappy is compared with a washable one. Purpose: The purpose of nappies is to absorb faeces and urine before an infant is pottytrained.
Guide to using ECO-it 1.3 How to use Eco-indicators 7

Life cycle: assuming a period of 30 months, the baby uses 6 nappies per day and the washable nappy is washed and dried. The functional unit is therefore the use for 30 months 6 nappies a day.

Step 4: Enter the data in ECO-it.



Define the components, the use processes, additional products. Enter the materials and processes, and add the amounts.

If an indicator value for a material or process is missing this causes a missing indicator/material problem that can be resolved as follows: Check whether the missing indicator could make a significant contribution to the total environmental impact. Substitute a known indicator for the unknown one. If you study the list you will see that the indicator values for plastics are always in the same range. Based on this it is possible to estimate a value for a missing plastic that is within this range. Request an environmental expert to calculate a new indicator value. Software packages are available for this purpose. The omission of a material or process because no indicator value is available is only admissible if it is clear that the anticipated contribution of this part is very small. It is generally better to estimate than to omit.

Step 5: Interpret the results


Combine (provisional) conclusions with the results. Check the effect of assumptions and uncertainties. Amend conclusions (if appropriate). Check whether the purpose of the analysis has been met.

It is possible to conclude from the size of the scores which processes and phases in the life cycle are the most important or not (a large score signalling a large environmental effect and therefore an important area for potential improvement). To ensure validity and completeness in your projects: always verify the effect of assumptions and uncertainties. look at what happens when you change the assumptions slightly, ensure that the main conclusion is still valid when you do so; if the conclusion does not stand up then you will need to reassess your assumptions.

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

How to use Eco-indicators 8

Guided tour
Your goal
ECO-it has been developed especially to find the main path(s) of the environmental load in a product life cycle:

Which life-cycle phase is most important? In some product the use phase is dominant, in other products disposal or production is dominant. Which part, material or process is most important?

With this information you can direct your attention and creativity on finding alternative design solutions.

Precision
Before you can analyse your product, it is useful to realise how detailed you would like to work. If you are only interested to get a first impression it is of no use spending much time to make a detailed product description. A rough estimate of the most important materials, production and use processes will probably be sufficient to show you which life cycle phase is most important.

Defining the functional unit


After you decide what your goal is and how detailed you want to get it is time to define the functional unit. This is a description of the product, its life cycle and its performance. Based on this functional unit you make your Eco-indicator calculations. In the supplied project Coffee maker demo the functional unit for a domestic coffee machine is determined as follows. The purpose of the coffee machine is to make coffee and keep it hot. The following are therefore chosen for the functional unit: all the products and processes needed for the provision of coffee for a household for a certain period. A certain period then has to be specified (say, five years) and the average coffee consumption per household has to be estimated. This can be, for example: making 5 cups of coffee twice a day and keeping it hot for half an hour after brewing. The number of filters (3650) and the energy consumption can then be included based on this assumption.

Start a new project


You can start a new project by choosing New Project from the File-menu. First make a few notes on the first page, called Life cycle. Enter the name of the project and your own name, as well as a short description. This description can be very useful for describing the functional unit. The date and the method will be filled in by the program. You can edit the date field but not the method field. The method refers to the method that was used to create the database Eco-indicator scores which are used in your project(s).

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

Guided tour 10

Production phase
Working with parts
A product can be structured as a set of parts. Parts can have sub-parts, which in turn can have other sub-parts. This hierarchical structure (the product tree) will allow you to enter complex products without loosing track of the product structure. On the production page you can add so called productparts, on the use page you can add so called use-parts. On the bottom level of the tree all parts are described as a set of materials and processes. ECO-it does not automatically see a relation between materials and processes, For instance if you specify that a part contains 42 gram PVC, you also have to specify that you will need to use injection moulding to process 42 gram PVC. Apart from the production processes you have to enter the transport processes that are needed to bring materials or parts to the production plant.

Entering the product structure


You start by naming the product (the top line) and the parts. Double click on the name Product on the top level of the tree, and type the name of your choice (22 characters). You can add product-parts to the product structure, by using the speed button. Each time you click on this button a new part is generated. Under amount you can enter the number of parts in the product. The column with the heading "Number" displays the total number of parts or sub-parts in the product.

In ECO-it, this can be entered as shown. In this example the table has four legs, each leg contains 5 screws. ECO-it will automatically calculate that there are 20 screws.

Entering materials and processes


Next you can enter the materials and processes for each part. To insert a line where you can place a material or process click on the speed button. A new line is created and next the Select a process dialog box is displayed. In this dialog box you can select a material or process. To replace an existing material or process double click on the name, then the Select a process dialog box is displayed. If the Select a process dialog box does not display any processes, you should first add a database in the Databases dialog box (menu option File|Databases).

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Guided tour 11

The Select a process dialog box consists of three list boxes and a comment and database field. First select the Category, then the Sub-category and then the process or material. The comment field supplies additional information on the currently selected material or process. The database field displays the name of the database to which the selected process belongs. The most right-hand column also specifies the Eco-indicator score. For all materials, this score is per kg. For other processes this score can be per m2, tonkm, or m. If you have selected a material or process simply double click on it or use the OK button. The selected material or process will now be copied to the part you where working on in the Production page. Please note that a unit is also displayed.

Collapsing and expanding the product structure


As you will see each type of process will have it's separate icon, that will make it easier to recognise the process type. A specials feature is the ability to (partially) collapse the tree, which represents the product structure, just as this is done in some other programs, like file managers. Each branch of the tree can collapse if you press the box with the - sign at the far left-hand side. When the tree has collapsed, the - sign will turn into a + sign. By pressing the box with the + sign, the tree is expanded again. Collapsing and expanding does not alter the data, only the way data is presented. You can expand an item and all its sub-items with the menu option Edit|Expand all.

Entering amounts
The next step is to determine the amount. This can simply be done by typing a value in the Amount column. If your product contains identical parts, please enter the amount of the processes for one part, and specify the number of parts in the Amounts column.

Editing a value
To enter a value first double click on the field or press enter. The field will switch to edit mode so that you can enter a value. When finished press Enter. The field will switch back to view mode and any change you made will be processes immediately. E.g. if you change an amount the whole project will be recalculated and the result values in the right-hand column and the Chart window will be renewed.

Unit conversion
If you have to enter a very small or large number, you can use different units in ECO-it. Double click on the unit field and a combobox control will appear. If you press the arrow, you can select another unit, e.g. grams (g) instead of kilograms (kg). ECO-it will automatically use the correct conversion factor when you have chosen a unit. If you change the unit the amount will not be changed with it.

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Guided tour 12

First results
When you enter amounts a red bar or a number will appear in the most right-hand column. This represents the Eco-indicator value. You can switch between bar graphs and numbers with speed buttons. The button switches to numbers, the button switches to bars. The Chart window section describes how you can display the results in a more sophisticated way.

Editing the tree


If you want to remove a line, you just press on the speed button. The adjoining speed buttons can be used to cut , copy and paste lines or groups of lines (a part with all sub-parts and processes) of the production or use tree to an other destination. This is for instance useful when you want to restructure the product or use tree. You can copy lines (parts and processes) from one project to another project but you cannot copy the whole tree.

Use phase
The importance of the use phase
It is often overlooked that the use phase of products can have a very dominant environmental impact. It is therefore important to make a good estimate of the amounts of energy or materials used in this phase. For instance in the coffee machine example (supplied with the demo), the use phase contributes to 90% of the environmental load. Of course when the product does not use anything this phase is unimportant.

How to enter processes and additional life cycles


In ECO-it there are two ways to enter data in the use phase:

Processes, like electricity and transport Other products, such as packaging, coffee filters or batteries

The first category is simple, these processes can be entered and edited just as on the production page. Only now you can define use-parts to structure the use-phase, instead of product-parts. The second category is more complex, since these components are products which have their own production and disposal phase. In ECO-it we have developed an innovative solution for this. You can enter complete additional life cycles into your life-cycle. For instance the coffee machine example uses an additional life cycle for the filters. Additional life cycles should first be created with ECO-it and then stored on disk. It is no problem when additional life cycles have their own additional life cycles, etc. This means very complex life cycles can be entered.

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Guided tour 13

Use parts
Before you enter processes you can enter a number of use parts, with the speed button, just like you have used product parts to describe the product structure. Use parts could refer to different aspect or phases in the use, like packaging, maintenance or electricity use. These use parts are only there to let you structure the use phase. You can also enter use processes and additional life cycles without entering use parts.

Use processes
Next you can enter the processes in each part. The procedure is identical to the one used for entering materials and processes in the production page. However, in the use page you cannot use materials or processing processes, only energy and transport processes. If a product uses materials in its use phase, these materials should be added as additional life cycles. The reason for this is that these materials can have other disposal scenarios than the product itself. This will cause a very complex disposal phase for the total product life cycle.

Entering additional life cycles


Additional life cycles can be entered using the speed button. An Open File dialog box will appear with which you can select a project file you have created earlier with ECO-it. When you select an additional life cycle, it will be listed on the use page, provided, the same method was used when this life cycle was build. Please note that when you make changes in an project this will have effect on all life cycles that use this project as an additional life cycle. For instance if you have created two coffee machines life cycles, model A and model B, referring to the same additional life cycle paper filter, and you decide to change the filter, this will have an effect on the life cycle of model A as well as on the life cycle of model B.

Additional life cycle project file


When you insert a additional life cycle in the use page you establish a link between the current project and the additional life cycle project file. ECO-it stores the name and location of this project file in the current project so it can recalculate and check the additional life cycles when necessary. You can retrieve the name and location of the of an additional life cycle project file with the Additional life cycle project file option in the View menu.

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Guided tour 14

Disposal phase
Waste scenarios
Not all products are disposed of in the same manner. ECO-it allows you to specify a specific waste scenario for your product by combining five standard waste scenarios. When specifying the waste scenario careful consideration must be given to which waste scenario is most realistic. We have included three basic waste scenarios and two scenarios that are a combination of these three basis scenarios.

Incineration. It is assumed that incineration is carried out in a modern plant with a high-quality scrubbing system. This situation is by no means to be found in all plants but this will change gradually in the coming years. Landfill. Landfill is based on modern landfill sites with water purification and good seals, as a result of which relatively few harmful substances reach groundwater sources. Recycling. With recycling it is assumed that the materials arrive sorted by type and are clean.

For more detailed information see the description of the database in the provided help file (menu option Help|Information On Database). Designers cannot really decide which disposal option shall be chosen by the user of the product; they can only try to influence the users behaviour. For instance you cannot assume that all products will be recycled or incinerated, unless there is a very good reason to assume that this will indeed happen. This may be the case if products are taken back and processed by the producer. If the product is not taken back, or only partially taken back, most products will probably end up in the municipal waste bin. However before products are disposed of, some consumers selectively separate materials such as glass and paper and put them in separate waste bins. For this reason we have included two different versions of the municipal waste scenario.

Household waste. In an average household a number of materials such as glass, paper and compostable waste are collected and recycled separately once the decision has been taken to dispose of a product. The rest is put in the dustbin and is thus routed to the municipal waste collection system. Municipal waste. In the municipal waste scenario, the average processing of waste in a municipality is modelled. It is assumed that a certain proportion is landfilled and the rest is incinerated. The environmental impact of transport in the dustcart is also included.

For more detailed information see the description of the database in the provided help file (menu option Help|Information On Database). Where a product consists mainly of paper or glass and the design is such that the materials can be disposed of in recycling containers for glass or paper, it is reasonable to assume that a proportion of households will remove these materials from the waste stream and dispose of them separately. If, however, a product has only a small paper or glass component it is not so realistic to assume that these materials will be collected separately. In such cases it is likely that the product will end up in the municipal waste processing system. The interactions between the household waste, municipal waste, incineration and landfill disposal scenarios are shown graphically in the figure below.

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Guided tour 15

product

Household waste product Glass container Compost container Waste paper

etc.

Municipal waste

Waste incineration

Landfill site

Reclaim metals

Electricity production

Figure 2 Schematic representation of the waste scenarios (grey blocks) and mutual interactions. It is up to the user to choose between the different scenarios.

Negative values
In some cases the recycling processes result in negative values (yellow bar graphs). The energy and materials that are reclaimed are regarded as an environmental profit. If 1 kg scrap is reclaimed less iron has to be produced elsewhere. The environmental effects for the production of 1 kg pig iron are therefore deducted. This is referred to as a substitution rule. In a number of cases, particularly with recycling, the deduction is greater than the environmental impact of a process, which gives rise to the negative figures. Literally this means that the environment gets better from operating this process. This may seem strange, since most recycling processes will cause emissions. The reason is that in the calculation of the Eco-indicator values, not only the burdens of the recycling process, but also the benefits are taken into account. If one kilo aluminium is recycled, this means that the production of a kilo new aluminium is avoided. The burdens of this production are avoided. The way these avoided emissions are treated in your database can be found under menu option Help|Information On Database.

Defining the waste scenario


When you select the disposal page, you will see the product you have entered on the production page are already present. This tree structure resembles the structure on the production page, but energy, processing and transport processes are left out. This is done, because for the disposal phase, only the materials in a product have to be disposed of. If the product structure is collapsed into a single line, you can enter different percentages in each column. If we assume that all product will be treated as municipal waste, this can be easily edited in ECO-it. Just fill in 100% on the top line of the tree (the complete product) in the appropriate column (municipal waste). ECO-it will use this value for all other parts and materials on lower levels of the tree. If you expand the product structure you can see the result. However, if you envisage a different scenario you can distribute the 100% over the 5 options. As long as the total does not add up to 100% a warning will be displayed. If you save or load a project of which the total percentages are not 100% a warning message is displayed. One of the more advanced features is the possibility to specify different waste scenarios for different parts or materials. For instance in the coffee machine example we have assumed that consumers are willing to recycle the glass jugs, rather than throwing them in the waste bin. If we assume 50% of all glass jugs is recycled, while the others end up as municipal waste, this could be edited by filling in 50% in the column for municipal waste, and 50 % in the column for recycling. Both entries should be made on the appropriate line (in this case the part of the glass jug). You can even create a different distribution over waste scenarios for every separate material in a part.
Guide to using ECO-it 1.3 Guided tour 16

Unfortunately, you cannot enter the extra transport for the take back process here. The take back process should be considered to be part of the use phase.

Chart window
ECO-it also allows the user to choose for a pie chart presentation as well as the bar graph.

This window will appear if you choose the menu option View|Chart or press the chart speed button in the Main window. You can choose between a pie chart and a bar chart with the or the speed button in the Chart window itself. In both cases the same information will be displayed; however a pie chart cannot display negative values. If you try this the chart will not be plotted and an error message is displayed.

Auto scale
As long as this option is enabled (speed button is down), the bar charts will scale automatically. This means ECO-it will choose a scale that will allow to display all bars in the chart with an optimum height. However, if you disable this option, the scale will be fixed to a scale that is the same for all charts that can be displayed in the project. This is a very useful feature if you want to see the absolute values of the bars, while going through the pages on the Main window and through different parts of the production, use or disposal tree.

Lock item
Normally the graph window will automatically display the results of the currently selected page, of the part or product you are working on. If you click on a part or on a process that belongs to it, you will see that the chart displays the information of the environmental load of that part. If you click on the top line (the product itself), you get an overview of the phase of the complete product. If you click on the life cycle page, you get a graph of the whole life cycle, consisting of the production, use, and disposal phases together. This procedure can be changed by pressing the lock speed button. If the life-cycle page is selected then you will get a complete overview of the life cycle. If the lock item speed button is pressed, the chart is locked to the currently selected item. This means the Chart window contents will not change if you select another page or item. This can be very useful for instance if you want to edit the production page, while looking at the life cycle overview.

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Guided tour 17

Program reference
Starting the program
When you start the ECO-it program the Main window will always be displayed first. The Chart window will be displayed if this window was displayed the last time you run ECO-it. Next the About dialog box is displayed. Click the button I accept these limitations to close this dialog box. If you has closed ECO-it the last time with an open project you will be asked if you want to open this project again. This confirmation message is skipped when you run ECO-it in Demo mode and the last used project is automatically opened. The position and size of the Main window and the Chart windows will be the same as when you close ECO-it the last time, so you can arrange these windows once and they will be displayed on the same position and with the same size each time you run ECO-it. E.g. you can maximise the Main window (use the maximise icon at the top right corner), display the Chart (use the Chart speed button) and activate the Stay on top speed button of this window and position the Char window in the right button corner of the screen. This will give you a good overview of all data displayed in the two windows.

Main window File menu


New Project
This option will create a new project. If any changes in the currently open project are not saved you will be asked if these changes must be saved. You can also use the speed button to create a new project.

Open Project
This option will open an existing project. The Open a file dialog box will appear. ECO-it perform several actions when opening a project: Calculate the project including any additional life cycle defined in the use page. If an additional life cycle is defined and the calculated score of that additional life cycle is different from the previous calculated value a information message is displayed. E.g. if you change the data in the use of paper filter example project and then open the Coffee maker demo example project this message is displayed. If it cannot find the project file in which an additional life cycle is stored an error message is displayed. This will not effect the results of the project because ECO-it uses the scores of the additional life cycle that where calculated previously. But in this situation changes in the additional life cycle project will of coarse not be transferred to the main project. Check the total percentages defined on the disposal page. If not equal to 100% a warning message is displayed.

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Program reference 18

Check the method used in any additional life cycle defined in the use page. If a additional life cycle uses a different method a error message is displayed. You must correct this error to

get consistent results!


The Life cycle page of the Main window is selected and the Chart window is updated (if visible). speed button to open a project.

You can also use the

Save Project
This option will save a project that already has been named. If the project has no name, the Save Project As option will be selected. The total percentages defined on the disposal page will be checked. If not equal to 100% a warning message is displayed. You can also use the speed button to save a project.

Save Project As
This option will save a project with a new name. You can enter the name in the Save as File dialog box. If you use the Save Project option and the current project has no name this option is automatically selected.

Close Project
This option will close the currently open project. If any changes in the current project are not saved you will be asked if these changes must be saved.

Databases
If you have just installed the program the standard database (PRE95) will have been selected. If you want to use other databases you should add these in the Databases dialog box. Choose Databases under the File menu. You can use more databases simultaneously. The processes from these databases will be merged and displayed in the Select a process dialog box. This is very useful when e.g. your own organisation has produced additional databases using ECO-edit.

Print
This option will print the information of the selected page or all information if the Life cycle page is selected. To print a chart use the print speed button in the Chart window. You can also use the speed button to print project data.

Register
This option will display the Register dialog box with which you can register your copy of ECO-it.

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

Program reference 19

This option is only available if the program runs in Demo mode.

Exit
This option will close ECO-it. If a project is currently open and if any changes in the project are not saved you will be asked if these changed must be saved.

Main window Edit menu


Cut
This option will cut a selected item, and copies it to the clipboard. It can then be pasted into another place in the product structure, or copied to e.g. a word processor. You can cut a single process or a complete part. You can also use the speed button.

Copy
This option will copy a selected item to the clipboard. It can then be pasted into another place in the product structure, or copied to e.g. a word processor. You can copy a single process or a complete part. If the Life cycle page is selected all project data is copied to the clipboard. You can also use the speed button.

Paste
This option will paste an item that was copied to the clipboard to tree. If you have selected a part or the product, the pasted process or part will be inserted as the last item of the selected part or product. You cannot paste a process or part if a process or additional life cycle is selected. You can also copy and past values and strings from the Amount, Percentage and Part/Product name fields but only if these field are in edit mode. You can also use the speed button.

Delete Line
This option can be used to delete lines with parts, materials and processes or to clear a value field. When deleting a line with single process this function is executed immediately. When deleting a line with a part a confirmation message is displayed. You cannot delete the first line with the product name. You can clear a value (set to zero) or string field by pressing the Del button if the field is in view mode. When the field is in edit mode use the Del and Backspace buttons to delete characters. You can also use the speed button.

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

Program reference 20

Add Part
This option adds a product-part to the tree on the production page or a use-part to the tree on the use page. If you have selected a part or the product line, the new part will be inserted as the last item of the selected part or the product. You cannot add a part if a process or additional life cycle is selected. You can also use the speed button to add a part.

Add Process
This option adds a new line to the tree on the production or use page on which you can place a process. When you add a new line the Select a process dialog box will be displayed. You can also use the speed button to add a process.

Add Additional Life cycle


This option adds an additional life cycle to the tree on the use page. If activated a new line is inserted and an Open File dialog box will appear to ask for the name of the project file to include as an additional life cycle. You cannot add a additional life cycle if a line with a process or additional life cycle is selected. You can also use the speed button to add an additional life cycle.

If you want to know the name and location of the project file in which an additional life cycle is stored use menu option View|Additional life cycle project file.

Update processes
Using multiple databases
In ECO-it you can use processes from different databases. The databases from which you can select a process are listed in de Databases dialog box (menu option FileDatabases). All processes from these databases are merged and displayed in de Select a process dialog. In this dialog box you can see to which database a process belongs. The name of the database of the currently focused process is displayed at the bottom of the dialog box. Each time you insert a process in a project by selecting this process in the Select a process dialog box ECO-it copies all data of the selected process to the project. It also updates a list of used databases stored in each project file. This list is also updated when you delete processes from a project. With this list ECO-it keeps track of which database each process in the project originate. This list makes it possible to update all processes that originate from one particular database. A very important restriction on using processes from different databases is that they must be calculated with the same method. ECO-it will check for this restriction when you update processes. This check is also performed when you insert a process in a project. It will prevent you from inserting a process that is calculated with a different method than the processes that are already included in the project.

Update processes function


If you get an update of a database you can update the processes that originated from this database in your projects. If you have a project in which you have used several databases and you wish to update one or more you must be careful that they all contain the same method. By method is meant the methodology behind the figures used. For example for PRE95 the database
Guide to using ECO-it 1.3 Program reference 21

figures were calculated using the Eco-indicator methodology. If the update contains a different method to any of the databases then you will not be able to update the project. This somewhat complicated issue is explained below with 3 possible situations after you perform the Update processes function: Situation before the Update process function is carried out:
database 1 method A database 2 method A

Situations after the Update process function is executed:


1) Only database 1 is updated and has now a other method. The result is invalid because the method of database 1 (updated) is different from the method of database 2. database 1u method B 2) database 2 method A

Only database 1 is updated but the method of this database remains the same. The result is valid because both databases have the same methods. database 1u method A database 2 method A

3)

Both database 1 and 2 are updated and have another method. The result is valid because both databases have the same methods. database 1u method B database 2 method A

If you want to update the processes in a project that contains only processes from one database you will have no problems with different methods. If you want to update the processes in a project that contains processes from more that one database first check that the methods used to calculate the processes are be the same for all processes after the processes are updated. ECO-it will check this and prevent you from finishing the Update processes function successfully. If this occurs you will have to cancel all changes. To update the processes in a project perform the following steps:
1) 2) 3) Open the project Choose the EditUpdate processes menu option. The Update processes dialog box is displayed. It gives an overview of the databases used in the project and how many processes in the project originated from each database.

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

Program reference 22

4) 5) 6)

Select the databases of which you want to update the processes. Click the update button. A dialog box is displayed from which you must select the new database that contain the updated processes you used in the project. If the new database is not listed use the Add button to add the new database to the list.

7) 8)

Click OK ECO-it will now update the processes that originated from the selected database. For each process in the project that originated from the database you selected first it will search for a process with the same name in the database you selected the second time and it will replace the data of the process in the project by the data of the process found in the second database. If it can not find all the processes used in the project it will display a error message and no processes will be updated. When searching for a process it will only search in the same category as the process originated from. ECO-it will search in all sub-categories of a particular category so the process could be stored in a different sub-category. If it updates the processes successfully you can see any change in the database name and/or method name in the Update processes dialog box. If the project contain processes from more than one database and if the updated processes are calculated with a different method you can see that there are now different method names listed in the Update processes dialog box. To successfully update the processes of the project in this situation you have to also update the processes of the other databases listed. Therefore repeat steps 4 to 8 for these databases.

9)

10) If all databases listed in the Update processes dialog box have the same method you can close the dialog box. The update processes function will be successful and the changes in the project can be saved. If the databases listed in this dialog box have different methods you can not finish the update processes function successfully. The only thing you can do now is cancel the update processes function by clicking the Cancel button. When you cancel the update process function ECO-it will undo all changes and the project will contain the same data as before you start the update processes function. If you are using additional life cycles in a project you have to update the processes in those projects as well.

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

Program reference 23

ECO-it will not check if the processes in a project that is used as an additional life cycle originated from the same database as the processes used in the current project.
ECO-it will check if the method used to calculate the processes are the same in both the projects that are used as additional life cycles and in the current project. If you insert an additional life cycle in a project this check is also performed. It will prevent you from inserting an additional life cycle if the processes of this project use a different method. Note: if you only update a project and not the projects that are used as additional life cycles this situation could exist. ECO-it will display a error message if you open a project and the method used in this project is different from the method used in one of the projects that are used as additional life cycles.

Main window View menu


Expand Whole Tree
This option expands the whole tree on the current page (production, use or disposal).

Additional life cycle project file


If you want to know the name and location of the project file in which an additional life cycle is stored perform the following steps: Select the line with the additional life cycle in the use page Choose option 'Additional life cycle project file' from the View menu An information message will be displayed with the full path and file name of the project file. ECO-it stores the name and location of the additional life cycle project file in the (main) project and will always try to read this sub-project file from this location. If it cannot find the additional life cycle project file an error message will be displayed when you open the project. This will not effect the results of the project because ECO-it uses the scores of the additional life cycle that where calculated previously. But in this situation changes in the additional life cycle project will of course not be transferred to the main project. ECO-it stores the location of the additional life cycle project file depending on the location of the main project file (the current project): 1) Same directory If the additional life cycle project file is saved in the same directory ECO-it will always looks for this project file in the same directory as the main project file is saved. When you replace all project files the links will remain. 2) Sub-directory If the additional life cycle project is saved in a sub-directory of the directory in which the main project file is saved ECO-it will always look in a sub-directory with this name. When you replace all project files including the sub-directory the links will remain. 3) Same drive If the additional life cycle project is saved in a different sub-directory but on the same drive as the main project file is saved ECO-it will always look in this directory on the same drive as the main project file is saved. 4) Absolute location

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

Program reference 24

If the additional life cycle project is saved in a completely different location as the main project file is saved, ECO-it will always look in this specific location.

Indicator Bars
This option shows the Eco-indicator scores as horizontal bars. Red means a positive value, yellow means a negative value (with some recycling processes, means the environment benefits from this). You can also use the speed button.

Indicator Values
This option shows the Eco-indicator scores as numbers. Normally positive numbers, with some recycling processes negative numbers (means the environment benefits from this). You can also use the speed button.

Chart
This option will enable the Chart window, displaying a chart of the currently selected item. You can also use the speed button.

Main window Help menu


Contents
This option starts the windows help system which will display the contents of the ECO-it program help file.

Information On Database
With this option you can view the help file that is provided with a particular database. Each database has its own help file. If you choose this option the Select a database dialog box is displayed.

Select the database of which you want to view the help file and choose OK. ECO-it will then start the windows help system which will display the contents of the help file of the selected database.

About
This option displays the About dialog box that is also displayed when you start the ECO-it program. In this dialog box the following information is displayed: - Version number - License information If you are using a non registered version of ECO-it the text DEMO will be displayed in large red characters. If you are using a registered version the name of the person and company that registered this copy of ECO-it is displayed.
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Disclaimer Company information Release number and data

Chart window speed buttons


Print
This will print the chart currently in the Chart window. The standard Print dialog box will appear.

Copy colour chart to clipboard


This will copy the colour chart to the clipboard, for use in other programs, e.g. word processors.

Copy monochrome chart to clipboard


This will copy a monochrome chart to the clipboard, for use in other programs, e.g. word processors.

Bar chart
This displays the Eco-indicator scores as a bar chart.

Pie chart
This displays the Eco-indicator scores as a pie chart. This is not possible if there are negative scores.

Auto scale
This causes ECO-it to scale every single chart in the optimal way, from a point of visibility.

Lock item
This will cause the Chart window to keep track of one item on a particular page, while editing another item (may even be on another page).

Stay on top
This will cause the Chart window to stay on top, while working in the Main window.

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

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Index
About 4; 18; 25 absolute values 17 add8; 11; 16; 19; 2021; 2021; 2021; 20; 22 Add Additional Life cycle 21 Add Part 20 Add Process 20 additional life cycle2; 1314; 1314; 1314; 1314; 1314; 1314; 1314; 18; 2021; 2021; 2021; 20; 23 Additional life cycle project file14; 21; 23 alternatives to aspects 6 amount 11; 12; 20 analyse 6; 8; 10 assumptions for any missing data 7 Auto scale 16; 25 avoided emissions 16 bar 2; 13; 1516; 1516; 1516; 25 Bar chart 16; 25 calculate a new indicator 8 calculation 6; 15 Category 12; 13; 23 changes 14; 1820; 2224 Chart 2; 1213; 1619; 2425 Chart window2; 1213; 1619; 1619; 2426; 2426 check 8; 14; 18; 2122; 23 clear 8; 20 clipboard 20; 25 Close Project 19 collapse 12 colour 25 column 1113; 1113; 16 comment 12 company name 4 compare 6 compare a new design with an existing one 6 completeness 8 complex products 11 components 2; 6; 8; 13 Contents 17; 2425 conversion factor 12 copy 13; 1920; 1920; 25 Copy monochrome chart to clipboard 25 correct application 6 create 2; 11; 1314; 1314 Cut 13; 20 database24; 24; 10; 11; 1416; 1416; 19; 2123; 2125; 2425 Databases 2; 11; 19; 2123 Define 6; 8; 10; 13 Define the life cycle 6 Delete Line 20 Demo mode 4; 18; 19 description 67; 67; 10; 14 description of product 7 Designer 15 detailed 10; 14 different method 18; 21; 23 Disclaimer 25 disposal2; 10; 1317; 1316; 17; 18; 23 Disposal page 16; 19 disposal phase 14; 16 disposal scenario 1415 disregard components 6 dominant 10; 13 Ecodesign 2 Eco-indicator2; 6; 10; 12; 13; 15; 21; 2425; 2425 Edit menu 20 edit mode 12; 20 Editing 1213; 1213; 26 electricity 1314; 13 e-mail 24; 24 emissions 15 Enter the data 6; 8 environmental effects 15 environmental load 2; 10; 13; 17 environmental profit 15 estimate 810; 8; 10; 13 estimates 7 estimates a quantity 7 estimates first 7 example project 4 Examples of functional unit 7 existing project 18 Exit 20 expand 2; 12; 16; 23 Expand Whole Tree 23 fax 24; 24 field 10; 12; 20 File menu 4; 18; 19 file name 23 first instance 6 Index 28

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

functional unit 7; 10 goal 10 help file 2; 14; 2425; 2425 Help menu 24 hierarchical structure 2; 11 Household waste 15 icon 4; 12; 18 impact 2; 8; 13; 15 in detail 6 Incineration 1415 Indicator Bars 24 Indicator Values 2; 8; 24 Information On Database 1416; 24 insert 11; 14; 21; 23 installation program 4 Interpret the results 6; 8 Landfill 14; 15 LCA 2; 7 level of accuracy 6 licence 4 License information 25 life cycle2; 610; 610; 1314; 1314; 1720; 1821; 23 Life cycle page 1820; 1820 life cycle phase 10 line 2; 11; 13; 1617; 1617; 20; 23 load 2; 10; 13; 1617; 1617 location 14; 21; 23 Lock item 17; 26 main project file 24 Main window2; 1618; 20; 2324; 26 maintenance 14 major environmentally-damaging 6 material2; 68; 710; 812; 1012; 11; 13; 1416; 14 16; 20 method 7; 10; 14; 18; 2123; 2123 methodology 2; 21 missing indicator/material problem 8 monochrome 25 most important 810; 810 multiple databases 21 Municipal waste 1516; 15; 16 name4; 1012; 1011; 14; 19; 2021; 2021; 23; 25 Negative values 15; 16 new database 22 new line 11; 20 new project 10; 18 number67; 67; 1011; 1213; 1214; 13; 14; 15; 24; 25 omission of a material or process 8 Open Project 1819 originate 21

originated 2123 packaging 2; 1314; 13 part2; 810; 810; 1113; 1113; 14; 1617; 1617; 20 Paste 13; 20 path 10; 23 percentage 16; 18 performance 67; 10 phone 2 pie chart 2; 16; 25 positive value 2; 24 potential improvement 8 Print 19; 25 process2; 610; 610; 1112; 1112; 1517; 1517; 19 21; 19; 2021; 22 process type 12 processes2; 614; 614; 1516; 15; 19; 2023; 2024 processing 6; 1416; 15; 16 product2; 67; 67; 1011; 1011; 1215; 1217; 16 17; 20 product tree 11 production2; 6; 1012; 1012; 1314; 1314; 1517; 15; 17; 20; 23 Production page1112; 1314; 1314; 16; 17 production processes 2; 11 product-parts 11; 13 program group 4 program structure 2 project4; 10; 1213; 1213; 14; 1617; 1623; 1820; 2123 project file 14; 18; 21; 23 additional life cycle14; 18; 21; 23 purpose of the Eco-indicator calculation 6 Quantify 6; 7 rapid overall impression 6 recalculated 12 recycled 1516; 1516 Recycling 1416; 1416; 24 red bar 13 referring 14 Register 4; 19 registered version 25 registration code 4 relation 11 Release 25 remove 4; 13; 15 replace 11; 23; 24 restructure 13 results 67; 8; 13; 17; 18; 24 run 4; 18 Save Project 19 saved 18; 1920; 23; 24 scenario 2; 6; 1415; 1416

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schematic overview 6 score 2; 8; 12; 18 Select2; 4; 1112; 11; 12; 14; 16; 17; 19; 20; 22; 23 25; 2325 selected item 17; 20; 24 seriousness 2 Set-up 4 significant contribution 8 single scores 2 specify 2; 11; 12; 14; 16 standard database 24; 19 standard waste scenarios 14 start 46; 1011; 18; 23; 25 Stay on top 18; 26 stored 4; 13; 18; 21; 23 Sub-category 12; 23 sub-directory 4; 24 sub-parts 11; 13 Substitute a known indicator for the unknown one 8 substitution rule 15 supplied database 2

the product structure11; 12; 14; 16; 20 top level 11 transport2; 11; 1314; 1316; 15; 16 tree67; 6; 11; 1213; 1213; 1617; 1617; 20; 23 unimportant 13 uninstall program 4 unit 7; 10; 12 Unit conversion 12 update 2123 Update processes 2123 Use page 2; 11; 14; 18; 20; 23 use phase 2; 10; 1314; 1314; 16 use-parts 11; 13 validity 8 value2; 8; 1213; 1213; 16; 18; 20; 24 Version number 25 View menu 14; 23 view mode 12; 20 waste 2; 6; 1416; 1416 waste scenario 6; 1415; 1416 Waste scenarios 14; 1516; 1516 web site 2

Guide to using ECO-it 1.3

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