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# 296

## A General Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

C. S. Kong
Supply Voltage, E

Abstraet-This paper reviews the conventional maximum power transfer theorem and presents a modification to the theorem by incorporating a measure of the relative importance of power transmission efficiency over power transferred to the load.

I.

NRDCIN ITOUT O

-1
RS+j X s
=

RL+jXL

## II. THEMODIFIED POWERTRANSFER CONDITION

Consider an AC circuit as shown in Fig. 1: Power loss in the network,
PLOSS

(Rs

+ RL) + ( X s + XL) Rs

E2

## Let cy to be the weighting between power transfer and transmission efficiency.

Objective: Maximize Q = [(YPLOAD - a ) f i ~ s s ] . - (1 1

ffs

Note that when cy is unity, the problem degenerates to the conventional maximum power transfer condition. When a 0 in high transmission efficiency requirement, the objective is power loss minimization at the expense of power transferred.

-- L ~ X
For

## aQ - 2 E 2 [ a R- (1 - a ) R s ] ( X s X L ) ~ -I[(Rs RL) (Xs XL)]

[ ~ R-L( 1 - a ) R s ] ( X s X L ) = 0

## ~ [ ( R S + R L ) ( X s + X L ) 2 ]- 2[cyR~ (1 - cy)Rs](Rs R L ) [(Rs RL) (Xs X L ) ~ ]

For

Manuscript received November 18, 1992; revised December 12, 1993. The author is with Nanyang Technological University, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 2263. IEEE Log Number 9411716.

From (l), X S

+XL = 0

297

.---.-__
0.2
01

.
0.1
I

g
I 3 U

z
w w

## ___.. -.- ----.....-..... -.-... .._____ --..... a = 0.4 /....

a = 0.6

-.-_ -.-.-.-_

-.-_ -.-.__

2
E

............................................................... .......

## -.-.-.-.-.___. ......-....__..___-.__. -.-.-.-__._ ...........................

----

. . I . . . . . . .

........... ..........

0
b -0.1

-0.2

-0.3
0
2
4
6 8

10

Fig. 2. Graph of objective function Q against load resistance R L . Substitute into (2)

## From (5) and (6), it can be deduced that For

hence,

and

This modified condition for maximum power expended in the load for a DC circuit can be deduced with X L = 0 and X s = 0 giving

A graph of the values of Q for various values of n is plotted. In medium power circuits where both the power transfer to the load and transmission efficiency are important operating considerations, the system designer and operator must first assigned the value for n in considering the relative importance between power transfer and transmission efficiency and then design or operate the circuit to maximize Q.

III.
From the above derivation, it can be shown that: At maximum Q,

APPLICATIONS

[&]

(4)

## Power transmission efficiency,

v=

v*

-- RL RL -I-Rs a! = 1 - -.

+Ross
(7)

The above result is utilized in the following two examples to illustrate the different operating strategies between low-power communication or instrumentation circuit and power supply system. For low and medium power circuits, the optimal power flow condition is when the power delivered to the load is maximized given either the minimum allowable power transmission efficiency, vmin or the value of a. The load is implicitly assumed to be able to absorb this maximum power transferred to it from the source network. If qmin is given, let v* = vmin from (6) = 2( 1 - v m i n ) and the maximum power transferred to the load at the transmission efficiency of qmin is P;oAD which is given by (3). Example I: A communication circuit is to be designed where it is equally important to maximize the power delivered to the load and to minimize the power loss in R, for saving in the design of the heat dissipation system for R,.

298

ROSS, cy choose

0.5 and