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SEMESTER 7

By

Dr. Aliyu Adebayo Sulaimon (aliyu.adebayor@petronas.com) (Direct Line: 05-3687051)

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this lecture, students should be able to:

Describe factors that must be considered in the design of matrix stimulation Identify and mention at least five formation minerals Mention and explain the three basic mechanisms of acid-mineral interactions Calculate the amount and volume of acid required to dissolve a given amount and volume of a formation mineral Mention the typical acid types and describe how they are used in sandstone reservoir or carbonate formation Calculate both the acid injection rate and surface injection pressure

Design Considerations

Type and concentration of acid required Amount of acid needed to dissolve sufficient mineral around the wellbore Optimal injection rate Placement of the acid solution

Common Formation Minerals

Calcite Dolomite Siderite

Quartz

Albite (i.e. sodium feldspar) Orthoclase (potassium feldspar) Kaolinite

Montmorillonite

Mechanisms of Interaction

There are three basic mechanisms: Stoichiometry

Determines the amount of acid needed to dissolve a given amount of mineral, e.g. + + + That is, 2 moles of are required to dissolve 1 mole of The numbers 2 and 1 are the stoichiometric coefficients; &

Reaction kinetics

This deals with the rates at which acids react with various minerals

Diffusion rates

These control how rapidly acid is transported to the rock surfaces

Stoichiometry

Acids dissolving power is a more convenient means (apart from the no. of moles) of expressing reaction stoichiometry. There are two types: Gravimetric dissolving power

This is the mass of mineral consumed by a given mass of acid

This is the volume of mineral dissolved by a given volume of acid

Gravimetric dissolving power

% =

where n and M represent the number of moles and molecular mass; x % is the weight fraction of acid in the acid solution

% = %

Example Calculation

Calculate the gravimetric and volumetric dissolving powers of 15wt% HCl reacting with Dolomite Siderite

Solution

Dolomite:

+

+ + +

= . ; = . ; = . + . + + = . ; = + . = .

% =

. . = . / . .

= . ; = .

% = %

. . = . = . . . %

Solution (Contd)

Siderite:

+ + +

= . ; = . ; = . + + = . ; = + . = . % = = . . = . / . .

= . ; = .

% = %

. . = . = . . . %

Selection of Acids

Sandstone Formation

The purpose of sandstone acidizing is to remove the damage near the wellbore Typical treatments usually consist of a mixture of 3.0wt%HF and 12.0wt%HCl, preceded by a 15.0wt%HCl preflush

Carbonate Formation

HCl is the most widely used acid for carbonate matrix acidizing

Weak acids are recommended for perforating fluid and perforation cleanup

Strong acids are recommended for other treatments Concentrated (high strength) acids provide deeper penetration

Acid Volume Requirement

Sandstone Formation

= +

where = preflush volume or the required acid volume, cu ft =volume of minerals to be removed, cu ft = = initial pore volume, cu ft = = radius of acid treatment, ft = wellbore radius, ft = mineral content, volume fraction

Acid Volume Requirement

Carbonate Formation

=

where

= required acid volume per unit thickness of formation, cuft/ft = desired radius of wormhole penetration, ft = wellbore radius, ft = no. of pore volumes of acid injected at the time of wormhole breakthrough at the end of the core

Acid Injection Rate

Assuming pseudo-steady state flow, the maximum injection rate limited by the fracture pressure is expressed as , =

where ,

. ln 4+

3

= maximum injection rate, bbl/min = permeability of undamaged formation, mD = pay zone thickness, ft = formation fracture pressure, psia = reservoir pressure, psia = safety margin, (200 to 500psi) = viscosity of acid solution, cp = drainage radius, ft = wellbore radius, ft = skin factor

Acid Injection Pressure

In most acid treatment operations, only the surface tubing (injection) pressure is monitored. It is important to predict the surface injection pressure at the design stage for pump selection. It is expressed as = +

where

= surface injection pressure, psia = flowing bottom-hole pressure, psia = hydrostatic pressure drop, psia = frictional pressure drop, psia

. . . = ; < / .

where = density (g/cc), q = injection rate (bb/min), = viscosity (cp), D = tubing diameter (inches), and L = tubing length (ft)

Selection of Acids

In sandstone formations In carbonate formation

In sandstone formations In carbonate formation

Example 1

A sandstone with a porosity of 0.2 containing 10% (volume) calcite ( ) is to be acidized with HF/HCl mixture solution. A preflush of 15wt% HCl solution is to be injected ahead of the mixture to dissolve the carbonate minerals and establish a low PH environment. If the HCl preflush is to remove all carbonates in a region within 1-ft beyond a 0.328-ft radius wellbore before the HF/HCL stage enters the formation, what minimum preflush volume is required in gal/ft of formation thickness?

Solution 1

Given: = . ; = . ; = ; = . ; = . ;

= +

=

= = . . . .

.

= = . . . = .

To calculate X, we need .

Solution 1

+ + +

= . ; = . ; = . + + = . ; = + . = . % = = . . = . / . .

= . ; = .

% = %

. . = . = . . . %

Therefore,

= + + = . + + . . = . %/

Example 2

A 28wt% HCl is required to propagate wormholes 3-ft from a 0.328-ft radius wellbore in a limestone formation ( = 2.71) with a porosity of 0.15. The design injection rate is 0.1 bbl/min-ft, the diffusion coefficient is / , and the density of the 28wt% HCl is 1.14g/cc. In linear core floods, 1.5PV (pore volume) is needed for wormhole breakthrough at the end of the core. Calculate the acid volume requirement.

Solution 2

Given: = . ; = . ; = . ; () = .

= . . . . = . = /

Example 3

A 60-ft thick, 50mD sandstone pay zone at a depth of 9,500-ft is to be acidized with an acid solution having a specific gravity of 1.07 and a viscosity of 1.5cp down a 2inch internal diameter coil tubing. The formation fracture gradient is 0.7psi/ft. The wellbore radius is 0.328ft. Assuming a reservoir pressure of 4,000psia, drainage area radius of 1,000ft, and a skin factor of 15, calculate a) The max. acid injection rate using safety margin 300psi b) The max. expected surface injection pressure at the max. injection rate.

Solution 3

Given:

= ; = ; = ; = . ; = . ; = ; . = ; = ; =

= .

, . = 3 ln + 4

. . = . + . = . /

Solution 3 (Contd)

a) The max. expected surface injection pressure is

= +

= = . = , = . = . . = ,

=

. . .

Therefore,

= + = , , +

= ,

Homework 1

1) Calculate the gravimetric dissolving power of

a) 15wt% HCl reacting with

i. ii. i. ii. Calcite Siderite Orthoclase feldspar Kaolinite

iii. Montmorillonite

Homework 1 (Contd)

1) Calculate the volumetric dissolving power of

a) 15wt% HCl reacting with

i. ii. i. ii. Calcite Siderite Orthoclase feldspar Kaolinite

iii. Montmorillonite

Homework 2

Solve questions 16.1, 16.3, 16.5 and 16.7 in Chapter 16 of

Guo, B.; Lyons, W.C.; and Ghalambor, A. (2007): Petroleum Production Engineering, Elseviers Gulf Professional Publishing, Oxford, U.K

Questions?

Thank you

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