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GUIDE TO FLOW MEASUREMENT

1 MAGNETIC

2 MASS

3 OSCILLATORY

Service: Electrically conductive liquids or slurries (>0.05µs/cm) Design Pressure: Up to 3600 psig Design Temperature: Up to 360°F Flow Range: 4 cc/min to 1,200,000 gpm Scale: Linear Signal: Analog electronic; digital; Smart protocols Accuracy: up to ± 0.25% of rate; factory calibrated Rangeabillty: 75:1

End Connections: Flanged, sanitary, or wafer; Dresser and Victaulic ends available in larger sizes.

Sizes: 1/25" to 120"

Advantages: Excellent for slurry measurement. Unaffected by change in fluid density, viscosity; zero head loss; bi-directional; no flow obstruction; easy to respan; versions for dc power.

Limitations: Moderate cost; liquids or slurries only; required minimum electrical conductivity varies with manufacturer; larger sizes big and heavy.

5 TARGET

 

Coriolis Effect

Thermal

Vortex Shedding (Bluff body)

Fluidic (Coanda Effect)

Swirlmeter

Service:

Liquids and slurries (limited gas service)

Gas (some designs for liquid)

Service:

Liquids and gases including steam

Liquids

Liquids, gases, and steam

Design Pressure:

Up to 6500 psig

500 psig and higher

Design Pressure:

Up to 3600 psig

Up to 600 psig

Up to 2400 psig

Design

Design Temperature:

Up to 750°F

0

to 250°F

- 40°F to 608°F

Temperature:

Up to 400°F

Up to 150°F and higher

Flow Range:

3 to 10,568 gpm liquid;

1

to 1000 gpm

1 to 7925 gpm liquid;

Flow Range:

Up to 23,000 Ib/min

Up to 4000 gpm liquid Up to 1500 scfm of gas

Scale:

15,000,000 scfh gases Linear at high Reynolds No.

Linear at high Reynolds No.

88 thru 706,300 acfh gases Linear at high and low Reynolds Nos.

Scale:

Linear

Exponential

Accuracy:

±0.25% of rate or better

± 1% of full scale

Signal:

Frequency or analog electronic

Analog electronic or pneumatic; pulse

Pulse or analog output

Rangeability:

10:1 or better

10:1 or better

Accuracy:

±.75% of rate or better on liquid;

± 1% of rate or better; factory

±.5% of rate or better; liquids, gas or

End Connections:

Threaded, flanged, Tri-Clover ®

Threaded, flanged, hose

factory calibrated; ±1% of rate on gas

calibrated

steam

Sizes:

1/16" to 6"

1/8" to 10"; Sampling types available; by-pass type available.

Rangeability:

20:1

Up to 30:1

25:1 turn down average (determined by size, application)

Advantages:

Measures mass flow and fluid density directly. Handles difficult applications.

Measures mass flow directly. Very low pressure loss. Good for low velocity gas measurement.

End Connections:

Flanged, threaded, wafer or insert; also can be used as by-pass meter around mainline orifice.

Mounts between flanges

Flanged only 150 thru 600 pound

Unaffected by changes in fluid density, viscosity and temperature

Affected by coatings. Some designs are

Sizes:

1/2" thru 16"; larger sizes available

1" thru 4"; by-pass types available

0.5" thru 16"

Limitations:

Moderate to expensive cost. Recommended installation requirements. Head loss may be

fragile.

(sampling and by-pass types avail- able)

high. Be careful with 2-phase flows. Sensitive to plant vibrations and pulsations.

Advantages:

No moving parts; suitable for wide variety of fluids; excellent combina- tion of price and performance.

No moving parts; suitable for wide variety of liquids; excellent combi- nation of price and performance.

No moving parts, 3 upsteam pipe diameters, ideal for light gases, works with entrained liquid.

 

Limitations:

Straight piping required; sensitive to

Straight piping required; sensitive

Viscosity

 

increasing viscosity below a given Reynolds number.

to increasing viscosity below a given Reynolds number.

Service: Liquids and gases including steam Design Pressure: Up to 10,000 psig Design Temperature: Up to 750°F Flow Range: 0.07 gpm and up liquid; 0.3 scfm and up gas Scale: Square root Signal: Analog electronic or pneumatic Accuracy: ± 1/2% to ±5% of full scale; factory calibrated Rangeability: 3:1* End Connections: Flanged, threaded, flared tube Sizes: Up to 8" (sampling types available) Advantages: No moving parts; relatively inexpensive; good for hot, tarry and sediment bearing fluids.

Limitations: Need 20 diameters upstream and 10 diameters downstream of straight pipe to maintain accuracy; reading is per cent of scale; limited range.

* 10:1 span adjustment plus 3:1 range for any given span setting.

7 ULTRASONIC

 

Transit Time

Doppler

(Pulsed type)

(Frequency shift)

Service:

Relatively clean liquids (some designs for flare gas)

Liquids with entrained gas or suspended solids

Design Pressure:

Wetted transducers; 1000 psig up, Clamp-on; pipe rating

Wetted transducers; 1000 psig up, Clamp-on; pipe rating

Design

Temperature:

- 300°F to 500°F

- 300°F to 500°F

Flow Velocity:

Typically to 40 ft/sec

Typically to 40 ft/sec

Scale:

Linear

Linear

Signal:

Analog electronic or digital

Analog electronic or digital

Accuracy:

± 1% of rate of ± 5% of full scale depending on type and calibration

± 5% of full scale or better

Rangeability:

Up to 40:1

Typically 10:1

End Connections:

Flanged and clamp-on design

Clamp-on; body versions avail- able (Sampling type available)

Sizes:

1/2" up

1/4" up

Advantages:

No flow obstruction; can be bidirectional; use with practi- cally any relatively clean liquid. Versions for gas. Clamp-on versions available.

Can handle inorganic slurries and aerated liquids; clamp-on version can be installed with- out process shut-down.

Limitations:

Straight upstream piping required to provide uniform flow profile; clean liquids only.

Not suitable for clean liquids; requires straight upstream upstream piping.

Clean Dirty Corrosive Viscous Abrasive Fibrous Low Velocity Vapor Hi Temp. Cryogenic Semi-Filled Non- Open Liquids
Clean
Dirty
Corrosive
Viscous
Abrasive
Fibrous
Low Velocity
Vapor
Hi Temp.
Cryogenic
Semi-Filled
Non-
Open
Liquids
Liquids
Liquids
Liquids
Slurries
Slurries
Flows
or Gas
Service
Service
Pipes
Newtonians
Channel
1
MAGNETIC
Coriolis
2
MASS
Thermal
Vortex Shedding
3
OSCILLATORY
Fluidic
Swirlmeter
4
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
5
TARGET
6
TURBINE
Transit Time
7
ULTRASONIC
Doppler
Orifice
Venturi
DIFFERENTIAL
8
Flow Nozzles &Tubes
PRESSURE
Pitot Tubes
Wedge
9
VARIABLE AREA
10
WEIRS and FLUMES
FLOWMETER APPLICATIONS
Designed for this service
Applicable for this service under certain
conditions, consult manufacturer
Normally applicable
for this service
Not applicable
for this service

8 DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

 

Orifice

Venturi

Flow Nozzles and Tubes

Pitot

Wedge

Service:

Liquids and gases including steam

Liquids and gases including steam

Liquids and gases including steam

Liquids and gases

Liquids and gases

 

Design Pressure:

Determined by transmitter

Determined by transmitter

Determined by transmitter

Determined by transmitter

Determined by transmitter

Design Temperature:

Determined by materials

Determined by materials

Determined by materials

Determined by materials

Determined by materials

Flow Range:

From 0.1 cc/min up* or gas equivalent

From 5 gpm liquid; 20 scfm gas; determined by pipe size

From 5 gpm liquid; from 20 scfm gas equivalent

Determined by pipe size

Determined by pipe size

Scale:

Square root

Square root

Square root

Square root

Square root

Signal:

Analog electronic or pneumatic

Analog electronic or pneumatic

Analog electronic or pneumatic

Analog electronic or pneumatic

Analog electronic or pneumatic

Accuracy:

± 0.6% of max flow uncalibrated and includes transmitter; sizes smaller than 2" usually calibrated

±1% of max flow or better; uncalibrated and includes transmitter

±1% full scale including transmitter; flow calibration recommended

±5% full scale or better including trans- mitter

± .5% of actual flow when operated in the calibrated range

 

Rangeabillty:

4:1 for given transmitter span setting

4:1 for given transmitter span setting

4:1 for given transmitter span setting

4:1 for given transmitter span setting

4:1 for given transmitter span setting

 

End Connections:

Mounts between flanges

Flanged

Flanged or mounted between flanges

Insert probe

Mounts between flanges

Sizes:

Determined by pipe size

To 72" and larger

3” to 48”

Unlimited probe length

Up to 48"

Advantages:

Easy-to-install; uses one transmitter regardless of pipe size; low cost; wide variety of types and materials available; easy-to-change capacity. Versions avail- able that do not require power.

Low permanent loss; good for slurries and dirty fluids; uses one transmitter regardless of pipe size.

Economical, low permanent loss; uses one transmitter regardless of pipe size; nozzle commonly used for steam and has higher capacity for same generated P.

Very low cost; uses one transmitter regardless of pipe size. Averaging types available.

Very economical; easy-to-install; uses one transmitter regardless of pipe size; can be bi-directional; low pressure loss. Minimum upstream piping required

 

Limitations:

Use eccentric orifices or segmental plates for very dirty fluids or slurries; quadrant orifice for viscous liquids; ven- turi, flow tube, pitot, or elbow taps to reduce energy consumption; straight run of upstream and downstream piping required. Some fluid must leave pipe except when chemical seal protectors

Most expensive P producer; generally limited to air and water; big and heavy especially in larger pipe sizes.

Flow tubes lack extensive background data compared to orifice plates; applica- tion on viscous liquids limited. Calibration recommended for optimum performance.

Doesn't sample full stream; limited accu- racy. Low differential pressure for given flow rate.

Not good for low flow velocity; as accurate as other P types.

 

are used.

* Note: For less than 1" pipe size use integral orifice P transmitter.

© 2000, 2006 ABB Inc.

Printed in USA

Wall Chart_Measurement_2

DCG

10/06

2K

10 WEIRS and FLUMES

Service: Liquids in open channels Flow Range: From 1/2 gpm up

Scale: Proportional to the measured head to the 3/2 power for rectangular and trapezoidal weirs and Parshall flumes; proportional to the measured head to the 5/2 power for V-notch weirs.

Signal: Analog electronic Accuracy: 2% to 5% full scale Rangeabilfty: 75:1 rectangular, trapezoidal weirs, Parshall flumes; 500:1 V-notch weirs; Palmer- Bowlus flumes 10:1 Sizes: From 1 " up Advantages: ideal for water and waste flows, flumes have low head loss, low cost Limitations: Weirs are more accurate than flumes but require cleaning; flumes are self-cleaning.

  • 4 POSITIVE

DISPLACEMENT

Service: Clean liquids and gases Design Pressure: Up to 1400 psig for liquid or gas Design Temperature: Up to 600°F liquids; up to 250°F gas

Flow Range: 0.1* to 9000 gpm liquid; 0 to 100,000 scfh gas.

Scale: Linear Signal: Pulse or analog electronic

Accuracy: ± 1/2% of rate on liquid; ± 1% of full scale on gas; factory calibrated

Rangeability: Typically 10:1 End Connections: Flanged or threaded Sizes: Up to 12"

Advantages: Ideal for viscous liquids; good for cus- tody transfer, batching, blending; simplest versions don’t require electrical power; very little straight upstream pipe required.

Limitations: Subject to mechanical wear; requires periodic proving; sensitive to dirt and may require upstream filters; larger sizes are excessive in size and weight, may require special installation care.

*Ultra-low flow rate versions also available.

  • 6 TURBINE

Service: Clean liquids and gases Design Pressure: Up to 60,000 psig Design Temperature: - 450° to 1200°F

Flow Range: 0.001 through 40,000 gpm liquids; to 10,000,000 scfh gases

Scale: Linear when Reynolds number is 10,000 or higher

Signal: Frequency or analog electronic

Accuracy: ±0.25% of rate liquids; ±1% of rate gas; factory calibration should simulate operating viscosity and lubricity for liquids.

Rangeabillty: 10:1 to 50:1

End Connections: Flanged, threaded,Tri-Clover ® , Grayloc

Sizes: Up to 24" (sampling types available); also used as by-pass meter around mainline orifice.

Advantages: One of the most accurate liquid meters; good operating range, easy-to-install and maintain, very low flowrate designs available; small in size; lightweight. Versions optimized for gas; sam- pling types for steam. Some versions do not require external power.

Limitations: Sensitive to increasing viscosity; avoid use where state may change from liquid to gas; gas versions require care when used in varying flow rate applications straight upstream pipe is required; flow straighteners may be recommended.

  • 9 VARIABLE

AREA (Rotameter)

Service: Liquids and gases including steam

Design Pressure: Up to 300 psig (glass tube); to

  • 720 psig (metal tube)

Design Temperature: Up to 250°F (glass tube); to 1000°F (metal tube)

Flow Range: Liquids 0.01 cc/min to 300 gpm; gases 0.3 cc/min to 2000 scfm

Scale: Linear Signal: Visual; electronic or pneumatic analog

Accuracy: ± 0.5% of rate to ± 10% of full scale depending on type, size, and calibration

Rangeability: 5:1 to 12:1 End Connections: Female pipe threaded or flanged

Sizes: Up to 4"; also used as a by-pass meter around a mainline orifice for larger pipe sizes.

Advantages: inexpensive; somewhat self-cleaning; insensitive to viscosity variations below a given threshold; direct indicating; no power required; can be direct mass device; minimum piping require- ments. Versions available with Teflon ® liners.

Limitations: Requires accessories for data transmis- sion; must be vertically mounted; gas use requires minimum backpressure.

GUIDE TO FLOW MEASUREMENT 1 MAGNETIC 2 MASS 3 OSCILLATORY Service: Electrically conductive liquids or slurries

ABB Instrumentation

  • 125 E. County Line Road, Warminster, PA 18974

800-829-6001 • 215-674-6000 • Fax: 215-674-7183 email: instrumentation@us.abb.com

Visit ABB Instrumentation at www.abb.com/instrumentation