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Building Analogies

Table of contents
Table of contents...................................................................................................................................I Introduction..........................................................................................................................................1 How to read this document..............................................................................................................1 How to use this document................................................................................................................1 The language....................................................................................................................................1 Updates............................................................................................................................................1 License and disclaimer.........................................................................................................................2 History..................................................................................................................................................3 About the "Building Analogies" drill...................................................................................................4 Relationships....................................................................................................................................4 Verbs............................................................................................................................................5 To be.......................................................................................................................................5 To do/make.............................................................................................................................6 With nouns/objects............................................................................................................6 With verbs..........................................................................................................................6 To have...................................................................................................................................7 Prepositions.................................................................................................................................8 Romanian..............................................................................................................................................9 Verb 'to be'........................................................................................................................................9 To be (category)..........................................................................................................................9 Foods - Office Objects - Travel Objects - Animal Cubs......................................................10 Bathroom Objects - Bedroom Objects Beverages - Birds.................................................12 Body Parts Buildings - Car Objects - Characters..............................................................14 Cleaning Objects, Clothing, Colors, Community Items.......................................................16 Computers & Accessories - Dog Breeds - Farm Animals - Fishes.......................................18 Other languages..................................................................................................................................20

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Building Analogies - Introduction

Introduction
The Building Analogies document is a companion of the Teach Me Language book by Sabrina Freeman and Lorelei Dake and the Companion Exercise Forms book by the same authors. It contains several trials for the Building Analogies drill from the above mentioned books. This document is not meant to replace the original book or the companion book. All it contains are examples to use in the therapy for speech delays based on Teach Me Language along with a way to organize the trials in a logical manner.

How to read this document


It is strongly recommended to read the explanatory part of this document (pages 1 - 9) from start to finish. The order in which the trials get selected is of lesser importance; simply select the trials that best fit your child in the order you feel is appropriate.

How to use this document


Each trial form is meant to be handed to the child. If the child cannot read, then reading the words to him or replacing the text with images is equally good. It is important to ask the child why he's resolved the way he did. This stimulates critical thinking in the child and it encourages him to express his thoughts.

The language
The language of the explanatory part of the document (pages 1 - 9) is English. The language of the trials (pages 9 - 20) is Romanian. We didn't have time to produce an English version of the words but passing the trials through Google Translate renders good results. We provide an entry in the document as a place for other languages (see page 20). If you are interested to contribute with translations in English or other languages, please contact us via http://mariusfilip.blogspot.com.

Updates
The development of this document is a continuous work. The initial version contains the initial trials only. Please check the FILES section of our blog at http://mariusfilip.blogspot.com to download new versions of this document. The History section at page 3 lists all the successive changes.

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Building Analogies - License and disclaimer

License and disclaimer


You are free to read, use, store and copy for personal use this document at no cost. You may not distribute the document or parts of it to anyone without explicit permission from the author. You may freely disseminate information on how to obtain a copy of this document. The information in this document has not been reviewed by any specialist in Verbal Behavior, language pathology, behaviorism or psychology. The authors of the Teach Me Language book did not endorse our interpretation of their work, neither did they evaluate the suitability of the examples presented herein. You may use the information herein AS IS, with no warranty expressed or implied. The author of this document makes no claim of suitability of this information for any purpose and no damage or loss resulted from the usage of this information may be imputed to him. Any collision of name, terms, titles or meaning with trademarked elements or works protected by copyright is purely incidental and may not be interpreted as trademark or copyright infringement in any way.

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Building Analogies - History

History
05/08/10 Document created.

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Building Analogies - About the "Building Analogies" drill

About the "Building Analogies" drill


The Building Analogies drill of the Teach Me Language book is meant to develop critical thinking in children with speech delays by teaching them that there are similar relationships among objects.

Relationships
Relationships form the basis of this drill and each relationship has a verb at its root. For example: The relationship banana yellow, tomato red, cucumber green has at its core the verb has the color. The relationship horse grass, fox chicken, hen corn has at its core the verb eats. The relationship fish water, bear woods, dog backyard has at its core the verb lives in. The relationship bird - air, fish water, deer meadow has at its core the verb does (its main activity) in.

The natural way to look at analogy relationships is to see what verb represents them best. In other words, we can classify analogy relationships based on their core verbs. If the child has difficulties with prepositions when formulating sintactically correct sentences, then prepositions must be treated separately, too (see Prepositions at page 8).

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Building Analogies - About the "Building Analogies" drill

Verbs
Not every verb that a child knows is elligible to represent an analogy relationship but many do: to eat (horse grass, hen corn), to help (doctor patient, teacher student), to push (finger button, foot pedal), to live (fish water, bear woods). Three verbs require a context so they require special attention: to be, to do/make and to have.
To be

The verb to be is too complex to be considered a single representative for analogy relationships since it's part of many compounds: is a (category), for example horse domestic animal, wolf wild animal, tomato - vegetable, math science. is a (unary attribute), for example lemon yellow, elephant big, mouse tiny. is a (binary attribute), for example France Germany, Greece Albania, United States Mexico ('are neighbors') or hen horse, bear fox, TV computer, socks gloves ('are same category'). is a (past participle) is a special kind of binary attribute representing the reverse of another relationship. For example, is eaten by is the reverse of eats.

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Building Analogies - About the "Building Analogies" drill

To do/make

This verb has two main incarnations: to do/make something (noun) or to do/make something (verb). The second instance is particularly difficult because it implies a semantic redirection from one verb to another.
With nouns/objects

In the case of to do/make something (noun) it may be necessary to group the nouns or objects by their class, as in the following examples: sheep wool, cow milk, pig ham (the class is 'things useful to humans'). sheep baa, dog bow-wow, monkey oo-oo-ah-ah (the class is 'sound'). Ford truck, Boeing plane, Kawasaki motorcycle (the class is 'vehicles'). Dell computers, Toshiba VCR, Bose speakers, Nintendo game station (the class is 'electronics').

Such grouping should occur only if the child has difficulties with grasping the relationship, otherwise splitting the nouns/objects by category is not required.
With verbs

Much more tricky is to do/make something (verb) because the indirect semantics is harder to grasp, as shown in the following examples: bird - air, fish water, deer meadow is a to something (verb) relationship, the verbs being fly, swim, run. do/make

mechanic car, policeman alarm, doctor patient is a to do/make something (verb) relationship, the verbs being repair, turn on, cure.

To complicate the things further, when explaining the reasons for choosing an analogy, the child cannot use 'does (verb)' but 'verb'. For example: The teacher asks: "why does mechanic go with car, policeman with alarm and doctor with patient?". The student answers: "because the mechanic repairs the car, the policeman turns the alarm on and the doctor cures the patient" although a verbatim expression of the relationship would be "the mechanic does repair on the car", etc.

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Building Analogies - About the "Building Analogies" drill

To have

This verb denotes ownership between an entity and another object or a quality (attribute). In the case of to have (object), the set of owned objects may be split by categories. For example, a man has parents (category 'people'), teeth (category 'body parts'), a home (category 'places') as well as wishes (category 'emotions'). Depending on how confortable does the student feel with maneuvering the set of owned objects, splitting them by category is an option. The case of to have (attribute), is very similar with the case of is a (unary attribute) since most unary attributes may be thought of in both terms (see page 5). Splitting the set of unary attributes is an option that this document considers (see page ).

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Building Analogies - About the "Building Analogies" drill

Prepositions
Some verbs require or use prepositions: stay at, stay on, stay under. If the child has difficulties with finding the right prepositon when expressing the relationship, then the prepositions need to be taken in account. As of today (05/08/10) this document does not take into account prepositions although this may change in the future.

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Building Analogies - Romanian

Romanian
This chapter contains the sheets for Romanian form of the trials. For trials in other languages, see chapter Other languages at page 20. This chapter contains analogy replationships by verb (see page 5). We do not provide distinction by preposition (see page 8).

Verb 'to be'


This section deals with the trials derived from the verb 'a fi' ('to be').

To be (category)
This section deals with the relationship between entities and their categories (grouped by four): Foods, Office Objects, Travel Objects, Animal Cubs Bathroom Objects, Bedroom Objects, Beverages, Birds Body Parts, Buildings, Car Objects, Characters Cleaning Objects, Clothing, Colors, Community Items Computers & Accessories, Dog Breeds, Farm Animals, Fishes Flowers, Footware, Fruits, Furniture Household Objects, Ingredients, Insects, Instruments Kitchen Objects, Letters, Living Room Objects, Materials Moments of the Day, Monkeys, Nature, Occupations Outer Space Items, People, Personal Objects, Pets Places, Plant Parts, Reptiles, Rooms Sea Creatures, Seasons, Shapes, Sport Grounds Sport Objects, Sports, Stationery Objects, Structures Tools, Toys, Vegetables, Vehicles Weather, Wild Animals, Bird Body Parts, Trees.

For each group of four categories we give a single set of four correspondences. Create new sets as needed.

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Building Analogies - Romanian

Foods - Office Objects - Travel Objects - Animal Cubs

HAMBURGHER CRUCIOR DE BAGAJE CLIMAR MIEL

MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE

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Building Analogies - Romanian

MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE MNCARE OBIECTE DIN BIROU OBIECTE DE CLTORIE PUI DE ANIMALE

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Building Analogies - Romanian

Bathroom Objects - Bedroom Objects Beverages - Birds

ROBINET CEAI COCO CNTAR

OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI

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Building Analogies - Romanian

OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI OBIECTE DIN BAIE OBIECTE DIN DORMITOR BUTURI PSRI

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Building Analogies - Romanian

Body Parts Buildings - Car Objects - Characters

RADIOCASETOFON HANSEL i GRETEL GLEZN BLOC DE APARTAMENTE

PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE

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Building Analogies - Romanian

PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE PRI ALE CORPULUI CLDIRI OBIECTE DIN MAIN PERSONAJE

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Building Analogies - Romanian

Cleaning Objects, Clothing, Colors, Community Items

MARO APC TOALET PUBLIC CIMEA

OBIECTE DE CURAT MBRCMINTE CULORI OBIECTE DIN COMUNITATE OBIECTE DE CURAT MBRCMINTE CULORI OBIECTE DIN COMUNITATE OBIECTE DE CURAT MBRCMINTE CULORI OBIECTE DIN COMUNITATE OBIECTE DE CURAT MBRCMINTE CULORI OBIECTE DIN COMUNITATE OBIECTE DE CURAT MBRCMINTE CULORI OBIECTE DIN COMUNITATE

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Building Analogies - Romanian

OBIECTE DE CURAT MBRCMINTE CULORI OBIECTE DIN COMUNITATE OBIECTE DE CURAT MBRCMINTE CULORI OBIECTE DIN COMUNITATE OBIECTE DE CURAT MBRCMINTE CULORI OBIECTE DIN COMUNITATE OBIECTE DE CURAT MBRCMINTE CULORI OBIECTE DIN COMUNITATE OBIECTE DE CURAT MBRCMINTE CULORI OBIECTE DIN COMUNITATE

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Building Analogies - Romanian

Computers & Accessories - Dog Breeds - Farm Animals - Fishes

TERIER STIV DE CDuri OAIE PISIC DE MARE

CALCULATOARE I ACCESORII RASE DE CINI ANIMALE DE LA FERM PETI CALCULATOARE I ACCESORII RASE DE CINI ANIMALE DE LA FERM PETI CALCULATOARE I ACCESORII RASE DE CINI ANIMALE DE LA FERM PETI CALCULATOARE I ACCESORII RASE DE CINI ANIMALE DE LA FERM PETI CALCULATOARE I ACCESORII RASE DE CINI ANIMALE DE LA FERM PETI

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Building Analogies - Romanian

CALCULATOARE I ACCESORII RASE DE CINI ANIMALE DE LA FERM PETI CALCULATOARE I ACCESORII RASE DE CINI ANIMALE DE LA FERM PETI CALCULATOARE I ACCESORII RASE DE CINI ANIMALE DE LA FERM PETI CALCULATOARE I ACCESORII RASE DE CINI ANIMALE DE LA FERM PETI CALCULATOARE I ACCESORII RASE DE CINI ANIMALE DE LA FERM PETI

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Building Analogies - Other languages

Other languages

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