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Telephone Network and Circuit Switching

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I. The Telephone Network .


II. Switching Systems
III. Schematic of Digital switch (Telephone Exchange)

IV. Signaling

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THE TELEPHONE NETWORK

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THE TELEPHONE NETWORK

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The Telephone Network


The components of a Telephone Network include Microphone Receiver Access Network (Local Loop) Switching and signaling system (End Offices)

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Telephone Network components Signaling and switching system Local Loop

receiver microphone

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Telephone Network components Microphone


Converts the vibrations in the air into an electrical signal

Receiver
Converts the received electrical signal into sound waves (the reverse action of a microphone) e.g.: loudspeaker

Access Network (Local Loop)


Conveys the information representing the audio signal from the microphone to switching system. Conveys the information representing the audio signal from the switching system to the receiver.

Signaling and switching system (End Offices)


Determines and makes appropriate connections among the customers to create a path from the transmitter to the receiver

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Microphone, Receiver & Accessing a Switch


Every customer has a Telephone in his premises consisting a Microphone, Speaker and a Dialing arrangement. Accessing the switching station at the end offices is accomplished through dialing directory numbers. In the past, telephones featured rotary or pulse dialing, in which a digital signal was sent to the end office for each number dialed. This type of dialing was prone to errors due to the inconsistency of humans during the dialing process. Today, dialing is accomplished through the touch-tone technique. In this method, instead of sending a digital signal, the user sends two small bursts of analog signals, called dual tone. The frequency of the signals sent depends on the row and column of the pressed pad. For example, Pressing number 8 will generate two bursts of analog signals with frequencies 852 and 1336 Hz to the end office.

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Rotary and Touch-tone dialing

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Access Network and Switching System


Access Network (Local loop): Twisted pair Copper cable that connects the customer telephone to the nearest end office or local central office. The first three digits of local telephone number define the office, and the next four digits define the local loop number. Switching office (End Offices): To avoid having a permanent physical link between any two customers, switches are located (in Telephone Exchanges) . Switch connects several local loops or trunks and allows different customers to connect. Switches are hardware and/or software devices capable of creating temporary connections between two or more devices linked to the switch.

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Access Network and Switching System


Methods of switching: Circuit switching, packet switching, and message switching Telephone networks use circuit switching. Different levels of switching offices: End offices, Tandem offices, and Regional offices. Trunks: Transmission media that handle communication between offices. It handles hundreds or thousands of connections through multiplexing. Transmission is usually through optical fibers or satellite links.

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THE TELEPHONE NETWORK

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SWITCHING SYSTEMS
PCM PULSE CODE MODULATION TIME SWITCH
A SIMPLE TIME SWITCH WITHOUT CANGE IN TIME SLOT TDM TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING TIME SLOT INTERCHANGE

SPACE DIVISION SWITCH TST SWITCHING

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SWITCHING SYSTEMS

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From analog signal to PCM digital code

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A/D Conversions
Filter Sample Quantize Encode

Sampling A Process of considering Instantaneous values of the Analog wave at regular intervals of time. Done by PAM (Pulse Amplitude Modulation) Quantize A process where measured sample is made to the nearest level defined in the system. Encode A Process of converting the Quantized Sample into a set of Binary Digits (Pulse Code Modulation)

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Digitizing voice: PCM Wave Form Encoding

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Manual Switching

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A circuit switch (Time Switch)


A circuit switch is a device with n inputs and m outputs that creates a temporary connection between an input link and an output link. The number of inputs does not have to match the number of outputs.

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Circuit-Switching
Circuit switching creates a direct physical connection between two devices such as phones or computers. We can use switches to reduce the number and length of links.

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A Simple Time Switch With No Change in Time Slot


Input and output lines are connected to a high-speed bus through input and output gates (micro switches) Each input gate is closed during one of the four Time slots. During the same Time slot, only one output gate is also closed. This pair of gates allows a burst of data to be transferred from one specific input line to one specific output line using the bus. The control unit opens and closes the gates according to switching need in a cyclic fashion.

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A Simple Time Switch With No Change in Time Slot

Multiplexing of Memorial Telecom Training Center Rajiv Gandhi Multiple Telephone Lines
For voice, we recall that the standard sampling frequency is 8000Hz So, the bit rate for a digital telephone call is: 8,000x8=64,000 bits per second (64 Kbps) This is the bit rate that would be reached at central office if the A/D conversion was done inside the switching system. Since many calls arrive at the central office, they can all be combined, and switched to another center to be routed to the destination Combining many channels and sending them simultaneously through a single transmission line is called multiplexing.

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Multiplexing
Using a channel to transmit more than one communication Common forms--FDM, TDM, WDM Circuit Switching applies TDM
Combined Comm Path

Mux

Mux

Individual Comm Paths

Individual Comm Paths

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Time Division Multiplexing

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Example for Time Division Multiplexing

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E-1 line for multiplexing telephone lines

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Time-division multiplexing, without and with a time-slot interchange

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Time-Slot Interchange (TSI)

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Time-slot interchange
TSI consists of random access memory (RAM) with several memory locations. The size of each location is the same as the size of a single time slot. The number of locations is the same as the number of inputs. The RAM fills up with incoming data from time slots in the order received. Slots are then sent out in an order based on the decisions of a control unit.

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Space-Division Switch
paths in the circuit are separated from each other spatially. Crossbar Switch Crossbar switch connects n inputs to m outputs in a grid, using electronic micro-switches (transistors) at each cross-point. Limitation is the number of cross-points required.

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TST switch

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TST switch
Combine Space division and time division switching. This results in switches that are optimized both physically (the number of cross points) and temporally (the amount of delay). Various types are: time-space-time (TST), time-space-space-time (TSST), space-time-time-space (STTS), etc.

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SWITCHING SYSTEMS

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Schematic of Digital switch (Telephone Exchange)

MDF

Line terminal interface Cards and controller (Sampling, A/D, D/A and TDM)

Peripheral time switch

Space switch

Service circuits (Tones, Announcements)

Peripheral Switching processor

Common controller

Alarm panel Man machine Interface Computer

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Schematic of Digital switch (TelephoneExchange)

Common controller

Printer Man Machine Interface Computer

Visual Display Report

VDU & Key Board

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What is Signaling?
All information other than speech /voice is a SIGNAL. Each event that is exchanged between any two nodes for connecting a voice/data call is a SIGNAL. Signalling refers to the exchange of information between call components required to provide and maintain service. Communicate the Occurrence of an event in the form of information.

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Types of signaling information


Call request and Release information Selection ( Address) information. End of selection information Supervisory information

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Line signaling
Calling Subscriber Line Signaling Call report Address signal Decadic Dialing Multi frequency Push-button Dialing Answer Back Signal Release signal Permanent Line (PG) Signal

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Called subscriber line signals.


Ring Signal Answer Signal Release Signal Register Recall Signal

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Digital Signalling
Channel- Associated signaling (CAS) Signaling and speech flow in the same path within the exchange and outside the exchange. Common Channel signaling (CCS) One Signaling channel is common for many voice channels Signaling information interchange. Maximum of 4096 voice channels Signaling information can be sent on one signaling channel

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Speech+signal

CAS
Switch

Switch

: 16th time slot/channel for signaling in each link Speech Circuits Switch
PROC

Switch
#7

#7

PROC

CCS LINK

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