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The End-User Informatics Revolution

George A. Maney
Abstract
This paper is the final draft a forthcoming book (500+ pages). The book is an introduction to the end-user informatics revolution. End-user informatics is the next big revolution in information technology. End-user informatics is do-it-yourself, demand-driven, disposable informatics. This is just the informatics solutions you need just when you need them. End-user informatics starts with the observation that practical prose is a mass technology. This high technology is the mechanistic modeling medium we all use every day in all of our practical pursuits. Practical information flows are the lifeblood of modern capitalist communities. But what exactly is practical information? It's ultimately physical information, but the physics is highly emergent rather than elementary. So practical reality is just physical reality in deep disguise. Practical prose is the medium we use to model practical reality. That's why there's a General Theory of Practical Systems (GTPS). This theory is our common mass consensus working worldview of practical reality. It's the theory that we all use every day to communicate and collaborate in all of our practical pursuits. It's the mechanistic modeling foundation framework that makes practical prose meaningful.

*** Final Draft of October 15, 2007 ***

Synopsys
End-user informatics is the next big revolution in information technology. End-user informatics is do-it-yourself, demand-driven, disposable informatics. This is just the informatics solutions you need just when you need them. End-user informatics starts with the observation that practical prose is a mass technology. This high technology is the mechanistic modeling medium we all use every day in all of our practical pursuits. Practical information flows are the lifeblood of modern capitalist communities. But what exactly is practical information? It's ultimately physical information, but the physics is highly emergent rather than elementary. So practical reality is just physical reality in deep disguise. Practical prose is the medium we use to model practical reality. That's why there's a General Theory of Practical Systems (GTPS). This theory is our common mass consensus working worldview of practical reality. It's the theory that we all use every day to communicate and collaborate in all of our practical pursuits. It's the mechanistic modeling foundation framework that makes practical prose meaningful. The General Theory of Practical Systems is enabling for end-user informatics. GTPS can be viewed as: a survey of the common consensus everyday working worldview a way of understanding the role of practical information dynamics in capitalist communities a foundation framework for end-user Internet data web informatics a set of 24,000 primitives for constructing Internet data web structured information models a first step towards making computers civilization literate an exegesis of the exposition structure of everyday practical English a way of understanding mass managerial superintelligence structures a systematic way to understand one of the few things that makes us uniquely human a map of the landscape and layout of practical logic and practical language a synopsis of the common context of practical pursuits and practical reality a means of understanding the mechanistic meaning of practical prose and practical programs a way of understanding communication and collaboration in the working world an overview of the high mechanics of practical modeling and practical management a worldly, working education for Internet data web interconnected computers enabling technology for mass custom production of Internet data web informatics software a modeling mechanism for Internet data web mass management automation

Internet Resources
This book and related materials are available at http://www.theultimatetechnology.com. The blog for this book and The End-User Informatics Revolution is at http://end-userinformatics.blogspot.com.

Notices
Copyright 2007 by George A. Maney (gmaney<at>ieee<dot>org). All rights reserved. CYC and CYCL are registered trademarks of Cycorp (cyc.com) Deep Blue is a registered trademark of IBM (ibm.com) Ford is a registered trademark of The Ford Motor Company (ford.com) IBM is a registered trademark of IBM (ibm.com) MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks (mathworks.com) System/360 and OS/360 are registered trademarks of IBM (ibm.com) UML is an Object Management Group (omg.org) registered trademark Universal Modeling Language is an Object Management Group (omg.org) registered trademark UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group (unix.org) World Wide Web is a registered trademark of the World Wide Web Consortium (w3.org)

Dedication
This book is gratefully dedicated to the author's many mentors.

About the Author


George A. Maney lives in California's Great Central Valley and works as a management information science consultant. His extensive professional education and experience includes management, law, applied mathematics, automation science, electrical engineering, and computer science.

Author's Note
This book is intended as field guide to the end-user informatics revolution. This is the next major technological revolution in practical informatics. It's the new school. It's got new rules. That's why its a revolution. The end-user informatics revolution is about the democratization of practical informatics models, methods, and mindsets. It is about automating and animating the utilitarian modeling that endusers do everywhere every day in all of their practical pursuits. It is about giving informatics endusers the means to do all that that can, must, and eventually will be done with practical informatics. Thus much of content of this book will seem heretical from the standpoint of IT professionals. No apologies. All that is heretical in this sense is habitual with informatics end-users. In the age of end-user informatics the end-users are always right. Moreover, much of content of this book is professorially incorrect. No apologies. The end-user informatics revolution will primarily involve the principled professions and professional managers. Thus this new revolution must always be professionally, rather than professorially, correct. For the record, note that all statements made in this book are IMHO.

Revision History
This is the final public draft of October 15, 2007.

Table of Contents
PRELUDE: THE ULTIMATE TECHNOLOGY PREFACE: THE END-USER INFORMATICS REVOLUTION 1: THE GENERAL THEORY OF PRACTICAL INFORMATION
Introduction Practical Prose as High Technology Practical Information Practical Information Ideologies Practical Management Practical Prose Technostructure Practical Prose Exposition Frameworks Practical Language Practical Logic Practical Infodynamics and Practical Informatics Practical Intelligence Practical Superintelligence Practical Prose and Practical Programs Practical Information Quality and Safety Practical Meaning Practical Measurement Practical Truth and Proof Practical Models

1 2 5
5 5 6 8 8 10 10 12 13 15 15 17 18 21 24 25 25 26

2: THE GENERAL THEORY OF PRACTICAL COLLABORATION


Introduction Working Words and Working World Models The Working World and Working Worldviews The Elite Working Worldviews Working Worldview Context Communities Working Worldview Evolution Working World Context Frameworks Principled Professional Working Worldviews Managerial Working Worldviews Automating Management in the Working World Wiring the Working World Together on the Data Web

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30 30 30 31 32 33 35 36 37 38 41

3: THE GENERAL THEORY OF PRACTICAL SYSTEMS


Introduction What GTPS Is and Isn't The Architecture of GTPS GTPS Stenographic Modeling The GTPS Working Word Processor GTPS Methodology Generally Is GTPS Really Meaningful? GTPS Context Mining Methods Mechanized Context Mining Methods GTPS Model Theory GTPS Logic Layers GTPS vs. CYC GTPS in Context Maintenance Automation GTPS in Pervasive Internet Automation GTPS in End-User Internet Informatics GTPS in Informatics Industrialization Putting GTPS to Work The Economics of GTPS

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43 43 43 44 45 45 46 49 50 51 52 54 55 56 56 59 62 64

4: A QUICK TOUR OF GTPS HIGHLIGHTS 5: GTPS PRIMARY PRIMITIVES 6: GTPS REFERENCE MODEL ATLAS 7: GTPS REFERENCE MODEL ENCYCLOPEDIA 8: GTPS DIFFERENTIAL DICTIONARY 9: A SAMPLING OF GTPS TOPICS POSTSCRIPT: GETTING TO THE END-USER INFORMATICS FUTURE REFERENCES

67 77 86 229 388 503 526 533

Prelude: The Ultimate Technology


A while back I was cleaning out my attic and came across what appeared to be a magic lamp. So I rubbed the thing a few times and, sure enough, out pops this genie. I stared for a moment, and then quickly recovered my composure. "Well then, I suppose you're going to grant me three wishes." "No," the genie replied "There's a serious shortage of wishes just now, so you only get one wish. Make a wise choice. No refunds or returns." I knew exactly what I wanted. "I wish for the exclusive rights to the ultimate technology. I insist on the rights to the single most powerful and profound technology in any human civilization anywhere including all past, present, and future civilizations." The genie breathed an audible sigh of relief. "Granted!" he cried. "I really was deathly afraid that you were going to wish for something terribly difficult." As the genie started back into his lamp I called out after him. "By the way, which technology did you grant me the exclusive rights to?" The genie turned around. "Oh, I apologize. I thought that was obvious. I granted you the exclusive rights to practical prose technology." I thought about this for a just second. "Whoa, hold on a minute! Practical prose is not a technology!" The genie replied "Of course practical prose is a technology!" "It is the one truly ultimate technology. It is the only technology that is always the starting point for every other technology." "Moreover, practical prose is the one absolutely indispensable technology in any human civilization. It is the only technology which, if abolished, would cause the immediate and complete collapse of any human civilization." "Practical prose is a high technology with a remarkably rich, regular, and redundant technological structure. It is the uniquely powerful and profound technology that enables all modeling of every sort of mundane and managerial artifact in any human civilization." "Well" I said, "how is it that I now have exclusive rights to this technology?" The genie replied "That's simple. Nobody thinks of practical prose in technological terms anymore. That view was popular and productive in the first half of the twentieth century but it's been utterly unfashionable now for decades. Today everyone has completely forgotten about the technological approach to understanding practical prose and practical information. So it's all yours. Go for it! It's the ultimate high technology trophy hack." "Just one more thing," I replied "how do I enforce my exclusive rights to this ultimate technology?" The genie smiled. "Remember that you didn't wish for the exclusive rights in perpetuity. That's a whole different sort of exceptionally difficult wish." "As of this very moment youre the only person on the planet who understands that practical prose is the ultimate technology. If you really want to maintain your exclusivity then all you need to do is keep silent." With this the genie disappeared back into his lamp for good.

Preface: The End-User Informatics Revolution


Pundits tell us that we live in an "information society " during an "information age." This is indisputably true. Thus it is all the more remarkable that we still don't understand much about what practical information is, how it works, or how we use it. Thats why a solid understanding of practical information is the next frontier in practical informatics. Today we understand computation far better than we understand most things. Even so, practical informatics strategic progress has long been stalled, stuck, and stagnant. So something else must be holding up the show. That other thing is our understanding of practical information. For over fifty years we have been trying to understand computation in isolation. We have been trying to understand computation in purely formalist terms. In this way computation has become an end in and of itself. Yet in all practical applications computation is always just a means to a single end. That end is always automating and animating practical information. Thus we cannot possibly hope to fully understand practical informatics without a mature understanding practical information. Today practical informatics progress and profits suffer for lack of this mature understanding. Moreover, we cannot possibly hope to fully understand the modern capitalist world without understanding practical information. It is the unprecedented quality, quantity, and quickness of practical information flows that make modern capitalist communities possible and plenteous. End-user informatics on the Internet data web is all that we can, must, and eventually will do in practical informatics. Today all of the key technologies required to do all this are mature with one major exception. That major exception is a mature technological understanding of practical information and practical prose. The only way we can ever hope to really understand practical prose is to take it apart and see what makes it tick. So we must systematically hack this most intricate and important of all human high technologies. This necessarily requires methods of descriptive information science. We must dig out the vast diversity of micromodular mechanistic modeling constructs that comprise the technostructure of practical prose. The mechanistic microstructure modeling frameworks presented in this book provide a very preliminary starting point for doing all this digging. For the last thirty years this author has investigated the deceptively simple question "How do practical people use practical information in practical pursuits?" The goal of these investigations is a technological understanding of how life is reflected by language and logic in practical pursuits. This book is a sampling of the results of these investigations so far. The approach taken in these investigations is admittedly old school. It starts with substantial work done in the 1920s and 1930s on the empirical exposition structure of practical English. Much of this work was done in the old industrial science movement. Today everybody knows this is the wrong approach. Everybody knows that exploring mere utilitarian logic and language is a waste of time. Everybody knows that universal logic and language explain everything. This is the universal modeling revolution. Since the early 1950s universal modeling has been the obligatory approach to understanding language and logic in academia. So utilitarian modeling has long been overlooked. Today universal modeling is a great success in low quality, high quantity information technology modeling. Many millions of people worldwide use universal modeling at least on occasion in practical Informatics modeling.
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High quality information modeling is another matter. After more than fifty years universal modeling practice is still primitive. It is still far from competitive with routine utilitarian modeling in terms of information quality and safety. The meaning expressed by universal modeling is still limited, at best, to a few percent of the utilitarian meaning of everyday practical prose. Until this gap closes universal modeling cannot hope to compete with utilitarian modeling. This gap is not likely to close anytime soon. It's beginning to look like it may never close at all. Moreover, universal modeling so far has failed to explain anything interesting about how utilitarian logic and language work. Universal modeling has always promised to provide profoundly powerful new ways of explaining practical models and practical meaning. Ultimately universal modeling may not explain these at all. So perhaps mere utilitarian modeling is interesting and important after all. Utilitarian modeling is the only workable that tool practical people have for modeling and managing human civilization. Utilitarian modeling is a tool that we all use everyday in all of our practical pursuits. How can we best understand utilitarian modeling? There are lots of old school models that provide the best understanding of utilitarian modeling available today. These models were widely known to our grandparents. Yet they have long been out of fashion and favor in academia. Today these venerable models survive mostly in the form of folklore in various specialized practice modeling communities. The best of these models are included in this book. Why do we need these old school models? Because these models work remarkably well when properly applied. They are the only hard science, high technology models we have. So far they are the only really workable models we have for understanding the meaning of practical prose language and logic. Note that the work presented here is an exercise in scavenging and synthesis. This is not in any sense a work of scholarship. The modeling frameworks presented here are a work in progress. This work is preliminary at best. There are endless errors and omission. Some models are far better than others. Many models are truly awful. Everything needs a lot of work. Even so, the models presented here are a way to get started. Today we urgently need to get started. We need to recover and reconstruct the old school approach to understanding practical language and practical logic. We urgently need a practical utilitarian alternative to universal modeling as a way to understand practical information and practical prose. The reasons for this urgency are economic. Practical information flows are the lifeblood of capitalist communities. Practical prose is the modeling medium of these practical information flows. There are many trivial ways to understand practical information. These are universal modeling ways. These are philosophical and psychological ways, computer and communal and cognitive science ways, mentalist and metaphysical and metalogical and metamathematical ways. Today we need far better ways of understanding practical information. We need more than merely trivial ways. We need technological ways. We need to understand the native high mechanics of practical prose high technology. A technological understanding of practical prose and practical information is prerequisite to any significant strategic progress in practical informatics. This understanding is prerequisite to mass custom production of synthetic informatics software, end-user informatics, Internet data web informatics industrialization, and building out the Internet data web.

So far only a tiny fraction of the mass modeling and mass management systems of modern mass civilization have been automated. Many tens of billions of dollars of annual economic benefits can be realized just by increasing automation coverage by just a few percent. All of the barriers and bottlenecks to realizing this value involve understanding practical information and practical prose in technological terms. Hopefully the work presented here will serve as a first small step in achieving the mature understanding we so urgently require. The only way to thoroughly understand utilitarian modeling is descriptive information science. The sophisticated social systems that perfect practical prose are organic systems. These are massively self-ordering and self-optimizing systems. In these ways they are very much like the natural systems studied by the life sciences. So we must understand these social information technologies by much the same means that we understand living systems. We must thoroughly explore these mass technology systems by digging, detective word, dissection, and distillation. The work presented here is a first effort in exploring practical information and practical prose by these descriptive means. Where will descriptive information science lead us? It will lead us to end-user informatics. This is the inevitable future of practical informatics. This is the only workable strategic way forward. End-user informatics is the next revolution in information technology. It is only by means of this revolution that we can hope to do all that can, must and will be done with practical informatics. This is how we will automate and animate the infodynamics of modern industrial civilization. This is how we will automate and animate all the mass modeling and mass management systems of modern mass society. This is how we will maximize managerial superintelligence and management premium. This is how the world of practical informatics must find its way to the future. George A. Maney MSEE MBA Santa Nella, California October, 2007

1: The General Theory of Practical Information


Introduction
What is practical information? What does it mean? How does it work? These are the questions answered by The General Theory of Practical Information (GTPI). This theory answers these key questions in a very particular and perhaps even peculiar way. This theory provides a ruthlessly, relentlessly mechanistic perspective for understanding practical models, meaning, and management. It draws heavily on classic models from the mechanistic foundations of the hard sciences and the high technologies. This firm focus on mechanism starts with three observations: we live in a mechanistic universe which we all must cope with every day the meaning of practical information is primarily mechanical computers are merely mechanistic modeling machines

These observations are the starting point for the mechanistic sort of machine intelligence that we've been using for nearly a hundred years now. This is the sort we started with in the days of punch cards. This is the sort that makes personal computers work. This is probably just the same sort of machine intelligence we will be using a hundred years, or even a thousand years, from now. Thus for the foreseeable future practical information in practical informatics applications must be understood in terms of mechanistic models and mechanistic meaning. Today we're not quite sure where the limitations of mechanistic modeling ultimately lie. Perhaps the meaning of everything in physical and practical reality will eventually be explained at some level of emergent mechanics. Perhaps we will never be able to explain much more with mechanistic modeling than we do today. Is Shakespeare practical? The body of Shakespeare's work may well be the single greatest source of secular practical wisdom ever assembled. Even so, this sort of practical meaning is not readily reducible to mechanism by any means available today. Here's a pop quiz. Turn your favorite Shakespearean sonnet into an algorithm. For extra credit, turn your favorite algorithm into an English sonnet. Why are these challenges absurd? The answer is that we have no idea how automate the meaning of poetry today. All applicable algorithms automate and animate applied mechanics and applied mathematics models. If The General Theory of Practical Information can't explain Shakespearean information then what's it good for? It's good for explaining applied mathematics and applied mechanics information. It's good for explaining basic, natural, and applied science information. It's good for explaining enterprise, economics, and engineering information. It's good for explaining the mechanistic information of all everyday and elite practical pursuits.

Practical Prose as High Technology


The only information technology ever employed in any practical pursuit is the one that you yourself are using right this very instant. This technology is practical prose. All other kinds of practical information technology are derivative of practical prose. Practical prose is that separable and specialized form of prose that we all use to model the dynamics of physical reality and practical reality. There are, of course other kinds of prose. Some examples include poetic, personal, philosophical, pious, and profane prose.

So far we really don't understand much about the meaning of these other kinds of prose. The mechanistic meaning of practical prose is the only sort of prose meaning we have any systematic understanding of today. Practical prose is the most important technology in your life. This is the technology that you use to communicate and collaborate with others in all of your practical pursuits. It is a technology that you have spent many thousands of hours mastering. The entire practical dynamics of everything in human civilization is modeled by means of practical prose. For this reason practical prose is the indispensable universal ingredient in everything we use and everything we do. Practical prose is the mechanistic modeling medium of every practical pursuit in all of human civilization. So practical prose is necessarily the starting point for every other technology in human civilization. In fact practical prose is the one truly indispensable technology in any human civilization. This is a point made in antiquity by the story of Babel in Genesis 11. Practical prose is the ultimate capitalist tool. Practical information flows are the lifeblood of modern capitalist communities. Practical prose is the medium of these practical information flows. Practical prose is the product of ten thousand years of technological evolution. It is a mass consensus communal technology. It is an organic technology. It is an intensively self-ordering and self-optimizing mass technology. For this reason practical prose is perfect for all practical purposes. It is perfect in much the same way, and for much the same reasons, as free financial markets. The existence proof for the perfection of practical prose is all around us. Practical reality itself is the sum and substance of this proof. Everything that is made or moved or managed in practical reality must be adequately modeled by means of practical prose. Anything else is miraculous. There are no accidental artifacts. At this very moment millions of people are working to maintain the perfection of practical prose. Today this mass social process continues around the world around the clock on the Internet. Remarkably, practical prose has long been mostly an orphan. The last serious and systematic effort to understand practical prose technostructure took place in the 1920s and 1930s. Yet practical prose has a remarkably elegant and elaborate technostructure. Anyone with good practical prose skills can start uncovering large chunks of this technostructure after a few hours of coaching. Exotic sensibilities and esoteric skills are not required.

Practical Information
Practical information flows are the lifeblood of modern capitalist communities. But what exactly is practical information? For present purposes practical information is any mechanistic model of practical reality. Practical information models are expressed in terms of practical prose. Practical prose models always consist of two closely correlated parts: practical logic: mechanistic or mathematical exposition of practical reality meaning practical language: verbal or visual encodings of practical prose logic

There are no unmodeled or unmanaged artifacts in the modern industrial world. So every artifact is necessarily supported over its entire life by suitable practical prose models. This includes complimentary mundane and managerial models. The meaning of these models starts with practical reality. Practical reality is the reality of everyday human experience. This is the familiar reality of people, places, periods, property, practice, policy and such.

Practical reality is an emergent view of underlying physical reality. Physical reality is the foreign reality of molecules, momentum, minerals, and such. The basics of physical and practical reality are summarized as: Reality Perspective physical reality practical reality Spacetime space & time period & place Substance matter & energy person & property State phenomena & proportionality principle & practice & policy

The key idea here is physical state. This is a basic idea from your secondary school physics textbook. Physical state is the elementary state of physical reality. Practical state is the emergent state of practical reality. Are you a stateless person? Certainly not. You've got lots and lots of kinds of physical and practical state. Your physician is concerned with the state of your health. You broker is concerned with the state of you finances. You boss is concerned with the state of your work assignments. We exist in physical reality but don't generally experience this reality. Emergent practical reality is the reality of everyday living in the modern world. The everyday mechanics of this reality are about making, moving, maintaining, managing, modeling, and so on. These are the mechanisms we all must master in order to cope with real life in the real world. The ultimate reference model in every practical pursuit is present practical reality. This is the entirety of the world of practical pursuits as it is at this very moment. Present practical reality is the starting point for every valid practical information model. The symbolic information models employed in all practical pursuits are derivative of this ultimate practical information model. Thus you yourself are an information model. You are a substantial information model rather than a symbolic one. Your driving license is a symbolic model of you. You are the best possible present model of you. You are, to some extent, a model of everyone else. This is true because you are similar, in some ways, to everybody else. Practical significance starts with practical similarity. In this sense information is imitation. Representation reflects and resembles reality. Models are the mechanisms we use to mirror and mimic other mechanisms. Everything in physical and practical reality is a substantial self-information model. In all practical pursuits symbolic separate-information models such as drawings and documents are reflections of physical and practical reality. We live in a mechanistic universe. So the entire practical meaning of both substantial and symbolic information models in practical pursuits is necessarily mechanistic. All other sorts of meaning are moot for all practical purposes. There is much about the mechanics of our universe that we don't understand. Even so, there is an awful lot that we do understand. The part that we do understand so far is the starting point for meaning, modeling, and management in all practical pursuits. Human civilization is the ultimate communal system. Communal systems operate by means of communication and collaboration. Practical prose is the medium of practical communication and collaboration in human civilization. Human culture is the ultimate information system. The culture of any community is the totality of every substantial and symbolic model available in the community. Culture is the basis for communal communication and collaboration in every human community. Practical culture is only one part of human culture. Even so, it's a particularly important part. This is the part we use to cope with living out our lives in present practical reality.

Practical Information Ideologies


Call up you favorite IT expert sometime and ask for quick explanation of practical information. In all likelihood you will find the resulting explanation utterly incomprehensible. Even so, this is not a problem. Don't panic. This is exactly as it should be. The reason is that there are two primary ideologies of practical information today. These include: Information Modeling Ideology universal modeling utilitarian modeling Prevalent in programming practical pursuits Practical Information is computation in disguise civilization in disguise Foundations metaphysical mechanical

These two practical information ideologies could hardly be more different. Even so, both ideologies work exceptionally well. The one that you actually need all depends on who you are and what you're doing. Most software professionals see practical information as computation in disguise. This is the starting point for universal modeling in best practice information technology. This includes all 2 commonplace forms of data engineering and knowledge engineering . The best software authors cultivate specialized skills that allow them to see the dynamics of practical reality directly in terms of computational algebras and algorithms. This is demonstrably the optimal way of looking at practical information in current best-practice software production. Yet this is just one way, not the only way, of looking at practical reality. Moreover, this is a way of looking at practical reality that is utterly foreign to practical informatics end-users. Practical informatics end-users just don't understand computational algebras and algorithms. They never have and they never will. Nor should they. These practical folks have an entirely different way, a far more powerful and precise way, of looking at practical reality and practical information. They see practical reality as a great diversity of mundane and managerial mechanisms. In this way practical informatics end-users see practical information as civilization in disguise. This is the starting point for utilitarian modeling in all principled practical pursuits. The dichotomy of information ideologies comes at a steep price. It is this dichotomy that explains why software professionals have such great difficulty in understanding what their end-users really want and need. It also explains exactly why practical informatics software, despite often heroic efforts on the part of software professionals, is so remarkably difficult to use. What is a computer? The answer depends on your information ideology. Programmers see computers as marvelous mathematical machines. Informatics end-users see computers as machine tools of mass modeling and mass management. Computers are not in any sense magical. Computers, for all practical purposes, are just another sort of machine. These are remarkably complex machines but just machines nonetheless. In practical pursuits computers are practical information machines. They are the machines that we use to mirror and mimic the micromodular mechanics of practical reality.

Practical Management
Mankind is managerial. This is hardly the only way of understanding mankind. Even so, this is always the best mechanistic way to understand mankind for all practical purposes. Managing is mandatory for all competent adults in the modern industrial world. We must manage our own affairs and often those of others. Some very few of us manage the elite affairs of enormous enterprises. Yet all of us are necessarily expert everyday managers.

At the very least we usually manage to get out of bed in the morning, go about our business, and crawl back into bed at night. So all of us are always managing something. Mostly we are managing many things. You may well be skeptical. If so, then try to go for an entire day without managing anything. You will find that this is simply impossible unless you have been bound, gagged, and tied to a chair. This is exactly why practical information is so vitally important in all practical pursuits. Practical information is always the fruit of practical management as well as the feedstock. So practical models are the stock in trade of practical management. The foundations and fundamentals of practical management are essentially the same in all practical pursuits. They are just the same in managing daily living as they are in managing the dealings of multinational corporations. The primary varieties of management models are measurement and mandate models. Measurement models capture the meaning of the working world as it is. Mandate models capture the meaning of the working world as we wish, want, or will it to become. Managerial information is mostly messy and multitopical. This is particularly true of general management information. General management information is often massively multitopical. The quality of practical management can never be better than the quality of the practical prose models available for managing. This is true both for enterprise management and for everyday management. Why must we manage? The answer is that all of the lifeforms we know of engage in management. Dogs somehow manage to be dogs. In this sense every lifeform is a stable, selfmanaging mortal mechanism. Nearly all lifeforms engage in both self and separate management. Predation and parasitism are examples of separate management in the natural world. Management, in this view, is any form of complex conative control. Every species has its own purposes and practices. So there are endless specialized forms of management in the natural world. You yourself are full of these natural management mechanisms. These are the diverse homeostatic control mechanisms that manage the physiological balance of your body. Note that genetic information is management information. A genome is the natural information system employed to manage the evolution of a species. The genome of a species encodes all of the anatomical and physiological mechanism possibilities of that species. Human management is unique. Human beings have the capacity to manage collaboratively based on the communication of shared mechanistic models. Other species, such as honeybees, do this as well. The difference is that our management models are complex and cultural rather than circumscribed and congenital. We manage by means of principles rather than patterns. We manage by means of intellect rather than instinct. In these ways we can and do master and manage everything within the range of available phenomena, principle, and practice mechanism models. These models are practical prose models. This is why understanding practical prose is uniquely important in understanding Homo sapiens and human society. Every species on this planet has a genome. Only human beings have a practical prosome. All human civilizations are communal management systems. Modern mass civilization in the industrial world increasingly relies on mass management and mass modeling. These are the means by which we manage mass mundane systems. These are mass making and moving systems. They include mass production, mass distribution, and mass consumption systems. They include mass communication, mass transportation, and mass culture systems.

Today we are bred, born, and buried by means of mass systems. We are educated, employed, and entertained by means of mass systems. This is a radically different way of living in the world that that which prevailed anywhere only a century ago. Modern mechanistic management makes this new way of living possible. We live in the first methodically, meticulously, minutely modeled and managed human society. All this modeling and managing is the genesis of our unprecedented material wellbeing and monetary wealth.

Practical Prose Technostructure


What kind of technology is practical prose? It can't be a mundane technology like a dishwasher or an automobile. Practical prose doesn't make anything or move anything. That's because practical prose is a managerial technology. It's the technology of practical management measuring and mandating. It's the technology of mechanistic practice modeling. In what sense is practical prose a high technology? In the sense that, as in the case of all high technologies, we understand much of the high mechanics. We understand multiple layers and levels of mechanics from the elementary to the emergent. The technostructure of practical prose is hidden in plain sight. This is why we usually don't usually pay any attention to this truly marvelous technological wonder. This is to say that we don't usually intellectualize practical prose mechanistic meaning. The reason for this is that we all spend many years systematically internalizing this meaning. We internalize this meaning over time as we learn to work in the world. Play is the work of children. We begin to explore the mechanics of practical reality at a tender age. Toddlers tinker endlessly with everything. These are our early efforts at empirical experimentation. This sort of play is the beginning of our mastery of mechanistic meaning. This play is how we lay down the foundations of our working worldviews. We build on these foundations gradually over time. We garner education and experience. We encounter and explore diverse practical reality micromechanisms. We wire the language and logic of these into our working worldviews incrementally. Every now and then we remodel parts of our working worldviews by wiring them up in new and better ways. We continue to cultivate our working worldviews throughout our lives. This is how practical language and logic become second nature to us. Since practical prose is second nature we must develop specialized skills in order to explore its technostructure. These skills involve intellectualizing the mechanistic meaning that we have spent years laboriously learning to internalize. These skills involve visualizing the micromodular structure of our own personal working worldviews. Most people can learn to explore practical prose technostructure with a little practice. Some people seem to be much better explorers than others. Some find this sort of exploration inordinately difficult.

Practical Prose Exposition Frameworks


Practical reality is a massive, multifarious, messy place. Its complexity confounds us. Its diversity daunts us. Its mechanisms are far more random than regular. How do we manage to model all this madcap mechanistic messiness? The answer is that we divvy everything up. We divide and conquer. We map the multifarious mechanisms of practical reality in to a great diversity of empirical exposition frameworks. Some practical exposition elements are atomic but most are not. Most exposition elements are included in a major or minor exposition framework.

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These frameworks are constructive spaces for modeling particular sorts of mechanism like time or terrain. From a linguistic science semantics standpoint this is somewhat similar to prototype 3 theory . We map out exposition frameworks as constructive spaces of practical exposition elements. These practical exposition frameworks are of three primary types: rationale: artifact application frameworks rhetoric: artifact applied mechanics frameworks rigor: artifact applied mathematics frameworks

Each framework provides a unique rationale, rhetoric, or rigor modeling perspective. These perspectives serve to constructively cover a range of practical meaning. Some examples of expository framework perspectives are: rationale perspective example: all of the various breeds of show dogs rhetoric perspective example: all of the Julian calendar periods rigor perspective example: all of the usual integer arithmetic operations

Practical expression often involves all three primary types of exposition elements. Consider a trivial example: rationale element: apple rhetoric element: collection rigor element: count

Counting a collection of apples is commonplace. Counting a collection of oranges is much the same thing. If your collection of apples has different kinds of apples then a count of classes might be useful. Practical prose typically draws on many exposition element frameworks simultaneously. We often use dozens or many dozens in simple practical prose models. This combination of practice frameworks perspectives provides: redundancy: lots of alternative elements reusability: lots of ways to use each elements recombinance: lots of ways to put the elements together

Putting these framework perspectives together involves: pluralism: multiple kinds of complementary perspectives parallelism: mutual correlation of complementary perspectives

It is exactly this pluralism and parallelism that give practical prose its extreme range of representational power, precision, and profundity. Small reductions in available pluralism and parallelism result in large reductions in available representation quality. High quality exposition model structures are characterized by: referential richness: lots of referential meaning randomness: mostly random with local regularity reinforcement: multiple parallel perspective mashups

All of this is exactly what we would expect. The reason is that practical exposition mirrors and mimics the practice dynamics structure of practical reality. Practical reality is characterized by: extreme diversity of form and function lots of micromechanical similarity less macromechanical similarity

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large scale disorder emerging from diverse local order constant dynamic coevolution of changing combinations

The wrong way to build an exposition framework is to enumerate practical reality. Perhaps the gods do this. Perhaps the gods have a name for every individual grain of sand. We mortals, on the other hand, can hardly manage this. So we simplify practical reality by finding as much similarity as possible. This includes both similarity of form and similarity of function. We capture this similarity in terms of applied mechanics and applied mathematical micromodels. These similarity frameworks act as a meaning compression mechanism. They serve to filter the redundancy of real life meaning out of all the randomness. The electromagnetic equations, the balance sheet equations, and the diurnal cycle are examples of this sort of filtering. Mechanistic meaning similarity is particularly important in the applied mechanical rhetoric of practical prose. Here we see a vast diversity of: metamechanisms: reusable micromechanism prototypes mechaphors: similarity structures among mechanisms

Everyday practical prose context frameworks are highly efficient systematic compression mechanisms. Without these principled practice frameworks we simply couldn't cope. These everyday coping frameworks are hardly simple. That's why it takes us all about two decades to master these frameworks. We begin with mundane coping frameworks and progress to managerial coping frameworks. Isn't there some secret simplicity that underlies all this sophistication? Apparently not. If there is then we haven't seen a trace of it so far. Moreover, there is good reason to believe, based on what we know today, that this secret simplicity cannot exist. Combining a few simple physical laws creates phenomena spaces of staggering complexity and extreme sparseness. This is the kind of complex order that we experience in our daily lives. This is the kind of complex order that we must deal with in our everyday practical pursuits. This is the kind of complex meaning we all model every day with practical prose exposition framework constructions.

Practical Language
Practical language is the medium of mechanistic modeling. Varieties of practical prose can be characterized primarily in terms of: visual or verbal style qualitative or quantitative substance

Visual styles are the sort we use most often for highly complex modeling. These are convenient when words fail us. Examples include roadmaps, wiring schematics, and PERT charts. Some simple quantitative styles of practical language include numbers, numeric data sets, and numeric equations. More sophisticated styles include algebraic geometry as well as applied analytic mathematics equations partial differential equations such as Poisson's equation. Isn't human language a natural phenomenon? The answer is yes and no. The style of spoken practical language is natural. The substance of all forms of practical language is normative. This stands entirely to reason. We are not born with innate models of the mechanics of baking a cake or driving a car. We acquire these technological models over time by means of education and experience. Practical prose models are empirical expressions. The elements of empirical expression are:

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encoding: the variable linguistic style of expression exposition: the invariant logical substance of expression

Consider the operating manual for an automobile. In North America today these usually combine English, French, and Spanish translations. These are three very different forms of encoding. Even so, the exposition is essentially the same in each translation. The range of practical language includes the entirely of: applied mechanics models and modeling elements applied mathematics models and modeling elements

The applied mechanics and applied mathematics of practical prose come from three basic kinds of practical rationales. These include: Principled Technologies enterprise principles economic principles engineering principles Phenomena Theory production phenomena price phenomena potential phenomena Practical Dynamics work dynamics wealth dynamics world dynamics

In most routine practical prose models enterprise principles are the dominant rationale. Production and praxeology (systematic production management) primitives are typically the starting point for routine practice modeling.

Practical Logic
There are lots of different sorts of logic. At some point in your education you may have struggled thought a course on predicate logic. This is the sort of logic with all the reversed Es and inverted As. This is a commonplace form of mathematical logic. Mechanical logics are something else entirely. Mechanical logics are empirical logics of physical and practical exposition. Mathematical logics, in practical pursuits, are logics of encoding. Exposition logics and encoding logics are always separable issues in practical information. You always need both kinds of logic. These are always completely complementary. In high school physics we are taught Newton's second law of motion: F = M x A where: F is force M is mass A is acceleration

Sometimes it's easy to forget that there are two entirely separable logics here. These include: the explicit mathematical encoding logic expressed as an algebraic equation the implicit mechanical exposition expressed in terms of physical state phenomena proportionality and parameterization

We tend to systematically confuse these two very different kinds of logic, especially in educational settings. Thus it becomes easy to think of mathematics as having practical meaning in and of itself. Yet in all practical applications mathematics is always a tool and never a truth. Mathematical logics must always be combined with mechanical logics in order to express applied mathematical meaning. Mechanical logics are the native logics of material reality. They are a consequence of the phenomena structure of physical reality and practical reality. They reflect basic constraints on existence and evolution built into the fabric of the universe.

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These constraints include conservation of substance, least action, and the laws of thermodynamics. They also include basic topological and geometric constraints like connectedness, continuity, and compactness. In practical terms these constraints mean that you can't be at two places at once. They mean that anvils don't appear magically out of thin air as they do in cartoons. They mean that you can't unfry an egg. They mean that everything always changes. The pure mechanical logics of physical and practical reality are differential state dynamics logics. These are the pure mechanistic logics of practical language exposition. These are sometimes known as Newtonian logics. The starting point for these practical logics is the question "What's the difference?" It turns out that this is the only meaningful question we can ask about physical reality and practical reality. Differentiation is the basis for everything we know about life in our mechanistic universe. We differentiate here from there, then from now, this from that. The universe just is what it is. Our working models of the universe are all of the diverse differential structures we observe. Our working worldview is a common consensus concerning how to name these differences and how to put them good use in practical pursuits. Differentiation is necessary and sufficient because the phenomena structure of physical reality is differential. The constraints of natural law combinations dictate that some kinds of differential state dynamics are permitted and that other kinds are not. Physical state is the starting point for modeling physically feasible differences. Recall from your high school physics textbook that physical state is the dynamic embedding of substance in spacetime. Practical state, such as the state of your finances, is ultimately just highly emergent physical state. Understanding the deep mechanics of this emergence is not always necessary for practical purposes. Consider mixing a milkshake. A milkshake is a colloidal suspension with lots of messy emergent mechanics. We don't yet understand much about the turbulent fluid dynamics of these complex chemical suspensions. Even so, we mix an awful lot of milkshakes. All of us in the modern industrial world are masters of many hundreds of specialized practice logics. Some of us manage to master many thousands. We start to build our mastery as toddlers. We begin with light switches and doorknobs. We graduate to cable TV remote controls and video games. How many kinds of practical state dynamics logics are there? There a millions of millions. There are state dynamics logics for telephones and traffic laws. There are state dynamics logics for bookkeeping and bowling. There are state dynamics logics for cooking and chemistry. There are state dynamics logics for airframes and atomic physics. A road map is a commonplace example of a differential state dynamics logic framework. Roadmaps are constructive collections of spatial differences. These spatial differences are paths between places. Possible routes among places are constructed by combining paths into pathways. Little differences are concatenated to form larger differences. Consider the example of a roadmap of the U.S. Interstate Highway System. This is a commonplace example of a visual prose constructive practice framework. This framework specifies the state dynamics spectrum of all possible interstate highway trips. Let's say that you want to drive from Los Angles to Chicago. Many interstate highway pathways can be constructed between these two places, including myriad circuitous and chaotic routes. Choosing the best route from all these candidates is a practical management challenge. Choosing your route involves lots of different kinds of practical considerations. Some examples include weather, road construction, local traffic conditions, and regional fuel prices.

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So the interstate highway map is just one of a plurality of practice model involved in choosing your route. All these different kinds of practical logic must be cogently combined in order to choose your route wisely.

Practical Infodynamics and Practical Informatics


Practical information is useless unless it flows. Nothing happens in practical reality without practical information flows. Practical information flows are the basis of all practical communication and practical collaboration. Automating practical information involves two kinds of applied information science: practical infodynamics: how does practical information flow in practical pursuits? practical informatics: how can we advantageously automate these infodynamics flows?

Practical information systems have been around since the dawn of agricultural civilization. In the modern industrial world nearly all practical information systems take the form of mass modeling and mass management systems. Mass modeling and mass management systems are the bedrock of modern capitalist civilizations. These modern information systems provide infodynamics flows of staggering volume, variety, and value. Thus practical information today, in comparison to every historical standard, is cheap, convenient, copious, and comprehensive. From the practical infodynamics viewpoint modern industrial civilization is a vast system of mass systems. Most everything done in modern industrial civilization involves one or more mass systems. It is these mass systems that enable and engender the remarkable comfort and contentment of life in the modern industrial world. Those of us that live in modern mass society tend to take our unprecedented wealth and wellbeing for granted. It is all too easy for us to forget that billions of our fellow human beings around the world today still live precariously on about a dollar per person per day. Why are we so rich while they are so poor? U.S. annual per capita GDP is over forty thousand dollars. This figure is about six times higher than that of China and ten times higher than that of India. It is about twenty times higher than Madagascar. The difference, quite simply, is management. The managerial institutions and infrastructure of modern mass industrial society are the basis of our unprecedented wealth and well-being. Mass institutions and mass infrastructure require mass information flows. Today only a tiny fraction of these flows are automated by informatics means. Ultimately practical informatics will automate and animate the entirety of mass infodynamics flows. Automating and animating these flows is the sum and substance of informatics end-user value. This is exactly what informatics end-users have always wanted. It is all that they ever will want. This is the general theory of end-user informatics value. So getting all these infodynamics flows automated and animated is the ultimate goal of informatics. This can only be accomplished with end-user informatics.

Practical Intelligence
Can we really understand practical prose without first thoroughly understanding the mental mysteries of human cognition? Don't we need a far better understanding of human communities and the human condition? Don't we fist need to completely understand human intelligence, intellect, intuition, and insight?

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In fact none of this is necessary. The starting point for understanding why is the following critically important distinction: Intelligence Variety individual intelligence institutional intelligence Functionality cogitative collaborative Science psychology praxeology Medium psychic mysteries practical prose Models mentalist mechanistic

The interesting thing about the term "intelligence" is that it has two very different yet related meanings. In one sense the term "intelligence" refers to individual intelligence as in the psychometric notion of an intelligence quota (IQ). In the other sense the term "intelligence" refers to institutional intelligence as in the case of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). We all exhibit individual intelligence. Even so, we apparently cannot observe the workings of our own intelligence. For this reason the mental models of psychology are mostly still a mystery today. So far we are unable to specify and simulate the dynamics of nontrivial psychological models. Institutional intelligence is another matter entirely. Institutional intelligence arises whenever two or more people are involved in the course of any sort of practical pursuit. All practical informatics systems in service today automate and animate institutional intelligence models. This is the only sort of machine intelligence we have needed so far. This is the only sort machine intelligence we will likely need for the foreseeable future. The entirely of institutional intelligence is conveniently self-documenting by means of practical prose. We can always deconstruct the entire mechanistic meaning of everyday and elite practical prose. Thus institutional practical intelligence is obvious for all practical purposes while individual intelligence is opaque. We cannot observe the workings of our own individual practical intelligence. We can always completely observe the workings of practical institutional intelligence. Conveniently this allows us to ignore individual practical intelligence when working with institutional practical intelligence. In fact we can even assume that individual practical intelligence is purely derivative. We can assume that individual practical intelligence is nothing more that myriad, perhaps unique, individual adaptations to the institutional intelligence culture. The classical notion of individual intelligence has to do with some sort of universal reasoning mechanism hidden somewhere in our brains. In many versions this mechanism is some sort of 4 cranial computer . Yet so far we haven't found any trace of this monolithic mental organ. The likely reason for this is that there just isn't any organ of this sort. The massively micromodular architecture of the practical prose technostructure suggests a much more likely alternative. In this alternative view individual practical intelligence is mechanistic and massively micromodular in just the same way as institutional practical intelligence. In this view we have lots and lots of small, specialized reasoning mechanisms in our heads. The specific mechanisms in each set vary widely from person to person. The specific mix of these mechanisms is likely due both to the influence of nature and of nurture. This explains why our individual intelligence is as distinctively unique as our fingerprints. In this view we cope with the mechanistic complexity of practical reality by recombining and retargeting our stock of mechanistic reasoning mechanisms in real-time. We wire these up into constructions suitable to the mechanics of whatever circumstances confront us in the course of daily living.

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Practical Superintelligence
Superintelligent computers have long been a staple of science fiction. HAL-9000 in Stanly Kubrick's classic 1968 film 2001 is a notable example. Today the notion of radically emergent computational superintelligence is a recurrent theme in the popular science press. Here the notion is that computational superintelligence will evolve and emerge on the Internet over the course of the next few decades. This radical emergence is often termed a "singularity". A key assumption here is that geometric growth in Internet computing power over time will somehow enable and engender a spontaneous self-ordering of massive software superintelligence. From a purely technical perspective all of this is unlikely, but that's beside the point. There's no need for science fiction superintelligence. Mass managerial superintelligence has long been a practical reality in myriad practical pursuits. In fact this sort of institutional superintelligence has been evolving and emerging for at least a century. This evolution was well underway long before the appearance of commercial digital computing equipment. Here's a simple definition of managerial superintelligence: a mass management system involving a diversity of institutions and individuals stably self-managing, self-ordering, and self-optimizing practical information flows capable of managing high-complexity practice that would otherwise be unmanageable

Managerial superintelligence is any institutional capability to model and manage that substantially exceeds that of individual sapient intelligence. This is the synergistic superintelligence of mass modeling and mass management. It is the combinatorial superintelligence of massive collective managerial competence. It is the emergent superintelligence of managerial mass communication and mass collaboration. Modern mass society simply could not exist without managerial superintelligence. This mass synergistic intelligence is the starting point for the myriad of massively complex practice systems that make modern mass society work. Note that managerial superintelligence doesn't require superintelligent managers. In fact quite the opposite is true. The best sort of managers for managerial superintelligence structures are those with mature specialized management skills and savvy. Good practical communication and collaboration skills are a must. Exceptional individual intelligence is not required and may actually be counterproductive. How does managerial superintelligence work? Consider your car. In 1900 a single person could master everything then known about automotive products, processes, and plants. Today this is inconceivable. No single person is nearly smart enough to model the entire lifecycle of a modern automobile. An automotive product lifecycle involves many hundreds of sorts of specialized topical modeling. This lifecycle involves many thousands of sorts of specialized target modeling. All of these models must be adequately and accurately combined in order to manage the entire lifecycle of a mass produced automotive product. There are product and plant models. There are manufacturing and marketing models. There are sales and service models. There are economic and environmental models. There are legal and logistics models. There are training and tooling models. Then there are many more kinds of models as well.

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Legions of managers somehow manage to put all the pieces of this vast mass modeling puzzle together. Successful mass management requires that the mass of models involved, taken together, be sufficiently adequate and accurate. These myriad models must be mutually: correct complete consistent current cogent coherent

This sort of mass modeling is accomplished successfully hundreds of billions of times per year in modern mass society. Nearly all of the products and services you use every day involve this sort of superintelligent practice modeling. Managerial superintelligence requires that a vast diversity of models be applied in myriad specialized combinations to support myriad specialized collaborations. Modern mass modeling and mass management systems support and sustain the required mass communication and mass collaboration. Practical informatics contributes to managerial superintelligence it two ways: minimizing infodynamics impedance: lesser managerial modeling effort and expense maximizing infodynamics intensity: larger managerial efficiency and effectiveness

Practical Prose and Practical Programs


The practical meaning of practical prose and practical programs is always the exactly the same. Every practical program is an algorithmic restatement that automates and animates some interesting set of practical prose models. The meaning of these prose models is ultimately applied mechanics meaning and applied mathematics meaning. How can the meaning of practical prose and practical programs be the same? They sure look different! The meaning is the same because in both cases the practical meaning is constructed from exactly the same expository meaning elements. So the rigor, rationale, and rhetoric elements are the same. Thus the exposition structure is exactly the same. Only the encoding structure is different. Digging out the empirical exposition structure of practical programs is not always easy. The structure is always there but it's mostly implicit. Techniques of software science reengineering are required make this meaning explicit. This involves much guesswork and groping in the dark. Even so, this sort of reengineering is what software professionals spend much of their time doing. Every working software engineer spends a good part of every working day recovering and reconstituting the exposition structure of practical software encodings. Many software professionals will protest that the practical meaning of practical programs is really very different than that of practical prose. In this view the meaning of practical programs has something to do with universal language and universal logic. These logics and languages are aspects of universal computation. This view is in fact correct, but only for encoding rather than exposition. In any practical application universal computation encodes everything but explains nothing. Every conventional programming language does in fact support constructions in universal language and universal logic. Yet these languages and logics are strictly encoding languages and logics. When it comes to practical exposition these computational languages and logics are entirely meaningless for all practical purposes.

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This meaninglessness is a good thing because it's the genesis of generality. This meaninglessness is the basis for current best practice universal modeling in information technology. General purpose IT universal modeling systems provide a uniform set of commoditized encoding models, methods, and mindsets that work for every sort of subject matter. This extreme generality is important because of the huge diversity of software application subject matter. This subject matter diversity includes the entirety of the basic, natural, applied, mathematical, and social sciences. Then there are all the fantasy worlds of the entertainment industry just for good measure. Universal modeling is applicable to all these diverse sorts of subject matter. Without the extreme generality of universal modeling computers might still be laboratory curiosities today. The good news about universal modeling is that it works for every sort of subject matter. The bad news is that it doesn't work particularly well for any particular sort of subject matter. So universal modeling is useful for saying almost nothing about almost anything. In practice universal modeling is ideal for high information quantity, low information quality informatics. This sort of modeling is mostly what we do today in practical software projects and packages. The primary approaches to IT universal modeling in software engineering today are: object-oriented : software type structure modeling 6 entity-relationship : schemaware type structure modeling 7 Universal Modeling Language : architectural modeling
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All of three approaches start with trivially universal constructive exposition spaces. From a practical exposition perspective these are metaphysical thingologies. This is what makes universal modeling universal. Universal modeling begins by throwing away the entirely of applied mechanics and applied mathematics meaning. So all that remains is minimal metaphysical meaning. In this way universal modeling tames the titanic complexity of practical information by trivializing it rather than tackling it. In end-user informatics the goal is to tackle this complexity by means of understanding the layout and landscape of practical prose language and logic. All three forms of IT universal modeling are really just very specialized forms of the utilitarian modeling that we all do everyday. In each case the genius of this specialized modeling is systematic subject matter simplification. Why must we do this systematic simplification? Simplification is necessary because human intellectual gifts and graces are limited. The horsepower in our heads is sufficient to handle only very simplistic subject matter in handcrafted pattern programming. So the secret to getting software shipped is simplification. The sophistication of real world practical prose models must be systematically stripped away. Simplification is a key success and survival skill in the software world. In IT universal modeling systematic simplification is accomplished by various means. The randomness of real life is replaced with regularity. Nearly all of the referential richness is stripped away. Redundant perspectives are removed. All of these contribute to loss of content meaning. Then there is decontextualizaiton. This is loss of context meaning. The native end-user audience context is mostly stripped away. The original context is replaced with a radically simplified artificial context created for the convenience of the software engineering team. This new context usually reflects the very limited subject matter mastery of this team. By these means systematic simplification strips all of the native "smarts" out of subject matter practice models. So all that is required for smarter software is merely to stop throwing all of these

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smart parts away. This necessarily requires utilitarian methods of informatics modeling rather than universal methods. Moreover, systematic simplification strips away most of the end-user informatics value. So practical informatics end-users must settle for the application value they can get rather than the much greater value that they have always wanted. The mechanical and mathematical meaning that remains after simplification is atomized. This meaning is restated analogically in terms of computational algebras and algorithms. This anecdotal atomization is captured in terms of suitable software and schemaware modeling languages. Atomization involves mapping practical prose articulation meaning to practical program algorithmic meaning. The mapping preserves the exposition but results in a radically different encoding. This atomization mapping is constructed entirely as mentalware. In universal modeling there is no alternative by definition. If you can capture the practical meaning of this map as modelware then you are necessarily doing utilitarian software modeling. Today we don't yet have the practical exposition frameworks or supporting tools to capture this map. If we did then we would be mass custom producing practical informatics software routinely. One way to understand this atomization map is as a form of encryption mapping. We encrypt information by restating it from familiar exposition and encoding contexts to foreign ones. Manual methods of software science reengineering are employed to reverse this encryption. These methods start by reconstructing the missing mentalware atomization mapping framework. This reconstruction is always a guesstimate. Why must we recurrently reconstruct this map? Because this map is mentalware. Mentalware is profoundly lacking in precision, portability, and persistence. It doesn't share well, it doesn't travel well, and it doesn't last very long. So reconstruction is required even if the original software development team is still available. Often this is not the case. Reconstruction by other teams often turns out to be inordinately difficult. For this reason many reengineering projects turn into rewrite projects. The atomization map reconstruction in reengineering must always be an exacting estimate. A precise, painstaking reconstruction is required for accurately and adequately decrypting the embedded, encrypted practical prose meaning hidden in every practical program. If the meaning of practical prose and practical programs is identical then why is it so hard to produce software? Why do remarkably smart people have to do lots of really hard work in order to get even the simplest practical informatics software shipped? The answer is wasted mental motion. All manual modeling involves substantial mental motion wastage. The tactical benefits of all forms of model automation always involve radical reductions in wasted mental motion. It turns out that universal modeling methods are uniquely wasteful. Universal modeling involves many orders of magnitude more wasted mental motion than equivalent practical prose utilitarian modeling. This is hardly surprising. The generality of universal modeling comes at a price. That price is the extreme mental effort required to get from general to genuine in any particular practical application. Universal modeling in information technology is intellectually intensive in the extreme. At the same time this sort of modeling is exceptionally intellectually inefficient and ineffective. Intellectualizing a single universal modeling module typically involves at least five very different kinds of markup and mentalware models. Much routine software engineering involves simultaneously intellectualizing several different modules at once.

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This is not some extreme feat of software engineering. This is how practical software developers spend much of their working lives. So it's a wonder that their heads don't explode more often. In addition to extreme complexity there are two other major wasted mental motion sources. These are mentalware modeling and metaphysical pattern modeling. Any sort of modeling that involves complex mentalware models is wasteful of mental motion in the extreme. Complex mentalware is always involved in pattern programming projects. Moreover, pattern modeling of any sort is always far more wasteful of mental motion than equivalent principled modeling. This is just one of many reasons why other practical pursuits abandoned pattern modeling decades ago. Given all these inefficiencies it's no wonder that automating and animating fairly simple practice models can become a Herculean effort. All of these inefficiencies are built into IT universal modeling. They can't be fixed because they aren't broken. They are built in at the foundations. Another major problem unique to universal modeling is model reuse. All mature modeling practice starts with prior models. You next model is very much like your last one. There are extensive stocks of precedent and prototype models that make it unnecessary to reinvent the wheel in each new modeling application. This is seldom the case in universal modeling. In most cases every new universal modeling effort invents some slice of practical reality from scratch. All of the application applied mechanics and applied mathematics meaning is carefully constructed from the ground up. The result is a completely isolated de novo, disposable Informatics worldview. This is a closed, self-contained, self-sufficient application context. All this doesn't seem to make much sense. All the applied mechanics and applied mathematics models must have some prior application somewhere. So why reinvent new ones rather than just reusing old ones? The answer is that reusing existing software models requires reengineering these models. You can't risk reusing these models unless you thoroughly understand them. You can't thoroughly understand them unless you thoroughly reengineer them. This reengineering is almost always far more expensive than just rewriting the same models again from scratch. Note that all of this IT universal modeling is utterly redundant. It is merely a restatement of practical exposition from the communal utilitarian modeling context to a unique new universal modeling context. Is all this really necessary? Today it is, but in the age of end-user informatics it will be unnecessary. We will do something much more reasonable. We will just synthesize practical programs directly from practical prose. Mass custom end-user informatics software will become an automatic byproduct of the routine managerial modeling we must always do anyway. All this is not in any sense revolutionary or even new. All of the various technologies required are commercially mature with one exception. That one exception is mature models of the technostructure of practical prose. This is the one big barrier to commoditizing, commercializing, and consumerizing mass custom end-user software production. Hopefully we will come by these better models sooner rather than later. It is these models that will make end-user Internet informatics a commonplace reality. This is do-it-yourself, demand-driven, disposable informatics. This is just the informatics solutions you need just when you need them.

Practical Information Quality and Safety


Practical information quality is about:

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modeling exactly everything you mean meaning exactly everything you model

The elements of practical information quality are: interoperability: meaning that works well in model mashups insurability: meaning that reliably means what it means immortality: meaning that does not disappear over time

Practical information quality and safety are closely related issues. Information safety is always a question and information quality is always an answer. Information safety is about managing informatics communication and collaboration risks. It's about making sure that an order for a hundred cases of brake shoes doesn't put a hundred cases of ballet shoes on the loading dock. There are lots of different kinds of information safety risks. These are entirely practice dependent. So there are no fully general ways of managing information safety, just lots of genuine ones. Information quality cannot be managed unless it can first be modeled. So information quality requires explicit models and metrics of practical meaning quality. Manageable information safety and quality cannot be achieved with any form of universal modeling. The implicit meaning of universal modeling mentalware and metaphysics is intrinsically unmanageable. This is why there is no workable way to model information quality and safety in mainstream informatics practice today. Manageable information safety requires utilitarian modeling mechanistic meaning contexts. Any feasible approach to automated information safety management will require these contexts. The starting point for information safety is interoperability. Without interoperability the issues of insurability and immortality are moot. The degrees of informatics information safety are: plug-and-play: free, first try fit, fail-safe, fully automatic impromptu interoperability plug-and-pray: hack it all together and hope for the best plug-and-pay: do lots of recurrent reengineering

In manufacturing engineering an important distinction is: first-try-fit: parts that should fit together always do file-to-fit: some part modifications are usually required

This same sort of distinction applies in informatics. An important part of plug-and-play informatics is first try fit informatics components. This is always necessary but never sufficient. Free combinability, fail-safety, and full automation are also required. Today the interoperability of independent informatics installations is almost always plug-and-pay. In these installations plug-and-play is possible only for the most trivially simple sorts of informatics models. In nearly all cases maintaining interoperability between any two independent informatics installations is a remarkably costly and chancy undertaking. This seldom succeeds for more than relatively simple sorts of information flows. Achieving reliable interoperability among independent informatics installations requires lots of recurrent reengineering. This may also require manual support systems of various kinds. Manual software and schemaware model conciliation is the starting point for recurrent reengineering. In addition there are usually some manual backup procedures for fault recognition

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and recovery. There may also be a need for manual workaround procedures for cases that the informatics can't handle. These are all continuing everyday expenses. Then there is informatics catalog and content reengineering. This is another kind of very costly recurrent reengineering. This sort of reengineering is about the conciliation of database models across independent informatics systems. This sort of reengineering involves making sure that part numbers, prices, packaging codes, and lots of other minute details are meticulously matched up. This usually involves maintaining manual mappings between multiple sets of code lists and naming conventions. This is often done on a weekly or monthly basis. In some cases changes must be made on a daily basis. How expensive is all of this recurrent integration and interoperation work? Consider the case of full end-to-end EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) integration of two procurement chain informatics systems. Specifically assume a single fully automated buy-side to sell-side EDI linkup. This is the most expensive and elaborate way to do EDI. The exchange of a dozen or more types of EDI massages is required. A conservative rule of thumb in large manufacturing installations is that maintaining this sort of link costs ten thousand dollars per year per message per link. So hundreds of thousands of dollars per year is required to maintain limited EDI interoperation of just one pair of independent informatics systems. Skimping on these expenses can lead to major incidents of information sorrow. This is how brake shoes turn into ballet shoes. Why is all this effort and expense required to make informatics systems work reliably in tandem today? The reason is the sort of universal modeling done in best current practice IT. In universal modeling the mechanistic meaning of practical information is implicit rather than explicit. So recovering this practical meaning necessarily requires recurrent reconstruction of explicit meaning by means of laborious reengineering methods. There is no room for error here. This isn't exactly computer science work. It's more like computer sance work. It's about resurrecting and recovering missing meaning. It's about trying to divine and deconstruct the implicit mentalware mechanistic meaning context of complex software and schemaware models. This is why informatics reengineering, done well, is remarkably expensive. Informatics reengineering done poorly is far more expensive. Small informatics reengineering errors can be ruinously expensive. Major reengineering errors can put you out of business. Informatics catastrophes are far more frequent that most companies would like to admit. In nearly all cases these are due to major reengineering errors. Because of universal modeling we must spend huge sums of money on recurrent informatics reengineering. Something on the order of one hundred billion dollars worth of recurrent IT reengineering projects are done worldwide annually by commercial IT service companies. The cost of captive reengineering is unknown but probably amounts to several times this again. These vast sums are not in any sense accounting fictions. They are real redeemable cash flows. They are just one way of understanding how expensive universal modeling actually is in practice. Note that no other practical modeling discipline engages in anything like this sort of recurrent reengineering. Someday manageable information safety and quality will eliminate all this unnecessary expense. This will first require replacing universal modeling informatics practice with utilitarian modeling practice. This is how we can, must, and eventually will achieve routine plug-and-play interoperability in practical informatics.

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Some elements of practical informatics plug-and-play include: polygamy: everything works with everything profligacy: everything works together all the time polyglotism: everything speaks all languages promiscuity: lots of choices for working together profluency: everything works effortlessly

Practical Meaning
Meaning explains observable order. The history of practical ideas is about mankind's search for the meaning of natural order. It is about our efforts to create artificial order out of natural order. Meaning is mandatory. People can't cope with meaninglessness. So every sort of observable order must be made meaningful. We always use the best models we have to understand the meaning of observable order. At the dawn of humanity our best models were mostly myth and magic models. In modern mass civilization our best models are applied mechanics and applied mathematics models. In human prehistory we understood thunderstorms as the work of the weather gods. Today we understand thunderstorms in terms of thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and electrodynamics. There are three alternative ways of understanding the meaning of observable order. These include mechanical, mathematical, and metaphysical meaning. Each of these three sorts of meaning is entirely different and distinct. Sometimes they are complementary. The three basic sorts of meaningful order are summarized as: Meaningful Order materialist mathematical metaphysical Champion in Greek Antiquity Protagoras Pythagoras Plato Truth empirical exact esoteric Source rationalization reflection revelation

Metaphysics is an indispensable part of any balanced personal worldview. Will time end tomorrow after breakfast? There is no hard science evidence to the contrary. Even so, we keep on making plans for lunch. Nevertheless, metaphysical meaning plays no significant part in practice modeling today. Practice modeling always combines an appropriate balance of mechanical and mathematical meaning. Plato has always had better publicists than Protagoras. Yet practical people everywhere are disciples of Protagoras rather than Plato today. They have statefull, scientific, sophisticated working worldviews. They have no time or tolerance for universals, metaphysical ideals, exact truth, or absolute truth in any form. They are adherents of utility, mechanistic meaning invariants, empirical truth, and approximate truth. Mechanical order is the actual order of physical reality modeled ultimately in terms of the shapes that characterize physical state. Mathematical order is abstract order derived ultimately from constructions on the natural numbers. Metaphysical order is everything else. Perhaps there is a god of sunsets. If so, we will never demonstrate the metaphysical existence of this god with telescopes, microscopes, and such. Metaphysical order is always necessarily occult rather than observable. All of the observable order in physical reality and practical reality is materialist and mechanistic. Notions of veracity and validity, of truth and proof, are very different in mechanical and mathematical modeling. In mechanical modeling truth is approximate and proof is accomplished by means of the scientific method. In mathematical modeling truth is absolute and accomplished by means of mathematical proof theory.

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Practical modeling always employs an appropriate balance of mechanistic and mathematical meaning. In practical modeling mathematics is always a tool rather than a truth. The truth of mechanistic systems lies entirely in physical state dynamics. Applicable mathematical patterns provide useful approximate analogs of actual and abstract physical state and shape dynamics. Approximation is unavoidable in practical modeling. The totality of the physical information contained in just a single grain of sand is many orders of magnitude beyond the capacity of all the world's computers combined. Practical modeling is always parsimonious in the sense that approximations are always chosen to suit some specific range of intended applications. This is the law of least articulation. It is said of some people that they will tell you how to build a clock if you ask them the time of day. This serious social faux pas is an egregious violation of the law of least articulation. In practical modeling much more information is always discarded than is detailed. Success in practical modeling always starts with a carefully considered choice of approximations. Muddling is excessive modeling. In practical pursuits muddling is always a sign of modeling immaturity.

Practical Measurement
In practical pursuits measurement limits meaning. If you can't measure a practice you can't, for all practical purposes, mandate the practice. Thus you can't manage the practice. Note that this disposes of most of the thorny problems of classical epistemology. But does this substantially or even severely limit the range of practical meaning that can be modeled? Today we're pretty good at measuring most kinds of physical and practical meaning. Even so, there are times in some practical pursuits when policy trumps physics and practice. Consider the notion of reasonableness which is critical to systems of jurisprudence based on the English Common Law. In this system juries decide the facts while jurists decide the law. In criminal cases juries are expected to make determinations of fact beyond all reasonable doubt. This is the "reasonable man" standard. Now consider a murder trial where the verdict hangs on whether the defendant intended to murder the decedent. The jury is expected to hear the evidence and decide the issue. Of course none of the jurors could possibly know the mental state of the defendant at the time that the murder was committed. So they must make what amounts to a subjective judgment on this issue. Yet criminal cases of this sort could not be adjudicated without some means of sorting out facts of this sort. There is no substantially more objective way to decide the issue. Once the jury made it's decision the issue, apart from exceptional circumstances, is settled. This issue cannot be reviewed on appeal. Appellate courts may, if fact-finding was defective, refer the case back to the trial court for consideration by another jury. Failing a finding of trial court error the facts decided by the jury are true as a matter of policy. This means that they are subsequently true for all practical purposes. This sort of policy truth is sometimes used in lieu of physical truth or practical truth. Many practical pursuits use models with meaning that is unmeasured on not measurable. Commonplace examples include accounting estimates, legal fictions, and educated guesses. These are used either because they are simply convenient or because there is no other practical alternative.

Practical Truth and Proof


What is truth? For all practical purposes truth is whatever works. There is no absolute or exact truth in practical pursuits. The working word gets along just fine with approximate, empirical truth estimations.

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The two primary sorts of truth are: Perfect Truth exact universal absolute paramount stateless Practical Truth estimation utilitarian approximate pluralistic statefull

If you need perfect truth then go see a mathematician or a metaphysician. But don't expect the truths provide by these folks to be of much practical use per se. Physical truth is defined by state mechanical models and proved by means of the scientific method. Physical truths are those that are verifiable, falsifiable, and verified by physical means. Perfect truths models, on the other hand, are stateless. Perfect truth proofs are accomplished by means of mathematical or metaphysical proof theories. What is a chair? This may seem to be a simple enough question. Even so, perfect truth and practical truth provide very different answers. The perfect truth chair is a Platonic form composed of a structure of universal ideals. Legs, arms, and such are examples of these ideals. There might be many different kinds of chairs, but they all occupy the same category of forms. They can be demonstrated to belong to this ideal category because they share a common construction of ideals. The practical truth chair is something you can reasonably sit on. So for practical proof purposes almost anything might serve as a chair. Some candidates include a rock, another person, or the throne at Buckingham Palace. Even a block of ice might do if you don't plan to sit for too long. Proving the practical truth of a chair is accomplished by sitting. This is a very simple form of the scientific method. If sitting works then you have the best proof there can ever be of the practical truth of your chair.

Practical Models
How can we model the working world? For physical and practical modeling purposes there are only two basic choices: metaphysical patterns o theology: abstract metaphysical patterns o tradition: applicable metaphysical patterns mechanistic principles o technology: applicable mechanistic principles o theory: abstract mechanistic principles

We are all pattern prodigies. We see patterns everywhere in everything. We strive to make sense of these patterns in whatever ways we can. Much of modern science evolved from pattern pseudoscience and protoscience. Astronomy evolved from astrology. Number theory evolved from numerology. Today we understand that we live in a universe prone to spurious patterns. There are whole branches of materialist and mathematical science that explain the provenance of all these spurious patterns. For most of human history the best practice models available have been pattern models. Consider the case of Hippocratic medicine.

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The Greek physician Hippocrates (460-370 BC) pioneered a system of medical practice based on physiological patterns termed humors. This system, known as humorism, was widely employed in th medical practice up until the end of the 19 century. In humorism every human health issue can be understood in terms of four fundamental humors. In this system every health issue can be modeled as some specific balance of the blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm humors. Today no reputable physician would dream of using humorism in medical practice. This sort of pattern practice model, the state of the art for many centuries, has been entirely supplanted by modern physiological principles. In just this way principles have replaced patterns in nearly all practical pursuits over the course of the last hundred years. In this way the fundamental nature of practical knowledge has changed drastically. One way to think about this change is the following distinction: metaphysical patterns o know-how practical knowledge o metaphysical craftwork modeling o doing what you know o judgment without justification mechanistic principles o know-why practical knowledge o mechanistic clockwork modeling o knowing what you do o judgment with justification

In the modern industrial world principles are the standard for nearly all sorts of practice modeling. Principles are always the legal standard for principled professional practice. Professionals must always be prepared to justify their judgments in terms of best practice mechanical principles. This is the legal standard today throughout the industrialized world. Patterns, of course, have not gone away. Today the role of patterns has changed radically in practical pursuits. Patterns once were answers but now they are questions. Patterns are questions which we always answer by the application of proven principles. Consider a visit to your doctor for some malady. Your doctor will model the condition of your health in terms of medical signs and symptoms. These are physiological patterns which must be matched to the correct principled pathology model. Various sorts of tests and specialized examinations may be required to sort out the right model. Abstract patterns have always been the basis of mathematics. G. H. Hardy famously teaches us that mathematics is the science of patterns. The thing that we must always remember is that patterns alone aren't practical. Applied mathematics always uses mathematical patterns as a way to encode mechanical principles. These combinations are always analogical. They are analogies between the shape of physical state and a geometric interpretation of some suitable mathematical structure. Mechanistic models are always approximations so the result is an analogy to an approximation. So good practical modeling always requires a suitable balance of mathematical patterns and mechanistic principles. Today many powerful mathematical pattern models go begging for lack of suitable matching mechanistic principled models. One example of this is game theory. Game theory is a very powerful family of formalist models in decision theory. Game theory has lots of potentially advantageous applications. Game theory ought to be far more widely applied than it is in management support software applications like business intelligence.

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The reason that game theory is not more widely applied is information quality and information safety limitations. Workable game theory modeling requires high information quality and safety game models. Typical sorts of IT models aren't nearly good enough. So high quality game models must be laboriously assembled from diverse documents and databases. Game models must be checked and rechecked for information safety. This involves a lot of effort and expense. Moreover, it builds in a lot of decision lag time. Thus game theory today finds only sporadic practical application in management decision making. What if mechanics is really mathematics in disguise? This notion is the basis for ultraformalism. Ultraformalism aims to reduce the entirely of universal order meaning to mathematics. Some folks should be ultraformalists. If you're a wizard of mathematical physics like Roger 8 Penrose then ultraformalism is the Road to Reality . Even so, ultraformalism is the road to ruin for practical people in nearly all practical pursuits. In these pursuits an appropriate balance of mechanical and mathematical modeling must always be maintained. Ultraformalism is the basis for the notion that universal modeling is ultimately perfectible. In this view perfection will be achieved by discovering sufficiently powerful formalisms. These formalisms must be mathematical patterns that reduce all of mechanics to some convenient, canonical-closed, constructive modeling space. In this way patterns can stage a comeback. Pattern meaning can be pushed to parity with principled meaning and then onwards to perfection. Approximate empirical meaning will be obsolete. Absolute exact meaning will become obligatory in all practical pursuits. In this way practical information will be reinvented. Modern mass civilization will be thoroughly remodeled in the most literal sense. We may even discover a universal, unified, ultraformalist perfect pansophical science of everything. We might just discover the language and logic of ultimate universal meaning. Today, after three thousand years of searching, we are still in absolutely no danger of making these discoveries. Perhaps someday we actually will find magic formalist patterns. There has never been a shortage of candidates. Theoretical computer science has always been a prodigious source of promising new formalist patterns. This is why we have lots of remarkably useful computational pattern models today. These find diverse applications in a great variety of practical pursuits. Business intelligence, statistical demographics, Internet search engines, machine transliteration, and image recognition are just a few examples. Even so, patterns always complement principles in practical pursuits today. Patterns are not nearly competitive as a primary means of practice modeling. Nor is it likely that patterns will become competitive with principles in the foreseeable future. Surprises, of course, are always possible. New formalisms and new applications of formalisms 9 appear constantly. Mathematical unification programs, such as the Langlands Program , are uncovering lots of previously unsuspected relationships among families of mathematical patterns. On the other hand Gregory Chaitin argues persuasively for substantial intrinsic limits to the power of mathematical reasoning. It just might be that the phenomena structure of pure mathematics is highly randomized just as the phenomena structure of pure mechanics. Note that most pure mathematics deals with infinite structures. The natural numbers (all positive 11 integers) is such a structure. The usual methods of mathematical proof theory work well on these infinite structures. The models of practical informatics are typically finite for the purposes of mathematical reasoning rather than infinite. For many purposes finite mathematical model theory is substantially less powerful than infinite model theory. An important but rather obscure point is the failure, in general,
10

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of the compactness assumption. A classic paper introduction to limitations of finite model theory.

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by Ron Fagin provides a mathematical

Finite model theory limitations may restrict the range of mathematical reasoning applicable to typical practical informatics models. For example the appropriate analog of the classical mathematical proof strategy of induction may turn out to be brute force search. Today there is no verifiable evidence whatsoever for any intrinsic relationship between mechanistic meaning and mathematical meaning. There are endless conjectural relationships but so far these are all counterfactual. None of these conjectures has ever been definitively demonstrated. Moreover, there seems to be no danger of any such demonstration in the foreseeable future. Any unification of mechanical and mathematical meaning must preserve the correctness of the mechanistic foundations of the hard sciences and high technologies. Otherwise airplanes will fall from the sky. Moreover, any such demonstration must show that these foundations are substantially incomplete. In addition any useful demonstration must also show some very substantial simplification of our materialist order models. Of course any demonstration must also satisfy the standards of the scientific method. Until this demonstration is an accomplished fact we will do well to assume that metaphysical, mathematical, and material meaning are three uniquely different kinds of meaning. In some cases these may be complementary but they should never, ever be confused. Ultraformalism systematically confuses mathematical and material meaning. This confusion is a rich source of formalist innovations. This innovation serves to provide us with lots of new and potentially useful modeling patterns. Even so, these patterns cannot provide a path to strategic informatics progress. In decades past practical informatics progress was primarily limited by our understanding of pattern encoding models. Today practical informatics progress is primarily limited by our understanding of principled exposition models. This will likely remain true for many decades to come. This may well remain true for centuries to come. Thus principles, not patterns, are the path to strategic informatics progress today. Strategic informatics progress requires that we understand the mechanistic principles of practical pursuits. Strategic informatics progress requires that we understand the principled basis of utilitarian modeling. Strategic informatics progress requires that we understand how practical people use principled information in practical pursuits.

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2: The General Theory of Practical Collaboration


Introduction
You are collaborating with this author right this very instant. This collaboration is possible because we share a working worldview in common. That's why these working words make sense. Who makes and maintains all these working worldviews? How do we use these working worldviews? How can we best automate and animate these working worldviews? These are the questions answered by the General Theory Of Practical Collaboration.

Working Words and Working World Models


Somehow we all routinely manage to model the working world with working words. We use many thousands of these working words every day to communicate and collaborate in our various practical pursuits. How do we do this? Sometimes this sort of seems like magic. But as with all workable magic the secret is high mechanics. Working words are meaningless in and of themselves. The significance of working words always starts with the context of a working worldview in some working world practice community. The working world is the world of practical pursuits. There is, of course, a great diversity of practical pursuits. Every sort of specialized practice is supported by a practice community. These practice communities maintain the shared communal context of practice communication and practice collaboration. Today there is a huge diversity of specialized practice communities in the working world. Each of these communities supports some range of practice mechanisms. We must explore the working world in order to understand what these mechanisms are and how they are modeled. Each specialized practice community has its own working worldview. Your home has one, your place of employment has one, and your neighborhood has one. These worldviews are all different but there is much commonality among them. A working worldview is a set of working world models. Each working world model captures the mechanistic meaning of some working world practice mechanism. Each working model supports some range of significant working word constructions. These working models are expressed technologically in terms of practical prose. In this sense practical prose can be understood in terms of tools, toolkits, and techniques. In this sense every working word is a little tool. Each working word maps to some particular sort of specialized working world model meaning. Tools come in toolkits. Working world models are specialized toolkits. Each of these shared reference models supports flexible working word constructions. Each construction captures the mechanistic meaning of some specific working world practice mechanism. These constructions are the techniques of practical prose technology.

The Working World and Working Worldviews


How many people does it take to change a light bulb? These days it takes thousands of people. Every time you change a light bulb you enlist the aid of a great diversity of practical people. These people are engineers and economists. They are line workers and logistics analysts. They are mining and manufacturing experts. Then there are many, many more besides.

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All of these different folks communicate and collaborate in different ways during the course of helping you change your light bulb. You will never meet most of these people. Even so, you couldn't possibly change your light bulb without their help. How do all these people manage to communicate and collaborate so well? They share common working worldviews. These always include the everyday working worldview as well as various specialized elite working worldviews. Practical people everywhere share a common consensus everyday working worldview. This working worldview is a collection of everyday working mindsets, models, and methods. This everyday working worldview is highly pluralistic. It supports many alternative and complementary practical reality perspectives. A few of the most important of these practical perspectives include: artifact and asset control and commonality duty, domination, and discipline mechanism and instrumentality resource and reciprocity management and enterprise

This pluralism of overlapping practical perspectives is highly redundant but hardly superfluous. It is exactly this reinforcing pluralism that provides the power and precision of the common consensus working worldview. Every working worldview, including yours, is a set of shared mechanistic models. These models are about how we survive and succeed in the working world. These models are about: working wisdom: models of how the world works working wile: models of how to work in the world

Where does the working worldview come from? We all contribute to the common everyday working worldview consensus. It is the massive collective competence of practical people everywhere that serves to order and optimize the common consensus everyday working worldview. We all use these practical models every day. Everyday examples include road maps, cookbooks, broadcast schedules, financial market prices, and so on. Examples of elite models include specifications of automobile designs, statistical analyses of pharmaceutical product trials, and macroeconomic trends in Central America. Where do our working models of practical reality come from? We've been accumulating these models since the dawn of agricultural civilization about ten thousand years ago. Most of the models that we use today are more recent, generally less than one hundred years th old. Even so, some are much older. Double entry bookkeeping dates back to 11 century Venice. Many of the most useful working words have their origins in Greek and Roman antiquity.

The Elite Working Worldviews


Elite practical prose modeling is big business today. About three hundred million talented folks worldwide do about three trillion dollars worth of elite practice modeling. These folks are managers, professionals, technicians, and specialists. Most have extensive specialized education and experience. The infrastructure in place to support elite practical modeling has a replacement value on the order of one hundred trillion dollars. This includes modeling stocks, staffs, standards, and systems.

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How many elite working worldview are there? That depends on how you count. Everybody in the working world has at least one, and many of us have several. The basic everyday working worldview seems largely to be the same throughout the industrial world today. There are, of course, international, industrial, institutional, and individual differences. These are apparently minor. This means the practical exposition structure of all of the world's major industrial languages is essentially the same today. If this were not the case then some practical pursuits would be intrinsically advantageous in areas where some of these languages are spoken. This is not apparently the case. The reason for this is that the exposition structure of practical prose is extremely plastic. It constantly evolves to accommodate applied mechanics and applied mechanics advances. Even so, practical English does seem to have something of an edge. Practical English has become the worldwide linga Franca of many practical pursuits. Examples include aviation, telecommunications, some medical specialties, and several engineering specialties. Practical English may very well have an unusually rich and redundant exposition structure. This is would not be surprising given its polyglot origins. Moreover, practical English is the mother tongue of both the industrial revolution and industrial modernism. So it's not surprising that other languages frequently borrow exposition elements from practical English.

Working Worldview Context Communities


Elite working worldviews are shared by institutional modeling communities. Each modeling community has its own specialized context and concerns. You neighborhood bakery has its own communal context. Elite communal contexts are largely constructed from combinations of specialized topical and target contexts. Each of these specialized contexts is shared in common across participating communities. Those that use these specialized contexts form topical and target context communities. It is these communities that maintain the context over time. How many practice context communities are there? How many topical practice contexts are there? How many target practice contexts are there? It would be convenient if there were a complete master plan and the complete master parts catalog for modern industrial civilization. Regrettably, these dont exist. But what if they did exist? What would they tell us about the complexity of practical information contexts? What would we find by measuring the volume, variety, and value of all these models? In fact nobody really knows. This is just one of many vitally important things that we don't know about practical information. The only thing we do know with any certainly today is that the model stocks supporting modern industrial civilization are huge and heterogeneous. So let's make an educated guess. For present purposes assume that there are hundreds of thousands of topically specialized practice modeling varieties. Further assume that there are hundreds of millions of target-specialized practice modeling varieties. One example of a topical context community is industrial sugar. Industrial sugar comes in a great variety of forms. It is produced, packaged, and put to use in a wide variety of ways. There are many international sugar standards as well as national sugar laws and sugar regulations in most industrialized countries.

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Those that make and use industrial sugar need a common context to sort all this out. This includes sugar refiners, sugar brokers, packaged food companies, food service companies, food retailers, regulatory agencies, and so on. So the world of industrial sugar has industry organizations, trade organizations, technical organizations, standards organizations, research institutions, industry publications, industry conventions, and so on. All of these contribute to maintaining the topical context of industrial sugar logic and language.

Working Worldview Evolution


The working world and the working worldview evolve jointly over time. Mostly this evolution is smooth and steady. Every now and again this evolution makes big leaps. Our common everyday working worldview underwent a titanic transition in the first half of the 20 century. This was the transition from the industrial revolution working worldview to the industrial modernism working worldview. This was the historic transition from a craftwork to a clockwork consensus working worldview.
th

This transition created the working world as we know it today. For present purposes this transition will be termed the Great Remodeling. This is clearly one of the all-time great technology transitions in human history. It's right up there with fire and the wheel. Remarkably, this historic transition is mostly unknown to historians of the 20 century. These experts well understand that the practical culture of the industrial world changed radically. Yet the pivotal role of practical language and practical logic in this transition seems to have escaped their notice. Thomas Edison is the prophet of the Great Remodeling. Like all great 19 century inventors Edison was a brilliant tinkerer. Edison's genius lay in his talent for systematic tinkering. He popularized the notion that a systematic understanding of the mechanics of practice could provide the means for deliberate, deterministic, disciplined innovation and invention. The Wright Brothers and Henry Ford are among the most notable of Edison's many disciples. Ford was actually an Edison protg, serving for a time as Chief Mechanic at the Edison Electric Generating Company. Ford and Edison remained fast friends throughout their lives. Industrial modernism is the ideology of the Great Remodeling. Henry Ford pioneered and tirelessly promoted this ideology. It was Ford who famously proclaimed the machine as the new 14 messiah . In many ways Ford's industrial modernism is Edison's emphasis on systematic mechanics evolved into an industrial ideology. Industrial modernism holds that everything can, must, and will be advantageously mass produced. In this view the key to advantageous mass production is a thorough understanding of mass practice mechanics. Ford was right. Today nearly everything in the modern industrial world is advantageously mass produced. This is radically different than the way that things were produced just a century ago. Moreover, mass production continues to evolve. New kinds of mass production emerge. Mass commodity production evolves toward mass custom production. Today industrial modernism is the basis for the working worldview throughout the modern industrial world. This relatively recent clockwork working worldview is radically different from the craftwork worldview that prevailed just a century ago. The craftwork working worldview was pervasive in all human civilizations from the dawn of agricultural civilization until the early twentieth century. The craftwork working worldview is a metaphysical worldview based on theological and traditional patterns.
13 th th

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The modern clockwork working worldview is based on mechanistic technological and theoretical principles. This worldview is mandated and maintained in all principled practical pursuits today. It is required both by common sense and by corpus juris. Today this is the working worldview of managers, professionals, technicians, and specialists in all principled practical pursuits. It is particularly the worldview of the principled professions. Professions of this sort include law, accounting, engineering, economics, finance, and so on. The transition from craftwork to clockwork working worldviews mainly took place between the end of World War I and World War II. It was this transition that enabled and engendered modern mass systems and modern mass society. Early mass system pioneers understood that they could succeed only by replacing craftwork practice with clockwork practice. Initially the challenge was doing this for mundane making and moving systems. This first phase of the Great Remodeling gave rise to mass manufacturing plants, mass distribution systems, mass communications media, and so on. Early forms of these systems were pioneered in the 1920s and perfected in the 1930s. It soon became clear that mass mundane systems demanded radically new kinds of mass management systems. This gave rise to the second phase of the Great Remodeling. This second phase started towards the end of the 1920s and continued throughout the early 1950s. So most mass management mechanisms in use today date from the second quarter of the th 20 century. The transition from the craftwork working worldview to the clockwork working worldview was highly contentious. This was a major social transition as well as a technological one. The craftwork working worldview did not go quietly. The industrial science movement was founded to help this transition along. Industrial science started at the Ford Motor Company and rapidly spread to most of the pioneering mass systems industries. Industrial scientists were drawn from the ranks of factory workers and foremen as well as the ranks of salaried employees and managers. These folks served as the shock troops of the industrial modernism movement. They worked frantically to abolish craftwork in all its forms. These were the folks that Henry Ford meant when he famously said "I am looking for a lot of men who have an infinite capacity to not know what can't be done." The 1920s saw some early successes in mass systems. There were successes in automotive and appliance mass manufacturing. There were successes in magazine publishing and radio broadcasting. These early successes financed much of the roar of the Roaring Twenties. Even so, there were far more failures than successes. Thus many initially saw mass systems as nothing more than a fad. The stock market crash of 1929 can be seen as the bursting of a mass systems speculative bubble. The watershed moment in the emergence of the clockwork working worldview was the opening of Ford's River Rouge plant at Dearborn in 1928. This massive complex provided the definitive vindication of Ford's industrial modernism ideology. People from all walks of life the world over came to River Rouge and marveled. River Rouge demonstrated complete lifecycle production the automobile. Cars were the most complex mass manufactured product of the day. Sand, rubber, iron ore, limestone, fuel, water, cloth, and wood went into the plant. Cars came out. Clockwork methods rather than craftwork methods were employed at every step. Today vast integrated industrial complexes are commonplace. In 1928 a visit to The Rouge was a life-changing experience. Every visitor bore witness to the birth of a radically new way of working in the world. Some saw this new way as fortuitous, others were fretful.

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Henry Ford initially saw industrial modernism as the key to permanent peace and plenty. He would live to be sadly disappointed in this hope as World War II broke out. This was the first mass systems war in world history. During the war all of the wartime production authorities in all of the warring countries demanded clockwork production. Vast clockwork production evangelism, education, and enforcement systems were established by these wartime production authorities in every warring country. Thus by the end of the war the clockwork working worldview was firmly entrenched throughout the industrial world. The craftwork worldview played very little part in the rebuilding and retooling that followed the war. Today the craftwork working worldview is all but extinct throughout the industrial world. The working worldview that is emerging today worldwide is ultramodernism. The ultramodernism worldview is the working worldview of global cutthroat capitalism. Ultramodernism is the view that we can understand the working world entirely in terms of elementary and emergent mechanics. Ultramodernism can be seen as an evolutionary extreme of the industrial modernism worldview. Ultramodernism is the final rejection of the western metaphysical tradition in the working world. This is hardly remarkable since much of the working world today is found in regions where this tradition is far more foreign rather than familiar. Some, especially in academia, will warn that this rejection is dangerously naive and naively dangerous. In this view substantial mastery of metaphysics is indispensable to any mature understanding of ourselves and of others. This may indeed be true for many purposes but it apparently isn't true for purely practical ones. So, in the working world at least, Protagoras has triumphed over Plato. The working world is sophisticated rather than Socratic. Mankind has indeed become the measure of all things in practical pursuits.

Working World Context Frameworks


The starting point for deconstructing practical prose meaning is consensus context. Every sort of practical prose modeling is done in the context of one or more practice modeling communities. The context of a modeling community involves one or more community consensus modeling spaces. It is the lexical and logical conventions of these context spaces that support the interchange of practical model meaning among community authors and audiences. A context framework serves as a sort of a map of a modeling space meaning spectrum. A commonplace restaurant menu is an example of simple specialized context framework. A menu supports the combinatorial construction of a range of restaurant meals from entrees, deserts, and so on. Primary varieties of practical context frameworks include: cookbook: specific modeling practice prototype collections casebook: specific modeling practice precedent collections constructive: collections of design principles that are combined into design practice

The best documented examples of institutional intelligence contexts are consensus principled professional practice standards. Some examples typically found in U.S. community libraries include: enterprise: Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) economic: Generally Acceptable Accounting Principles (GAAP) engineering: International Building Code (IBC)

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Each of these framework examples are combinations of principles that allow the constructive design of a great diversity of practice models. Auditors, building inspectors, and jurists act as critics of models constructed in the context of these frameworks. Any context framework can be characterized in terms of coverage. Varieties of coverage include: canonical o canonical-closed: all reasonable practice cases are covered o canonical-close: nearly all reasonable practice cases are covered commonplace: most or all routine practice cases is covered cursory: only some small fraction of reasonable practice cases are covered

Practice cases may be characterized as: commonplace case: everyday practice corner case: exceptional practice challenge case: extreme practice

The range of design space coverage is illustrated in the preceding examples of constructive frameworks. GAAP, at least theoretically, is canonical-closed. It provides an authoritative basis for constructing the accounting policies and practice of any specialized enterprise. Note that there are various national and economic segment specializations of GAAP. The IBC is canonical-close. Individual jurisdictions specialize IBC for local circumstances. Even so, it's expected that corner cases will arise. Corner cases are reasonable design cases that would otherwise not conform to the IBC. Planning authorities issue variances when reasonable corner cases arise. The UCC is cursory. It mostly serves as a fallback for contract contingencies not considered by the parties to a commercial agreement. It is largely a catalog of remedies for routine varieties of commercial fraud, foolishness, and failure.

Principled Professional Working Worldviews


Every specialized practice system has its principled practice frameworks. These frameworks reflect the specialized practical principled worldview of those working in the principled practice specialty. Principled practice frameworks exist today for every principled specialty from agriculture to zoning. Many of these specialized practice frameworks have been developing for decades. Professional libraries are full of these frameworks. Most of the best examples of practice frameworks are found in the principled public professions. These highly principled professional frameworks are frequently challenged by highly novel practice problems. Consider these three very unlikely public professional pronouncements: doctor: your malady is beyond the bounds of medical science lawyer: your controversy cannot be resolved by legal means accountant: your business cannot be valued by accepted accounting methods

All these pronouncements seem unlikely. But why? The reason is that each of these three professions supports a comprehensive, constructive principled practice framework upon which professional practice is based. It is often said, for example, that the law is a seamless web. This maxim asserts that the established principles and precedents of the law are sufficient to resolve any legal controversy that might arise.

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In this sense these legal principles and precedents of the law can be said to saturate the spectrum of potential legal controversies. So the principles of the law are sufficient to construct new practice in any case where precedent practice is insufficient. Now you might well live out your days before your condition is cured, your case is settled, or your business is valued. Applicable principle is one thing, applicable practice is quite another. Master practitioners in all professions often find it necessary to apply available principles to extend the range of professional practice. This process is seldom expeditious or economical. Every now and again a new principle may be required. High appellate judges, for example, occasionally find it necessary to invent new principles of law. The requirement for new principles generally arises as the result of new practice areas. The Internet, for example, has given rise to the new principles and practices of Internet law. Sometimes new principles start with new phenomena. The legal phenomenon of the right to th privacy is new in 20 century U.S. jurisprudence. New pathogen phenomena, such as HIV, emerge in medicine all the time. The economic phenomenon of negative commercial interest rates, of the sort experienced recently in Japan, was once thought to be impossible.

Managerial Working Worldviews


The rise of global cutthroat capitalism has driven radical evolution of managerial worldviews in recent decades. This is capitalist competition taken to a whole new level. Country club management is out. Combat management is in. The great empires of the past were military empires. The great empires of emerging world capitalist civilization are mercantile and manufacturing and money empires. These new empires compete by means of commerce and credit rather than combat. This new sort of competition is bloodless but no less brutal than that of the old empires. The top managers of these emerging capitalist empires are the new masters of the universe. Today these elite general managers are rewarded with unprecedented wealth and power. Many are granted perquisites and prerogatives that were once reserved for royalty. Why are institutional management roles suddenly so much more important in this new cutthroat capitalist world? The reason is managerial superintelligence. Maintaining and maximizing managerial superintelligence is the key to competitive survival and success in the emerging world capitalist civilization. For present purposes it's useful to distinguish two kinds of managerial superintelligence roles: genre manager: institutional administrators of managerial superintelligence systems general manager: institutional architects of managerial superintelligence systems

Today elite general managers architect institutional and industry managerial superintelligence systems. This is a highly specialized skill. It requires a very unusual mix of taste, talent, temperament, and training. Superintelligence architecture requires a working worldview capable of compassing the extreme complexity of diverse, dynamic institutional structures. This working worldview must include all of the key factors related to maximizing management premium. The modern general management working worldview is not in any sense uniform. Some general managers focus on finance. Others focus on markets and margins. Still others focus on production and personnel. The working worldview of every general manager must evolve over time. It must change over time to suit changes in institutional challenges and capabilities. Leadership skills are essential to the success of every general manager. Many great managers have written much about managerial leadership in the popular management press.

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Learning to model and manage large-scale institutional system of labyrinthine complexity is at least as important as great leadership today. A great general manager today must be able to cope with multitopical, massively complex institutional system organic order. Things were very different just a hundred years ago. Until the 20 century management was mostly simplistic and managers were scarce. Most folks lived mainly by the sweat of their brows. In the year 1900 white collar workers made up about fifteen percent of the U.S. workforce. Today white collar workers make up more than sixty percent of the workforce. All of these white collar workers play some part in mass modeling and mass management. In the roughest terms the evolution of institutional management can be modeled as: agricultural revolution: management as a system industrial revolution: management as a skill set industrial modernism revolution: management as a mechanistic science
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Management, in the modern intuitional leadership sense, is relatively new both as a word and as th an idea. Until the 19 century the term "management" in English referred to the routine caretaking of husbandry stock. Prior to the 19 century most institutions in the western world were limited and localized. Large secular institutions were mostly military such as the Prussian Army and the U.K. Royal Navy. Large sacred institutions included the Catholic Church and various national protestant sects. These large institutions took the form of specialized monarchies. They employed leadership hierarchies that were essentially nobility structures. In many cases these hierarchies were staffed by the scions of the hereditary nobility. This was a common career path for spare sons and such. In western civilization the true nobility does battle, dictates policy, and dispenses justice. Nobility does not labor. All forms of active management are considered labor. This includes all forms of oversight, stewardship, supervision, administration, and such. So management has historically been dclass in the western world. It has always been something that servants did. In classical antiquity it was mostly something that slaves did. For this reason management plays very little part in the history of elite western ideas. Great western minds have seldom been engaged by management issues. There is no Aristotle's Administration. Consider China by way of contrast. The arts of administration have a very long history in China. In China a gentlemen is a scholar. A scholar knows the Chinese classics. These classics have much to say about practical administration.
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Automating Management in the Working World


Management automation? Can management be automated? Isn't management automation some science fiction dream of a far-off future? In fact mechanistic management automation is a widespread practical reality today. Mechanistic management automation has long been commonplace in cars, computers, cameras, and cellphones. Most of this management automation is out of sight, hidden under the covers. Even so, these managerial mechanisms are surprisingly sophisticated and utterly indispensable. Computer operating systems represent the state-of-the-art in managerial automation today. This brain-stem level of management automation is hidden under the covers of every kind of computer. The management mechanisms involved are usually invisible unless something goes wrong.

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From a managerial standpoint digital computers are automated factories in a box. From the hardware perspective computers are automated bit factories. From the software perspective computers are automated model factories. These computational factories involve extreme mechanistic complexity. Today the typical personal computer is constructed from many billions of individual parts. Multiple levels of layered mechanistic management automation are required to get all these parts to work in concert. The mechanics of computational production are very much like those of all other kinds of production. There is making and moving. There is measurement and mandating. There is consumption, conversion, and completion. There are stocks, stores, slates, schedules, and sites. The computer operating system manages all these mundane mechanisms. Each sort of mundane mechanism is supported by specialized managerial mechanisms. These automated managerial mechanisms, in turn, are managed by automated metamanagerial mechanisms. Many hundreds of millions of lines of handcrafted code are required to model a state-of-the-art computer operating system today. The clever folks that craft this code don't think explicitly in terms of managerial mechanics. They don't think of what they do in terms of management automation. Even so, this is exactly what computer operating systems are all about. The myriad mechanisms of computer management are highly specialized. So you cannot use a computer operating system to run an automobile, a bank, or a cruse ship. Yet very much the same sort of mechanisms are involved in running a computer, an automobile, a bank, and a cruise ship. Very minor respecializations of these mechanisms is sufficient to manage the mechanics of any practical pursuit. Someday specialized management automation will be routine in many if not most high-value practical pursuits. The Internet data web will serve as a backbone providing connectivity among and permitting collaboration among managers and management automation tools. This is not some science fiction vision. Rather, it's a technological revolution that is already well underway. Digital computer and communication technologies are already moving inexorably in this direction. This movement is being driven by surging economic forces that have already reached substantial proportions. Note that this is not yet another utopian artificial intelligence vision. Instead it's an alternative, and mostly antithetical, vision of applied science automation. It is about commoditizing methods of state-of-the-art applied science automation employed in a relatively few high-value applications today. These state-of-the-art methods are commercially mature and ready for commoditization. The next step is mass custom production of myriad new specialized varieties of mechanistic managerial management automation. Today institutional management is something that people do, not something that computers do. Computers serve merely as tools in practical management. This is not likely to change in the foreseeable future. Computers have long been used as advantageous tools in practical management. Most professional managers in the modern industrial world use computers routinely in the course of management. Even so, computers have vast untapped potential as practical management tools. This is the potential of management meaning automation. Most of the myriad benefits of management meaning automation involve radical reductions of wasted mental motion in management modeling. Management is always model-intensive. Today computers are good tools for automating managerial model markup media but not managerial model meaning. Managers mostly use computers to prepare documents and to peruse data. This is managerial model media automation.

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Managerial model meaning automation operates directly on the mechanistic meaning of management models. The most basic functions of managerial model meaning automation are: capture check coach compare complete compose contrast correct council critique

Some more advanced functions of managerial model meaning automation involve: scrutiny search sharing simplification simulation solving subscription supervision surveillance survey syndication synthesis

This sort of managerial machine intelligence is hardly new. Rather it's just the sort of practical language and practical logic machine intelligence that we've been doing on an industrial scale since the 1930s. The only difference is end-user mass customization. It is exactly this sort of mass custom production that will get us to a radically bigger, better, cheaper, faster version of just the sort of machine intelligence we do today. Why do we need better management automation? Because all managers always need the best models they can get. Every manager should have full real time visibility and control of everything everywhere that is germane to that manager's goals. Live strategic, tactical, and operational models of plans and performance should be available at the touch of a button. The ever changing landscape of management objectives, obstacles, and opportunities should be mapped out in excruciating detail. What will all this look like? It will look and work a lot like the best video games look today. The human brain has a lot more visual bandwidth than verbal bandwidth. It is no coincidence that all this sounds a lot like the best current examples of military theater and battlefield automation. In the modern world of cutthroat capitalism business, more than ever, is indistinguishable from war. Management automation is always about supporting managers rather than supplanting managers. It is ultimately about a new optimal division of labor in management. In this new division of labor computers automate the gears of management. Think of this as managerial robotics.

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Gears automation leaves working managers free to focus on the genius of management. Orders of magnitude improvements in managerial productivity and possibility will surely result from this new division of managerial labor. Will computers ever provide the means to automate the genius of management? Is Jack-Welshin-a-box the next step in management automaton? It turns out that the gears of management are much easier to automate than most think today. It also turns out that the genius of management, for the foreseeable future at least, is impractical to automate. The reason that we can't automate the genius of management is simply that we don't yet have good mechanistic models of what this genius is and how it works. The genius of management seems to be highly emergent. The genius of management seems to involve large-scale mechanisms that emerge from a diversity of local-scale mechanisms. It is these local-scale mechanisms that we understand as the gears of management today. Someday we may come to understand the emergence of managerial genius. At this point it may become practical to automate at least some genius of management. Clearly, this point is a long way off in the future.

Wiring the Working World Together on the Data Web


Today the Internet data web should be the ultimate capitalist tool. It should be the worldwide backbone of capitalist civilization. Someday the Internet data web will be this and more, but not anytime soon. The big problems involve information ideology. There is only one information technology powerful enough to build out the Internet data web. That one information technology is practical prose. Yet so far practical prose is not part of the plan. Today the Internet document web and digital media web are both flourishing. Yet the Internet data web, after ten years, is still floundering. For the past ten years lots of very capable people with considerable cash have labored to make the data web work. These efforts involved communities both in real life and in the research labs. All to no avail so far. The problem is the vision of the Internet data web as a distributed data processing web. Here the notion is that the data web will grow to incorporate and integrate the vast diversity of institutional data processing installations worldwide. Whole industries will interact seamlessly by means of a world wide web of distributed data processing. Yet every IT manager understands the severe economic and engineering limitations of distributed data processing. The time, trouble, toil, and treasure involved in even the simplest sort of distributed data processing project today is extreme. So distributed data processing has always been limited to indispensable or inevitable applications. The limitations of distributed data processing are inherent and insuperable. These are built in from the foundations up. So no reasonable extension or elaboration of distributed data processing practice can hope to overcome these limitations. The primary problems here are the mentalware and metaphysical bases of universal modeling. Today all data processing practice is based on software science universal modeling techniques. Extracting the practical application mechanics implicit in mentalware and metaphysics is often impractical on small scales. On the massive scale of any interesting Internet data web this is simply inconceivable. So any sizeable distributed data processing Internet data web involves a massive reengineering catastrophe. There just aren't enough people on this planet to begin to do all the recurrent reengineering required.

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If the Internet data web isn't a distributed data processing web, then what is it? Its a worldwide collaborative mass modeling and mass management web. This is a far more practical and profitable sort of Internet data web. In this approach the Internet data web becomes the ultimate practical informatics platform. The data web becomes the home of all of the practical infodynamics flows of modern mass society. The entire diversity of practical modeling resources will be hosted on the Internet data web. Today we can mechanize the meaning of less than one percent of the volume and value of management models in service. It will likely take us until the end of this century to get close to one hundred percent. Why should we mechanize the meaning of all these models? The answer is management productivity and possibility. Maximizing these maximizes management premium. Economists don't like the idea of management premium because it's difficult to model in purely economic terms. Even so, it's exactly this surplus that is the basis for the unprecedented comforts and contentment of life in modern mass civilization. We live well because we manage well. We manage well because we model well. Thus we are better able to exploit available mundane resources to extreme advantage. We are better able to extract liquid value from the latent value of these mundane resources. It is the mass management and mass modeling infrastructure of the modern industrial world that provides unprecedented managerial surplus value. Most of this surplus results from institutional superintelligence. This is exactly why we must build out the Internet data web. We must do this in order to maximize managerial superintelligence. We must do this in order to maximize management premium. We must do this because we live in a world where more than two billion people still survive on less than a dollar a day. Mere redistribution of wealth will not solve this or other pressing worldwide problems. Only radical improvements in managerial superintelligence and management premium can, must, and will solve these problems. A mass modeling and mass management Internet data web requires plug and play information interoperability. So universal modeling is out of the question. End-user utilitarian modeling is the only feasible alternative. This is how manageable information safety and quality must be woven into the fabric of the Internet data web. This will necessarily require common controlled context practice modeling frameworks.

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3: The General Theory of Practical Systems


Introduction
GTPS is a systematic approach to understanding the common context of utilitarian modeling. This is the sort of modeling that we all do every day. This is the sort of modeling that managers, professionals, technicians and specialists do for a living. The intended audience for GTPS is informatics end-users. It is those with elite empirical expository modeling skills. It is intended for those with very high civilization literacy. No computer literacy is required. GTPS is not intended for the mainstream information technology audience. The GTPS information ideology is practical information as civilization in disguise. For this reason those with mainly a universal modeling background may well find GTPS incomprehensible at first. This includes nearly all information technology professionals working today. From a universal modeling standpoint GTPS may even seem nonsensical. It may seem like nothing more than an extensive exercise in profoundly bad poetry. From a mainstream information technology perspective GTPS asks and answers all the wrong questions. Moreover, GTPS seems to deny many of the most cherished doctrines both of universal modeling and of mainstream information technology. All of this is unavoidable. There are excellent reasons for all of this. These reasons involve GTPS aims, architecture, audience, and applications.

What GTPS Is and Isn't


GTPS isn't: a universal, unified, ultimate, ultraformalist, utopian theory of everything a universal reasoning and representation framework a common sense knowledge modeling framework a semantic lexicon, semantic frame system, or any sort of linguistics research tool

GTPS is: a core set of micromodular mechanistic building blocks for modeling practical meaning a foundation framework for high information quality Internet data web informatics an approximation of the expository foundations of everyday practical prose a framework for mass custom production of end-user Internet informatics

The Architecture of GTPS


The top-level structure of the GTPS framework is: foundation o language foundation proseology phraseology o logic foundation applied mechanics applied mathematics automated modeling fundamentals o enterprise fundamentals

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o o

economic fundamentals engineering fundamentals

The bulk of this book is an overview of GTPS proseology. This is not the entire proseology, just a selection of the high points. The reason for this emphasis is that the proseology is the starting point for understanding GTPS. Everything else in GTPS elaborates this proseology. The GTPS proseology is divided into four different levels of reference models: GTPS Atlas: major foundation reference models GTPS Encyclopedia: minor foundation reference models GTPS Differential Dictionary: additional detail differentiation models GTPS Topics: specialized differentiation models

Most of the basic exposition structure of practical prose models can be constructed from GTPS Atlas reference models. These are the indispensable invariant structures of the everyday working worldview. They do most of the heavy lifting in routine practice modeling. The GTPS Encyclopedia and GTPS differential dictionary serves to further elaborate the GTPS Atlas models. These more specialized models provide additional selectivity, specificity, and saturation.

GTPS Stenographic Modeling


GTPS stenographic modeling is the first step toward end-user informatics on the Internet data web. Stenographic modeling provides a quick and easy way to get started with Internet data web GTPS modeling. It provides a convenient way to approach the pencil and paper limit of practical prose meaning in mass collaborative data web modeling. Stenographic modeling is characterized by: structure: free, flexible, and fixed constructive modeling formats shorthand: terse, telegraphic, trenchant modeling constructs standardization: controlled communal collaboration context standards saturation: high selectivity and specificity over the practice meaning spectrum

Stenographic modeling features: easy end-user content and context modeling simple outline-structured modeling formats familiar everyday and elite practice modeling contexts

The killer applications of stenographic modeling include: high information quality and safety Internet data web model sharing high selectivity and specificity Internet data web searching messy multitopical Internet data web modeling mashups

Stenographic modeling structured markup may be: visible: directly accessible by means of end-user modeling tools veiled: hidden under the covers of Internet informatics applications

The key advantages of stenographic modeling are: information quality: up to the pencil and paper meaning limit information safety: greatly improved interoperability, insurability, immortality simplicity: easy to learn and use for anyone with good exposition skills

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Why is formatted modeling necessary? Why is controlled common context modeling necessary? Why not just use all the practical prose sitting on Internet document servers today? The problem is that unformatted practical prose in the wild, for the foreseeable future at least, is far too difficult to work with. Specifically: there are far too many practical contexts with far too much complexity practical prose is mixed with personal, political, and other kinds of prose the vast variety, variability, and volatility of practical prose styles is truly terrifying

For these reasons and others the prose of mails, messages, and memos is just too hard of a nut 15 to crack . Thus for the next decade or so stenographic modeling will remain the best alternative for data web mass modeling and mass management applications.

The GTPS Working Word Processor


The GTPS Working Word Processor (WWP) is one sort of initial tool for GTPS stenographic modeling. This is essentially a personal computer word processor with a wired-in working worldview. The WWP is much like any other word processor except that it only works with GTPS working words. These working words are woven into outline-structured practice models. These outline models encode the GTPS working world reference models and GTPS working word differential structures. The GTPS foundation framework is the starting point for WWP modeling. Specialized modeling communities can add proseology and phraseology models in order to support specialized working worldviews. Providers of topical and target GTPS extensions might include any combination of captive, commercial, and communal sources. Initially the WWP need only support manual modeling at the language layer of GTPS. This version provides a convenient way of getting started with high information quality modeling on the Internet data web. The applications of this version will include high precision Internet data web structured language serving, sharing, and searching. This version of the WWP provides a starting point for the evolution of Internet data web authoring and audience tools. In this way WWP can serve the same purpose as the earliest text mode Internet document web browsers (e.g. Lynx). Further evolution of the WWP provides GTPS logic level support. This will enable WWP model meaning automation features. Applications of this future WWP version will include Internet data web structured logic serving, sharing, and searching.

GTPS Methodology Generally


Practical prose is the ultimate high technology trophy hack. The simple reason for this is that the complexity of the practical prose technostructure is staggering. So how can we tease out the technostructure of practical prose without trivializing it? In the case of GTPS the goal is not a complete exegesis of the practical prose technostructure. The goal is merely a workable synopsis of the everyday working worldview. The models presented here are a first small step toward that goal. The redundancy of exposition elements in practical English is extreme. Some, but not nearly all, of this redundancy must be preserved in order to retain most of the power and precision of practical English. It has long been observed that practical English has a very elaborate alliteration structure. This alliteration structure appears to be accidental for the most part. It's mainly spurious rather than significant.

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GTPS exploits this alliteration structure in two ways. First this structure is employed as a filter. Available alliterations provide a convenient way to arbitrarily decide how exposition elements should be selected and structured. The second way that GTPS exploits this structure is as a tool for improving intellectual ergonomics. GTPS is a big framework. So alliteration is exploited as a tool for maximizing mnemonic and mimetic value. It is exploited as a tool for minimizing mental motion wastage. Admittedly, some find all the alliterations, adages, and aphorisms profoundly irritating. Yet the only other alternative approach is "word soup." In practical applications it's likely that arranging exposition elements in terms of differential alliteration structures will be a significant human factors advantage. Consider the term "free". This term appears several times in GTPS. For example: free as a metric of variability: fixed, flexible, free free as a metric of economic valuation: free, fee free as a metric of mobility: fettered, free
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All of these senses of "free" are supported by the WordNet framework (wordnet.princeton.edu). Differentiating these senses in a "word soup" framework like WordNet requires looking up the word and searching for the correct sense. In GTPS the differentiation of topical usage is immediately obvious from differential structure. Now consider the term "flounder". Two of the most common meaning senses of this term are: flounder, float flounder, fish

These alternative GTPS differential structures provide a rapid way to distinguish these very different meaning senses. Is the GTPS methodology biased? Yes, but probably not significantly biased. The sense spectrum of everyday practical English seems to be adequately represented. Note that GTPS is not in any sense an attempt to produce a simplified practical English. Instead the goal is to capture as much of the extreme sophistication of practical English as possible. So there are lots of ten dollar words in GTPS. These are the words that we use in order to achieve high specificity and selectivity of meaning in our practical pursuits. There are, admittedly, a few minor coinages in GTPS. In some cases working word meaning senses are stretched to the limit. This isn't really a big deal. No apologies are forthcoming for these liberties. Just chalk them up to the immunities of prosaic license.

Is GTPS Really Meaningful?


Some people can visualize the mechanistic meaning structure of GTPS right from the start. Most folks with extensive empirical modeling experience need to tinker with GTPS a bit in order to see the meaning structure. Those without extensive empirical expository modeling experience will likely find visualizing the GTPS structure difficult. Visualizing the GTPS mechanistic invariant structure seems to be particularly difficult for those with an information technology background. It's just not the sort of modeling framework that these folks are skilled at using. These folks are skilled at modeling with programming language frameworks rather than with practice language frameworks. They are paid for their encoding skills rather than their exposition skills.

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GTPS, at least as presented here, provides no axioms or algorithms or any other sort of formalistic modeling. So how can GTPS be anything more than some sort of weird word game? Perhaps GTPS is nothing more than some novel system of sophistry or scholasticism. The primary goal of the GTPS proseology is sorting out the differential structure of physical and practical reality. Examples include: degree: cruel, callous, cold, cool, considerate, concerned, compassionate dichotomy: foreign, familiar differentia: collective, college, collusion, colony, combine, commune, company disjunctions: past, present, prospective dimensionality: person, place, period, practice

These simple differential structures express pure practical mechanistic meaning. They are the starting point for more sophisticated differential structures. Differential structures are necessary and sufficient to express the entirely of practical mechanistic meaning in any and all practical pursuits. Simple differentiation structures serve as models of limited local order. Larger scale physical and practical order is always constructible from layered levels of local order. This is how the differential phenomena structure of physical reality works. It is also how the differential principle structures of practical reality work. So these differential mechanistic meaning structures are the starting point for sorting out the differential state dynamics structure of practical reality. They are a starting point, but only a starting point, for answering the question "What's the difference?" Those in the universal modeling world may well be uncomfortable with this approach. The separation of exposition and encoding will surely seem utterly unnatural. The separation of mechanics and mathematics will surely seem unnatural. The separation of fundamental meaning and formal meaning will surely seem unnatural. Remember that these sorts of separations are what we did in practical informatics before universal modeling. From the 1930s thought the 1970s separate software engineering was the rule. This is what we did before the simultaneous software engineering we do today. Separate software engineering evolved from manual clerical modeling and early punch card practice. This was a much simpler soft of software engineering. The basic elements were forms, formats, facts, fields, fills, and flowcharts. These were the days of analysts and coders. Analysts worried about subject matter side informatics modeling. Coders worried about software side informatics modeling. This division of labor worked pretty well until the 1970s. This is when informatics software complexity rose rapidly as the new 32-bit scalable mainframe architectures advanced. Moreover, minicomputers were beginning to become commonplace. This is when the separate software engineering separation of labor started to stress. The clash of the very different analyst and coder cultures had always been a problem. Diseconomies of this division of labor grew rapidly with increasing code complexity. So the modern software engineer was born. This new super-specialist would subsume both the coder and analyst roles. These specialists would see practical reality from a new sort of subject matter and software side stereo perspective. They would do universal modeling rather than utilitarian modeling. They would do simultaneous modeling rather than separate modeling. Today it's clear that simultaneous software engineering has never been more than just a stopgap. It's what we did to perfect punch card pattern programming and pattern configurable software packages. This is how we followed the path of least economic resistance to where we are now. Today this path gone as far as it's going to go in terms of strategic progress. This is a dead end.

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So simultaneous software engineering has run its course. In end-user informatics we must abandon simultaneous modeling for separate modeling. We must return to separate software engineering. There just simply isn't any other choice. In the age of end-user informatics it's end-users that will do the subject matter side modeling. These folks are the new separate software engineering analysts. Swarms of mass custom software synthesis robots will produce the programs. These are the new separate software engineering coders. In many ways the end-user informatics revolution is a back-to-the-future revolution. The old school now becomes the newest new school. Replacing simultaneous modeling with separate modeling is just one example of old school practice reborn as on-the-leading-edge practice. The important thing to remember is that GTPS is not a universal modeling framework. It's a utilitarian modeling framework. This is the sort of modeling that informatics end-users do every day. In end-user informatics we must always start with the practical logics that informatics end-users understand. They primarily use fundamental mechanistic logics rather than formalist mathematical logics. Mathematics is always an adjunct to mechanics. There are no formalist logics hidden under the covers somewhere. There simply is no need for these. Aren't these end-users missing a huge opportunity? Shouldn't they just abandon fundamental modeling for formalist modeling? Aren't they missing out on vast modeling and monetary benefits? In fact elite practice modeling communities are extremely aggressive adopters of beneficial innovations. They don't need much coaxing to change their ways. They rapidly adopt, adapt, and apply beneficial practice modeling innovations as these emerge. Some in these communities understand formalist modeling well enough to evaluate the potential benefits of various formalist alternatives. These alternatives find few applications in these communities simply because they provide few benefits. This is why universal modeling missionary work in practice modeling communities consistently fails. Universal modeling just isn't competitive with utilitarian modeling in most practical pursuits. In end-user informatics the end-users are always right. Utilitarian modeling is what end-users do. GTPS doesn't need formalist models because end-users don't need them. Note that these end-users, as a matter of law, cannot systematically confuse mathematical formalisms and mechanistic fundamentals. They cannot, as a matter of law, do the sort universal modeling commonplace in software engineering. Especially in the principled professions the choice of modeling mechanisms and mathematics are entirely separable issues. Professional responsibility law standards require the separate justification of mechanisms, mathematics, and the means by which these are combined. Defensive design frameworks demand that these justifications always be documented. Formalization of practice models always starts with differential mechanistic meaning. This is necessarily true because that's all the mechanistic meaning there is to work with. There are usually multiple alternative ways to formalize any given range of differential mechanistic meaning. Differential equation systems can be restated as integral equation systems. Algorithms can be restated as axiom systems. In practical pursuits applicable formalisms serve to encode the differential meaning of practice models. This differential meaning, in and of itself, is always formalism independent. Moreover, specific formalizations often simplify available mechanistic meaning. Ordinary differential equations may be chosen when partial differential equations are an option. Propositional logics may be chosen when predicate logics are an option. Arithmetic may be chosen when algebra is an option.

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For all these reasons GTPS modeling is formalism-neutral. This allows flexibility in choosing formalizations appropriate to any given informatics application.

GTPS Context Mining Methods


Where does GTPS come from? Primarily GTPS comes from fieldwork. It comes from carefully digging through myriad examples of specialized practical prose. This is manual context mining. This sort of systematic context mining is both an acquired skill and an acquired taste. Very strong practical exposition skills are a prerequisite to doing deep context mining. Context mining is a skill that is rather difficult to explain to those who have not yet mastered the rudiments. Like computer programming, it's best learned by digging in and doing it. Those with good practical exposition skills can generally master rudimentarily context mining skills with a little practice. A good culinary cookbook is a good place to start if you'd like to try you hand at everyday practical English context mining. A typical household kitchen provides a pretty good microcosm of practical reality. Context mining is basically the systematic application of Ockkam's razor. It's about boiling practical reality down to its elementary and elaborate essentials. Remember that in context mining we're looking at the micromechanical logic element systems of exposition, not the language elements. Mappings from language elements to logic elements are arbitrary. Context mapping exposes the context structure of practical reality as captured by diverse practical prose samples. GTPS context mining prose samples are selected from the professional practice literature of engineering, economics, law, medicine, finance, management, accounting, and many varieties of specialized enterprise. So the everyday practical English of the principled professions is the primary source for GTPS. On the whole the sense spectrum of this slightly elite sort of practical English prose seems much more familiar than foreign. It doesn't seem to be that much different from the sense spectrum of other sorts of everyday practical English prose. There are just a lot more ten dollar words. The place to start in context mining is finding the top-level exposition elements. The key to toplevel context mining is fishing out the indispensable mechanistic meaning invariants. These are the main mechanisms one must always use in practical prose modeling. Which sorts of micromechanical meaning invariants are utterly indispensable in practical pursuits? Which exposition invariants, when removed, make modeling practice impossible? Some of the most obvious examples of indispensable mechanisms in practice modeling are person, property, place, period, practice, and policy. That's why these important exposition elements are included in the GTPS primary primitive set. Any significant sample of practical prose involves multiple parallel, pluralistic perspectives. Comparative proseology is the way to sort these out. This technique examines sets or spaces of exposition invariants. Some major examples include mechanics, supply, and control. This technique involves selectively removing or replacing expository element structures in practical prose samples. The differential meaning that results from these changes exposes the differential structure of the underlying context space. Exposition element changes impact the practical meaning of a prose sample in various ways. Some mechanistic meaning invariants have much more impact than others. Sometimes removing meaning elements renders the prose sample meaningless. Other times the meaning of the prose sample is changed or degraded. Many meaning elements do not impact the practical mechanistic meaning at all. These meaning elements are personal, poetic, pious, and so on. These are purely subjective for practical purposes.

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Note that GTPS supports a wide variety of subjective word senses. This is necessary in order to support the bulk of routine practical communication. We seldom write pure practical prose in the course of routine practical pursuits. If you try this sometime you will find that it's remarkably difficult. GTPS supports language modeling of subjective meaning, but not logic modeling. We simply don't know how to model or mechanize this sort of meaning. So GTPS logic tools, given what we know today, must simply skip over subjective meaning elements. Topical context mining cannot be performed in a vacuum. Some considerable topical subject matter mastery is required to do elite prose context mining. We all have most of the modeling mastery required when it comes to everyday practical pursuits. This is not the case in specialized practical pursuits. Elite principled practical pursuits require a systematic approach to context mining. Here artifacts are just as important as articulations. So two complementary kinds of context mining are required. These are: context archeology: working with topical mundane and managerial artifacts context anthropology: working with topical modeling standards, stocks, staffs, and systems

Both are required because it's necessary to examine both things and models of things simultaneously. This is necessary in order to understand how working word constructs map to working world mechanistic meaning. Systematic manual context mining techniques of this sort have long been employed in some specialized sorts of automation science fieldwork. Adaptations of these techniques are the starting point for exposition engineering in end-user informatics.

Mechanized Context Mining Methods


GTPS is the product of proprietary manual methods of manual context mining. Mechanized 17 context mining is an alternative approach . It is hardly secret that major Internet search providers have an intense interest in mechanized context mining technology. Novel methods of mechanized context mining are a key factor in many recent Internet search engine technology innovations. Some see automated methods of computerized context mining as a way to produce very high quality context frameworks for various applications. Much work is being done in this area both in academia and in the IT industry. GTPS is the product of extensive manual context digging and detective work. Can mechanized context mining produce an alternative to GTPS? If so, how will these mechanistically mined context models compare with manual context mined models like GTPS? Mechanized context mining methods involve various forms of mathematical pattern recognition. Today the most promising of these methods involve nonlinear multivariate statistical pattern inference. Methods of multivariate statistical inference and induction , as in the case of Bayesian techniques, work on the language of practical prose. It can't work directly on the mechanistic logic of practical prose samples because this meaning is implicit. In commonplace practical prose the mappings between language patterns and logic principles is astonishingly complex. There is not just one of these mapping but untold millions of these mappings. Moreover, practical meaning maps are always confused with personal, philosophical, and other sorts of meaning maps that we don't even begin to understand. This is why modeling statistical language patterns without supporting practice logic principles can be downright dangerous. There can be no automatic way to model information safety and quality. Finding interesting patterns is never enough.
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There is seldom any shortage of statistical patterns. Some of these patterns are significant while others are spurious. In most cases there is no reliable means to sort these out automatically. Moreover, you can always find the statistical pattern you're looking for if you try hard enough. Any economic time series can be explained entirely by the phases of the moon with very minor sorts of statistical sleight of hand. Note that all forms of pattern recognition always involve some degree of sample space structural simplification. This is very often radical simplification. Regularity is filtered in and randomness is filtered out. The goal in producing high quality context frameworks is to capture as much of the sophistication of context structures as possible. This requires preserving randomness and referential richness. Statistical and other forms of pattern recognition in general are not well suited to preserving these aspects of the invariant structure of complex sample spaces. All of this severely limits the potential power of mechanized context mapping. Mechanized context mining produces pattern context frameworks of language encoding. These simplistic context frameworks may well be highly advantageous for various Internet document web search engine applications. Internet document web search engines don't worry much about information quality or safety. Document web search results always include a lot of noise and nonsense. Better pattern models can help to reduce the noise and nonsense. End-user Internet data web informatics is a whole different story. Here information safety and quality are paramount. There is no room for noise and nonsense. Context logic and language must be carefully controlled. Small context errors will generally result in substantial communication and collaboration errors. So Internet data web informatics foundation frameworks must be rock solid. Mechanical principles are the most powerful way we know of to express practical meaning. Getting these principles right is prerequisite to manageable information safety and quality. Pattern practice modeling, so far, provides a radical simplification of the best-practice principled modeling at best. Thus it seems unlikely that mechanized context mining will compete with GTPS in high information quality informatics applications. For the foreseeable future statistical pattern mined contexts will not be adequate for end-user informatics, informatics industrialization, or mass management automation. The goal of GTPS is to provide context models sufficient to support the pencil and paper practical meaning limit in end-user informatics applications. For the foreseeable future this sort of high information quality informatics will start with context frameworks produced by manual context mining methods. This does not mean that there is no place for pattern modeling in high information quality informatics. There may very well be substantial synergy between mechanized and manual methods of context mining. Moreover, is seems likely that at least some GTPS applications will employ hybrid methods combining a mix of pattern modeling and principled modeling. This may be the optimal approach where an application can tolerate a mix of high and low quality informatics models.

GTPS Model Theory


The only GTPS global model is present practical reality itself. There is no top level, global GTPS theory of everything (TOE). All GTPS models are micromodular. Some are more general than others. Some are considerably larger than others. Reference model primitive counts range from two up to several hundred.

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There is a set of GTPS primary primitives that provide a very general way to parse the meaning of practical reality. These are merely provided a convenience. They are hardly canonical-closed. They may or may not be useful for any particular GTPS application. OK, then how does one do general purpose reasoning? How does one prove the global correctness, completeness, and consistency of GTPS itself and of GTPS applications? The simple answer is that you don't. There is no such thing in this universe as general purpose mechanistic reasoning, apart from the trivial varieties. Other universes can fend for themselves. General purpose practical reasoning is a GTPS non-goal. Instead the goal of GTPS is to support mass custom production of specialized forms of topical and target genuine reasoning. GTPS does not build in any formalist system of type theory, model theory, or proof theory. Any appropriate modeling formalism may be applied to GTPS models. All such formalizations are always adjuncts to the GTPS architecture. Every practical informatics application requires an appropriate balance of encoding formalisms and exposition fundamentals. Note, however, that encoding and exposition are always entirely separable issues. GTPS enforces separation of these issues by means of encoding neutrality. Thus the fundamentals of the GTPS foundation are suitable for any sort of appropriate encoding.

GTPS Logic Layers


Ultimately GTPS must serve as a starting point for mass custom production of applicable algorithms. There is, of course, no universal way to do this. We know this because there is no universal way to do mechanistic representation and reasoning in this universe. There are just lots of useful and often unique ways. So there is no such thing as a universal practice modeler. There is no such thing as a universal software synthesizer. Common sense readily confirms this. There is no such thing as a universal computer program. There is no such thing as a universal sales report. There is no such thing as a universal hand tool. Thus the only feasible approach to informatics mass production is mass custom production. We must mass custom produce a great diversity of specialized software synthesizers. We must mass custom produce a great diversity of specialized practice modeling tools. The GTPS logic layers support practice modeling semantics in terms of three different sorts of complementary semantics spaces. These include: symbolic algebra: applied mathematics semantics state automata: applied mechanics semantics symbol automata: application modeling semantics

Representation and reasoning on these logics is not in any sense general. It is always specific to well defined, highly disciplined specialized semantics spaces. These are the topic and target modeling spaces combined in the context of some specialized practical pursuit. The semiotics of GTPS modeling involves mappings within and among these various spaces. These mappings are how mechanical, mathematical, and model automation meaning is combined in the GTPS logic framework. Needless to say these are incredibly messy mappings. These mappings will be mostly local to targets and topics. It is these mappings that are always the advent of algorithms in practical informatics.

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Where do applicable algorithms come from? Applicable algorithms are always accessories. They merely serve to automate and animate applied mechanics models and applied mathematics models. Remember that computation, per se, has no applied mathematics or applied mechanics meaning. Computation in isolation merely has metalogical meaning. So applicable computation gets its meaning by mapping analogically to some combination of: applicable mechanics: applied state automata applicable mathematics: applied symbolic algebras

There is, of course, a great diversity of each of these. We can't even begin to guess how many there are or could be. So far there is no systematic way to map these diversities in their entirety. There are, however, lots and lots of well known and widely used cases. Synthetic software mass custom production methods will mature over time by tackling manageable ranges of special cases. This will require lots of descriptive information science work. The vast majority of applied mathematics applications today can be and are done on spreadsheets. Higher mathematics applications, like finite element analysis and convex programming, are very high value but relatively low volume applied mathematics applications. Much of the landscape of applied mathematics and applied mathematical algorithms has been pretty well mapped out at a very high level. This is a pretty messy map, but it works well enough for routine applications. Mathematical rapid application development (RAD) tools implement much of this map. MATLAB from MathWorks (mathworks.com) is an excellent example of this sort of tool. MATLAB supports a wide variety of applied mathematics models. These include primitive models such as matrix operations and analytic equation solvers. In addition MATLAB supports numerous specialized application frameworks. Some examples include robust control, digital signal processing, digital image processing, and financial mathematics. MATLAB models are widely used to synthesize both hardware and software for various embedded control applications. Your cell phone may very well contain hardware and software of this sort. Applied mechanics is another matter. So far we really don't know very much about the large-scale landscape of applied mechanics. Hopefully GTPS will prove a useful starting point for exploring this landscape. One result of this exploration will likely be RAD software tools for applied mechanics. This sort of tool includes micromodules supporting all the usual mechanisms of daily living. Add-on micromodule packages might include home automation, investment portfolio management, medical condition management, and so on. Note that there is a classic canonical-closed way to model applicable mechanisms. This is general automata theory. This is another example of an old school engineering science model which is largely neglected today. It is easy to demonstrate that every applicable mechanism can be decomposed into state dynamics automata structures. A state dynamics automata is a mechanism that can be characterized adequately in terms of interface and internal state dynamics. Here again, there is no general way of classifying state dynamics automata. There are a few dozen major kinds and a few hundred minor kinds that find frequent application. How do we get from mechanistic automata to model automation algorithms? The way to get started is brute force. One way to look at an algorithm is as a symbol dynamics automata. The simplest way to synthesize applied mechanics algorithms is to naively map symbol dynamics spaces directly to

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state dynamics spaces. Programmers do this all the time. Automation of this sort of mapping is employed in certain very specialized automation science applications. Note that once again there is no general way to do this. Mappings between symbol dynamics and state dynamics are always arbitrary, analogical, and anecdotal. These mapping are workable only over well defined, disciplined ranges of local order. In commercial algorithm mass custom production far more sophisticated methods will generally be employed. These are very much the same sort of methods that find various applications today in various parts of the automation software world.

GTPS vs. CYC


Today there are dozens of universal modeling foundation frameworks in the research world. These employ various sorts of pattern representation and reasoning methods. The most ambitious of these frameworks are known as commonsense knowledge bases. The primary focus of these artificial intelligence frameworks is natural language recognition, representation, and reasoning research. The current state of the art in commonsense knowledge bases is unquestionably CYC from Cycorp of Austin, Texas (cycorp.com). CYC is short for cyclopedia but also a pun on psyche. CYC began as a pioneering "hard" artificial intelligence research project. Doug Lenat and the CYC team have been working to perfect CYC since 1984. Today CYC is finding application to Internet Semantic Web context modeling applications. One of the original aims of CYC was to construct an autonomous artificial intelligence capable of representing and reasoning the entire meaning of an academic encyclopedia. Today CYC is still a very long way from this very ambitious goal. Yet all agree that CYC is a brilliant achievement. How do GTPS and CYC compare? In many ways these are almost exactly antithetical. They are radically different in nearly every respect. The questions asked and answered by CYC and by GTPS are almost entirely contrary. So one way to look at GTPS is as an anti-CYC. CYC employs a proprietary artificial intelligence language (CYCL) and operates on families of ontological frameworks. GTPS is implementation-independent and employs mechanistic rather than metaphysical frameworks for modeling meaning. These are micromodular differential state dynamics frameworks. CYC and GTPS start with nearly antithetical legacies. CYC builds of the research legacy of the "hard" artificial intelligence communities. GTPS builds on the real world legacy of the automation software and automation science communities. Perhaps the most important difference of all is that CYC aspires to model the meaning of every sort of human language and logic. This includes personal, poetic, philosophical, pious, and so on. The focus of GTPS is strictly limited to mechanistic practical meaning. GTPS supports subjective language only as a convenient means of decorative detailing. GTPS makes no attempt to support subjective logic. GTPS logic modeling is limited to differential state dynamics logics. These are the mechanistic Newtonian logics of enterprise, economic, and engineering practice modeling. They are the logics of mechanistic managerial modeling. GTPS has nothing to do with autonomous individual artificial intelligence. Instead, the emphasis is on automating the institutional intelligence of mass modeling and mass management. This is mechanistic managerial machine intelligence. This is the sort of practical machine intelligence that is the basis for all practical informatics today. This is the sort of machine intelligence that has been widely employed in diverse practical pursuits for the better part of a century.
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CYC is ultimately about perfecting mental machine intelligence. It's about understanding individual cognitive intelligence. It is about the dream of creating computers in our own image. It's about automating and animating universal representation and reasoning. It's about unlocking the putative power of universal language and universal logic. Perhaps someday CYC will achieve all these goals. This is not likely to happen any time soon. So far CYC has found only a very limited range of advantageous applications.

GTPS in Context Maintenance Automation


Practical context maintenance is a huge and highly important social dynamic in modern industrial civilization. This is the process that maintains the perfection of topical and target practice modeling contexts. These diverse contexts are the foundation upon which all modern mass modeling and mass management systems are built. Today context maintenance is mainly the responsibility of the elite of the principled practice modeling elite. This is something like ten percent of the three hundred million people that do elite principled practice modeling as some part of their working lives. For present purposes assume that this involves thirty million people worldwide. Furthermore, assume that the economic effort involved has a value of about three hundred billion dollars annually. Much of this activity has already become established on the Internet document web. The next step getting topical and target context maintenance moved onto the Internet data web. GTPS is a first step in moving practical context maintenance onto the Internet data web. This is the first step in the evolution of end-user Internet data web informatics. Note that no manageable community of people can possibly succeed at doing context maintenance. So we must rely on just those utterly unmanageable communities that do context maintenance today. We must convince these communities to move their efforts to the Internet data web. How is context maintenance done? Its a dynamic dialectic decision process. It's an ongoing argument. Authors and audiences endlessly argue everything out. All these topically and target specialized context arguments needs to be moved onto the Internet data web. Some consensus authoring mechanism much like Wikipedia (wikipedia.org) will be required to host these communities. Experiments of this sort underway today are known as 20 "semantic wikis ." So far few efforts to support topical and target contexts on the Internet data web have succeeded. This is true both for the schemaware and semantic data web architectures. The problem is universal modeling. Software and schemaware informatics standards are universal modeling standards. These are pattern modeling standards. Standards of this sort, as information technology veterans well know, are far from definitive. Moreover both first principles and practical experience confirm that these standards cannot reasonably be made definitive. The reason that such standards cannot be definitive is lack of explicit mechanistic meaning. Pattern informatics standards are modeled in terms of metaphysics and mentalware. So the implicit subject matter mechanics of these standards is always open to wide interpretation. Explicit mechanistic practical meaning must be recovered from pattern standards by means of reengineering. The problem is that everyone gets a different answer from this reengineering. Not surprisingly this is always exactly the answer they need. The result is rapid fragmentation of pattern informatics standards. One valid de jure standard becomes many variant de facto standards. Reference implementations, implementation notes, and lots of tinkering are required to make each variant de facto version of the standard work.

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All this is remarkably expensive. Moreover, it seldom works at all for non-trivial informatics models. Most successful non-proprietary software and schemaware informatics standards are relatively simple. Successful informatics standards, even the simplest ones, often come with a large entourage. There folks are standards consultants and contractors. They have test suites and test beds. They have reference implementations and regression tests. They have compliance testing and certification procedures. Those that use the informatics standard ultimately pay to support this entourage. Informatics standards compliance costs in some cases can run to many millions of dollars. So software and schemaware standards compliance can create barriers to entry and efficient competition in the informatics world. Other practical pursuits employ and endless variety of definitive practice standards. These are principled rather than pattern practice standards. They have explicit mechanistic subject matter meaning. The automotive and aerospace industries have many thousands of these standards. It has been said that standards are so important that everyone wants their own. Any definitive standard must saturate its intended practice mechanics spectrum with sufficient selectivity, specificity. Principled informatics standards, done well, can provide this sort of definitive standardization. These standards must necessarily employ utilitarian rather than universal modeling methods. GTPS utilitarian modeling enables this sort of definitive principled informatics standardization. Standards of this sort are a prerequisite to moving the social dynamics of practical context maintenance to the Internet data web.

GTPS in Pervasive Internet Automation


Pervasive Internet computation is the ultimate Internet computing platform. Pervasive Internet automation is the killer application for this platform. The pervasive Internet computation revolution is already well underway. Computers of all kinds are turning up everywhere in everything. Today computers are commonplace in automobiles and appliances, toys and tools, plus an endless variety of indispensable digital gadgets. Today there are hundreds of computers in you life. Soon there will be thousands. By the middle of next decade there will likely be a trillion computers in service worldwide. Most of these will be embedded, under the covers, computers. Disposable printed electronics paper and plastic computers are the next stage in pervasive computation. Packaged foods, clothing, wallpaper, books, newspapers, and the like will soon come with Internet accessible computers as standard equipment. Pervasive Internet automation is about combining all these disparate Internet computers into networks that can automate the dynamics of modern mass civilization. The payoff comes from the synergy value of combining disparate local automation into large-scale automation. Combinations of this sort will always be highly specialized and most will be unique. GTPS enables these mass custom pervasive automation combinations both as glue and as grease. As glue GTPS provides the common context for pervasive automation mashup modeling. As grease GTPS provides an easy end-user way for everybody to model how all the disparate computers in pervasive automation must work in concert.

GTPS in End-User Internet Informatics


End-user informatics is do-it-yourself, demand-driven, disposable informatics. It's about having just the informatics solutions you need just when you need them.

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The infrastructure and instrumentation costs of end-user informatics will be quite substantial but the incremental cost will be quite small. This gives a whole new twist to the notion of free software. The roles of end-users in end-user informatics include: target: design new informatics applications tailor: modify existing informatics applications test: using automated test case generation and validation

None of this involves any sort of computer literacy whatsoever. This is not some sort of programming in disguise scheme. The entire informatics lifecycle is modeled and managed entirely in the context of end-user working worldview language and logic contexts. In end-user informatics everybody in every practical pursuit automatically becomes a software author. Mass custom end-user informatics software will be produced automatically as a byproduct of the routine managerial modeling we must always do anyway. The most important sort of informatics end-users are managers, professionals, technicians, and specialists. These folks will produce the lion's share of informatics software in the coming age of end-user informatics. These talented folks are the expository modeling elite. They are the principled practice modeling elite. They are the institutional intelligentsia of modern mass society. It is these folks do nearly all of the high value principled practice modeling. They are the starting point for the synergistic emergence of institutional superintelligence. These folks are always civilization literate but seldom computer literate. This is as it should be. The fashionable notion in software science academia that these folks must all eventually become 21 computer literate is simply nuts. Computational thinking is never a suitable substitute for civilized thinking. End-user informatics starts by making computers civilization literate. So there is no need to make civilization computer literate. It is the expository modeling end-user elite that will do most of the work required to make computers civilization literate. These folks are the only reasonable choice to do this work. They are the civilization literacy authorities, authors, audiences, and arbiters. How will they do this? They with gradually teach their computers about how the world works over time. They will start with the everyday working worldview foundation. They will educate their computers by elaborating and extending this foundation. They will add their own specialized working worldview models to the mix. In this way they will fill in and flesh out all of the topic and target contexts they use. GTPS is a starting point for civilizing our computers. Even so, GTPS alone provides only the most elementary of educations. Diverse specialized practice communities will need to furnish the educational extensions that they need. This will be an automation science rather than an artificial intelligence education. GTPS is an expository framework foundation for massively multitopical for automation science mechanistic meaning modeling. Some in the automation science world will be skeptical of this claim with good reason. This is a well known hard problem in automation science. This is a Holy Grail problem in automation science. Nearly all experts in automation science consider this to be an intractable design problem if not an impossible one.

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How does GTPS solve this thorny technological problem? The answer is that GTPS cheats. GTPS changes the question. GTPS is not a designed foundation framework. GTPS is a dug up foundation framework. Why does end-user informatics need an expository foundation framework? The answer is that a solid practice modeling foundation is critically enabling technology. An adequate expository foundation is indispensable in order to solve the leverage and linkage problems intrinsic to massively multitopical mechanistic practice modeling. The leverage problem is about eliminating micromodular redundancy across diverse topics and targets. The linkage problem is about doing deep and disciplined micromodular referential binding across diverse topics and targets. There is really only one workable solution to this problem. This is the obvious and optimal solution. Just use the expository foundations of everyday practical prose. Just use the same foundation framework that informatics end-users already understand. Just use the same solution that already works every day everywhere in the modern working world for all practical purposes. Any other solution is just plain crazy. No manageable group of people is every going to succeed in designing an alternative solution. Even if they somehow miraculously succeed their alternative would be utterly, completely, totally redundant. Moreover, all of our familiar end-user practice models would have to be laboriously restated into this second, utterly foreign, context. This is encryption modeling rather than exposition modeling. GTPS avoids all this madness. GTPS is an exegesis of the mass consensus expository foundations of practical prose. So GTPS is an ideal starting point for providing end-user informatics leverage and linkage. End-user Internet informatics is about enabling elite principled practice modelers to move their mass modeling and mass management systems onto the Internet data web. This begins by hosting the socially-intensive process of topical and target community context maintenance on the Internet data web. Why would these communities move these processes onto the Internet data web? The answer is major reductions in wasted mental motion. In all practical pursuits mentation is a specialized, scarce, and steeply priced resource. Today our use of this resource is all too often spendthrift. The tactical benefits of model meaning automation always involve reducing wasted mental motion. In a perfectly automated world no modeling decision would ever be made more than once in all of history. Good practical modeling is always expensive and effortful. Typically ninety percent or more of practical modeling effort involves wasted mental motion. Much routine practical modeling involves ninety nine percent or more wasted mental motion. This high redundancy in manual practice modeling can be radically reduced by means of model meaning automation. Today there are many hundreds of commercial and captive varieties of automation science model meaning automation. We seldom use this very specialized sort of software but frequently benefit from it. This is the sort of software that designs automobiles, balances mutual fund portfolios, and models new pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. The most sophisticated sorts of this software are often found in automated modeling factories today. In these factories a single model automation seat typically costs tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars per year. This is just the total technology cost. These are tool chain and intellectual property costs. Someone to sit in the seat, management costs, and other overhead costs are extra.

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Where can we find the smartest software around today? The usual answer is IBM's Deep Blue chess playing software. This is the one that beat world chess champion Garry Kasparov a few times. This software is smart in the "soft" artificial intelligence sense. It uses sophisticated optimization algorithms to map out the extreme combinatorial complexity of chess move pattern spaces. For all practical purposes Deep Blue is just a stunt. It's a really cool stunt, but a stunt nonetheless. It's a toy rather than a tool. Note that Deep Blue isn't nearly the smartest software at IBM. IBM has many of the best electronic and mechanical automated modeling factories around. These are serious tools rather than toys. These are capitalist weapon systems for competing in the cutthroat global computer hardware market. Tools of this sort are easily the smartest sort of practical software found anywhere today. This is the sort that does state-of-the-art practical meaning automation. So far this sort of practical meaning automation modeling is always narrowly monotopical. It lets us say almost anything about almost nothing. Universal modeling, on the other hand, allows us to say almost nothing about almost anything. So neither of these alternatives supports the entire spectrum of practical meaning today. Only practical prose supports this entire spectrum today. Practical prose lets us say as much as needs to be said about anything practical. We can do this because practical prose has solid expository foundations. This foundation provides all of the multitopical leverage and linkage that anybody ever needs. It is just because of these foundations that practical prose lets us say as much as we wish about anything we wish to say. GTPS is an automation science approximation of this foundation. So GTPS supports roughly the same foundation spectrum of practical meaning as the foundations of everyday practical prose. In this way GTPS enables the extension of existing mechanistic methods of model meaning automation from monotopical to massively multitopical modeling. This is how we can, must, and eventually will routinely automate practical model meaning up to the pencil and paper limit. Can we automate the exposition structure of practical prose? We're already pretty good at this. Note that the model structure of the best mechanistic meaning automation models is indistinguishable from that of practical prose. This is not surprising. Both kinds of modeling must accurately reflect the messy, mechanistic minutiae of practical reality. So automation science model meaning automation is really just utilitarian modeling in disguise. It is monotopical practical prose language and logic automation in disguise. The next step in automation science is extending model meaning automation to massive multitopicality. GTPS is indispensable enabling technology for this next step. This next step is the starting point for end-user informatics. End-user informatics is about commoditizing, commercializing, and commoditizing messy, managerial automation science model meaning automation. It's about turning the Internet data web into the automated model factory for the entirely of modern mass civilization.

GTPS in Informatics Industrialization


Massively multitopical meaning automation is a mass custom production proposition. The reason is that there is no such thing as general purpose utilitarian model automation. We know this conclusively from practical experience. We know this with certainty from examining the principle structure of practical reality and from the phenomena structure of physical reality. What do these structures look like? They are essentially random. They can be visualized by looking up at the sky on a starry night.

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The order we see in the night sky is sparse. There are diverse kinds of local order, hints of regularity, and a few major landmarks. There is a whole lot of randomness. This is just the same kind of order we see when we drive down the street or fly overhead in an aircraft. This is just the same kind of order we see when we look thought a telescope or microscope. This kind of order involves diverse sorts of irregular recurrence at all scales swimming in a sea of randomness. Reality is mostly random independent of range or region. So end-user informatics is necessarily about mass custom production of genuine purpose utilitarian model automation. It's about supporting the specific, specialized random genuineness of real life practice. Each of these specialized sorts of genuineness is multitopical. So end-user informatics must support massive multitopicality. We can only do this by mass custom production support for monotopicality. We must mass custom produce monotopical practice modelers and software synthesizers. We must use the GTPS as a foundation mashing monotopical models up into messy, multitopical managerial models. We must mass custom produce automated end-user informatics factories. We must build automated modeling factories to mass custom produce these modeling factories. This is the only way we can achieve model meaning mechanization up to the pencil and paper limit. This is the only way that we can automate and animate the full flexibility, fidelity, and fusion of practical prose modeling. Where will we find the models for industrializing end-user informatics? These won't be the pattern 22 models we use today in information technology universal modeling . They must be the principled practice models that informatics end-users already have. Yet this is not the direction in mainstream information technology today. Here the notion of model23 driven software engineering is currently fashionable. Model-driven architectures, model-driven development, model-driven engineering, and such receive a lot of coverage in the software trade and technical literature. The notion here is that universal modeling can be perfected by adding multiple layers of metamodel patterns. The implication here is that if your patterns aren't powerful enough then adding more patterns is the solution. This simplistic approach has often been tried before. The result is always the same. Augmenting patterns with more patterns rapidly degrades information quality and safety. Both first principles and extensive practical experience confirm that pattern model meaning is not accretive. The real problem with patterns is patterns. The one great virtue of pattern modeling is generality. The well known vices of patterns include very limited safety, scalability, specificity, and selectivity. This is why very high standards of mechanistic principled modeling are mandated and maintained in nearly all practical pursuits today. This is why pattern modeling is both obsolete and outlawed in nearly all principled practice. The only models that really count in practical informatics are end-user models. These are the ones that practical people routinely use in their practical pursuits. These are principled models rather than pattern models. These are mechanistic models rather than metaphysical models. Can we dispense with pattern modeling in practical informatics? We must, at least in end-user informatics. This may be a blessing in disguise. The truth is that pattern modeling has never made a lot of sense in practical informatics Note that pattern restatements of principled practice models have always been utterly redundant in the first place. So every dime spent on these restatements is money wasted. Plus there's the problem of all the smart parts of these models getting systematically stripped away in the process.

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So it makes perfect sense to just use exactly the practice models that our end-users already have as a basis for practical informatics industrialization. These, conveniently, are already perfect for all practical purposes. The obvious way to do this is end-user application modeling. No more craftwork punch card pattern programming. No more pesky programmers. Can we get rid of informatics programmers? Yes, we can, and sooner or later we must. Handcrafted pattern programming just isn't ever going to get us to informatics industrialization. Heaven knows that there are much better things for software science folks to do than sit in cubicles crafting very much the same code day after day. In the era of end-user informatics these folks will work use automated tools to mass custom produce applicable algorithms. These mass custom algorithms will provide the basis for automated software encoding. Automated encoding of this sort is mostly a solved problem today. This is entirely manageable with minor adaptations of current commercial technology. Note that automated software encoding is not in any sense automation of handcrafted pattern programming. That is simply impossible. Automating any form of pattern programming involves multiple major miracles both of people and of physics. Automated encoding is merely about mechanistically mapping state dynamics automata to symbol dynamics automata. This can be accomplished by automation science means that range from the very simple to the highly sophisticated. Automated encoding produces disposable software from durable subject matter models. It produces informatics middleware from institutional intelligence modelware. Automated encoding is informatics infrastructure independent. Synthetic encoding tool cluster components will support multiplatform synthesis. A synthesis target platform is some convenient combination of informatics infrastructure. A target platform combines infrastructure choices such as operating systems, programming languages, software foundation libraries, communication stacks, and the like. End-user informatics synthetic software production is intellectual property-intensive mass custom software production. This will is capital-intensive mass custom software production. End-user informatics software synthesis will resemble the ways in which digital hardware has been synthesized to great advantage for over twenty years. Hardware is just frozen software, after all. The one big bottleneck problem in mass custom informatics modeling is feedstock. Synthetic encoding starts with empirical exposition models suitable for encoding. Today we don't have this mechanistic practice model feedstock. GTPS is enabling for portable end-user informatics modelware. GTPS will engender commercial informatics modelware IP markets. Other sources of informatics modelware IP will include captive and communal providers. Synthetic mass custom informatics production will be done in automated informatics factories. These factories will be similar to the sorts of automated model factories that have long been commonplace in industries such as aerospace and automotive. The difference is that automated informatics factories will operate collaboratively worldwide on the Internet data web. Information engineering specialties in the age of end user-user informatics will include: infodynamics engineers: mass modeling and mass management engineering science informatics engineers: software and subject matter framework engineering science

Informatics engineers will specialize software-side and subject matter-side informatics frameworks for specialized audiences. Varieties of informatics framework specializations in the age of end user-user informatics will include:

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international informatics framework specialization industry informatics framework specialization institutional informatics framework specialization individual informatics framework specialization

Informatics engineering specialties in the end-user informatics age will include: encoding engineering: computer literate software side informatics engineers exposition engineering: civilization literate subject matter informatics engineers

Most current software professionals will eventually migrate to one of the informatics engineering specialties. Both will work to maintain topical and target specialization of informatics factory tool chains and modelware stocks. Primary exposition engineering roles include: sages: deep specialized subject matter modeling expertise scribes: exposition framework modeling and maintenance expertise

The vast majority of informatics engineers will work in scribe roles. This is a technician role requiring a two year junior college associate degree. These folks will maintain institutional frameworks and assist end-users in building and using their specialized informatics tools. In this way end-user informatics will replace high skill, high salary labor with far lower skill and lower salary labor. This is the sort of labor for capital tradeoff typical of mature capital-intensive mass production. GTPS modeling is intended for use in systematic methods of exposition engineering. It is these methods that will provide the feedstock for synthetic software encoding. Note that this is a much more balanced approach to informatics than that which prevails today. There are no longer any elite empirical exposition specialists in best current software engineering practice. In end-user informatics a new, better balance of encoding and exposition engineering will reflect the range of modeling done in particular end-user informatics communities. Mass production is not magic production. Mass custom production starts with mastery of customized mechanics. Informatics end-users already have all this mechanistic mastery. This mastery comes in endless specialized varieties. Informatics engineers will work with end-users to automate informatics modeling of all these specialized varieties. Informatics engineers will work with end-user context communities to automate and animate topical and target mechanistic context modeling spaces. These engineers will specialize in those varieties native to the settings in which they work. They will mass custom produce end-user informatics tools for specialized topic and target audiences. End-user communities will use these specialized tools to build Internet data web informatics applications. The architecture of these end-user applications will be massively micromodular. These highly customized informatics architectures will mirror and mimic the messy mechanistic minutia structure of practical reality.

Putting GTPS to Work


GTPS is about perfecting the managerial machine intelligence of traditional informatics. GTPS is about strategic progress towards bigger, better, cheaper, and faster forms of institutional machine intelligence. GTPS is about moving this conventional sort of informatics intelligence onto the Internet data web. GTPS is about commoditizing, commercializing, and consumerizing end-user informatics.

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None of these GTPS goals are science fiction goals. They are all strategic informatics technology goals. They are all achievable informatics RD&E goals. They are not in any sense speculative research goals. A quick survey of the research literature suggests that putting GTPS to work involves some radical new kind of informatics research program. Nearly all the informatics RD&E done in the last few decades has focused on perfecting universal modeling. Yet in recent decades much work has been done to perfect the automation of utilitarian modeling. This work has made much headway but few headlines. Most of this work has been done in industry rather than in academia. The majority of this work has been done in disparate automation software communities. Most this work has been done in captive and commercial automation science groups. Very little of this work has been published. The little that has been published is seldom found in the computer science or software science literature. It is mostly spread across the literature of diverse technical and scientific specialties. So putting GTPS to work doesn't require any substantial new software technology. It merely requires retargeting some rather obscure sorts of existing software technology. All of the required enabling technologies are readily available today in obscure corners of the technical and scientific software world. Nearly all are employed somewhere in commercial products. Thus all that remains in putting GTPS to work is piecing together a new technology puzzle from these disparate parts. No brilliant brainstorms or big breakthroughs are required. Putting GTPS to work is primarily a big buildout challenge. Fitting existing technology pieces together is the bulk of this challenge. This is an entirely, if not always easily, manageable exercise in innovative informatics design, development, and deployment. This buildout presents an opportunity for a systematic approach toward achieving strategic technology progress in the software world. This can best be accomplished by means of a strategic technology roadmap. The digital semiconductor industry has long employed just this sort of strategic technology roadmap. This is the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (itrs.net). It is just this roadmap that has long sustained institutionalized technological revolution in the digital semiconductor industry. This roadmap is the genesis of all the indispensable digital gadgets that we depend on today. Why does the software industry need a strategic technology roadmap? The reason is that the strategic way forward in the software world has always been seen as the perfection of universal modeling. Other alternatives have always been considered unthinkable. So other alternatives have never been given any serious thought. Today it's abundantly clear that universal modeling is fully and finally mature for all practical purposes. So universal modeling cannot hope to conquer the grand challenges of software modeling mechanization and Internet informatics industrialization. Thus automating and animating utilitarian modeling is the only remaining way forward. A strategic software technology roadmap provides a systematic way of understanding this only remaining workable way forward. Consider some major strategic software technology wish list items: disciplined, deliberate, deterministic informatics software mass custom production mandatory informatics model reuse, minimization of informatics model reengineering intrinsic Internet data web information interoperability, insurability, and immortality automated collaborative mass custom Informatics modeling factories rapid construction of informatics applications from reusable component intellectual property

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commercial marketplaces for commodity informatics intellectual property practical Internet data web mass modeling and mass management automation commercially manageable mass market managerial machine intelligence high quality informatics modeling up the pencil and paper limit diverse kinds of definitive informatics model standardization disposable, demand-driven, do-it-yourself end-user informatics free, fail-safe, fully automatic plug-and-play impromptu Internet informatics interoperation

None of these wish list items are new. Most of these items have been on the wish list in some form for a few decades. Even so, little or no progress has been made in recent years toward getting these wishes granted. Today these high-value wishes are mostly missing from software world research agendas. Note that all these wishes are ultimately about doing things in informatics modeling that have been routine in other sorts of practical modeling for many decades. This is why none of these wishes can be granted by universal modeling advances. All of these wishes can, must, and eventually will be granted by utilitarian modeling advances. The unifying issue in all of these strategic wishes is software modeling maturity. Mature modeling in nearly all practical pursuits today is utilitarian modeling. This is the sort of mechanistic practice modeling that nearly all other practical pursuits do. This is the kind of modeling that informatics end-users do everywhere every day. This is why these other practical pursuits don't have model maturity wishes. They don't do universal modeling. They don't do pattern modeling. They don't do psychological or philosophical modeling. They don't do computer or communal or cogitative science modeling. They don't to mentalist or metaphysical or metalogical or metamathematical modeling. Instead all these other practical pursuits do mature mechanistic modeling. They do principled utilitarian modeling. They do explicit applied mathematics and applied mechanics modeling. This is why they already have all of the model maturity advantages that the software world still wishes for and is waiting to achieve. GTPS is about using mature utilitarian practice modeling methods in practical informatics. Thus GTPS provides a convenient starting point for getting all the software model maturity wishes of the IT world granted. Putting GTPS to work is the surest and safest way of achieving systematic, strategic software technology progress. It is exactly this progress on which the sustainability of information technology industry profits ultimately depends.

The Economics of GTPS


GTPS is indispensable enabling technology for end-user informatics. Making the transition to end-user informatics will not be simple, easy, or cheap. It will be capital intensive. It will require extensive intellectual property, instrumentation, and infrastructure investments. Can we afford end-user informatics? Does end-user informatics make economic sense? Can't we just keep on doing what we're doing today in practical informatics? Shouldn't we just sit tight in the software world? Today most in the software industry expect that the foreseeable future will look very much like the present. Even if software strategic software progress is stalled there are endless tactical progress opportunities remaining. These tactical opportunities are likely sufficient to sustain software industry profits for several more decades. Whatever's blocking strategic software progress will surely get sorted out before sustaining profitability becomes a major industry issue. So there seems to be no real sense of urgency about strategic software progress. Major strategic progress towards bigger, better, cheaper, and faster software can wait.

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Even so, there's a big problem on the horizon. That big problem involves pattern packages. For the last forty years the pattern configurable software package has been the mainstay of the software industry. Today packaged software sales and services account for about three-quarters of a trillion dollars of revenue annually worldwide. Note that these packages are the only significant way that we reuse informatics models today. Each package provides some complementary set of configurable pattern modeling spaces. These spaces support some interesting range of practice. A typical accounting package supports general ledger, trade credit, payroll, inventory, and other accounting-related pattern modeling paces. The problem with pattern packages is that these are well on the way to becoming obsolete. This will not happen overnight. Even so, signs of approaching obsolescence are not hard to find today. For this reason the software industry will soon need a new and fundamentally different way to deliver Informatics end-user value. End-user informatics on the Internet data web is the only alternative that does not assume radical improvements in universal modeling. So this is the only available way forward that does not assume major miracles of people and of physics. Pattern packages have always been something of a mixed blessing. The practice configuration range of these packages has always been relatively limited. So there is always some difference between this configuration range and real life practice. All too often this difference is substantial. So enterprises that use pattern software packages have always found these to be a Procrustean fit at best. These enterprises all too often find that they must manage their business to suit the range of practice supported by their installed informatics software. Today most major institutional datacenters employ multi-package software application architectures. These architectures are becoming increasingly problematic due to mounting complexity crises. These crises are of two basic sorts: too much complexity: wiring all the independent packages together is too difficult too little complexity: packages are prone to running out of configuration range

The too little complexity crisis is due to two factors: software package configuration space complexity has reached intrinsic scope and scale limits the intrinsic complexity of practical information is increasing more rapidly than in the past

Small increases in pattern package configuration spaces usually result in large increases in the supporting software code. So the vast majority of mature pattern package varieties simply cannot substantially increase their configuration range. The code complexity of these packages is already at or beyond manageable limits. The intrinsic complexity of practical information has been increasing for about a hundred years. Today the rise of cutthroat global capitalism is greatly accelerating the rate of this change. All sorts of practice are rapidly becoming more specialized and more sophisticated. Mass commodity practice evolves toward mass custom practice. Mass customization increases market share and margins by creating incremental customer value. All these trends contribute to the rapidly accelerating growth of practical information complexity. The too much complexity crisis is due to the geometric growth of total computer model complexity with package count and package complexity. Geometric growth is never sustainable. Today this growth is out of control in institutional data processing. So maintaining reliable linkages among independent packages increasingly becomes a losing battle. Here's a simple way to visualize this problem. Imagine that you have an eccentric Aunt Edna. She's a jigsaw puzzle enthusiast. She's been collecting puzzles for decades.

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One year she has an inspiration as the holidays approach. Instead of her usual habit of buying puzzles as gifts she will make her own puzzles. She does this by taking handfuls of pieces from old puzzles and combining these into new puzzles. The challenge is to take all these disparate pieces and make something meaningful from them. This is very much the same sort of situation faced by institutional datacenters everywhere every today. The pieces of the puzzles they work with are the diverse software and schemaware models of installed informatics packages. The challenge is to wire all these disparate schemas together in order achieve some reasonable coherence and cohesion among the installed base of informatics packages. Clearly the complexity of this challenge grows geometrically with the number of puzzles and pieces. So each new independent schema added to the installed base makes a difficult situation disproportionally more difficult. Ultimately is no cure for either of the pattern software package crises. These crises are designed in to the very notion of the pattern configurable software package all the way down to the foundations. These crises are an unavoidable consequence of the metaphysics and mentalware intrinsic in informatics universal modeling. Since these crises are designed in the only workable solution is to design them out. This cannot be done with universal modeling. Universal modeling is the problem. The redesign must be done with utilitarian modeling. Utilitarian modeling is the only solution. So in the long run all that we can do with the pattern configurable software package is to put it out to pasture. In the short term it may be possible to provide pattern package users with a few clever band aids. What will replace the pattern configurable software package? The next generation of informatics packages will be subject matter-side rather than software-side packages. These will be utilitarian rather than universal modeling packages. These will be mechanistic logic component packages supporting specialized topic and target subject matter. These will be encoding-independent, platform-portable informatics intellectual property packages. These will be end-user informatics packages. End-users will design their own highly customized informatics tools. They will do so in terms of their own topical and target modeling specializations. All of the software-side models will be hidden out of sight. Software applications will be constructed by combining mechanistic logic components from a variety of subject matter packages. Automated synthetic encoding tools will generate source code implementations of these constructs for targeted informatics infrastructure platforms. These end-user applications will be personalized rather than Procrustean. They will be exactly targeted, tailored, and tuned to the realities of institutional practice. They will evolve over time in tandem with the evolution of institutional practice.

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4: A Quick Tour of GTPS Highlights


Introduction
The dynamics of practical reality are emergent. The complexity of this emergence is enormous. This is why practical prose has evolved such a great diversity of alterative practical perspectives. This diversity of perspectives is how we divide and conquer the complexity of practical reality. Each perspective provides a specialized set of micromechanical reference models suitable for sorting out some aspect of practical reality. Perspectives are combined opportunistically to suit the circumstances at hand. The following is a synopsis of some of some of the more interesting and important GTPS perspectives in the GTPS reference model atlas. In most applications these perspectives, employed in various combinations, will capture most practice model meaning.

Primary Primitives
There are about a hundred primary primitives in GTPS. These are a top level decomposition of physical and practical reality. The most useful of these include: person: an individual or institution property: an investment or interest place: a point, patch, or pocket in space period: a instant or interval in time practice: making, moving, managing, etc. policy: prescriptions, prohibitions, etc. principle: an emergent enterprise, economic, or engineering mechanism phenomena: an elementary physical or practical mechanism

Control
Control is an example of highly reusable rhetorical mechanism in practical prose. This is not surprising since management is complex conative control. The mechanics of control permeates most commonplace sorts of practice modeling. Working words like can, will, must, should, may, are words that express the language and logic of practical control. In addition there are a great many very specialized varieties of control language and logic. No one thing, in and of itself, is very interesting for any practical purpose. The dynamics of practical pursuits are combinatorial. The dynamics of nails needs the dynamics of hammers. The dynamics of getting need the dynamics of giving. The dynamics of shopping needs the dynamics of selling. The simplest form of control is dual differential dynamics control. This involves minimizing the difference between to sets of dynamics: conation: the mandated dynamics of wishing, willing, wanting cognizance: the measured dynamics of the world as it is, was, or will become

The primary models of combinatorial dynamics are: coevolution: combinatorial change coequilibrium: combinatorial condition coelasticity: the potential for combinatorial equilibrium

Coping is the most general model of control in practical pursuits. Coping is about:

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care: anything of value concern: connation vs. cognizance capability: the possibility of conduct capital: things the provide capability contrivance: a choice of a conduct plan conduct: change in response to concern

The primary varieties of communal control are: collaboration: the compatible dynamics of allies coordination: neither collaboration nor competition competition: the contrary dynamics of adversaries

Leadership generally involves a mix of: command: leadership by authority consensus: leadership by agreement

Artifact, Asset, and Administration


Everything in practical reality is an artifact. An artifact is any product of human arts. Artifacts have: authors: persons that design the artifact audiences: persons that use the artifact applications: ways that an artifact can be used

Most artifacts have many applications. actor: any artifact organizational role agent: any proactive artifact organizational role article: any passive artifact organizational role action: any artifact role actuation: any proactive artifact operational role activation: any passive artifact operational role

Administration is the mechanics of asset management. The primary elements of administration are: administrator: any manager of assets administration: any combination of administrators answerability: accountability relationships among administrators

The elements of answerability are: advice: providing measurements assent: permitted mandates

Every administrator role involves: authority: the right to authorize asset uses and action utilization accountability: responsibility to account for authorize uses and action utilization

Every administrator is responsible for some range of affairs. Specifically: affair: any required asset actualization agenda: any combination of affairs

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Factorization
Factorization provides a canonical-closed framework for modeling systematic order in terms of forms and functions. Specifically: factor: any form or function form: any factor of system organization function: any factor of system operation

A formulation consists of: formation: any combination of forms functionality: any combination of functions

Fitness
Fitness is the mechanics of freedom from flaws and faults. The primary elements of fitness are: fitness: functionality suitable for some intended use failure: any disorder that limits artifact applicability flaw: any failure of organizational form fault: any failure of operational function fix: any means of restoring fitness Flaws and faults are often related. A broken automobile fan belt is a flaw. The overheated automobile engine resulting from this flaw is a fault. Varieties of freedom from failure include: fine: flawless and faultless flawless: absence of non-trivial flaws faultless: absence of non-trivial faults

Production and Praxeology


Production theory is the differential dynamics view of getting things done. The key elements of production dynamics are: platform: things used in production plant: things that produce product: things that get produced protocol: things undertaken in production procedure: production efforts process: production effects

Praxeology is a comprehensive managerial view of production. The key elements of praxeology are: purpose: production problems and provocations pragmatics: models necessary for production planning planning: determining what to produce pursuit: doing production perfection: production

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Orchestration
Orchestration is the mechanics of operational optimization. Orchestration involves choosing sequences of states that maximizes operational objectives. The primary varieties of operational states are: obligatory state: a prescribed operational state optional state: a permitted operational state obstacle state: a prohibited operational state outlaw state: a proscribed operational state

Mechanics
Mechanics is the dynamics of mortal and mineral mechanism. Primary varieties of mineral mechanisms include: money material merchandise machinery model

Mechanisms are characterized in terms of: manifestations: instantaneous mechanism state modifications: interval mechanism state

Primary varieties of modifications are: mundane o make materialize maturation (e.g. growing a crop) manufacture (e.g. assembling refrigerators) maintain minister (e.g. water the lawn) meliorate (e.g. add a garage to your home) moderate (e.g. insulate your home) mitigate (e.g. fix windows broken by a storm) o move manual movement mechanized movement managerial o measure (e.g. balance your checkbook) o mandate (e.g. order a pizza)

Technology
Technology is the dynamics of tools and techniques: tool: anything useful technique: any use of a tool

Primary varieties of mundane technique are: transformation: make technique translocation: move technique

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Technology gets us thought our tasks: task: any useful undertaking target: the intention of a task team: people using tools treatment: a combinations of techniques toolkit: a combination of tools

Resource
Resource is the dynamics of realizations and revisions. Resources are roleplayers in revision routines. Routines are modeled in terms of: recipe: requirements and results rations: reservations and requisitions rules: regulation and regimentation

Varieties of repetitive revisions include: rote: repetitive making route: repetitive moving

Instrumentality
Instrumentality is the dynamics of instruments and implementations. Combinations of these are involvements. Varieties of involvement include: integration: combinations of instruments interoperation: combinations of implementations

Primary varieties of integration include: interconnection: information integration interlink: move integration interlock: make integration induction: kymatic integration impact: kinematic integration

Primary varieties of interoperation include: interaction: make interoperation interchange: move interoperation intercommunication: a sequence of interlocutions and inferences influence: kymatic interoperation impulse: kinematic interoperation

Enterprise
Enterprise is the economic view of community. Enterprise models the dynamics of systematic extraction and exploitation. The primary varieties of exploitation are: extraction: turning latent value into liquid value exploitation: any means of extraction

Primary varieties of exploitation include: enjoyment: passive exploitation such as appreciation and arbitrage employment: active exploitation o engagement: using but not using up

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o o

exchange: use in giving and getting expenditure: using up

The economic dynamics of an enterprise may be modeled by: equity: cumulative earnings earnings: exaction less expense exaction: economic value resulting from exploitation expense: the economic value required for exploitation

Supply
Supply is about the dynamics of person and property flows in production. The elements of supply are: supply o stock: property supply o staff: person supply site: supply places schedule: supply periods slate: supply practices

Society
Society models the dynamics of service. Social networks are service networks. Varieties of personal service include: stipulation: symbiosis service supervision: submissive service suppression: subjection service

Primary varieties of social networks include: state: secular society sect: sacred society

Primary social networks include: social contract: social stipulations social conflict: social struggle social class: social stratification

Management
Management is the dynamics of complex conative control. The differential dynamics of management involve: measure: any mechanistic model of the world as it is, was, or will be mandate: any mechanistic model of the world as it could be, can be, or could have been

Managers cope with concerns given available capital and conduct alternatives. Specifically: matters: concerns o mission: the what of concerns o motive: the why of concerns means: capital alternatives methods: conduct alternatives

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Interest
Interest is the dynamics of property utilization. Interests arise both out of investment and indebtedness. The primary varieties of interest are: title: full or factional property ownership interest temporary: occupancy without ownership interest tentative: imperfect or immature interests interest trust: possession interests, possibly in perpetuity, by intermediaries and fiduciaries trade: interests arising in commerce and other forms of trade

Reciprocity
Reciprocity is the dynamics realization roleplayer relationships. Relationships may be characterized as: rivalry: cooperation relationship rapport: competition relationship

Neither rivalry nor rapport is permanent. rupture: transition from rapport to rivalry rapprochement: transition from rivalry to rapport

The primary dynamics of reciprocity are: request: asking response: answering report: advising reaction: acting reminder: admonition

Resource reliance results in one or more reckonings: redemption: roleplay suitable to a role reckoning: request for redemption

The outcome of a reckoning may be: requite: adequate roleplay renege: abstinence of roleplay renounce: abnegation of roleplay

Deontology
Deontology is the dynamics of communal dealing and domination: dealing: communal coping by consensus domination: communal coping by command

Deeds start with decisions. The elements of the decision cycle are: deliberation: consideration of candidate conduct decisiveness: choosing candidate conduct doing: coping by means of conduct

Varieties of dealing include: dickering: mutual advantage cooperative dealing disputation: mutual animosity competitive dealing

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The elements of duty are: deliverable: what is to be done o dictation: what must be done o discretion: what may be done deadline: when the deliverable must be done

Domination is modeled in terms of: domain: demesne + denizens + dominion denizen: domain person demesne: domain places dominion: domain discipline policies and practices discipline: the execution and enforcement of dominion domicile: the residence of a domain denizen demography: any model of the denizens of a domain

Community
Human civilization is the ultimate community. Larger communities are compositions of smaller communities. Some element of community is: culture: the models of a community cambistry: the money of a community corpus juris: the legal system of a community ceremony: community rites and rituals centralization: authority vested in chiefs, constables, etc. communal values: virtues and vices criminality: crime and punishment communication: communal information flows catering: providing the necessities of life caste: communal segregation and stratification cornucopia: critters and crops companionship: communities of two children: the primary thing that civilizations produce chrematistics: communal capital flows within a

Affluence
Affluence is the accumulation of assets. The primary elements of affluence are: accumulation: any combination of assets acquisition: any supplementation of accumulation assets alienation: any subtraction of accumulation assets assignment: an alienation plus an acquisition of an asset

Primary varieties of assignment include: accommodation: intentional assignment arrogation: involuntary assignment accidence: inadvertent assignment alms: indulgence assignment abandonment: indifference assignment

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Change
Everything is always changing. The dynamics of change over the lifecycle of any realized thing is: creation: The first instant of a career career: the further dynamics of a career cessation: The final instant of a career

A career is a sequence of changes. Varieties of change include: condition: a career instant chapter: a career interval course: a sequence of courses and conditions

Much change is cyclical. The elements of cyclicality are: cycle: any recurrent change cadence: the repetitiveness of a cycle

Change is explained in terms of: causation: engenderment in combinatorial dynamics contribution: exchange in combinatorial dynamics conducion: enablement in combinatorial dynamics

Commonality
Commonality is combinatorial similarly. The elements of commonality are: comparison and contrast classification and categorization composition and compounding

Primary varieties of combination are: composition: combination of components o collection: a set ordered composition o consecution: a sequentially ordered collection o cue: a dynamic consecution connectivity o construction: a schema ordered composition o circuit: a schematic ordered composition o continuum: a spatially ordered composition compound: combination of constituents

The important difference between this is: component: the things in a composition constituent: the kind of things in a composition

Thus the components of a pair of shoes are a left shoe and a right shoe. The constituents of caf au lait are coffee and milk. The dynamics of combination are modeled by: cumulation: the set dynamics of combination choreography: the structural dynamics of combination

Primary varieties of comparison are:

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correspondence: comparability of form correlation: comparability of function

Varieties of dynamic correlation include: contravariance: contrasting dynamics covariance: comparable dynamics

Varieties of correspondence include: congruent: comparable shapes that match conjugate: contrasting shapes that mate

Calibration is comparison to a calibration standard. Two commonplace kinds of calibration standards are: chronograph: any model for calibrating space cartograph: any model for calibrating time

Existential
Existence is the totality of extants. Extants have extent and endurance. Extants evolve. Primary varieties of practical evolution are: effectuation: enterprise evolution exploitation: economic evolution energetics: engineering evolution

The dynamics of evolution can be modeled in terms of: event: evolution at an instant in time episode: evolution over an interval of time

Etiology models the dynamics of evolution in terms of: exertion: energy exerted evocation: evolution exhibited

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5: GTPS Primary Primitives


Introduction
The GTPS primary primitives are the foundations of the GTPS foundation. There are just over a hundred of these primitives. A few dozen are sufficient to get started. At the top level GTPS starts differentiating primary primitives as: applied mechanics primitive o physical reality primitive o practical reality primitive applied mathematics primitive o arithmetic o algebra o analysis

These GTPS primary primitives are the basic building blocks of practical reality. Among the most useful of these are: person: e.g. you property: e.g. you house place: e.g. you city period: e.g. the current hour practice: e.g. cooking lasagna policy: e.g. thou shalt not steal principle: e.g. drive on the correct side of the road phenomena: e.g. traffic conditions for the morning commute

These primary primitives are answers. The questions that these primitives answer are just the usual questions in everyday expository modeling. These questions are: who: person what: property when: period where: place why: policy how: practice, principle, and phenomena

Person Practical Reality Primitives


The notion of personification is important in all forms of practical modeling. Because of personification General Motors and General Grant are indistinguishable for many purposes. General Motors can't vote, but it can pay taxes and defend a lawsuit. Thus the top level divisions of person are: personage: a vital human being o individual: a living personage pre-natal individual post-natal individual o interee: a lifeless personage persona: a virtual human being o institution: any human enterprise private institution family private institution

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connubial family: family by matrimony consanguine family: family by bloodline firm private institution pecuniary firm: private firm primarily for profit philanthropic firm: private firm not primarily for profit public institution secular public institution sacred public institution industry: any enterprise of enterprises

You are an individual and hopefully will remain one for some time to come. You are a member of a family, the largest single sort of private institution. You secondary school is most likely a public institution if you were raised the developed world. The Church of England is an example of a clerical institution in the United Kingdom. This is an established religion and therefore a public institution. The Catholic Diocese of the United Kingdom is, for tax purposes at least, a private philanthropic firm. A personage engaged in practice is a practitioner. We are all practitioners of something. Some other examples practice roles include: pal, playmate, and paramour patron, pensioner, and petitioner payer and payee physician, pharmacist, and patient potentate, prince, patrician, and plebian, and peon procurer and provider professor and pedagogue promoter and popularizer propinquity, progenitor, parental, and progeny proprietor and personnel proselytizer and proselyte proxy, plenipotentiary, and puppet pulpit and parishioner pundit and prophet pupil, prentice, and protg

Property Practical Reality Primitives


Property is anything with any utility. Note that the utility value of property is not always in the plus column. A drum of radioactive waste is example of property with substantial negative economic value. For much of human history the notion of property has been pretty simple. Something like: praedial property: land and the things attached to it (e.g. estate) personal property: everything else (e.g. effects)

The modern notion of property can get quite complicated. The elements of property are: mundane property: property with an identifiable physical existence o movable property: e.g. your car o motionless property: e.g. your house managerial property: property without any identifiable physical existence o intangible property: bank accounts, leaseholds, etc. o intellectual property: ideas a property e.g. patents, trademarks, etc.

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Mundane property is property in the material world. Managerial property is about rights and responsibilities in the conduct of management. Varieties of moveable property include: mortal property o living property: crops, livestock, pets, even people in some places o lifeless property: hides, furs, meat products, etc. mineral property o machinery property: cookware, tools, furnaces, etc. o material property: raw material, spare parts, fuel, etc. o model property: books, statues (model media but not model meaning) o merchandise property: saleable property such as cars, clothing, food, etc. o monetary property: physical, coins, cash, and equivalents

The notion of movable vs. motionless property goes back to many of the earliest legal systems. Varieties of immovable property include: spatial property: property as place o earthly property: property on the earth tellurian property: land only property terraqueous property: land + water property as in a lakefront cottage thalassic property: water property such as an ocean reserve o extraterrestrial property: property elsewhere structural property: immovable improvements o edifice property: buildings, barriers, bridges, etc. o earthworks property: roads, drainage, dams, etc. situated property: sky and subsurface immovable property o extractable property: water rights, mineral rights, etc. o environmental property: air rights, quietude, sunlight, etc.

If you own a house in the suburbs then you have a piece of tellurian property. In some counties you can only own the structural property (the house itself) but the government owns the spatial property (the land). In the U.S. you may or may not own the extractable property rights at your home site. So if oil bubbles up in you back yard you may not be in luck after all. How about Europa, the forth largest moon of the planet Mars? As a matter of law that's public property in most jurisdictions. There are elaborate international treaties about extraterrestrial property rights. Varieties of intangible property include: interest property: any potential benefit from sort of property intellectual property: the meaning of a model as property interpersonal property: relationships with family, friends, etc. indenture property: rights to apprenticeships, bondsmen, etc. immunity property: the right to avoid some sort of burden such as criminal prosecution indemnity property: the right to recompense such as health insurance indulgence property: a right to do something as property as in a currency market option

Property has the potential to produce some sort of benefit. All forms of interest property are useful benefits arising from property investment or indebtedness. If you own an olive grove then you also have the interest in the olive harvests produced by your grove. You need not own property in order to have an interest in a property. You might arrange to sell the rights to a harvest of your olive grove as a property interest. This interest is independent of

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the olive grove itself. You keep the grove but must supply the buyer of the harvest interest with the fruits of the grove. Suppose someone builds an open air music theater next to your nice home in the suburbs. How might this impact your property situation? You still own your home and can live there. So there is no change in your motionless property situation. There is, however, an impact on the benefits available from your home. It's no longer a reliably peaceful place to live. Having a peaceful place to live is useful and thus valuable. Therefore you have suffered an intangible property loss. Your interest in the peaceful enjoyment has been impaired. Thus you legitimate interests are economically impaired. Indenture is involuntary servitude without slavery per se. Slaves are persons as property. Indenture of prisoners, children, and others is still practiced today. This is most often true in primitive and pre modern societies. Whose property are you? You are your own property. Even so, you can't sell yourself in the modern industrial world. Thus you are your own inalienable property. You may have other forms of inalienable property as well such as the right to vote (an indulgence) and the right to privacy. Your children are not your property but you have an interpersonal property right to their companionship. Damages in wrongful death suits are based on this sort of property. An important distinction involving property is: proprietorship: person owning property (property that you have) possession: person occupying property (property that you hold) So if I borrow you lawnmower then I am its possessor rather than its proprietor. You are the lawnmowers proprietor but not, for the time being, its possessor.

Place Practical Reality Primitives


Primary varieties of place primitives include motionless and movable places. A motionless place is always the same place like that Straits of Gibraltar. A movable place changes over time like the trunk of your automobile. Varieties of place include: motionless place: any static place o point place: a one dimensional place like a set of GPS coordinates o patch place: a two dimensional place like the boundaries of you garden o pocket place: a three dimensional place like the dimensions of a room movable place: any shifting place

Place is conveniently combined with period, person and property for place dynamics modeling. Specifically: placement o parking: property at a place o posting: personage at a place presence o persistence: parking for a period o perseverance: posting for a period

Some common varieties of placement include: pinpointed penned packed

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perched projecting protruding penetrating pervading permeating proximate

Period Practical Reality Primitives


Period primitive varieties include: instant: one specific point in time interval: a span in time specified by zero, one or two instants inveterate interval: an interval with only a specific final instant interim interval: an interval with a specific first and final instants interminate interval: an interval with only a specific first instant indeterminate interval: an interval with no specific instants

The year 2000 is an interim interval period because its first and final instants are well known. The lifespan of smallpox as an endemic human disease is an inveterate interval. The final instant of this interval occurred in 1997. The first instant is still a mystery. Your lifespan is an interminate interval, at least so far. The first instant is known but the final instant lies in the future. Tense is an important property of periods. Varieties of period tense include: past tense present tense prospective tense past present tense present prospective tense past prospective tense (past + present + prospective)

Any two periods may be compared as: preceding: aforetime parallel: at the same time proceeding: aftertime

Some periods are longer than others. The length of a period may be characterized as: precarious: lasting seconds passing: lasting minutes perishable: lasting days pro tempore: lasting weeks or months persistent: lasting years permanent: lasting many years or decades perseverant: lasting may centuries of millennia perennial: lasting for eras or eons Varieties of special periods include primordial: since the beginning of time perpetual: for all time perdurable: until the end of time

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Practice and Phenomena Practical Reality Primitives


Practice is the genesis of everything in practical reality. The primary varieties of practice are: mundane practice o make practice: e.g. baking a chocolate cake materialization practice o maturation practice: e.g. raise a child or a crop o manufacturing practice: e.g. build a house or a car maintenance practice: e.g. wash the dishes o move practice: e.g. getting yourself to work managerial practice o measure practice: e.g. counting lawnmowers in stock o mandate practice: e.g. ordering more lawnmowers for stock

The weather is an important part of practical reality? Who practices the weather? Nobody, of course, at least amongst the human race. Even so, most natural processes can be considered as principled practice for most practical purposes. This requires a touch of fiction. Specifically it requires the following fictional distinction: providential: apparent aleatory purpose practice premeditated: actual artificial purpose practice

Practice can always be modeled in terms of applied science mechanisms. These emergent mechanisms are principles. The primary varieties of practice principles are: enterprise principle: e.g. stocking, staffing, salary administration, etc. economic principle: e.g. accounting, finance, bidding, buying, etc. engineering principle: e.g. material handling, manufacturing mechanisms, etc.

Practical principles can be usually be reduced to practical phenomena. Phenomena are modeled in terms of: proportionality: correlation among combinations of phenomena parameterization: model value spaces

Note that both of these may be qualitative, quantitative, or mixed.

Policy Practical Reality Primitives


The realm of practice is ultimately constrained both by physics and by policy. Physics disallows anti-gravity while policy disallows anti-competitive pricing. The elements of policy are: policy: constraints on the who, what, why, when, and where of practice policymaker: one that makes policy

The primary varieties of policy are: public policy: e.g. legal systems generally private policy: e.g. your company's office supplies procurement policy

Primary varieties of practice policy include: sanction: policy do's o precept: must always o prescription: must o permission: may

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suggestion: policy druthers or policy discretion o preference: might o pococurante: maybe o prejudice: might not stricture: policy don'ts o premonitory: may not o prohibition: must not o proscription: must never

Where does policy come from? There are many sources of policy. Some of these sources are highly subjective. Some primary sources include: code policy o enterprise policy: produciblity code o economics policy: profitability code o engineering policy: possibility code o equity policy: permissibility code custom policy o ethics policy: probity custom o etiquette policy: pleasantry custom o esthetics policy: prettiness custom o eudemony policy: pleasure custom o ethnic policy: patrimony custom creed policy o electoral policy: political creed o ecclesiastic policy: piety creed

A permit is a grant of practice permission. Specifically: permit: practice permission permit holder: one with practice permission

Some varieties of permit include: patent: an exclusive practice permission pass: a passage permission

Physical Primitives
The starting point for modeling physical reality is physical state. Recall the following concepts your high school textbook: physical state: the embedding of physical substance in physical spacetime physical substance: any form of matter or energy physical spacetime: three dimensions of space plus one of time

Note that physical state always has physical shape. The dynamics of possible shapes are the basis for all physical laws. So the top level physical primitives are: spacetime physical primitive o physical space: classical Galilean space in most practical applications o physical time: classical Galilean space in most practical applications substance physical primitive o matter substance corpuscular matter: molecules, atoms, sub atomic particles, etc. condensed matter: solids, liquids, gases, plasmas, etc.

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energy substance motion energy: kinetic (pieces, particles) and kymatic (wave) energy motionless energy: all forms of potential energy such as a cell phone battery state physical primitive o possibility physical primitive o phenomena physical primitive o

What sorts of states are possible in physical reality? This starts with three different kinds of possibility criterion: physical conservation: physical state dynamics conserve physical substance physical conservatism: physical state dynamics are always least action physical coherence: physical state dynamics is compact, connected, and continuous

You can't be in two places at once. Things don't appear magically out of nowhere. You can get there from here. These are all consequences of physical conservation, conservatism, and coherence. All the various sorts of physical mechanics we use start with specialized assumptions based on these fundamental physical constraints. Note that certain very particular violations of these assumptions are allowed in theoretical physics at very small and very large scales. Quantum mechanical non locality is one example of this sort of violation. basic science phenomena o material phenomena: physical chemistry, crystallography, etc. o motion phenomena: radiation mechanics, solid body mechanics, etc. natural science phenomena o mortal phenomena: biology, ecology, etc. o mineral phenomena: geology, meteorology, etc. applied science phenomena o production phenomena: the foundation phenomena of enterprise o price phenomena: the foundation phenomena of micro and macro economics o potential phenomena: the foundation phenomena of engineering

Price theory is presented in every introductory economics course. Production and potential theory are mostly unknown today outside of scattered and highly specialized modeling communities. Production theory is an elaboration of the work done by Fredrick Winslow Taylor in the early th years of the 20 century. Production theory provides a canonical basis for modeling the mechanics of all kinds of mundane and managerial production. Potential theory is basis for energetics modeling in large scale engineering projects such as oil refineries. The physical mechanics of making and moving can always be reduced to systems of potential theory models.

Primitive Pluralities
Some useful pluralities of primary primitives are: portfolio: plurality of property personnel: plurality of practitioner population: plurality of person plat: plurality of place project: plurality of practice progression: plurality of period pandect: plurality of policy paraphernalia: plurality of property

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potpourri: plurality of property

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6: GTPS Reference Model Atlas


Introduction
These are the larger GTPS working worldview reference models. The GTPS Reference Model Atlas includes thirty six entries with about 3500 primitives. These primitives cover most of the indispensable invariants of practical English. They are the primitives do most of the heavy lifting in everyday practical prose. These major reference models, in specialized varieties, permeate all forms of practical prose. These primitives are constantly rediscovered and reinvented in specialized forms in every practical pursuit. We just can't cope without them. Even so, these models, as presented here, may seem unfamiliar. The reason is that we are familiar with the substance of these models in specialized topical applications. We are familiar with the style of these models in very particular communal contexts. This presentation of these models provided here is out of context. This presentation is, to the greatest degree possible, is application-neutral. So a little practice is required to find specialized forms of these models in real-life practical prose. Structured exposition frameworks are hardly novel. In specialized forms these frameworks have long been employed in diverse practical pursuits. Today's pattern configurable informatics packages can be seen as mechanizations of very simple sorts of these frameworks. Among the earliest examples of structured exposition frameworks is Raymond Lull's Ars Magna which he completed around 1275. This pioneering structured exposition framework consists of lists of philosophical attributes. The intended application of these structures is theological disputation. The applications of the exposition frameworks presented here are technological rather than theological. These are the frameworks that map out the top level technostructure of everyday practical prose. The elements included here are: Administration Affluence Artifact Asset Change Commonality Community Control Deontology Document Dynamics Enterprise Existence Factorization Fitness Instrumentality Interest Management Mechanism Movement Obtainment
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Operability Orchestration Order Oversight Praxeology Reciprocity Resource Reuse, Replenishment, and Residuum Shape Society Supply System Technology Territory Time Work

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Administration
Administration is the mechanics of asset management. The primary elements of administration are: administrator: any manager of assets administration: any combination of administrators answerability: accountability relationships among administrators

The elements of answerability are: advice: providing measurements assent: permitted mandates

Every administrator role involves: authority: the right to authorize asset uses and action utilization accountability: responsibility to account for authorize uses and action utilization

The exercise of authority involves: aegis: asset authorization auspices: action authorization

Every administrator is responsible for some range of affairs include: affair: any required actualization agenda: any combination of affairs

Every affair involves aims and attractions include: aim: affair intention attraction: affair incentive

Every attempt involves assimilation and acquittance: attempt: an application required by an affair assimilation: the requirements of the attempt acquittance: the results of the attempt

Every attempt has mandates and measurements: anticipation: attempt mandate achievement: attempt measurement

An attempt may be characterized in terms of: absorption: the expense of an attempt assiduity: the effort of attempt

An allotment is the approval of assets for any particular aim. Varieties of appointment include: appointment: allotment of an agent for an attempt allotment: allotment of an article for an attempt

An axiology is any system of metrics of valuing assets. Some varieties of axiology include: accounting adjudgement

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analysis appraisal assay assessment audit audition autopsy

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Affluence
Affluence is the accumulation of assets. The primary elements of affluence are: accumulation: any combination of assets acquisition: any supplementation of accumulation assets alienation: any subtraction of accumulation assets assignment: an alienation plus an acquisition of an asset

Primary varieties of assignment include: accommodation: intentional assignment arrogation: involuntary assignment accidence: inadvertent assignment alms: indulgence assignment abandonment: indifference assignment

Affluence is most often measured in terms of economic valuation. The economic value dynamics of assets is modeled by: appreciation: the dynamics of asset value over time arbitrage: alternative market valuations over time

Primary varieties of economic valuation include: acquisition value: the value given for an acquiring an asset alienation value: the value got for alienating an asset

Annuitization is the dynamics of accumulation flows. The elements of an annuitization model include: annuitization: accrual + amortization accrual: accumulation acquisitions over time amortization: accumulation alienations over time

The primary mechanisms of annuitization are: auction: any consensus mechanism of annuitization arbitration: any command mechanism of annuitization

Annuitization dynamics are driven by: acquisitiveness: the potential for asset acquisition acquiescence: the potential asset alienation

Auction dynamics are driven by: appetence: auction acquisition possibilities availability: auction alienation possibilities

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Artifact
Practical reality is the world of artifacts. The basic elements of artifacts are: artifact: anything produced by human arts application: any way that an artifact can be used

The people involved with artifacts include: author: anyone that devises, designs, or develops an artifact audience: people that use the artifact

Varieties of artifact models include: articulation: the design of an artifact architecture: the devisement of an artifact

Varieties of artifact types include: absolute: abstract artifact type apotheosis: actual artifact type

Varieties of artifact type comparisons include: archetype: an artifact type distinctly similar to an artifact antitype: an artifact type distinctly dissimilar to an artifact

Artifact models are employed in: analysis: producing an articulation from an artifact actualization: producing an artifact from an articulation

The actualization of an artifact involves: artisan: a person that produces artifacts avocation: the sorts of artifacts produced by an artisan

Artifact actualization involves: artifice: any practice by which artifacts are actualized atelier: any place where artifacts are actualized

Some artifacts (such as you) are self-ordering and self-originating: autopoiesis: self-ordering autogenesis: self-origination

Models of artifact self-ordering include: anatomy: any artifact self-organization model autonomy: any artifact self-operation model

Artifacts typically have one or more names by which the artifact may be addressed. Some varieties of artifact names include: appellation: a primary common name address means: any workable way of naming

Varieties of address mechanisms include:

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abbreviation: a shortened name acronym: an abbreviation for a phrase agnomen: an honorary name such as "The Great" aka: a pseudonym such as an Internet identity alias: any common alternative name allusion: any indirect way of naming alter ego: alternate personality anagram: a name rearrangement antonomasia: substitution of characterization for proper name like "your majesty" argot: a formal or official technical name art term: an informal or unofficial technical name assumed name: any name other than the legal name such as a doing business name autograph: a distinctive inscribed name autonym: an self-styled such as a pen name

Varieties of nameless artifacts include: anonym: artifact with no name anonymous: artifact an unknown name

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Asset
Assets are artifacts in application. Most artifacts have a diversity of applications. A hammer, for example, can be applied to: driving nails pulling nails holding down papers on a windy day exterminating rodents cracking ice for party drinks

You are an artifact. You are surely much more than an artifact but you are indeed an artifact. Who you are and what you do in your practical pursuits is primarily the result of nurture rather than nature. Applicability is the range of artifact asset roles. ability: any artifact application applicability: all the abilities of an artifact

The choice of an asset for an application involves: appropriateness: the suitability of an asset for an application advantage: differential suitability of alternative artifacts for an application

New asset applications arise from: adoption: application invention adaptation: application innovation

Ability may be characterized by: adequacy: application effectiveness aptitude: application efficiency alacrity: application expedience

Activity models the application of artifacts. Any artifact many have multiple applications. These applications are distinguished in terms of artifact roles. These include: asset: any artifact application role actor: any artifact organizational role agent: any proactive artifact organizational role article: any passive artifact organizational role action: any artifact role actuation: any proactive artifact operational role activation: any passive artifact operational role

Some varieties of agent roles include: abiotic agent: mineral agent apparatus: manual agent appliance: mechanized agent automation: motorized agent android: manlike agent avatar: mouthpiece agent autopilot: managerial agent animate agent: mortal agent

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Adamite: human assets animalia : all fauna assets archaeplastida: all flora assets

Varieties of asset role combinations include: affiliation: any combination of actors accompaniment: any combination of actions

Every action entails a combination of: alteration: activations + actuations activation: proactive agent effort actuation: passive article effect

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Change
Introduction
Change is the only constant in physical and practical reality. Everything is always changing, even when it seems not to be. At the very least everything always ages as it falls thought time.

Career
Nearly everything has a finite career. Perhaps even the universe itself has a finite career. A career is characterized by: creation: The first instant of a career career: the further dynamics of a career cessation: The final instant of a career

A career is a sequence of changes. Varieties of change include: change: a career interval condition: a career instant

A career may be divided into: chapter: a major career component course: a major career component

Primary varieties of mundane change include: conveyance: move change conformation: make change

Degrees of change may be modeled as: continuant: no significant change caesura: minor change climacteric: major change

The dynamics of a course are characterized by: commencement: the first instant of a course continuation: the dynamics of a course closure: the final instant of a course

Varieties of change include: clear change o certain change clockwork: certain with no choice choice: certain with choice o conjectural change contingent: multiple alternatives conditional: may or may not alternatives o capricious change chance: systemic stochastic dynamics chaotic: systemic nonlinear dynamics cryptic change o cryptodynamic: unknown change o cataphysical: unnatural change

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crazy: unexplainable change

Change alternatives may be modeled as: conceivable: a possible potential change crystallized: an actual past change

In this sense snow is Settle is conceivable. Even so, this change very seldom crystallizes.

Cyclicality
A cycle is anything sort of recurrent change. The elements of cyclicality are: cycle: any recurrent change cadence: the repetitiveness of a cycle

One commonplace example is the diurnal cycle: dawn daylight dusk darkness

Cadence models the repetitiveness and recurrence of cycles. Most cycles are not exactly repetitive or recurrent.

Conversion
Noting comes from nothing or goes to nothing. Every creation and cessation is ultimately a conversion. A conversion is a change that involves a combination of: conversion: consumptions and completions consumption: the cessation of one or more things completion: the creation of one or more things

So baking cake batter consumes a colloidal suspension of foodstuffs and completes a foamy polymerization of foodstuffs.

Conveyance
Conveyance is change involving movement: conveyable: anything that moves conveyor: anything that does the moving

The primary varieties of conveyance are: carriage: chunky conveyance conduction: continuous conveyance

Carriage is modeled in terms of: carrier: anything that carries carryway: a path suitable for carrying cumberance: anything that can be carried cargo: a combination of carrier cumberences cruise: the dynamics of carriage

Varieties of carryway include:

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corridor carriageway concourse causeway

Varieties of carrier include: courier: manual carriage carriage: motorized carrier

Some combinations of carriers include: column convoy caravan cavalcade cortege

Conduction is modeled in terms of: conductor: anything that conducts current: anything that can be conducted conductance: the dynamics of conduction

Some varieties of conductors include: cable conduit culvert channel

Capacitation
Some combinations of dynamics are possible and some are not. Capacitation models feasible dynamics combinations in terms of: causation: engenderment in combinatorial dynamics contribution: exchange in combinatorial dynamics conducion: enablement in combinatorial dynamics

Causation is one change engendering another change. The change of turning the steering wheel of an automobile causes a change in steering of the automobile Contribution is any exchange in combinatorial dynamics. A contribution of milk from the milk carton to a bowl of corn flakes is necessary for a quick breakfast. A contribution of gasoline from the fuel tank to the fuel injector is necessary for automotive transportation Conducion is any enablement in combinatorial dynamics. Starting the engine of your car is conducive to driving to work in the morning. Opening the door of your garage is conducive to successfully putting your car in the garage for the night. Degrees of capacitation include: chief capacitation: primary capacitation catalytic capacitation: secondary capacitation contributory capacitation: tertiary capacitation

Varieties of combinatorial capacitation include: corollary capacitation: a capacitation and a sequent capacitation

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capacitation chain: sequence of capacitation

The dynamics of complex capacitation are modeled as: culmination: a single capacitation at some specific instance convergence: all past capacitation with respect to the culmination consequence: all prospective capacitation with respect to the culmination

Models of this sort have an hourglass structure. Capacitation chains of convergence radiate inwards toward the climax. Capacitation chains of consequence radiate outwards away from the climax. Consider the case of a culmination of ham and eggs for breakfast. The convergence includes buying ham and cooking eggs. The consequences include dirty dishes and perhaps a bit of egg yolk on your sleeve.

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Commonality
Introduction
Students in middle school composition courses are often taught the elements of Sophist rhetoric: compare, contrast, classify, and compose. These elements are the starting point for the rhetoric of commonality. These are the most frequently used rhetorical elements in most forms of practical modeling.

Combination
A combination is zero or more things taken together. Primary varieties of combinations are: composition: combination of components o collection: a set ordered composition o consecution: a sequentially ordered collection o cue: a dynamic consecution connectivity o construction: a schema ordered composition o circuit: a schematic ordered composition o continuum: a spatially ordered composition compound: combination of constituents

A milkshake is a compound. Its constituents are milk, ice cream, and flavoring. The contents of your pockets is a composition. The components of this composition might include a wallet, a comb, various coins, and so on. Combinations are characterized by: count: the number of components consistency: the similarity of components collation: any sort of composition ordering

The structural dynamics of combination are modeled by: configuration: instant combination dynamics choreography: interval combination dynamics

Choreography is may be modeled in terms of: changeover: configuration that changes between configurations carryover: configuration that is changeless between configurations crossover: the change that makes a transition from one configuration to another

Cumulation is the set dynamics of combination. Cumulation may be modeled as: cumulation: interval composition dynamics cumulus: instantaneous component condition circulation: any change in cumulus

Varieties of circulation include: charge: any subtraction of cumulation components credit: any supplementation of cumulation components

The possibilities of composition dynamics include: crasis: a set of components or constituents

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coorder: any feasible composition that can be made from a crasis

The elements of coorder are: clasticity: any feasible form of a set of components concinnity: any feasible function of a set of components

Comity is the harmoniousness of coordering. comity: cohesion and coherence cohesion: harmony of form coherence: harmony of function

Comity involves coparts and counterparts: copart: components that fit together counterpart: components that function together

Comity metrics include: compatibility: any metric of copart fit consonance: any metric of counterpart function

Comity means include: consolidation: any means of increasing compatibility conciliation: any means of increasing consonance

The extremes of comity are: choate: a pretty good combination chimera: a pastiche combination

Comparison and Contrast


Comparison and contrast model the degree of similarity among combinations of things. Specifically: compare: how are combinations of things the same contrast: how are combinations of things different

The starting point is comparability. A combination of things are comparable is they can be modeled in some common context. Primary varieties of comparability include: physical comparability: comparability of substance, spacetime, state (or shape) practical comparability: comparability of person, property, place, period, practice, policy

How is the color green comparable to a dog? An exact shade of green can be trademarked and thus owned as property. A dog is also a form of property. Commensurability is any common measurement the can be made of a combination. A car and a cow are commensurate in that they both have a mass and a market value. Varieties of extreme comparability include: coequal: exactly the same thing coequivalent: extremely similar things o carbon-copy o clone o counterfeit

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Primary varieties of comparison are: correspondence: comparability of form correlation: comparability of function

Varieties of dynamic correlation include: contravariance: contrasting dynamics covariance: comparable dynamics

Varieties of correspondence include: congruent: comparable shapes that match conjugate: contrasting shapes that mate

Some commonplace comparisons include: concolorate: same color consubstantial: same substance connumerate: same count convicinity: same place

Comparisons in the life sciences include: congeneric: same genus conspecific: same species

Calibration is systematic comparison against a standard include: calibration: comparison with a calibration calibrator: any calibration standard cynosure: a distinguished basis for comparison

Cosymmetry is comparability of shape. Varieties of cosymmetry include: chiral: cosymmetry with respect to a plane coaxial: cosymmetry with respect to a line collateral cosymmetry : similarity about parallel lines collinear cosymmetry : similarity along a single line concentric cosymmetry : similarity about a point coplanar cosymmetry : similarity about a plane

Classification and Categorization


Classes and categories are combinations involving one or more comparabilities. The difference is: class: comparable condition category: comparable circumstance

So a collection of people with blue eyes is a class because having blue eyes is a condition. A collection of people residing in Cleveland is a category because being in Cleveland is a category. Structures of classes and categories are: classification: a combination of classes categorization: a combination of categories

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Chronograph and Cartograph


Models for calibrating time and space include: chronograph: any model for calibrating space cartograph: any model for calibrating time

Primary varieties of chronographs are: clock: chronograph modeling a day or less calendar: chronograph modeling a day or more

These are composed of: clock period: a component of a clock calendar period: a component of a calendar

Chronographs may model either: standardized time: UTC clock and Gregorian calendar specialized time: any other way of modeling time

Varieties of calendars include arithmetic: based on counting days astronomical: based on astronomical cycles A cartograph is any model of space. The most common sorts of cartographs are: political cartograph: models of political divisions such as counties physical cartograph: models of physical features such are mountains and rivers

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Community
People, with very rare exceptions, don't lead solitary lives stuck away in caves. Since we are social beings we practice citizenship by participating in various communities. The elements of community are: community: any combination of citizens civilization: the community of all communities

Communities exist for the convenience of citizens: citizen: a person participating in a community citizenship: a person participating in a particular community citizenry: the citizens of a community

Communities are modeled by: capitation: community head count model census: community conditions model canvass: community consensus model

Some commonplace sorts of community include: cabal cadre camarilla camp cantonment cartel cast caste caucus cell chapter church circle city clan claque class (school) class (social) clique club clutch coalition cohabitation cohort collaboration collective college collusion colony combine commune company

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conclave concourse condominium confederation conference confraternity conglomerate congregation congress consistory consociation consortium conspiracy contingent convent conventicle convention convocation cooperative corporation cortege cotenancy coterie cotillion council country county court coven crew cue cult

Any community may be modeled in terms of: charter: any model of communal challenge constitution: any model of communal conduct

A community may be characterized in terms of: commonwealth: the wealth of the community commonweal: the weal of a community

Models of commonwealth include: cadastre: any registry of prandial property cartulary: any registry of personal property

Children
Civilization ultimately produces citizens. The means by which citizens are produced include: childbearing: having children childrearing: raising children civilizing: preparing children for communal life

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The primary mechanisms of childbearing include: courtship: the dynamics of choosing a mate couple: a mated man and woman connubialism: forming a mating pair copulation: sharing genetic material cyesis: pregnancy o carrying o confinement o childbirth consanguinity: the composite bloodline of any mating

Culture
Culture is the totality of the artifacts of a community. This includes both the community itself and all models of the community. So your current attire and your route to work in the morning are both part of the culture of your community. Some primary varieties of culture include: poetic culture pious culture political culture philosophical culture plastic arts culture performing arts culture practical culture

For present purposes the concern is practical culture. Common culture is the basis for communal coping. Some primary elements of culture include: common knowledge common practice common courtesy common sense common consent common cause common capital

Primary varieties of common models include: creed: common belief models convention: common behavior models

Conventions are the basis for combinatorial conduct in a community. Conventions include: conventional wisdom conventional worldview conventional wording conventional working

Primary convention varieties are: consuetude: collaboration conventions context: communication conventions

Systems of conventions are modeled by:

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custom: traditional convention models codification: textual convention models

Any conduct in any community may be considered: conventional: conformant or compliant o conformant: conventional conduct organization o compliant: conventional conduct operation contravention: conduct that is not conventional

Varieties of views concerning cultural evolution include: classicism: tool much change conventionalism: just enough change contrarianism: tool little change

Any citizen may be considered: complaisant: given to compliant conduct contumacious: given to contravening conduct

System for culturation of community citizens include: curriculum: convention culturation system catechism: creed culturation system

Most communities have limits to permissible culture. Examples include: contraband: impermissible materials and merchandise censorable: impermissible models

Some varieties of culture experts include: culturati collector curator critic connoisseur cognoscente

Corpus Juris
A corpus juris is the sum and substance of the laws of a community. The elements of corpus juris include: civil law: the law of private offense criminal law: the law of public offence clerical law: the law of priestly offense

The sources of a corpus juris include: code law: statutes, regulations, executive orders, etc. case law: law court decisions

Caste
Many communities have castes or classes of citizens. Some primary sorts of castes include: crown: ruling rank

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courtier: noble rank celebrity: notable rank clergy: religious rank clerisy: education rank canaille: common rank

Centralization
Communities generally exhibit some centralization of communal control. The elements of communal centralization include: chieftaincy: executive chancellery: executive staff council: legislature court: law courts constabulary: police and prosecution

Communal Values
Every community has its virtues and vices. These vary widely by community. Those of a corps of soldiers in the heat of battle will be very different from those of the crowd at the opening gala of the opera season. The elements of communal value are: character: the various communal virtues and vices of a citizen communal virtue: varieties of our best communal behavior communal vice: varieties of banal or bad communal behavior

Continued citizenship in a community generally requires: civility: acting in accord with communal virtues continence: avoiding communal vices

Commentary is any community recognition of or response to citizen conduct. The spectrum of commentary includes: commendation: eminent conduct commentary congratulation: exceptional conduct commentary complement: exemplary conduct commentary countenance: everyday conduct commentary condonement: excusable conduct commentary chiding: erroneous conduct commentary censure: execrable conduct commentary commination: evil conduct commentary

The spectrum of civility in any instance may be modeled as: cruel: major incivility callous: moderate incivility coldhearted: minor incivility contemptuous: minimal civility considerate: minor civility concerned: major civility compassionate: major civility

Some varieties of communal virtue include:

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charismatic charitable charming cheerful chic chipper chivalrous chummy civic minded classy clement clever clubbable comely companionable comradely conciliatory confident congenital conversable convivial cordial courageous cosmopolitan courteous courtly cultured

Some varieties of communal vice include: cretin childish cacodoxy cadger caitiff callow callousness carousing cantankerous canting catty carnal carping caviler characterless charity case charlatan chauvinist cheap cheat cheeky cheeseparing chicken

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chiseler chuff churlish civic minded clamorous cloddish closed fisted clownish clueless clumsy coarse cocksure cocky common complaining conceited concupiscent confirmed liar contemptible corpulent corrupt countrified covetous cowardly cranky crass crazy creepy criminal crooked crowing cruel crude crybaby curmudgeonly curt

Criminality
Criminality is communal vice of concern to the community a whole. The primary elements of criminality are: criminality: criminal conduct generally crime: any conduct that damages the community as a whole crime spree: a combination of related crimes

Crimes are committed by: criminal: one that engages in criminal conduct criminal gang: a combination of criminals

Crimes are modeled in terms of: culprit: one believed to have committed a criminal offense culpability: specific culprit offense

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criminal collusion: join criminal culpability criminal conspiracy: the preparations to commit a crime

Criminal investigation is the response to crime: crime: a criminal act criminal investigation: investigation of a crime

Criminal investigation seeks to understand a crime in terms of: caper: the facts of the crime corpus delicti: the basic element of a crime such as a corpse crime scene: place where a crime is committed confession: admission of criminal conduct

Criminals are apprehended by means of: capias: an arrest warrant collar: apprehension of a suspect criminal crimination: accusation of culpability for a crime

Criminal cases are resolved by means of: criminal case: criminal causes of action to be tried criminal trial: finding of facts and law in a criminal case compurgation: determination of non-culpability

A criminal trial generally results in: condemnation: a determination of culpability clemency: mitigation of condemnation

Condemnation may be mitigated by: cassation: pardon commutation: penalty reduction

The consequences of condemnation may include: chastisement: substantial communal criticism castigation: severe communal criticism confiscation: loss of rights or resources casting out: removal from the community corporal punishment: physical punishment custodial punishment: physical incarceration capital punishment: death, dismemberment, etc.

Companionship
Communities provide companionship. Companionship is a community of two. Some varieties of companionship include: caretaker cavalier chaperone child chum cicerone

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clansperson close friend coach coagent coauthor coconspirator cohabitant collaborator colleague comate compatriot compeer comrade concierge concubine confederate confessor confidant conservator consigliore consort consort copartner counselor courtesan coworker crony crush custodian

Clientele
Both citizens and communities have clients. Both citizens and communities are clients. The elements of clientele are: client: a person in a client role clientele: the clients of a community or citizen

Varieties of client roles include: clansperson: children, parents, etc. customer: anyone that purchases goods or services charity case: any person that receives a subsidy contributor: a person that provides a subsidy consumer: anybody that uses something produced

Chrematistics
Chrematistics is flow of capital in a community. Primary varieties of chrematistic mechanisms are: commutation: deal capital flows o commerce: commutation of wares o credit: commutation of wherewithal conference: donation capital flows o charity: voluntary conference o community service: volunteer conference

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crime: delictum capital flows compulsion: death and taxes capital flows caducary: deprivation capital flows due to fines, forfeitures, etc.

Chrematistics models include: catalactics: systematic commutation chevisance: is gain resulting from commutation

Chevisance results from chrematistics advantage including: competitiveness: commerce advantage creditworthiness: credit advantage

Primary varieties of charity include: civic: governmental and non-governmental communal control cultural: education, entertainment, and so on compassionate: sustenance and spirituality

Communities may also mandate capital flows in exceptional circumstances including: conscription: forced military service commandeering: forced appropriation of property corvee: forced labor

Chreotechnics and Chrestomathic


The practical pursuits of a community are modeled as: chreotechnics: the practical pursuits of a community chrestomathic: the practice models of a community

Those engaged in practical pursuits may be characterized in terms of: calling: the specialization of practice craft: the skills of practice

Primary varieties of mundane practical pursuits include: cultivation: materializing caretaking: maintaining carriage: moving

Varieties of chrestomathic model collections include: compendium: practice model collection o cookbook: precedent model collection o casebook: prototype model collection cyclopedia: principle model collection conspectus: phenomena model collection catalog: models of products, parts, etc.

Cambistry
Cambistry is any mechanism a community uses to facilitate capital flows. The elements of cambistry are: currency: any cambistry mechanism

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coffers: the currency cumulation of a community

Some cambistry mechanisms include: countinghouse: a currency repository clearinghouse: a mechanism for conciliating claim currency currency exchange: any institutional means for trading in currencies

Cambistry transactions may employ: cashbook: a book for recording currency transactions checkbook: a system for writing checks cash register: an automated mechanism for handling currency transactions cashier: someone that handles cash cashbox: a reserve of cash

Varieties of currency include: cash currency: interchangeable physical currency claim currency: intermediary asset claim currency commodity currency: intrinsic value currency

Varieties of cash currency include: coin: e.g. a U.S. dime certificate: e.g. a U.S. dollar note chit: any specialized cash currency

Varieties of chit currency include: coupon: e.g. a discount coupon, a free sample coupon, etc. carnet: e.g. a theater ticket, a postage stamp. etc. chip: e.g. a casino chip

Varieties of claim currency include: check currency: a deposit account claim charge currency: a debit account claim

Varieties of commodity currency include: commodity securities currency: exchange traded stocks, bonds, etc. commodity goods currency: exchange traded commodities such as oil, sugar, grain, etc.

Chorometry
Chorometry surveys the use of land in a community. Varieties of land include: champs: land conurbation: urban land countryside: rural land

Some chorograph elements include: coverture: any kind of shelter campus: developed land campester: undeveloped land commons: public land

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Ceremony
Communities have ceremonies. Some primary varieties of ceremonies include: celebration: any joyous community occasion coronation: elevation to community office commemoration: honors the past as in the case of wedding anniversaries consecration: dedicates something to a community purpose carnival: licentious celebrations circus: spectacle celebration condolence: ceremonies of loss and lamentation

Catering
Every civilization has catering systems. Catering systems provide the basic necessities of life. Catering systems provide citizens with: comestibles: potable and palatable food clothing: cloths, shoes, etc. commorancy: a place to live

Some major varieties of catering include: cooking cleaning caregiving comforting

Some varieties of commorancy include: cabin caravansary casa casbah castle cave chalet chambers citadel condo co-op cottage crash pad crib

Cornucopia
Cornucopia is all of the domesticated lifeforms on which a civilization depended. The elements of cornucopia are: critter: domesticated fauna crop: domesticated flora

Chronicity
Much of communal life is chronic. Chronicity is the repetitive part of communal life. The elements of chronicity are: chronicity: chore and circumambulation

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chore: chronic making circumambulation: chronic movement

Communication
Communication is the flow of models in a community. The elements of communication are: communication: the dynamics of communal model flow communiqu: any unilateral communication colloquy: any bilateral communication conversation: any multilateral communication

Varieties of leadership communication include: consultation: consensus communication commandment: command communication

Varieties of communication failure include: chatter: pointless communication chant: highly repetitive chatter cant: useless or unintelligible conversation

Communication may be full and frank but is often fractional or false. Candor, concealment, coloring, and chicanery model degrees of fullness and frankness. Specifically: candor: full and frank communication coloring: neither entirely full nor frank casuistry: false reasoning chicanery: materially false communication

The meaning of all communication is referential. Varieties of communication model references include: connotation: context reference citation: content reference

Compellation is reference by name. The elements of compellation are: compellation: christening and cleping christen: give something a name clepe: refer to something by name cryptonym: something with an unknown name

Varieties reference mappings include: cross reference: a catalog of references concordance: a catalog of referents

Varieties of communication media include: ceremonial language: high, often official, language such as the Queen's English colloquial: informal language often specific to a closed community Creole language: any fusion of multiple languages clinical language: any specialized topical language coined language: new language that supports new subject matter communication capabilities

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Control
Control is the combinatorial dynamics of change. Everything in existence is under control. Even things that are seemingly out of control are actually under control.

Primary Control Primitives


The primary primitives of practical control are: coevolution: the combinatorial evolution dynamics of an ensemble coequilibrium: the combined equilibrium of an ensemble coequalization: any combination of efforts and effects resulting in coequilibrium coequalizer: any combination of mechanisms involved in coequalization coelasticity: the feasible coequalization range of a coequalizer

These are modeled in terms of: cocondition: instance combinatorial dynamics cochange: interval combinatorial dynamics

Consider a book that has been lying on a table for a few hours. The book and the table exhibit static thermodynamic and kinematic coequilibrium. This is a simple example of physical control. Now consider your kitchen. A well managed kitchen maintains a diverse stock of foodstuffs and food preparation equipment. There is usually an adequate dynamic balance of these to support routine food preparation. This dynamic balance is an example of complex practical control. The mechanisms that affect the dynamics of kitchen stock coequilibrium are diverse and dynamic. If you kid's soccer team shows up for lunch then control mechanisms are stressed. The dynamic coequilibrium will vary substantially. So coequalization is required to restore coequilibrium to something like typical conditions. The coequalization mechanisms involved include shopping, storing, cleaning, and so on. Coelasticity is the range of feasible coequilibrium. Kitchen stock is finite. Cereal for breakfast is infeasible if there's no milk. Most interesting systems exhibit both self control: the control dynamic of system internal interactions separate control: the control dynamics interactions with other systems

Your physiology exhibits homeostatic self-control dynamics. You engage in separate control dynamics with separate mineral things such as pens, lawnmowers, forks, automobiles, appliances, and so on. You also constantly participle in separate control dynamics with other mortal thinks such as people and pets.

Communal Control
Leadership is communal control. The extremes of leadership are: command: autocratic leadership (pure subjection dynamics) consensus: anarchic leadership (pure symbiotic dynamics)

Even in simple communities there is a diversity of leadership dynamics. Dad decides what kinds of cars the family owns. Mom decides where vacations will be taken. The toddler decides what's to watch on the family room television in the mornings. Everybody has a say on what's for dinner. Varieties of communal control dynamics include:

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cooperation: consenting communal control dynamics o concert o collaboration o copartnership o coagency coordination: neutral common control dynamics competition: controversy communal control dynamics o contest o contention o conflict o combat

Dysfunctional varieties of communal control include: crime: communal predation cheating: communal parasitism

Coaction and Counteraction


The combinatorial dynamics of combinatorial control may be characterized as: counteraction: confounding combinatorial dynamics o corrective action: separate counteraction o compensating action: simultaneous counteraction coaction: complicity combinatorial dynamics o correlated action: simultaneous coaction o complementary action: separate coaction

Coping
We all have our cares. Cares are those things that are interesting and important. We care about ourselves and others. Concerns arise from our cares. We are never concerned by things we don't care about. care: anything of value to us concern: any potential change of value

Concern is the difference between: conation: the mandated dynamics of wishing, willing, wanting cognizance: the measured dynamics of the world as it is, was, or will become

Coping is control in practical reality. Life is full of concerns. So we must cope. How do we cope? We engage in conduct that makes appropriate use of our capabilities. capability: capacity for change or changelessness conduct: capabilities applied to challenges

Why do we care? A few typical reasons include: calling caution chagrin charity choler commitment compassion competitiveness

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compulsion compunction concupiscence conscience covetousness craving creed cupidity curiosity custom

Degrees of caring include: crazy about close to one's heart care a lot care for care a little care little for couldn't care less

With respect to any given care at any given time the level of challenge may be: comfort: no concern cinch: concern requiring minor coping challenge: moderate concern difficulty conundrum: maximum concern difficulty crisis: concern we cannot readily cope with

Some complications of coping include: cross to bear: a recurrent concern curse: a difficult and demanding concern crux: the primary difficulty of a concern crimp: unforeseen concern difficulties clutch: an immediate and urgent concern close call: near failure to cope catch-22: an absurd concern cliffhanger: a suspenseful concern caught napping: failure to recognize a concern

Some elements of coping include: clincher: anything crucial to successful coping coup: exceptionally clever coping

Degrees of concern importance may be modeled as: comical: major unimportance cavalier: moderate unimportance casual: minimal unimportance central: minimal importance crucial: moderate importance critical: major importance cardinal: massive importance

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Coping involves: contrivance: determining conduct carrying out: doing conduct

The result of competitive coping may be characterized as: conquest: full competitive coping check: fractional competitive coping capitulation: failure competitive coping

The result of cooperative coping may be characterized as: contentment: full cooperative coping comedown: fractional cooperative coping chagrin: failure cooperative coping

Degrees of coping skill may be characterized as: capable: minor coping skill clever: moderate coping skill cunning: major coping skill

The elements of cunning include: craftiness: smart coping caginess: shrewd coping canniness: savvy coping

Coping often involves risk. Coping with risk involves: carefulness: conduct in consideration of risk circumspection: prudence with respect to risk

Risk aversion may be characterized as: courage: minimal risk aversion caution: moderate risk aversion cowardice: major risk aversion

Challenge risk is modeled in terms of: caveat: any coping risk commonition: any warning of coping risk

Conquest may not always be advantageous as in the case of: costly: conquest with minor advantage Cadmean: conquest with no advantage crushing: conquest with great disadvantage

Capability
We all have many capabilities we can bring to bear on our challenges. Some capabilities available in you kitchen include: baking and roasting slicing and dicing mixing and blending

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Capability is a form of changeability: changeability: the potential for change capability: current changeability

Any capability has limits. Most domestic kitchens can roast a chicken. Few household kitchens can roast an entire ox. There are many ways to differentiate capability. A very few examples include: person and property capability mundane and managerial capability power and policy practice capability

Primary models of capability include: competence: what can be done? capacity: how much can be done? competitiveness: how efficient and effective is the doing? celerity: how quickly can it be done? cost: what is the economic impact? consistency: what is the repeatability of the result? conscientious: what is the reliability of personal capability? certainty: what is the probability for success? credibility: what are the precedents? caliber: what is reputation and renown of personal capability?

Capital
Capital is anything in culture that provides conduct current capability. Capitalization is any combination of capital. Cultures have poetic capital, political capital, and so on. For present purposes the focus is practical capital. The gear, grub, and gang in your kitchen just now are the current capitalization of your kitchen. Some varieties of capital include: intellectual capital (e.g. your idea for a better mousetrap) individual capital (e.g. your attorney and accountant) institutional capital (e.g. the bank that holds your mortgage) investment capital (e.g. your retirement fund) instrumental capital (e.g. you washing machine)

A claim is an assertion of a capital right: claim: any assertion of a capital right claimant: a person with a claim counterclaim: any claim contravening another claim

Property capital may be modeled in terms of: chattel: capital investment o chattel real: parietal capital (immovable) investment o chattel personal: personal (movable) investment chose: capital interest o chose in possession: any sort of de facto interest o chose in action: any sort of de jure capital interest

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Charge is full capital control. Varieties of fractional charge include: custody: guard capital control o care custody: preservation custody o conservation custody: protection custody consignment: govern capital control o carriage consignment: move consignment o convenience consignment: make consignment o commerce consignment: merchandise consignment o conversion consignment: material consignment o command consignment: management consignment

The management of capital in a community generally involves a mix of: capitalism: private capital management collectivism: public capital management

Command
The command is a leadership system with at least some measure of absolute authority. The authority of a command is characterized by: commission: the challenges which must be coped with charge: the capitalization of a commission clout: the capabilities of a commission commanders: one or more command leaders

A command operated by issuing commandments. A commandment specifies conduct relevant to some challenge. A commandment may also specify capability or capital. The result of a commandment may be commandment compliance: conduct consistent with a commandment commandment contravention: conduct contrary to a commandment

Consensus
Consensus is commonality of communal consent. Consensus may be characterized as: concurrence: complete consensus controversy: any combination of o concurrence: agreement concerning consensus issues o contrariety: arguments concerning consensus issues

Consensus operates by means of: consentience: sufficient concurrence for communal conduct concordat: any expression of consentience cloture: any attempt to verify consentience compromise: any means of improving consentience

In the U.S. Congress a simple majority is sufficient concurrence for most issues. A two-thirds supermajority is required to approve a constitutional amendment. Varieties of consensus failure include: cooptation: conduct without consentience cop out: withdrawing from the consensus process

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Consensus building may be achieved by friendly, forceful, or false means. Friendly means of consensus building include: compensation: convincement by means of payment charm: convincement by means of pleasure coax: convincement by means of personal pressure cajole: convincement by means of peer pressure

Forceful means of consensus building include: chill: convincement by means peril cow: convincement by means of pain coerce: convincement by means of penalty compel: convincement by means of punishment

False means of consensus building include: corruption: convincement by means double-cross chicanery: convincement by means dishonesty cozening: convincement by means deceit

Choice
Choice is the selection of one or more conduct alternative from a collection of candidates. A choice involves conclusion: a collection of chosen candidates convincement: models supporting a conclusion confidence: sureness of convincement case: a candidate choice commitment: the choice of a candidate

Convincement is clarity in the understanding of conduct alternatives for coping. Degrees of convincement include: certitude: maximum clarity confliction: minor clarity confusion: minimum clarity

Varieties of certainty include: confirmation: certainty of correctness confutation: certain of incorrectness

Any set of models may be: corroborating: mutually correct and constant contradicting: mutually not correct or not constant

Any given model in a set of models may provide: constatation: any sort of corroborative evidence counterevidence: any sort of contradictory evidence

A convincing model may be either: clue: fair evidence curveball: false

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The range of critical standards in convincement range between: cynical: excessively high critical standards clear eyed: balanced critical standards credulous: excessively low critical standards

Communion
Communion is communal conduct. Communities often care about and cope with things in common. Communion starts with: cause: any communal challenge camp: those advocating certain communal conduct

A camp can usually be characterized as: conservative: advocating changelessness centrist: advocating a mix of changelessness and change changeist: advocating change

Communal coping often depends heavily on: climate of opinion: the range of oppinions in the community consensus gentium: general communal agreement

The elements of climate of opinion include: complexion: opinion based on facts coloration: opinion based on feelings

With respect to current communal conditions communion may be characterized as: complacency: no communal coping campaign: minor communal coping crusade: major communal coping

Crusades usually arise to cope with the risk of: casualty: minor death, damage, and destruction carnage: damage and destruction

Campaigns often arise to cope with: contamination: dirt and defilement contagion: disease crime: delictum corruption: dishonesty

Varieties of law enforcement campaigns include: cleanup: increased prosecution crackdown: increased penalties

Degrees of communion failure include: calm: discipline civil unrest: discontent convulsion: disorder

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coup d'etat: downfall civil war: destructiveness collapse: disintegration

Major disruption of communion results from: calamity: disaster catastrophe: devastation cataclysm: desolation

Compact
Compacts arise from concurrence in consensus systems. The elements of compact are: compact: any collection of mutual commitments contract: any consensus compacts enforceable at law contrahent: any party to a compact

A covenant is any sort of agreed quid pro quo including: covenant: any exchange of concession and consideration concession: a covenant value released consideration: any covenant value received

Contracts are collections of covenants. In a cash transaction consideration is cash and the concession is some other sort of value. The conclusion of a compact may be: consummation: completion of a compact cancellation: the termination of a compact without completion

Consummation occurs when all commitments are carried thought to completion. The elements of consummation are: commitment: any unsatisfied covenant carry through: satisfaction of a covenant

Coexistence
Combinatorial dynamics and control start with coexistence. Some major elements of coexistence include: coendurance: common endurance coextent: common extent coequal: coendurance + coextent coinitial: intervals with the same first instant coterminal: intervals with the same final instant coincident: common place point collocated: common place patch or pocket concurrent: common instant contemporary: common interval contiguous: adjacent in space consecutive: adjacent in time

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Cosmos
Introduction
Human civilization occupies an infinitesimally small corner of the cosmos. Specifically: cosmos: the universe we occupy in the omniverse cosmology: any model of the statefull dynamic order of the cosmos cosmogony: any model of the origin and the evolution of the cosmos

Some cosmological scales include: cosmic: any model of the observable universe celestial: the visible stars and galaxies circumsolar: the solar gravity well circumterrestrial: the terrestrial gravity well cosmopole: the realm of human communities continent: a major landmass country: a sovereign state county: a country region canton: a country region city: a settlement commune: a neighborhood of a city

Curve
Curves are the only shapes that occur naturally in the cosmos. Curves are building blocks of space. Points, lines, and planes are simple curves. Space, surface, shell, and, solid curves are major sophisticated curve varieties. Curvature, concavity, and convexity model the shape of smooth space and surfaces curves. Specifically: curve: any shape with any curvature at every point circumscription: a closed curve curvature: differential deviation from orthogonal planes at a point

Varieties of curvature metrics include: convexity: positive curvature concavity: negative curvature

Corners and creases are complex shapes formed by the intersection of two or more surface or solid curves. Specifically: creases: any intersection of two curves corner: any intersection of three or more curves

Varieties of curve similarity and sharing include: cohomology: shape similarity among systems cobordism: shape sharing among systems

The dynamics of shape are modeled by contortion and convolution are modeled by: contortion: any continuous shape dynamics convolution: any complex crossing shape dynamics

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Corporeality
The corporeity of cosmos may be modeled in terms of: corpuscular matter dynamics: elementary particles, atoms condensed matter dynamics: molecules and macroscopic matter chemistry: molecular condensed matter continuum mechanics: macroscopic condensed matter complex matter dynamics: chunks, clusters, etc.

A corpus is any bounded body. A corpus is characterized as: core: the bulk of the corpus contour: the boundary of the corpus circumstance: beyond the corpus

A corpus may be modeled in terms of: circumference: any circuit of the contour center line: any line thought the center cutaway: a cross-sectional slice thought the corpus core section: a cylindrical sample of the corpus center: the geometric center of the corpus center of gravity: center of mass centroid: any center of action cameration: the cavity structure of a corpus cortex: the corpus less any cavities cavity: any void within a corpus circumambience: the dynamics of the circumstance

A shape dynamics of corpus may be: concrete: firm compressible: flexible conformal: fluid

The temperature of a corpus may be characterized as: cryogenic cold chilly clement cozy calefacient calescent coronal

A corpus may exhibit changes in temperature: calefaction: temperature increase cooling: temperature decrease

Forces acting on a corpus include: centrifugal: any force that pulls corpuses together centripetal: any force that pushes corpuses apart circumfluent: any force that pivots a corpus

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A container is a nested corpus. Specifically: container: a corpus with other corpuses inside contents: the corpuses within a cortex containment: the mechanics of container and contents

Varieties of containment include: captivating: cloistering or confinement cloistering: closure that limits inward movement confining: closure that limits outward movement

Varieties of containers include: cordon: any cloistering container closure: any confining container

Varieties of containers include: capsule: a closed container cup: a convex container chassis: complex containers

Some commonplace kinds of containers include: cabin cabinet caddy cage caisson can caldron canister canteen carafe carton case cask casket cell cesspool chamber chest churn cistern coffin compartment coop corral cradle crate crucible crock

Covering models nested containment. Specifically:

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covering: the corpus that covers another corpus coverage: the degree to which one corpus covers another

Convicinity models the closeness of a combination of corpuses. Degrees of convicinity include: close crowded contiguous continuous

Combinatorics is the dynamics of shape recombination. The elements of combinatorics are: cleave: the shape dynamics taking things apart conjoin: the shape dynamics putting things together

Varieties of basic shape operations of making things include: cutting: grinding, sawing, milling, broaching, etc. cinching: conjoinment with any sort of fastener clinching: binding by means of belts, hoses, chains, etc. clutching: any sort of force fit cementing: the use of any sort of adhesion in joining

Varieties of covering include: caress: single point contact cuddle: multiple point contact cling: continuous contact

The dynamics of multiple corpuses may be modeled as: contact: corpuses coming together crash: impact of corpuses collision: a crash without recoil carom: a crash with recoil

Coupling models the combinatorial dynamics of corpuses. Specifically: coupling: any combination of corpuses with joint dynamics coupler: any means of combing the dynamics of corpus

Cytota
Cytota is realm of cellular life. Some highlights of cytota are: carbon: the elemental building block of earthly life cell: the basic building block of all cellular life creature: any cellular lifeform chromosome: the means by which genetic information is stored chlorophyll: the energy converter than powers nearly all earthly life catabolism: microscopic combustion essential to mortal metabolism carbohydrate: the primary energy storage mechanism of cellular life cellulose: a complex carbohydrate that forms most plant cell walls collagen: the fibrous protein of connective tissue chitin: a polysaccharide common in invertebrate exoskeletons calcification: the impregnation of bone and shell tissue with calcium salts

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Complex
Varieties of models large scale actual or abstract disjoint order include: conglomerate: any system with high global order but low local order constellation: any system high global order but low global order

These models are useful in modeling intrinsically disjoint actual phenomena like automobile accidents or the distribution of gasoline filling stations. These are also useful in characterizing many common sorts of abstract phenomena spaces. Most complex design spaces are complex or constellation structured. Clusters and clumps varieties of local order include: clump: continuous local order cluster: close but not continuous local order

Varieties of complex combinations include: contraption: any sort of complex mechanism concoction: any sort of complex mixture

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Deontology
Introduction
Deontology is the mechanics of domain. Primary deontological modes are. A domain is a communal deontology system. A domain is modeled as: domain: demesne + denizens + dominion denizens: domain persons demesne: domain places dominion: domain discipline policies and practices discipline: the execution and enforcement of dominion domination: the means by which discipline is maintained domicile: the residence of a domain denizen demography: any model of the denizens of a domain

Primary mechanisms of deontology include: dealing: communal coping by consensus direction: communal coping by command

Varieties of domain denizens include: dictator: any despotic leader dignitaries: any influential denizen demos: everyone else

Hereditary leadership involves: dynast: any hereditary leader dynastic line: the bloodline of a dynasty dynasty: a succession of dynasts from the same dynastic line

Extremes of dominion include: democracy: the demos dominate by consensus dictatorship: a dictator dominates by command

The primary dynamics of deontology are modeled as: doable: anything that can be done doer: anything that does things deed: anything that is done deportment: a succession of deeds demeanor: the way a deed is done doings: that which is currently being done

Every deed arises ultimately from desire. Similarity of desires among denizens ranges between: diametric desire: completely contrary desire duplicate desire: completely complementary desire

Communal conduct generally includes a mix of: duet: any cooperative communal doing duel: any competitive communal doing

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So the dynamics of communal coping generally includes a mix of: dispute: the dynamics of competitive communal dealings dtente: the dynamics of competitive communal dealings

Primary varieties of dispute include: demur: minimal dispute disagreement: minor dispute discord: major dispute dustup: massive dispute

Deciding
The basic decision cycle is: deliberation: consideration of candidate conduct decisiveness: choosing candidate conduct doing: coping by means of conduct

The primary varieties of realizable practice decisions include: desire: deciding what to do devisement: deciding how to do it design: deciding who, when, where, etc. develop: realizing a design do deploy: doing what was decided

The praxeological interpretation of these is: desire: decisions about purpose devisement: decisions about practice design: decisions about practice principles and phenomena development: decisions about preparation deployment: decisions about pursuit

Deliberation involves: discovery: modeling the world as it is deduction: modeling the world as it could be deeming: modeling the world as it should be

The virtues of deciding are: discernment: decision wisdom discrimination: decision worldliness

Primary standards for deciding and doing are: due diligence: doing the right thing due process: doing the thing right

Models employed in deciding may be: de jure: legal reality de facto: living reality

Joint deliberation generally involves:

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discussion: analytic argument debate: advocacy argument

Varieties of discovery include: dissection: discovery of perfected practice diagnosis: discovery of pathological practice

Discovery often involves understanding the decisions that underlie the conduct of others. Discovery of this sort involves: divination: understanding desire deconstruction: understanding devisement decomposition: understanding design

Dealing
Dealing is about balancing complementary and contrary desires. Varieties of dealing include: dickering: mutual advantage cooperative dealing disputation: mutual animosity competitive dealing

Varieties of parties to dealing include: dealmaker: a person engaged in cooperative dealing diplomat: a person engaged in competitive dealing

The motivations for dealing involve a mix of: duress: the possibility of a undesirable burden or bane dividend: the possibility of a desirable benefit or bonus

The mechanisms of dealing include: dialog: the communication of dealing devoir: the civilities of dealing

Dealing may be characterized in terms of: decency: the courtesy of dealing decorum: the continence of dealing dramatics: the conceits of dealing

Information flows in dealing include: divulgement: provision of a model dissemination: publication of a model

Commercial dealing involves: dealership: institutional engaged in commercial dealing dealer: individual engaged in commercial dealing

The lifecycle of a deal may be characterized as: doable deal dead deal done deal due deal

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discharged deal distressed deal dissolved deal

Duty
Duty arises from deals and domination. A duty always involves: deliverable: what is to be done deadline: when the deliverable must be done

Parties to delivery: deliverer: one who tenders delivery deliveree: one who takes delivery

Duties may be specified in any combination of: dictation: obligatory deliverables discretion: optional deliverables

Every duty involves a debt: debt: any unsatisfied duty due: an unsatisfied duty at the deadline delinquency: a debt after the deadline

Deliverables become due at the deadline: deservedness: undelivered deliverables droit: legally enforceable deservedness

Duties are satisfied by: delivery: satisfaction of deliverable discharge: satisfaction of duty

With respect to any duty a deed may be considered: dilatory: frustrating delivery diligent: furthering delivery

Delinquency usually results in: demanding: pleading for delivery dunning: pestering for delivery

Delinquent debtors may request: deferment: delay of deadline dispensation: diminishing or doing away with a duty dissolution: dissolving a deal due to foolishness, fraud, etc.

Discipline
Person discipline roles include: dominee: a person dominated domineer: a person that dominates

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An effective domineer may be considered to be: disciplinarian: a strict domineer duce: a stringent domineer

Effective discipline may be considered to be: demanding: a strict domineer Draconian: a stringent domineer

The potential for domination is modeled as: domitable: something with dynamics that can be dominated by a domineer dubitable: something with dynamics might not be dominated by a domineer dauntless: something with dynamics that cannot likely be dominated by a domineer

Varieties of extreme domination include: domesticated: dominated flora and fauna downtrodden: dominated human beings

Varieties of potential for ready domination include: dormant: spiritless domination docile: submissive domination diffident: shy domination ductile: supple domination

Varieties of persons amenable to domination include: doting: giddy of domination desirous: glad of domination disposed: gratified by domination deferential: genial in domination

Discipline is the maintenance of domination. Forceful means of disciplining people include: detention: imprisonment or incarceration of person detainer: impoundment or invasion of property deprivation: fines and forfeitures disadvantage: loss of rank or rights disapprobation: criticism or condemnation dragooning: physical violence

Discipline may be maintained by: drilling: rehearsal of doing drumming it in: deep discipline drilling

Discipline may be demonstrated by: dry run: going through the motions demonstration dress rehearsal: giving it all you've got demonstration

Direction
The elements of direction are: director: an person that directs

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directee: an person that is directed directorate: a combination of directors directive: a directed specification of a duty

The mechanisms that give rise to directed duty include: delegation: reassignment of duty from superior to subordinate devolution: deep delegation deputizing: delegation of a range of duties drafting: delegation of a specific duty deigning: delegation to yourself deferring: upwards delegation to a superior

Depredation
Depredation is any aggressive use of force in dealing among domains. Degrees of depredation include: deployment of forces: mobilizing and mustering for depredation disturbance of peace: minor depredation incidents doing battle: major depredation incursions, invasions, etc.

Varieties of depredation among individuals include: duke it out: fight donnybrook: free for all

The outcome of depredation may be modeled as: deliverance: failure of domination dedition: surrender to domination deadlock: neither defeat or domination defeat: full domination

Primary varieties of defeat may be modeled as: drubbing: minor defeat debacle: moderate defeat decimation: major defeat

The prospect of depredation may be met by: dare: depredation provocation defiance: depredation presumptuousness

Depredation may be prevented by: dissuasion: depredation precaution deterrence: depredation preclusion defense: depredation protection

The potential for depredation can be diminished by: demobilize: military stand-down demilitarize: military disarming and disbanding disarm: reduction of military property disband: reduction of military personnel

Mechanisms for ending depredation include:

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dulcify: provide incentives to end conflict defuse: remove the source of conflict deescalate: wind down conflict systematically

Duty Virtues and Vices


The primary virtues of duty are: dint: working hard dutifulness: will to duty devotion: willingness to self sacrifice diligence: willingness to commit time dedication: willingness to commit treasure doggedness: willingness to work determination: willpower consistency

There are many vices of duty. Varieties of failures of duty discharge include: disappointment: inadequate delivery delinquency: late delivery default: no delivery

Varieties of vices of loyalty include: disloyalty: desertion or defection desertion: abandonment or allegiance defection: alternation of allegiance

Varieties of vices of incompliance include: disoblige: request incompliance disobeying: order incompliance

Varieties of vices of untimeliness include: dallying: minor untimeliness dawdling: moderate untimeliness delaying: major untimeliness

Varieties of minor vices of indiscipline include: disrelish: little duty enthusiasm disinclination: lack of duty enthusiasm

Varieties of major vices of indiscipline include: disregard: failure to accept a duty dereliction: failure to acquit a duty

Varieties of disappointment vices include: disparity: quality disappointment discrepancy: quantity disappointment

Varieties of vices of discipline include: diversion: failure of mundane discipline distraction: failure of managerial discipline.

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An employee that spends time watching soap operas at work is involved in diversion. Failure to notice this diversion is distraction.

Dogmatism
Dogma is the domination of knowledge. The elements of dogmatism dictum: dictated knowledge or belief doctrine: a combination of dictums dogma: a combination of doctrines

Dogmatism roles include: dogmatist: master of dogma o doyen: male master of dogma o doyenne: female master of dogma disciple: on that adheres to dogma dilettante: causal dogma master dabbler: cursory dogma master

Degrees of dogma acknowledgement include: devotee: dogma supporter doubter: dogma skeptic dissenter: dogma scoffer

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Document
Any document is ultimately a structure of details. The devil of documentation is always in the details. Detail quality may be modeled in terms of: differentiation: the potential for discerning differences diversity: the differential richness of details discipline: the definitiveness of details density: the efficiency and effectiveness of details in combination

The elements of detail are: dub: a detail name datum: a detail value

The elements of detailing systems are: dialect: a set details diction: the ways that details may be combined

Detailing frameworks provide the context of detailing. Detailing frameworks support: detail declaration: detail name detail definition: detail type detail determination: detail values detail derivation: detail relation to other details

Varieties of document detail structures include: denotation: verbal detail structures depiction: visual detail structures

Varieties of denotation include: denumeration: quantitative details denomination: qualitative details designation: reference by name dereferential: reference by notation structure address

Varieties of quantitative denumeration include: dense: real valued discrete: integer valued decimal: decimal fraction dough: monetary datetime: date and time duration: differential time directional: vector, quaternion, etc. division: ratios, percentages, etc

A denumeration may be: diacritic: an incremental value (e.g. I weight 150 pounds) delta: an incremental value (e.g. I lost 5 pounds)

Varieties of qualitative denomination include: differential: list of qualities

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distinction: list of similar qualities disjunction: list of separate qualities dichotomy: a pair of polar opposite qualities degree: a graded quality list diversity: multiple quality list

Other varieties of details include: dyad: dual detail reference dimension: a detail in context dimensionality: a combination of dimensions digest: detail collection dataset: structure of digits

Varieties of depiction structures include: docket: group structured collection diagram: graph structured chart drawing: grid structured continuum

Some varieties of document include: deal debate debriefing demand deployment deposition design desire development devise diagnostic dialectic dialogue diary dictionary directive directory disclosure discourse discovery disposal disquisition dissection dissertation distillation divination divulgement doctrine dogma dossier drama dream defense

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diatribe declamation denunciation daybook

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Dynamics
Introduction
Dynamics is the mechanics of temporal difference. Primary varieties of dynamics include: physical dynamics: the dynamics of physical reality practical dynamics: the dynamics of practical reality

Practical Dynamics
The elements of practical dynamics are: distance: dissimilarity of space duration: dissimilarity of time difference: dissimilarity of state

Difference is modeled in terms of: distinction: difference in quality disparity: difference in quantity

The primitives of dynamics are: device: any distinct thing with singular dynamics disjunction: any combination of devices with shared or synergistic dynamics

A device is modeled in terms of: delimitation: device continuous closed spacetime limit density: device substance per spacetime

Device substance dynamics are modeled in terms of: derivation: supplementation of substance detraction: subtraction of substance

Device composition dynamics may be modeled in terms of: dock: add a device part detach: remove a device part

Disjunction dynamics is modeled in terms of: deduction: subtraction of a disjunction device deposit: supplementation of a disjunction by a device

Disjunction dynamics is modeled in terms of: diversity: the devices of the disjunction at an instant diversification: the devices of the disjunction over an interval distribution: the location of devices in a disjunction at an instant disposition: the location of devices in a disjunction over an interval

Varieties of device self-dynamics are: dissymmetry: self-difference at an instant diachronic: self-difference over an interval

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Varieties of device separate-dynamics are: dissimilarity: separate-difference at an instant divergence: separate-difference over an interval

Primary varieties of disturbance include: distortion: differential delimitation distention: larger delimitation diminution: lesser delimitation diffusion: differential density densification: larger density dispersion: lesser density dislocation: differential distribution draw together: lesser dislocation decentralize: larger dislocation diversification: differential diversity dilution: larger diversity distillation: lesser diversity dispersion: differential delimitation detrition: lesser delimitation depletion: larger delimitation

Other sorts of disturbance include: digestion: chemical decomposition decompound: chemical separation deliquesce: solid to liquid translation decoct: concentrate by cooking off volatiles decant: separate liquid components

Metrics of dynamics potential include: durability: potentiality for duration deformability: range of dynamic deformation ductility: difficulty of dynamic deformation

Degrees of dynamic order include: disciplined: maximum order deliberate: meticulous determinate: methodical disturbed: messy disorganized: muddled disordered: minimum order

The primary varieties of dynamics are: deterministic: certain destined: totally causal and certain dependable: totally causal desultory: choice or contingency uncertainty dicey: chance or chaos uncertainty demonic: totally non-casual and uncertain

The extremes of similarity and dissimilarity are:

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duplicate: no dissimilarities among two things dissimilar: no similarities among two things

Varieties of duplication include: double: a thing copy ditto: an artificial thing copy dead ringer: a person double doppelganger: an aleatory thing copy dummy: a display copy decoy: a deceptive copy

The lifecycle of a device may be modeled as: dawn: preceding the phenomena debut: first phenomena existence deepening: the rise of the phenomena denouement: the high point of a phenomena dwindling: the retreat of the phenomena demise: final phenomena existence disappearance: proceeding the phenomena

Physical Dynamics
Physical devices are the starting point for engineering models. The dynamics of these devices is readily represented by means of analytical equations. Specifically: lumped dynamics: scalar analytic equations on circuit spaces localized dynamics: multilinear analytic equations on continua space linked dynamics: differential geometry equations on configuration spaces

Physical dynamics models also find widespread applications in enterprise and economic applications. Examples include econometrics, demographics, and physical logistics. Varieties of dynamics sources and sinks include: driver: any dynamics element that increases system dynamics dissipater: any dynamics element that decreases system dynamics

Varieties of linear dynamics elasticity elements include: damper: any element that smoothes dynamics differentiator: any element that sharpens dynamics

Varieties of dynamics elements that are not strictly linear include: distortion: any nonlinear non-delaying dynamics element delay: any pure time delay dynamics element

Varieties of dynamics flow arrest and attenuation include: disrupt: arrests dynamics flow diminish: attenuates dynamics flow

Varieties of dynamics flow adjustment include: divider: a fixed dynamics flow separator diverter: a variable dynamics flow divider deflector: reverses the direction of dynamics flow

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Enterprise
Enterprise is the economic view of community. The world economy is the ultimate human enterprise. Enterprise models the dynamics of systematic extraction and exploitation. The primary varieties of exploitation are: extraction: turning latent value into liquid value exploitation: any means of extraction

Primary varieties of exploitation include: enjoyment: passive exploitation such as appreciation and arbitrage employment: proactive exploitation o engagement: using but not using up o exchange: use in giving and getting o expenditure: using up

The economic dynamics of an enterprise may be modeled by: equity: cumulative earnings earnings: exaction less expense exaction: economic value resulting from exploitation expense: the economic value required for exploitation

At any given point in time equity is equal to the difference between: entitlement: what the enterprise owns encumbrance: what the enterprise owes

Nearly all enterprises are specialized. Enterprise specialization may be modeled as: endeavor: varieties of exploitation end: valuation of exploitation

Success in the endeavor of any competitive enterprise may require: enfranchisement: any existing competitive advantage edge: any special or unique competitive advantage

Enterprise dynamics are largely determined by: ethos: the culture of the enterprise o eudemony: enterprise metrics o ethics: enterprise morals o etiquette: enterprise manners environment: the operating conditions of the enterprise

Primary enterprise perspectives include: endowment: the fiscal view of the enterprise establishment: the facilities view of the enterprise

Primary varieties of enterprise ends include: enrichment: increasing endowment enlargement: increasing establishment

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The parietal elements of establishment include: estate: immovables and improvements o edifice: immovable structure for habitation o erection: immovable structure for other than habitation o earthworks: land and land improvements enclave: any elaborate system of edifices and earthworks

The personal property elements of an establishment include: equipage: capital assets effects: circulating assets exchequer: cash assets

Execution may be characterized in terms of: efficiency: execution competitiveness effectiveness: execution competence expedience: execution celerity

An enrollee is anyone that affects an enterprise role. Primary varieties of enrollee include: entrepreneur: owner role executive: officer roles employee: other roles

The benefits of being an enrollee include: emolument: monetary compensation extras: non-monetary compensation

The dynamics of an enterprise role is modeled by: enlistment: starting in the role enrolment: serving in the role elimination: severing the role

Varieties of emphatic elimination include: exile: banishment elimination excommunication: banning elimination

Every enterprise role involves: entrustment: responsibilities empowerment: rights exaction: restrictions

Enterprise planning involves: extrapolation: planning out the future earmarking: putting aside resources for future purposes

Execution is systematic exploitation: execution: the dynamics of exploitation o expectation: execution dynamics mandate o effectuation: execution dynamics measurement end result: the results of execution

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The elements of execution are: effort: the proactive part of execution effect: the passive part of execution

Enterprise policy is modeled in terms of: edict: any enterprise policy model enunciation: any policy included in a edict enforcement: any means of making policy work

The lifecycle of an edict may be modeled as: enactment: any means by which an edict is engendered emendment: any means by which an edict is changed extirpation: any means by which an edict is reversed or repealed

The dynamics of an edict may be modeled as: effectivity: beginning of edict expiration: end of edict extension: delay of expiration

Varieties of enterprise policy sanctions include: embracement: major sanction endorsement: moderate sanction espousal: minor sanction encouragement: minimal sanction

Varieties of enterprise policy strictures include: eschewal: minimum stricture exclusion: minor stricture enjoinment: moderate stricture embargo: major stricture

Policy may not always be applicable. Specifically: exception: exemption or extenuation o exemption: explicit exception o extenuation: justifiable exemption excuse: grounds for extenuation

The elements of enforcement include: exprobration: accusation of wrongdoing exculpation: disproval of wrongdoing exoneration: clearance or wrongdoing

Mistakes happen. Varieties of mistakes include mistaken actions and mistaken failures to act. Specifically: error: malfeasance action eristic: malfeasance action elision: nonfeasance abeyance

Enterprise is risky. Enterprise risk involves:

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exposure: any sort of enterprise risk ensurence: any means of minimizing risk

Varieties of experimental execution include: etude: rehearsal experimental execution essay: run-through experimental execution

The stages of execution may be modeled as: embarkation: first execution exertion: further execution end result: final execution

Varieties of execution models include: estimation: execution mandate evaluation: execution measurement

The utility of execution may be modeled as: enablement: anything used in the effectuation engenderment: any useful result of the effectuation endurance: the time required for effectuation

Any execution may be characterized as: easy: minor effort effortful: moderate effort exacting: major effort excruciating: massive effort

The lifecycle of an execution may be modeled as: eligibility: execution candidates entertainment: consideration of execution election: choice of execution candidates exercise: effecting a chosen execution candidate

Enterprise events may be characterized as chronic or critical. Specifically: everyday: chronic event enlivenment: minimal critical event excitement: minor critical event exigency: moderate critical event extremity: major critical event emergency: massive critical event

Varieties of crisis response include: escalate: amplify crisis response expedite: accelerate of crisis response

Crises are resolved by: easing: reduce crisis extinguishment: remove crisis

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Any execution may be characterized as: emprise: any planned, premeditated execution extempore: any improvised, impromptu execution escapade: speculative, splurge, or spree execution

Primary enterprise vices include: entropy: the intrinsic tendency towards enterprise disorder erraticism: enterprise management instability extraneousness: loss of focus on enterprise essentials

Enterprise executives lead by focusing on the essentials. Specifically: essentials: enterprise fundamentals emphasis: focusing on the essentials Enterprise executives routinely engage in: extolment: praising the enterprise exhortation: pushing execution forward Enterprise executive must always encourage: esprit: enterprise spirit lan: enterprise strength

Sovereign enterprises are modeled as: empire: any sovereign enterprise empery: the sovereignty of an empire emperor: the sovereign of an empire

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Existence
Existence is the mechanics of our experience. Existence is a good place to start when you need to dig all the way down to the foundations of reality. Existence is the starting point for all empirical modeling and empirical meaning. For present purposes existence is the entirety of physical reality. Elements of existence are: eternity: the entirety of physical time o elapsed eternity: eternity up until now o exactly now: this very instant o evermore eternity: the rest of eternity expanse: the entirety of physical space o ecumen expanse: the extent of the earth o empyrean expanse: the extent of the heavens

Eternity may be modeled in terms of: eon: a collection of eras era: a big slice of eternity epoch: a boundary between eras

Envelope
An envelope is any bounded region in spacetime. An envelope is modeled as: entirety: the region inside the envelope external: the region outside the envelope o exterior: external immediately adjacent to the edge o environment: external beyond the exterior edge: the boundary between entirely and envelope

The elements of the entirety: extent: the physical space occupied by an envelope endurance: the physical time occupied by an envelope

Envelope dynamics may be modeled as: enlarge: any increase in extent elongate: increase in spatial length extend: increase in spatial surface expand: increase spatial volume

Any envelope may be: earthly: here on earth extramundane: of the heavens

An envelope is either: empty: a spacetime region where no substance exists emplaced: a spacetime region where some substance exists

In a strictly physical sense existence is never empty. In a practical sense emptiness is commonplace.

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Extant
Things that exist are extant. Varieties of extant include: entity: an single extant o extremity: the envelope of the entity o engulfment: the things that make up the entity ensemble: any combination of entities o enumeration: the specific entities in an ensemble o encompassment: the range of entity envelopes o epicenter: the focal center of the ensemble

An entity may be either: embodied: matter and energy ethereal: energy only

Equivalence and Equality


Any extant combination may be: equal: sameness extant equivalent: similarity of extant

Equivalence may involve: exemplification: similarity among extant form emulation: similarity among extant function echo: a single emulation encore: a sequent emulation

Varieties of equivalence include: ectype: a pretty good equivalent ersatz: a poor equivalent excuse: a pathetic equivalent

Varieties of ideals include: epitome: an expressed ideal exemplar: an existent ideal

The prevalence of an ideal may be: exclusive: one place endemic: limited to a particular region epidemic: widespread everywhere: worldwide

The embodiment of an extant entity is modeled by an envelope. An extant may be characterized as: everyday: commonplace exotic: uncommon esoteric: highly specialized enigmatic: difficult to understand eldritch: beyond understanding

An extant may be characterized as:

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eonaian: an extant that has always existed endless: an extant that always will exist eternal: an extant that always has and always will exist

Any point in eternity an extant may be: erstwhile: an extant that once existed but no longer does erstwhile: an extant that once existed long ago eventuality: an extant of the future

Any eventuality may be: evitable: an eventuality that must exist in future exorable: an eventuality that may exist in the future excluded: an eventuality that may not exist in the future

Enclosure
An enclosure is an ensemble in an envelope. The dynamics of an enclosure are modeled by: entry: increases the envelope entity ensemble exit: decreases the envelope entity ensemble

With respect to any give enclosure an entity may be either: enclosed: within the envelope exposed: without the envelope entering: partly enclosed exiting: partly exposed

Evolution
Evolution is the dynamics of existence. Everything evolves over time. Evolution and its elements are characterized as: evolution: any change in existence over time elasticity: the range of potential evolution equilibrium: an instantaneous evolution state equalizer: any mechanism that explains equilibrium

The primary varieties of evolution in practical reality are: execution: enterprise evolution exploitation: economic evolution energetics: engineering evolution

At any given point in time extant evolution is characterized by: epigenesis: evolution up until now entelechy: current evolutionary condition

An extant without epigenesis is ex nihilo (from nothing). Nothing comes from nothing in physical reality. So everything in physical reality is evolutionary: evolutionary: an extant that evolved over time ex nihilo: an extant that did not evolve over time

The evolution of any combination of extant may be characterized:

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engagement: any combination of interdependent extant evolutions estrangement: any combination of independent extant evolutions

Engagement may be modeled as: epiphenomena: any combinatorial engaged evolution entailment: any combination of epiphenomenal efforts and effects

Epiphenomena mechanisms may have various effects on extant evolution: enable: make evolution possible engender: initiate evolution extinguish: end evolution enhance: make evolution more effective extenuate: make evolution less effective encourage: increase evolution potential emasculate: decrease evolution potential exclude: make evolution impossible

In the case of an entity equilibrium is modeled as: endogenous equilibrium: internal equilibrium within the entity exogenous equilibrium: interface equilibrium of the entity with its environment

The dynamics of evolution may be modeled in terms of: event: evolution at an instant in time episode: evolution over an interval of time epic: the entire lifecycle of an extant

The stages of the evolution of an extant may be modeled as: earlier: before existence emergence exordium: first existence embryonal: waxing existence establishment: full existence expiration ebbing: waning existence ending: final existence epilog: after existence

Essence
Essence models the embedding of an extant in existence. Formalist models of invariant essence include: eigenstate: any formalist model of essential invariant overall order eigenform: a form that captures the invariant essence of an existence organization eigenfunction: a function that captures the invariant essence of an existence operation

State always has shape. Geometry models shape in terms of various alternative combinations of shape symmetry. Varieties of geometric modeling frameworks include: Euclidian: the geometry of everyday routine physical spacetime Erlangen: a unification of Euclidean and non-Euclidian geometries generally

Essence may be modeled in terms of: elements: irreducible essence invariants

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elaborations: combinations of elements

Philosophers search for unified, ultimate, universal elemental essence. So far these universal elements have proven elusive. Even so, there are lots of useful elements. Essential fields include: Einstein fields: gravitational and inertial forces electromagnetic fields: electrical and magnetic forces also unifying strong and weak forces

Essential forms of matter include: elementary particles: expressed by the standard model of particle physics elementary atoms: expressed by the periodic table of the elements

Some primary forms of elementary existence mechanics include: quantum mechanics statistical mechanics continuum mechanics particle and piece mechanics relativistic mechanics

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Factorization
Factorization provides a canonical-closed framework for modeling systematic order in terms of forms and functions. Specifically: factor: any form or function form: any factor of system organization function: any factor of system operation

A formulation consists of formation: any combination of forms functionality: any combination of functions The dynamics of factorization are: formula: a factorization at an instant formulation: a factorization over an interval

Varieties of formation models include: fund: collection model figure: connectivity model fabric: continuum model

A figure is a combination of: feature: any form of a figure fit: any combination of features

Varieties of functions of figurations include: flow: any fund function figuration: any figure function fabrication: any fabric function

Varieties of fabric forms include: fiber: any one dimensional continuum primitive face: any two dimensional continuum primitive facet: any three dimensional continuum primitive

Varieties of fabric form boundaries are: fringe: any two dimensional face boundary frontier: any three dimensional facet boundary

A fabrication may be characterized as: fusion: conjoins fabric forms fission: cleaves fabric forms fashion: neither a fusion or a fission

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Fitness
Fitness is the mechanics of freedom from flaws and faults. The primary fitness: functionality suitable for some intended use failure: any disorder that limits artifact applicability flaw: any failure of organizational form fault: any failure of operational function fix: any means of restoring fitness

Flaws and faults are often related. A broken automobile fan belt is a flaw. The overheated automobile engine resulting from this flaw is a fault. Varieties of freedom from failure include: fit: flawless and faultless flawless: absence of non-trivial flaws faultless: absence of non-trivial faults

Varieties of artifact disorder which limits applicability and appropriateness include: fettle: is fitness for some range of intended uses fallibility: any potentiality of incidental failure failing: any intrinsic, innate, or inherent failure

Burning the lasagna perfects a lasagna fallibility. Omitting the ricotta is a lasagna failing. Varieties of failings include: foible: any minor failing flimsiness: a minor failing of form fussiness: a minor failing of function

The tendency of an automobile design to rust is a flimsiness. The tendency of an automobile design to swerve when turned sharply is a fussiness. Varieties of the potential for future failure include: fallibility: any potentiality of failure feebleness: the risk of potential failure frailty: the risk of flaw fragility: the risk of fault

Failure may be full or fractional. Specifically: full failure: no usefulness fractional failure: some usefulness

The failure of an automobile heater is a fractional failure. The automobile remains materially useful. A broken crankshaft is a full failure. This renders the automobile useless for all practical purposes. Some failures can be fixed while others cannot be fixed. Specifically: fixable failure: a failure that is reasonably fixable fatal failure: a failure that is not reasonably fixable

Varieties of transitions between fitness and failure include: failover: the transition from fit to failed

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flameout: rapid failover falloff: gradual failover fixup: the transition from failed to fit fallout: the consequences of failure

The stages of a falloff include: flag: first falloff stage fade: second falloff stage falter: third falloff stage flounder: forth falloff stage fizzle: fifth falloff stage faint: sixth falloff stage

Common varieties of property failure include: fray: breaking failure of ropes, cables, etc. freezeup: binding up of mechanisms fuse: bonding or rebonding due to melting fatigue: elasticity failure fire: minor conflagration failure flare up: moderate conflagration failure flashover: major conflagration failure flame out: combustion failure fuel out: out of gas fulmination: explosion failure friable: crumbling failure frangible: crushing failure foul: binding failure of moving machinery fissure: cracking failure flex: bending failure fold: extreme bending failure flatten: crush, compress, etc. failure furl: bend or roll at an edge failure fall: collapse failure fracture: break apart failure fragment: break up failure flack: throw off fragments failure

Varieties of personal composure failure include: fazed: minimum failure of personal composure frustrated: minor failure of personal composure flustered: moderate failure of personal composure flummoxed: major failure of personal composure floored: massive failure of personal composure flabbergasted: maximum failure of personal composure

Varieties of personal conduct failure include: farce: ridiculous failure faux pas: social failure flop: total failure foul up: complex failure fluff: minor failure

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flub: moderate failure fumble: major failure flunk: washout failure foolishness: imprudence failure FUBAR: congenital systematic failure

Varieties of personal character failings include: fitful: availability fussiness fluctuant: regularity fussiness fickle: repeatability fussiness fractious: restive fussiness foggy: sensation fussiness flighty: sobriety fussiness feckless: skill fussiness frivolous: seriousness fussiness featherbrained: sapience fussiness flaky: stability fussiness

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Instrumentality
Instrumentality is the dynamics of implementation. Instrumentality can be seen as a restatement of general automata theory. The primary elements of instrumentality are: implementation: the dynamics instrumentality instance: any specific instrument

Varieties of implementation include: instantiation: make implementation itineration: move implementation

The plurality of implementation may be: individuation: single implementation iteration: several implementation

With respect to any given instantiation an instrument may be: indispensable: must have instrument invaluable: major usefulness instrument important: moderate usefulness instrument interesting: minor usefulness instrument irrelevant: useless instrument

Instruments arise from: invention: a fundamentally new sort of instrument innovation: any improved instrument

Any two instruments may be: identical: same item isomorphic: similar item indistinguishable: highly similar isomorphism

Similarity among instruments is modeled as: ideal: any instrument that serves as a standard image: any instrument similar to an ideal imitation: any similarity mapping between ideal and image

Primary varieties of mundane instruments are: implement: an instrument that is used but not used up instantiation ingredient: an instrument that is used up in instantiation

Collections of instruments are inventories. Specifically: inventory: a collection of instruments item: an instrument in any given inventory

The structure of an inventory is modeled as: incorporation: any item in an inventory itemization: the entirety of items of an inventory

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Specialized inventory varieties include: infrastructure: implement inventory incidental: ingredient inventory

The dynamics of inventory are modeled by: issuance: adding an item to an inventory inclusion: removing an item from an inventory

Every mundane instrument can be divided into two parts: internal: the inside of the instrument: interface: the boundary to the outside of the instrument intrinsic: internal + interface

Primary varieties of managerial instrumentality are: instrumentation: any instrumentality of measuring or mandating o initiation: mandating instrument o inspection: measuring instrument information: any model with meaning interesting in implementation

Some varieties of initiation include: incite initialize institute instigate inaugurate

Every implementation involves: intention: a potential implementation incentive: a potential inducement

Intentions arise as a result of: inclination: desire irritation: displeasure incumbency: duty

Involvement may be: intentional: e.g. driving your automobile inadvertent: e.g. an automobile accident

With respect to intention and incentive involvement may result in: improvement: positive involvement value interference: negative involvement value

So an inheritance is an improvement while an infection is an interference. Involvement is any combination of instruments. Involvement is modeled in terms of integration: instantaneous involvement interoperation: interval involvement involvement: integration + interoperation

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Involvement may be: infrequent: involvement once in a while intermittent: involvement that comes and goes incessant: continuous involvement

Involvement may be: immediate: instruments integrate & interoperate intrinsically incremental: additional instruments are necessary like fixtures or fittings

Varieties of incremental instrumentality include: interposition: incremental mundane instruments intermediation: incremental managerial instruments

At any point in time a combination of instruments may be: independent: no instrument dynamics involvement interdependent: some instrument dynamics involvement

Interdependence requires integration. Intersection is the potential for involvement. At any point in time any combination of instruments may be: isolation: no possibility of integration incidence: some possibility of integration

Isolation results from: insularity: intrinsic infeasibility of integration insulation: intentional isolation o inhibition: isolation by design o impediment: isolation by defense

At any point in time any single instrument may be: idle: not currently integrated intimate: currently integrated in process: currently interoperating

Primary varieties of integration include: interconnection: information integration interlink: move integration interlock: make integration induction: kymatic integration impact: kinematic integration

The duration of integration may be modeled as: impromptu: passing integration installed: permanent integration ingeminate: perennial installation

Varieties of interoperation include: interaction: make interoperation interchange: move interoperation intercommunication: a sequence of interlocutions and inferences

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influence: kymatic interoperation impulse: kinematic interoperation

The dynamics of interoperation are modeled by: incident: instantaneous interoperation interlude: interval interoperation

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Interest
Varieties of relationships between persons and property include: investment: property owned indebtedness: property owed interest: property occupied o immediate interest: present interest o immanent interest: prospective interest

A property interest is any use of property. If you own a home then you interest in that home may involve a comfortable place to raise a family. Alternatively, you interest might be a recurring stream of rental income. Interests arise both out of investment and indebtedness. Primary varieties of interest include: title: full or factional property ownership interest temporary: occupancy without ownership interest tentative: imperfect or immature interests interest trust: possession interests, possibly in perpetuity, by intermediaries and fiduciaries trade: interests arising in commerce and other forms of trade

Varieties of financial property temporary interests include: loan: any fixed amount credit temporary interest line: any flexible amount credit temporary interest

A consumer credit card account is a flexible limited line. Automobiles are typical financed with fixed loans. Let and lease are non-financial property temporaries. Specifically: license: specific use interest let: shorter-term, limited use, minor maintenance responsibility lease: longer-term, major maintenance responsibility

Primary varieties of license interest are: leave: singe occasion license liberty: several occasion license

You might grant your neighbors a leave to use your lawn mower this morning. Alternatively, you might cross-license the liberty of your lawn mower for the liberty of your neighbors' brush trimmer. Laxity specifies the scope and scale of property rights granted in interest varieties such as tentative and trust interests. Specifically: laxity: latitude + leeway latitude: scope of use leeway: scale of use

A local celebrity, for example, might license their visage to a clothing manufacturer for use on a thousand tee-shirts for local sale over the course of the coming year. The use of the image for tee-shits in local distribution is a leeway. The latitude is thousand items and the one year duration. Primary varieties of tentative interest include: levy interest: any sort of imposed obligation lien interest: any sort of security interest

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loss interest: any insured or indemnified loss luck interest: any potentiality for gain from games of change legacy interest: any potential inheritance interest, especially one in probate litigation interest: any potential interest that might arise as a legal remedy legislation interest: any potential interest that might arise from legislative action

Primary varieties of levy interest include: tax interest: any sort of unpaid tax liability tithe interest: obligatory dues and donations toll interest: any sort of charge for translocation tariff interest: customs changes of all sorts tip interest: any sort of customary gratuity tribute interest: any sort of homage or honor

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Management
Management is the mechanics of complex conative control. The elements of management are: manager: one that manages by any mix of command and consensus management: any combination of managers

What managers do is: managing: methods of maintaining enterprise command and consensus mastership: maintenance of enterprise command and consensus

Varieties of management include: micromanagement: the management of operational details macromanagement: tactical and strategic management metamanagement: the management of management

Some common manager roles include: maestro: complex management martinet: highly disciplined management mastermind: brilliant management matchmaker: putting major deals together management maverick: innovation and instigation management missionary: making marketplace converts management mouthpiece: institutional or industry spokesperson management mover and shaker: master of power and persuasion management

Models are the feedstock and fruits of management. Primary managerial model varieties include: measure: any mechanistic model of the world as it is, was, or will be mandate: any mechanistic model of the world as it could be, can be, or could have been

Primary varieties of managerial systems include: monitoring: any system for reading measurements motivation: any system for realizing mandates

Two important managerial roles are: mentor: practice educational role magistrate: policy enforcement role

Managers cope with challenges given available capital and conduct alternatives. Specifically: matters: concerns o mission: the what of concerns o motive: the why of concerns means: capital alternatives methods: conduct alternatives

Some varieties of mandates include: manifesto: general mandate marching orders: genuine mandate

Some varieties of measures include:

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market share: the mission of maximizing an enterprise's percentage of market activity monetization: the motive of maximizing revenue from market transactions

Markets are means of consensus economic exchange. The potential for market monetization involves: margin: market revenue value ratio to realization value markup: market revenue value less realization value

Management methods may be measured in terms of: momentum: measurable mission progress milestone: material mission progress points

Failure of management methods may be due to: mistake: careless error mixup: confusion error misunderstanding: communication error misdemeanor: corruption error

Degrees of conspiratorial management include: manipulation: disingenuous management machination: deceptive management Machiavellian: deceitful management

Management always involves risk. Varieties of risk include: mischance: any sort of contingent risk misadventure: foreseeable yet unforeseen risk misfortune: unforeseeable risk mishap: accidental risk

Risk management involves: menace: any potential risk monition: any measure of potential risk

Some situations just aren't manageable. Thus the distinction: manageable: shortages, slipups, slow delivery, etc. majeure force: wars, riots, plagues, natural disasters, etc. mutiny: rebellion, revolution, etc.

Management failure results in disorder. Varieties of management failure include: mess: minimal managerial disorder muddle: minor managerial disorder morass: moderate managerial disorder meltdown: major managerial disorder

Managers must often manage change due to: mergence: enterprise recombination makeover: enterprise remodeling

Management operates in a cultural microcosm of the community of which it is a part. This places cultural constraints on management including: The elements of a managerial microcosm are:

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milieu o morals o mores o manners mise-en-scne o mood o morale

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Mechanism
Introduction
We live in a mechanistic universe. Everything in physical reality and practical reality has at least some mechanistic meaning. You are a pretty interesting mechanism. Walking, singing, eating, and sleeping all have a lot of mechanistic meaning. Primary varieties of mundane mechanism include: mortal o o mineral o o o o o machinery material money merchandise model living lifeless

There are many other practical ways to differentiate mortal. For example: fauna, flora human, harvest, husbandry, horticultural, hunting, hooking, herding

Mechanism dynamics is modeled in terms of manifestations. The elements of manifestation are: manifestation: the dynamics of a mechanism morphism: instantaneous mechanism manifestation modification: interval mechanism manifestation

A mechanism manifests its morphology. Specifically: morphology: the range of mechanism morphisms morphogenesis: a succession of morphisms and modifications metamorphism: a change from one morphism to another mutation: any nontrivial change in morphology

Primary varieties of modification include: mundane o make materialize maturation (e.g. growing a crop) manufacture (e.g. assembling refrigerators) maintain minister (e.g. water the lawn) meliorate (e.g. add a garage to your home) moderate (e.g. insulate your home) mitigate (e.g. fix windows broken by a storm) o move manual movement mechanized movement managerial o measure (e.g. balance your checkbook)

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mandate (e.g. order a pizza)

Primary mundane mechanism proactive roles are: maker mover

Primary mundane mechanism passive roles are: makelbe movable

Similarity among mechanisms is modeled as: metamechanism: any similarity among mechanisms mechaphor: any metamechanism similarity

Mundane physical dynamics can always be reduced to the mechanics of: matter: elemental material momentum: mechanical motion energy and equivalents

Mundane practical dynamics can always be reduced to the mechanics of: make up: elaborate material movement: mechanical evolution

Varieties of mechanism impossibility and illusion include: miracle: impossible manifestation mirage: illusionary manifestation

Varieties of mechanism failure include: malfunction: mundane mechanism failure miscarriage: managerial mechanism failure

Some mass mechanism varieties include: mine: mineral extraction mechanism mill: mass material making mechanism manufactory: mass merchandize making mechanism mercantile: mass merchandize trading mechanism multimodal transport: mass moving mechanism market: mass pricing mechanism

Primary Mechanism Varieties


Mechanisms may be: monoform: one morphism multiform: many morphisms

Mechanisms may be: monofunction: one modification multifunction: many modifications

Mechanisms may be:

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monoform: one morphism multiform: many morphisms

Mundane mechanisms may be: manual: e.g. a hand lawnmower motorized: e.g. a gasoline lawnmower

Mechanisms may be: modular: a combination of components or constituents (e.g. a telephone) monolithic: no natural components or constituents (e.g. a pile of sand)

Mechanisms may be: monomodal: one morphology (e.g. a screwdriver) multimodal: multiple alternative morphology (e.g. a socket wrench set)

An automobile is in one mode with the engine off and in another mode with the engine running. Each transmission gear is a mode. Plus there are all too many failure modes. Mechanisms may be: monoscale: operates on one scale (e.g. automobiles) multiscale: operates on many scales (e.g. the weather)

Mechanisms may be: micromechanism: elementary mechanism macromechanism: elaborate mechanism

Degrees of mechanism scale include: mesonic: the scale of subatomic particles and forces molecular: the scale of atoms and molecules microscopic: the scale of optical and particle microscopes mesoscopic: the scale of everyday life macroscopic: the scale of telescopes megascopic: the scale of the observable universe

Degrees of mechanism scope include: minute minuscule miniature midget middling mammoth massive monumental mountainous

Models
Models are mechanisms that serve to mirror and mimic other mechanisms. You, for example, are the best model of you. Every model involves a combination of:

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medium: any mechanism molded: shape medium markup: symbolic medium modulation: signal medium meaning: similarity of mechanisms mirroring: similarity of form mimicry: similarity of function

Some specific varieties of models include: message: a model in transit memory: a model from the past

Any given model may be a: mockup: a sincere model mockery: a satirical model

Mutuality
Mutuality is any functional combination of mechanisms. The principles varieties of mutuality are: mediation: mundane mutuality moderation: managerial mutuality

The dynamics of establishing mutuality include: meet: bring mechanisms together match: put mechanisms together marry: establish mechanism mutuality mate: establish mutuality of form mesh: establish mutuality of function

Material Modifications
Some varieties of material modifications include: mangle: fold and flex manipulate: shift, swivel, and spin mar: scrape, strip, slash, and score mark: scratch and scuff mash: reduce to paste or powder massage: stretch and skew maul: smash and stomp meld: seam and seal, melt: soften material mend: suture, stitch, staple, and splice mete: scissor, saw, and segment milk: extract fluid material mill: shave, sculpt, sink, slit, and slot mince: reduce to small pieces mine: extract solid material mint: stamp and strike mix: mingle or merge mold: shape a melt mow: slash and scythe multiply: scale and swell

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mutilate: shear, slit, stab, and stick

Multiplicity
Multiplicity is any combination of mechanisms. Some varieties of multiplicity include: magazine mashup medley membership mixed-bag mlange menagerie merger mess mingling miscellany mishmash mixture mob mongrel montage mosaic motley muddle mulligan stew

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Movement
Movement is the dynamics of motion. The elements of movement are: motion: a succession of moves mobility: the potentiality of motion map: a model of mobility

The primary varieties of mobility include: motivity: non-natural mobility motility: natural movement mobility

Varieties of separate movement include: mount: something can move other things mountable: something that can be moved by a mount

Initiation of mounted movement involves: mount on: mounting move out: first moving move on: further moving mount off: unmounting

Varieties of intermittent motion include: moving: currently moving motionless: not currently moving

Degrees of moving include: meander mope mosey march along make tracks mad dash meteoric

Varieties of mountable mounting include: mounted: currently mounted mountless: not currently mounted

Varieties of movablity include: mobile: motion is un moored: minor motion restraint mired: moderate motion restraint marooned: major motion restraint

Varieties of human terrestrial movement include: marching: manual human terrestrial movement motoring: motorized human terrestrial movement

The distance of moving may be characterized as:

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maneuver: local distance moving migration: long distance moving

Mass movement is the movement of multiple movables. The elements of mass movement are: mobilization: acquiring movables massing: arrangement of mounts and mountables mustering: assembling movables marshalling: advancement of movables

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Obtainment
Obtainment is the mechanics of market offers and order. Something is obtainable if there is a market that offers that thing. Spec obtainable: any marketed item offerer: any market principle

Degrees of obtainability include: out of the question: item with no market on the market: available from some market on sale: available from a particular market off the self: readily available from a particular market

At any point in time a market may be: oversold: too many sell orders orderly: a balance of buy and sell orders overbought: too many buy orders

Markets are a place to post offers: offer: market offer to buy or sell offer to buy: market buy offer offer to sell: market sell offer

Varieties of market price include: offer price: buy or sell price offer to buy price: price bid by buyers offer to sell price: price bid by sellers offer price spread: sell price less buy price

An overture matches buy and sell offerer: overture: placing an order overture to buy: placing an buy order against a sell offer overture to sell: placing a sell order against a buy offer

The terms of an offer may be: on order terms: payment up front on account terms: trade or other credit terms on delivery terms: payment on delivery

An order is a matchup in the marketplace: order: mutual acceptance of terms outlay: price paid

An order results in obligation and obligement: obligation: the agreement of an order obligement: to accomplishment of an order

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Operability
Operability is the mechanics of operational sufficiency. Varieties of stock availability include: on hand: available now on order: available later outage: not available

Primary varieties of supply failure include: out of supply: out of stock or out of staff out of stock: no suitable stock out of staff: no suitable stack

Stock may be: on the dock: ready for transport or received on the self: readily available from stock on the shop floor: ready for use

Varieties of excessive occupancy supply states include: overload: present excessive occupancy state overbook: prospective excessive occupancy state

Varieties of engageable availability orchestration metrics include: operable: serviceable, on-line or off-line on line: serviceable and on line open: on line and idle

Varieties of engageable unavailability orchestration metrics include: out of service: not serviceable off line: operational but off line occupied: on line and involved

Varieties of personnel availability states include: on call: on call but not on duty on duty: on duty but on or off break off break: on duty and off break

Varieties of time clock status are: off the clock on the clock on overtime

Varieties of personnel unavailability states include: off call: not on call off duty: not on duty on break: on duty but not available

Varieties of placement availability include: on site: on site but on or off station

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on station: on site and on station

Varieties of placement unavailability include: off site: not on side off station: on site but not on station

Varieties of administrative hold states include: on hold: making prohibited off hold: making permitted

Varieties of administrative moving halt states include: on hold: moving prohibited off hold: moving permitted

Varieties of in transit states include: outbound: on the way to another site on the way in: on the way to the site

The transportation cycle is: onload: first transportation on the way: final transportation offload: final transportation

Varieties of supply opportunities include: overage: oversupply or overrun oversupply: too much provision overrun: too much production

Varieties of supply overages include: overstock: excess stock overstaff: excess staff

Varieties of sourcing options include: onboard: inside sourcing outsource: outside sourcing

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Orchestration
Orchestration is the mechanics of operational optimization. Orchestration involves choosing sequences of states that maximizes operational objectives. The primary varieties of operational states are: obligatory state: a prescribed operational state optional state: a permitted operational state obstacle state: a prohibited operational state outlaw state: a proscribed operational state

Primary varieties of optional states include: otiose: worthless option okay: worthwhile option ordinary: workable option opportunity: good option outstanding: better option optimal: best option

Primary varieties of obligatory states include: obedient: command obligation observant: custom obligation orthodox: conservative obligation ordinance: code obligation ought: conscience obligation owed: credit obligation oath: covenant obligation official: commission obligation overhead: chronic obligation onus: chore obligation obeisance: chivalry obligation

Primary means of eliminating obstacle states include: overcome: convert an obstacle into an opportunity overpass: find a way around an obstacle

Obstacles of discretion states include: overreach: beyond available discretion override: a state requiring special authorization

The results of an attempt to orchestrate an override state are: opprobrium: override prohibition OK: override permission

Obstacle states of eccentricity include: offbeat: minor eccentricity state over the top: moderate eccentricity state off the wall: major eccentricity state

Obstacle states of exoticness include:

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oddball: exoticness obstacle state outlandish: exceptional exoticness obstacle state outr: extreme exoticness obstacle state

Obstacle states of excessive effort include: overtaxing: minor excessive effort operose: moderate excessive effort onerous: major excessive effort Olympian: massive excessive effort

Obstacle states of excessive expense include: overboard: minimum excessive expense ostentatious: moderate excessive expense opulent: major excessive expense

Varieties of state utility include: ornamental: a state that's just for show operative: a state with operational substance

Obstacles of normality include: outskirt: beyond the bounds of normal practice outlier: way beyond the bounds of normal practice

Blockage obstacle states are infeasible. These include: obstruction: a state you can't get out of orphan: a state you can't get into our out of outcast: a state you can't get into

Obstacles of supersession or superannuation include: outmoded: minor supersession or superannuation outdated: moderate supersession or superannuation obsolete: major supersession or superannuation

Varieties of outlaw states include: objectionable: repellent outlaw state obnoxious: repulsive outlaw state offensive: repugnant outlaw state outrageous: rotten outlaw state odious: reprehensible outlaw state obscene: revolting outlaw state

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Order
We live in an orderly universe. This is a good thing because life won't be much fun in an orderless universe. Then again, there wouldn't be any life. Life, at least as we know it, is highly ordered. The basics of objective order are: order: organization + operation organization: instantaneous order operation: interval order

Objective order may be: observational order: order that can be discerned ostensive order: order that can be demonstrated

Observation is the measurement of objective order: observer: objective measurement role observation: any measurement of objective order occasion: spacetime of observation occurrence: state of observation

Ostensive order is: observable: detectable and discernable obedient: controllable and compliant obliging: cooperative and capable

Organic order is: self-ordering: self-organizing and self-operating self-optimizing: coevolves optimally with its environment

Varieties of order semblance include: automorphic: orders of the same kind analogical: orders are of similar kinds

Varieties of systematic observable order modeling include: organon: a systematic model of the logic of order ontology: a systematic model of the likeness of order

The totality of order is modeled as: omneity: the totality of order omingenous: the totality of organizational order ominfarious: the totality of operational order

Perhaps the gods are the ultimate origin of order. If you're a god then you may be: omnipresent: all over the universe omnipotent: all powerful omnicompetent: all knowing omniscient: all seeing

Living order is modeled in terms:

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organism: a combination of organs and organelles organ: any large lumped organic mechanism organelle: any small lumped organic mechanism

An ontology models order in terms of: ontos: any class of objects ontolog: any similarity among ontos

Systems for naming an ontology include: onomatology: any naming system for an ontology onoma: an ontological name orthography: any system for encoding ontology names

An observation measures: ousia: any observable substance object: any observable system

Some sorts of order are more plausible than others: average order: usual order atypical order: uncharacteristic order abnormal order: unusual order anomalous order: irregular order antinomic order: inconsistent order absurd order: impossible order

Order may be natural or non-natural: aleatory order: the natural order of the cosmos artificial order: the non-natural order of human civilization

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Oversight
Oversight is the mechanics of operational control. A typical set of oversight cycle stages includes: observe: survey and scrutinize operations opine: form an opinion opt: select objectives, options, etc. orchestrate: operationalize opinion ordain: issue orders

Oversight operates to obtain mandated objectives. These include: organizational objectives: mandated organization operationally objectives: mandated operation

The starting point for oversight is measurement observations including: origin: measured immediate present observed order offing: measured immanent prospective observed order outlook: measured impending prospective observed order

Measurement observations may include: omens: observations suggestive of significant future developments odds: the probabilities of an prospective order

The typical stages of an operating cycle include: onset: operating dynamics prior to the operating cycle outset: first operating cycle dynamics ongoing: further operating cycle dynamics overwith: final operating cycle dynamics onward: operating dynamics prior to the operating cycle

Key operational conditions of the operating cycle are: opening: starting organization outcome: stopping organization outgrowth: subsequent organization

Varieties of oversight person roles include: overseer: a person that oversees operative: an overseen person opposite: a peer overseer opponent: a person that opposes oversight

Some varieties oversight objectives include: overmastery: maintain subjugation order officiation: maintain symbiotic order offsetting: achieve symbiotic order obviation: avoid disorder opposition: avoid domination overthrow: end domination oppression: achieve domination obliteration: achieve destruction

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Feasible oversight requires: observability: feasibility of measuring obedience: feasibility of mandating

Degrees of oversight observability challenge include: obvious: minimal observability challenge obscure: minor observability challenge occluded: moderate observability challenge occult: major observability challenge opaque: massive observability challenge

Degrees of oversight obedience challenge include: obeisant: minimal obedience challenge ornery: minor obedience challenge obstinate: moderate obedience challenge obdurate: major obedience challenge oblivious: massive obedience challenge

Varieties of failures of orchestration include: overlook: failure to observe omit: failure to ordain

Varieties of excess operation include: overdone: unnecessary effort or expense overkill: extreme unnecessary effort or expense

Varieties of the timeliness of oversight include: on time: timely overdue: tardy

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Praxeology
Introduction
Praxeology is the managerial mechanics of practical production. Praxeology seems to have arisen in the old Industrial Science movement in the 1930s. Production theory is the starting point for praxeology. This is the mundane view of practical production. Production theory arose in the 1920s in the earliest days of the Industrial Science movement. Both production theory and praxeology are outgrowths of the work of Fredrick Winslow Taylor. 25 Taylor's revolutionary book The Principles of Scientific Management was published in 1911. Taylor died in 1915 before he could work through the ramifications of his theories. His many disciples continued to refine his theories throughout the 1920s and the 1930s. Production theory and praxeology are the culmination of these efforts. Production theory and praxeology are indispensable in all practical pursuits. This is evident since nearly every sort of practical pursuit has reinvented or rediscovered production theory and praxeology. The UNIX operating system architecture, for example, is full of praxeological and production theory models. Remarkably, there is no standard interpretation of either praxeology or production theory. The interpretations of these presented here cover all of the elements found in any specialized presentation.

Production
Production is the mechanics of practice. Consider production in the light of your kitchen at home. The primary elements of production theory are: participation: persons of production (e.g. people that prepare food) provisioning: property of production (e.g. appliances, utensils, and foodstuffs) phasing: periods of production (e.g. times when food is prepared) precinct: places of production (e.g. cabinets, countertops, etc.)

The top level production models are: platform: proactors and postactor protocol: proactions and postactions

Many things in the kitchen can be used in multiple production roles. A knife can stab, scrape, be sharpened and so on. So persons and property are assigned to various roles. proactor: any person or property proactive role (e.g. a knife used for scraping) postactor: any person or property in a passive role (e.g. a knife to be sharpened)

Any person or property can assume multiple roles in the course of production. A precipitation is a combination of multiple: proaction: proactions that result in postactions postaction: passive actions resulting from proactions

So a spoon being used to stir sauce is in a proactor production role. The sauce being stirred is in a postactor production role. The proactive stirring of the spoon precipitates the postactive stirring of the sauce.

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A precipitation can involve multiple simultaneous proactions and postactions. Combinations of these are: pack: a coincident combination of proactors pool: a coincident combination of reactors

So two people working together to chop vegetables for stew are a pack. Four loaves of bread baking together in an oven are a pool. The production platform consists of: plant: all proactor roles (e.g. everything to make dinner) product: all postactor roles (e.g. everything made for dinner)

The production protocol consists of: process: all proactions (e.g. everything done for dinner) procedure: all postactions (e.g. everything done to dinner)

A typical cookbook recipe focuses on the product and process of food preparation. These can be reproduced in most well-equipped home kitchens. Yet there is a great diversity of home kitchen plants. Some kitchens have convection ovens while others don't. U.S. standardized foodstuffs like eggs and milk vary substantially from those in the U.K. So reproducing the process of a recipe often requires specializing on the procedure of the recipe for the available plant. Thus the best procedure for a given recipe at your home might vary substantially from that at your neighbor's home.

Praxeology
Praxeology is the managerial view of production. The elements of praxeological modeling are: purpose: production problems and provocations pragmatics: models necessary for production planning planning: determining what to produce pursuit: doing production perfection: production

Praxeology always starts with a purpose. If you don't have a purpose then production is necessarily futile. The elements of purpose are: problem: the default future vs. any desirable future o prefigurement: the default future if nothing is produced (e.g. no dinner) o preference: any desirable future production result (e.g. a nice dinner) provocation: specific prospective potentialities o promise: any potential prize (e.g. a pleasant family gather at dinnertime) o peril: any potential penalty (e.g. paying for a dinner out)

Suppose the weather forecast calls for heavy rain and that the windows of your home are open. The prefigurement is that your furnishings are going to get soaked. The peril is the cost of repairing and replacing your furnishings. You likely wish to avoid this penalty. So the preference is that the windows be closed. But the windows won't close themselves so production is required to realize this desirable preferable prospective future. Some praxeology purpose prize varieties include: profit

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pleasure procreation predominance painlessness peace prestige

Some praxeology purpose penalty varieties include: pain punishment plague persecution pathology penury

Some purpose preferences may involve any mix of: perpetuation: maintaining things as they are (e.g. getting an oil change for your automobile) promotion: making things different (e.g. buying a new and better automobile)

Pragmatics are the starting point for perfecting a purpose. Specifically: pragmatics prehistory: all relevant past history (e.g. lamb chops are appreciated by all) presumption: reasonable assumptions (e.g. the power in the kitchen won't fail) precondition: (e.g. the butcher has lamb chops) prerequisite: (e.g. money for the butcher bill) precedent: any relevant past practice (e.g. lamb chops last week) prototype: any novel practice (e.g. the Mongolian lamb chops recipe in the paper)

Planning employs pragmatics models in order to plan practice. The elements of planning are: premeditation o potentiality possibility: what might be produced practicability: issues in production practice limitations propriety: legal, ethical, and moral issues prudence: risk vs. return issues parsimony: efficiency and effectiveness issues probity: repute and renown issues o prospects perfectibility: how well can production be accomplished? probabilities: what are the likely outcomes of production? propitiousness: what are the best timing alternatives? o profitability: the economic view payments: economic costs and credits payin payout proceeds: the net of total payments predetermination: choosing a plan o proposal: an alternative potential production plan pitch: proposal tradeoffs persuasion: proposal relative merit o preferment: the choice of a candidate plan

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Suppose you're in New York and are scheduled for a dinner meeting in Los Angles tomorrow. You have a problem and thus a purpose. The problem is that you're not in Los Angles. You purpose is to get to Los Angles in time for dinner tomorrow. You might try walking but this isn't likely possible. You could highjack an airliner but this would likely be considered improper. So you might as well just book a flight. There is a great diversity of options for flying from New York to Los Angles. There are various alternative fares, levels of service, and route risks due to developing weather conditions. You may find some carriers far more desirable than others. The elements of practice pursuit are: plan: mandated production practice performance: measured production practice progress: production practice plan vs. performance

Note that planning may be done both before and during production. Plans are often initial partial. Provisional plans may arise during performance. A plenary plan may not be complete until performance is well underway. Specifically preliminary plan: any plan prior to the start of performance provisional plan: any plan planning done during performance partial plan: fractional plan plenary plan: full final finished plan

Suppose now that you book and board a flight to Los Angles with a stopover in Denver. You've got your plan. A big snowstorm blows up over Denver any you flight is diverted to Dallas. Now there's a big difference between your travel plan and your travel performance. So progress is lacking. Thus you need a flight from Dallas to Los Angles. You a have a new problem thus you need a new plan. The elements of practice perfection are: presentment: the overall result of production prize: any value gain from production penalty: any loss of value from practice

Suppose now that you finally arrive in Los Angles. This is the presentation of your plan. It is the final perfection of you plan. If you got a free ticket as compensation for the diverted flight then perfection results in a prize. If you had to buy a new ticket to get to Los Angeles on time for dinner then perfection results in a penalty. The maturity of practice is often an important consideration in preplanning. Varieties of practice maturity include: primitive: minimum maturity preliminary: modicum of maturity probationary: modest maturity proven: moderate maturity polished: major maturity

Some practice is more difficult that other practice. Degrees of practice difficulty may be characterized as: picnic: no material difficulty pushover: minimal difficulty practicable: moderate difficulty perverse: massive difficulty problematic: unmanageably difficult

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Prioritization of practice is typical based on the primacy of practice. Varieties of practice primacy include: panic: emergency importance paramount: enormous importance pivotal: extremely importance pressing: exceptionally importance prominent: above average importance par: average importance petty: below average importance picayune: little importance pointless: unimportant

Planning sometimes stalls or stops. When this happens it is important to distinguish among: pickle: disconcerting planning problem puzzle: difficult planning problem perplexity: daunting planning problem paradox: doubtful planning problem

Degrees of production perfection include: perfect specimen: exquisite production paragon: eminent production paradigm: exceptional production phoenix: exemplary production proof: excellent production

Production Cycle
An abbreviated model of the praxeology cycle is: prelude: everything before preparation preparation: preplanning and predetermination prosecution: pursuit and perfection postlude: everything after prosecution

In the case of an evening meal this might involve: prelude: routine food shopping and kitchen maintenance preparation: cooking the meal prosecution: eating the meal postlude: doing the dishes and cleaning up the kitchen

Varieties of production cycles include: pipelined production: phases of the production cycle may overlap partitioned production: phases of production must not overlap

In most kinds of routine surgery production is partitioned. The operating theater is fully prepared for all the usual contingencies of a particular sort of surgery. In complex surgery checklists are often verified prior to prosecution of the surgery. Multiple course restaurant meals are often pipelined. The entre is often started only after the prior course is served. Some common varieties of practice lifecycle changes include:

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pause: practice interruption postpone: delay the start of practice precipitate: decrease the duration of practice preclude: make practice impossible preempt: replace one practice with another proceed: resume practice prolong: increase the duration of practice prompt: initiate the start of practice propel: speed up practice speed prorogate: defer the completion of practice protract: slow down practice punctuate: repeated practice interruption

Practitioner Roles
Economists tell us that life consists of labor and leisure. So varieties of practice roles include: pecuniary practitioner: labor practitioner pastime practitioner: leisure practitioner passion practitioner: love practitioner

Varieties of practitioner roles include: presiding practitioner: person that mandates and measures production particular practitioner roles o preparation roles o prosecution roles

Produciblity
What production can be practiced? When where and how can practice be performed? How well and how widely can production be practiced? The answers to these questions are modeled by produciblity. Every potentialities of any production system can be characterized in terms produciblity. The elements of produciblity are: prowess: capability of practice o purview: effect of practice o pains: effort of practice o province: extent of practice puissance: capacity of practice o potency: extremes of practice o perseverance: endurance of practice productivity: competitiveness of practice o precision: effectiveness of practice o proficiency: efficiency of practice o pace: expediency of practice o price: economy of practice

Production Process and Product Quality Metrics


Quality is ultimately about attention to product and process details. Differential metrics of product quality include: plebian prosaic pedestrian premium

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prime pre-eminent par-excellence peerless

Product quality is never better than process quality. Differential metrics of process quality include: pathetic poor perfunctory pro-forma passable patchy proficient painstaking persnickety pissant

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Reciprocity
Reciprocity is the dynamics realization roleplayer relationships. Roleplay relationships among persons may be characterized as: rapport: competition relationship rivalry: cooperation relationship

Neither rivalry nor rapport is permanent. Varieties of reversals include: rupture: transition from rapport to rivalry rapprochement: transition from rivalry to rapport

Varieties of command reciprocity roles include: ruler: command sovereignty role right hand: ruler representative

Varieties of consensus reciprocity roles include: referee: consensus mediator role representative: consensus agent role

Some roles may involve: rank: stratified role status or standing regency: singular role powers or perks

Degrees of roleplayer personal admiration and aversion in reciprocity include: reverence: major admiration recognition: moderate admiration respect: minor admiration regard: minimum admiration ridicule: minimum aversion repulsion: minimum aversion repugnance: moderate aversion revulsion: major aversion

The primary dynamics of reciprocity are: request: asking response: answering report: advising reaction: acting reminder: admonition remark: assertion

Resource reliance results in one or more reckonings: redemption: roleplay suitable to a role reckoning: request for redemption

The outcome of a reckoning may be: requite: adequate roleplay renege: abstinence of roleplay renounce: abnegation of roleplay

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Roleplayer performance is modeled in terms of: reliability: effectiveness of performance responsiveness: efficiency of performance rapidity: expedience of performance

Degrees of resource reliability include: reliable: minimal reliance risk risky: minor reliance risk rash: moderate reliance risk reckless: major reliance risk

Degrees of resource responsiveness include: ready: full roleplay remiss: minor fractional failure of roleplay regardless: major fractional failure of roleplay refusal: full failure of roleplay

Varieties of role rejection include: resistive: minimal unresponsiveness restive: minor unresponsiveness recalcitrant: moderate unresponsiveness refractory: major unresponsiveness rebellious: massive unresponsiveness

The mechanisms of reciprocity consensus are: rogation: any consensus issue referendum: any call for consensus ratification: any resulting consensus

Roleplayer reaction to any potential consensus may be characterized as: resonant: maximum consent responsive: major consent receptive: minor consent resistant: minor contention reluctant: moderate contention rejective: major contention

Failure of reliance may result in: recourse: reliance on an alternative resource remedy: rectification of the results of reliance failure

Primary varieties of rectification include: redress: restoring the status quo ante prior to reliance failure restitution: specific damages reparation: non-specific damages recoupment: recovery of property

Primary varieties of recoupment include:

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reconveyance: return of parietal property replevin: return of personal property

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Resource
Introduction
Realization is the dynamics of reality. The elements of resource are: resource: anything in physical or practical reality realization: the condition of resources at an instant revision: the change of resources over an interval

A resource is anything involved in a realization. Similarity among resources may be modeled as: resemblance: any similarly among resources (e.g. your left and right hands) race: any sort of similarity among resources (e.g. red resources)

Varieties of resource combinations include: reserve: a roll waiting resources reservoir: a roll working resources

Resource combinations are created by: rustle: combining resources generally roundup: combining property resources rally: combining people resources

Resources are concentrated by: repository: a major resource concentration receptacle: a minor resource concentration

Varieties of resource lists include: roll: a list of person resources roster: a list of property resources

Some resources are more commonplace than others. Differential degrees of resource rarity metrics include: ruled out: nonexistent rumored: not known to actually exist rivalless: nothing quite like it rare: very few and far between remarkable: exceptional recurrent: from time to time repetitive: fairly usual recurrent regular: periodic repetitive run-of-the-mill: lots raft: lots and lots rampant: widespread rife: everyday riot: everywhere

Realizations are modeled by representations. Specifically: representation: any resource that resembles another realism: the adequacy and accuracy of a representation

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reflection: any similarity among resources

A representation is a resource that reflects reality. Realism is any metric of representation reflection. Some representations are more realistic than others.

Recipe
A recipe models a revision in terms of: rations: resource reliance o reservation: place and period rations o requisition: person and property rations routine: resource dynamics o requirements: first realizations o reifications: further realizations o results: final realizations

Relay
Relay models the interface dynamics of a revision: retention: resources internal to a realization relay: realization interface resource flows o receive: a relay retention supplementation o release: a relay retention subtraction

The dynamics of relay include: reception: the dynamics of receiving removal: the dynamics of releasing

Some varieties of relay include: repossess relinquish return retrieve renounce remand resign retake recapture recover render recall

Retention flow dynamics include: recruitment: solicitation of a resource: retirement: scrapping of a resource

The potential for relay includes: receivable: readiness for receipt releasable: readiness for release

Retention fund dynamics include: rise: any retention supplementation

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reduction: any retention subtraction

Revision
Revision models the dynamics of realization. Some major revision varieties include: reallocate and rearrange relocate and remake restructure and reshape refine and roughen rig and rend

Some revisions are reversible while others are not: reversibility: the potential for reversing a revision reversion: any reverse of a revision

Varieties of reversion include: regression: any inverse reversion retrogression: any indirect reversion

The bases of a revision include: roots: the phenomena of a revision rudiments: the principles of a revision ropes: the practices of a revision

Readiness is the potential for immediate realization: readiness: immediate realization potentiality rehearsal: repetition that improves readiness run-thought: a finalized rehearsal

Degrees of realization pace include: racing: hotfoot realization rushed: hightail realization rapid: hasten realization reasonable: same as usual realization restrained: slacken realization retarded: slow realization repressed: snail's pace realization

Role
Every realization has resource roles. Roles are modeled as: role: any resource use in a realization reliance: the use of a resource in a realization role

A roleplayer is any resource relied upon in a realization: roleplayer: a resource role reliance roleplay: the dynamics of a resource in a role

Relationships arise among the roles of a realization: relationship: any combination of realization roleplayers

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reciprocity: the dynamics of a relationship

Role varieties include: relevance: any potential resource realization reliance remembrance: any past resource realization reliance

Combinations of these include: repertoire: potential resource realization relevance resume: past resource realization remembrance

Resource value is modeled in terms of: reputation: resume value regard: repertoire value

Reward and Revenue


These model the economic of realization. Reward models the internal value dynamics of a realization. The elements of reward are: risk: realization first resource value return: realization final resource value reward: incremental realized economic value

Degrees of reward include: rapture: maximum pain revel: major pleasure rejoice: moderate pleasure relish: minor pleasure regret: minor pain remorse: moderate pain repine: major pain rue: maximum pain

The extremes of cumulative rewards over time are: riches: large positive incremental economic value ruin: large negative incremental economic value

Revenue models the interface value dynamics of a realization. Revenue is the dynamic difference between: revenue: receipts less remittances receipts: received value remittances: released value

Varieties of receipts and remittances include: remuneration: payment for services recompense: payment for goods rent: payment for letting and leasing royalty: payment for licensing reimbursement: refund of expenses repayment: return of credit capital

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Recurrent Realization
Much realization is at least partially recurrent. Varieties of recurrence include: replication: repetition of resource rendition: repetition of realization

The results of recurrence are: reproduction: recurrent resource rendition: recurrent realization

Some common varieties of recurrent realization include: rite: consecrated recurrent realization rut: compulsive recurrent realization rat race: completive recurrent realization

The elements of routine making are: ritual: a repetitive make realization rote: a repetitive make routine runs: any combination of rituals

The elements of routine moving are: ride: a repetitive move realization route: a repetitive make routine rounds: any combination of rides

Models useful in recurrent realization include; recipe book: collection of make models route map: collection of move models

Recurrence regularity is characterized by: rhythm: the repetitiveness of recurrence rate: recurrence frequency

Recurrence rate dynamics may be modeled by: ramp up: a rate increase ramp down: a rate decrease

Recurrence may be: relentless: homogeneous recurrence over time rotational: heterogeneous recurrence over time

The dynamics of rotation in a recurrence are: relent: stop recurrence rest: suspend recurrence resume: start recurrent run: sustain recurrence

Regime
A regime is a system of resource rules. The rules of a regime include:

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regimentation: realization rules regulation: revision rules

Rule systems are organized in terms of: rule book: a collection of rules rubric: a range of related rules

A regime may be characterized by: rigor: severity of rules rigidity: strictness of rules

With respect to a regime a resource or realization may be: respectful: consistent with rules reproachable: contravening the rules

Varieties of responses to reproachable conduct include: rap read the riot act ream rebuke recriminate reprehend reprehend reprimand reproach reprove revile rip into

Varieties of rules include: requisite: must always rule right: may rule responsibility: must rule recommendation: might rule remonstrance: might not rule rejection: may not rule restriction: must not rule repudiation: must never rule

The rules of a regime have a reach. The reach of a regime is modeled as: reach: realm + reign realm: regime reach places reign: regime reach periods

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Reuse, Replenishment, and Residuum


Introduction
The lifecycle of a resource may involve reuse, replenishment, or residuum. Systematic management of these is required in repetitive realization.

Reuse and Replenishment


Any resource in repetitive realization that cannot be reused must be replenished. So a resource in any given repetitive realization is either: reusable replenishable

A reusable is anything used more than once. You are reusable. Your automobile is reusable. A replenishable is anything used only once. The bacon and eggs you had for breakfast are not reusable but they are replenishable. No mundane resource is indefinitely reusable. So any mundane resource must eventually require: remediation: fixing a failure routine maintenance: forestalling failure replacement: replace a resource with a more serviceable one

Some varieties of routine maintenance include: readjust: adjust built-in machinery adjustments recalibrate: readjust measurement calibrations realign: readjust mechanization alignment

Some varieties of replenishment include restock: maintain repetitive realization stock levels refill: replenish liquids, powders, etc. reload: replenish parts, pieces, etc.

Primary varieties of repair are: restoration: repair without component changes refit: change out components

Primary varieties of renewal include: renovation: fractional renewal o revamp: minor renewal o remodel: similar renewal rebuild: full renewal o recreate: same rebuild o reconstruct: similar rebuild

Varieties of structure renovation include: refurbish: structure renovation refurnish: structure furnishing renovation redecorate: structure dcor renovation raze: structure removal

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Some varieties of investment remedies include: reinvestment: any change in investment retrenchment: reduction of investment risk

Some varieties of supply remediation include: retargeting: reinvestment of property retraining: reeducation of persons

Some varieties of enterprise remediation include: reorganize: enterprise organization remediation reform: enterprise operation remediation

Resources may become endangered due to fire, flood, vandalism, and so on. Varieties of endangered remediation include: rescue: removal resource endangerment recovery: repossession of endangered resources

Some varieties of living resource remedies include: revive: restore life recuperate: recover from injury or illness revitalize: restore vitality regenerate: heal wounds rejuvenate: reverse aging effects resuscitate: restore respiration rehabilitate: restore vigor

Some varieties of human routine maintenance include: rest: a break repose: sleep refreshment: take a breather restroom break: trip to the bathroom repast: food and drink recreation: play and pastimes relaxation: sport and socialization respite: a vacation

Residuum
What to do with leftover resources? This is frequently a problem in realization. Varieties of excess resources left over from a routine include: residuum: any excess resources left over from a routine reject: any failed routine resource

Varieties of rejects include: redeemable: positive economic value remainder refuse: negative or no economic value remainder

Varieties of "as is" reusable resources include:

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remainder: excess unused resource remnant: excess partially used resource rummage: a reserve of remainders and remnants

Varieties of redeemable resources include: recyclable: repetitive redeemable disposable resource renewable: repetitive redeemable durable resource

Varieties of refuse include: rubble: major solid, refuse such as construction debris and wrecked cars rubbish: minor solid refuse: food scraps and paper residue: scum, slurry, slop, dust, dust, detritus, etc.

Varieties of resource rejects include: reprocessable: any redeemable failed resource reworkable: a reusable reject with reversible failure reclaimable: a reusable reject with irreversible failure rackage: any refuse failed resource

Rackage includes: relic: an obsolete resource ruin: a worn out resource

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Shape
Introduction
State always has shape. So any realizable model of physical reality or practical reality must ultimately have a shape.

The Modeling of Shape


All applied modeling is ultimately about shape. Varieties of primary varieties of geometric shapes include: space: a geometric continuum size: any geometric continuum measure

Size varieties include: span: one dimensional size sweep: two dimensional size scope: three dimensional size

Shape varieties include: spline: a one dimensional length in space surface: a two or three dimensional area in space solid: a three dimensional volume in space

Spline varieties include: straight: no curvature sprung: a single curve snake: multiple curves spiral: three dimensional curves

Surface varieties include: sheet: no thickness surface shell: negligible thickness surface section: a slice thought a solid

Shape displacement varieties include: shift: relocate in space swing: relocate repetitively in space swivel: rotate in space spin: rotate repetitively in space swirl: swing and spin

Varieties of distortion include: scale: one dimensional linear stretch: one dimensional linear distortion swell: even, linear distortion

Varieties of uneven linear distortion include: spring: one dimensional uneven linear distortion

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skew: two dimensional uneven linear distortion shear: three dimensional uneven linear distortion

Varieties of scaling include: squeeze: lesser scale spread: larger scale

Varieties of surface and solid dynamics include: shake: a surface or solid vibration wave shape shock: a surface of solid shock wave shape

Varieties of spline dynamics include: sway: shaking of an end shimmy: shaking at the center

The Mechanics of Shape


The primary varieties of shape mechanics are: surgery: combinatorial shaping sculpting: contour shaping

Varieties of smoothing operations include: shave: thin smoothing scrape: moderate smoothing strip: thick smoothing

Varieties of linear surface cutting include: scratch: minor surface cutting scar: moderate surface cutting score: major surface cutting

Varieties of shape division include: sever: divide into parts split: divide into two parts segment: divide into more that two parts

Varieties of surface shaping include: sculpt: shape a curved surface smooth: shape a fat surface

Varieties of boring include: sink: shape a round bore slit: shape a long narrow bore slot: shape a square or rectangular bore

Varieties of abrasion include: scrape: shape a deep abrasion scuff: shape a narrow abrasion

Varieties of surface joining include:

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seam: join surfaces seal: completely join surfaces

Varieties of shape joining include: stitch: join with thread staple: join with wire stick: join with adhesive screw: join with threaded fastener spike: join with friction fastener

Varieties of rope and cable shaping include: splay: prepare an end for splicing splice: join two splays

Varieties of vegetation shaping include: slash: cut branches and bush scythe: cut stalks and stems

Varieties of flattening include: stomp: minimum flattening squash: moderate flattening squish: maximum flattening

Varieties of breaking include: smash: break into pieces shatter: break into many pieces

Varieties of blade cutting include: slice: cut with one blade scissor: cut multiple blades saw: cut with a serrated blade

Varieties of small severing include: snip: cut a small piece sliver: chisel a small piece

Varieties of embossing include: stamp: form a piece strike: form an image on a piece

Varieties of penetration include: stick: shallow penetration stab: deep penetration

Varieties of surface deterioration include: slough: surface severance shed: surface separation

The dynamics of shaping may be modeled as:

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stress: shaping effort strain: shaping effect

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Society
Society models the dynamics of service in a community. In this sense a society is a system for figuring out who serves who in which ways. Mechanisms for this purpose include: state: secular society sect: sacred society

Social science models of social mechanisms include: social contract: social stipulations social conflict: social struggle social class: social stratification

Every citizen in a community has: social structure: a combination of social stations social station: a service role played by some citizen social status: the service opportunities and obligations of a social station

We all serve someone. Service involves complementary submitting and securing: service: submit + secure submit: rendering of supply secure: reception of supply

Varieties of service include: stock service: property submit and secure staff service: person submit and secure

Consider the case of a salaried employee serving and employer. The employee supplies their person to their employee for the purposes of staffwork. The employer reciprocates by supplying property in the form of a salary and supplemental benefits to the employee. Now consider buying an automobile. This is a stipulated pair of submissions. The seller serves the buyer by submitting the automobile. The buyer serves the seller by submitting payment for the automobile. The primary varieties of service are: self-service: service to ourselves separate-service: service to others

Service generally involves combinations of: self-control: internal control separate-control: external control

In people self-control involves: somatic control: control of our bodies sentient control: control of our brains

Service is provided by both persons and property: serviceable: property capable of service servant: person capable of service

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Personal service may be: selfish: entirely for our own benefit shrewd: mostly for the benefit of ourselves sacrificial: mostly for the benefit of others selfless: entirely for the benefit of others

A smile is a personal service, so is selling bag of potatoes. Varieties of personal service relationships include: stipulation: symbiosis service supervision: submissive service suppression: subjection service

Service is always beneficial to someone. The range of social benefit balance includes: synergy: substantial mutual benefit symmetric: sufficient mutual benefit slanted: some benefit more than others servitude: substantial benefit imbalance slavery: severe benefit imbalance

Social networks are combinations of service roles and relationships. Varieties of social network relationships include: sideways: peer service relationship superiority: prepotent service relationship

Roles in hierarchical service systems may be modeled as: sovereign: paramount service role in hierarchical social networks subsidiary: all the other service roles in hierarchical social networks

The elements of stipulation are: solicitation: arranging of stipulated service signup: agreeing of stipulated service satisfaction: actualization of stipulated value settlement: accounts payment and posting signoff: accomplishment of stipulated service severance: adjournment of service relationship

The elements of service mandating are: sanction: prescription and permission suggestion: preference, predilection, and prejudice stricture: prohibition and proscription

The elements of service measurement are: success: effectiveness of service skill: efficiency of service speed: expediency of service suitability: expectation vs. effectuation seemliness: observance of strictures and sanctions

The elements of supervision are:

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stringency: supervision mandating scrutiny: supervision measuring

Specialized varieties of supervision include: steward: make supervision shepherd: move supervision

The elements of subjection are: strong-arming: subjection mandating surveillance: subjection measuring

Degrees of subjection affinity include: slavish: minimum control target agonism servile: minor control target agonism spineless: moderate control target agonism sheepish: major control target agonism submissive: massive control target agonism sycophantic: maximum control target agonism

Degrees of subjection antagonism include: standoffishness: minimum control target antagonism surliness: minor control target antagonism sassiness: moderate control target antagonism scrappiness: major control target antagonism stalwartness: massive control target antagonism savageness: maximum control target antagonism

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Supply
Introduction
Supply is systematic stocking and staffing. The primitives of supply are: supply o stock: property supply o staff: person supply site: supply places schedule: supply periods slate: supply practices

Varieties of supply control include: supply control: stock control + staff control stock control: control of supply property staff control: control of supply persons

Sufficiency of supply is modeled as: surplus: too much supply square: just enough supply scarcity: too little supply

A more detailed model is: superabundance surfeit satiety sufficiency shortfall scarcity starvation

The quantity of stock may be characterized as: single: one several: a few sundry: a dozen or so slew: dozens scores: hundreds scads: thousands stacks: tens of thousands sea: hundreds of thousands

Some specialized supply models include: stuff: an arbitrary combination of stock suit: an applicable combination of property stash: a concealed combination of property suite: an adjacent combination of places squad: a combination of personages string: a sequence of practices

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Stocks
Stocks may be characterized as: standing sporadic special seasonal standby safety squirreled secret sham superfluous superseded

Stock longevity may be characterized in terms of: shelf life serviceable life

Stock items may be characterized as: sustaining supporting supplemental staple sundries spares service

Varieties of stock dysfunction involve: shrinkage spoilage spillage senescence superannuation

The use of stock may be characterized as: scrimping saving suitable splurging squandering

Varieties of dysfunctional stock quality include: second: flawed stock salvageable: failed stock that can be reclaimed or reworked scrap: any stock with no immediate use

Staffs
Varieties of staff major dysfunction involve: sobriety

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slovenly sickness sidelined slacking shirking stability sanity safety sanitation security

Varieties of minor staff dysfunction include: slipup solecism stumble screwup sin

Sourcing
Sourcing is about: supply source: a source of supply source selection: deciding on a supply sourcing: getting supplies

Suppliers may be modeled in terms of: suitability: are the right sort of supplies available stability: is sufficient quantity of supply reliably available satisfaction: is sufficient quality of supply reliably available sustainability: is this more than a temporary source of supply

Varieties of supply include: self supply: internal supply separate supply: external supply

Separate supply transactions involve: shopping: procuring supply selling: providing supply

Shopping may be characterized as: spendthrift sensible stingy

Sites
Site logistics is modeled in terms of: shops: working supply spaces stores: waiting supply spaces

Site orderliness may be modeled as:

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shipshape spruce scattered

Site cleanliness may be modeled as: sparking spotless sharp soiled squalid

Site dynamics are modeled in terms: station: the site location of supply shuttling: internal supply flows shipping: interface supply flows

Site supply dynamics management strives for balance. This is not always achieved. Supply balance may be strangulation: failure of supply due to extreme surplus sag: too loose supply slack: loose supply symmetry: well-balanced supply stress: tight supply strain: too tight supply starvation: failure of supply due to extreme scarcity

Varieties of supply dynamics dysfunction include: sidetrack: supply is delayed stray: supply is mislaid stall: supply stops

Stationing of staff involves combinations of: seating space standing space

Stowage is the structure of storage. Serried stowage structures may be: two dimensional: e.g. setting and stacking three dimensional: e.g. shelving

Scheduling
Scheduling is about synchronizing the supply dynamics of people, property, periods, and places. There is a great diversity of scheduling strategies. Supply dynamics stages may be modeled as: startup speedup slowdown shutdown steady suspension

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start over

Some varieties of scheduling operations include: shifting: a single rescheduling shuffling: multiple simultaneous several rescheduling stretching: supplementing time shrinking: subtracting time

Some varieties of supply dynamics dysfunction include: snag: minor supply dynamics problem stumbling block: moderate supply dynamics problem snafu: major supply dynamics problem showstopper: supply dynamics stop

Some specialized sorts of scheduling periods include: spell: seconds sitting: minutes shift: hours session: days stint: weeks season: months stretch: years

Some major complications of scheduling include: sick-out shut-out sit-down slow-down strike sabotage stoppage strife

Swapping
Supply failures may require: substitution: swapping of stock surrogation: swapping of staff

A supply swap may be: stand-in: passing swap stopgap: pro tempore swap supplant: permanent swap

Scrounging
When supply fails it may be necessary to scrounge. Varieties of scrounging include: scour: scrounge for stock scout: scrounge for staff

Sequestration involves commandeering supply. Varieties include:

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shanghai: sequestration of staff swipe: sequestration of stock

Stock supply recovery may be characterized as: sacrifice: recover stock from fit stock salvage: recover stock from failed stock

Suppose you are a carpenter in desperate need of a nail, and that there are no nails to be had. You salvage a nail by straitening an old bent nail. Or you can sacrifice a nail by removing a nail from some other woodwork in progress and replacing that nail later.

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System
Introduction
A system is anything with complex state dynamics include: simplex: anything with unitary, uniform state dynamics system: any combination of simplexes

A simplex is anything that can be characterized, for any given purpose, as unitary. A hubcap might be considered a simplex of an automotive system. System dynamics is modeled in terms of: status: the dynamics of a single simplex situation: system dynamics in terms of simplex dynamics

System Dynamics
Primary varieties of system dynamics models include: schematic: the flow structures of a system series shunt: the functional dynamics of system flows

A schematic models flow relationships among the simplexes of a system. Simplex flows are modeled in terms of: stream: any system flow source: flow departure sink: flow destination

Varieties of system flows include: signal: signification flow stimulus: substance flow

The elements of a series shunt model are: series: simultaneity element shunt: synchronization element

Science
Science is any systematic way of modeling the meaning of a system. So astrology and alchemy are both sciences. These are both examples of subjective science. Astronomy and chemistry are the statefull science alternatives. Statefull science is any science which can be verified in terms of observable state dynamics. Specifically: statefull science: modeled entirely in terms of observable state dynamic meaning subjective science: modeled with other sorts of meaning such as personal or poetic meaning

Science may be: speculative science: unverified or unverifiable by means of the scientific method supported science: verified by statefull scientific method experimentation

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Substratum
Systems and simplexes are characterized in terms of the substratum of physical reality: substratum: spacetime + substance + state spacetime: space and time substance: matter and energy state: the distribution of substance in spacetime

For any given purpose some states are spurious and others are significant. Specifically: spurious: states that are purely random significant: states that can be rationalized

The face of the man in the moon is spurious. The orbital dynamics of the moon are significant.

Similarity and Sharing


Any combination of states may be: selfsame: same spacetime and substance similar: similar spacetime and substance

Substance sharing may be modeled as: solo: no substance sharing shared: some substance sharing

Similarity of spacetime sharing may be modeled as: simultaneity: same time synchronization: simultaneous change serialization: sequential change

Similarity of state may be modeled as: singular: similar to nothing else in some respect semblance: similar to something else in some respect

Some degrees of semblance include: spitting image: major semblance simulacrum: moderate semblance shadow: minor semblance

Specification
State signification is the basis for hard science and high technology system specification. System models may be: substantial: statues, samples, etc. symbolic: documents, drawings, etc.

Signification among substantial models involves: shape similarity: as in the case of a statue state dynamics similarity: as in the case of an analogue computer

Varieties of symbolic state modeling include: state specification: such as the blueprint for a house

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state simulation: such as a spacecraft simulation

The semiotics of symbolic state modeling include: semantics: state exposition conventions syntax: symbolic encoding conventions

The symbolic the state semantics of physical and practical information combine: symbol automata: automated modeling semantics set relational algebra: applied mathematics semantics state automata: applied mechanics semantics

State semiotics is any mapping among any combination of state semantics models. Specifically: signifier: any semantic mapping significance: any combination of signifiers

Semantics models employed in system modeling may be characterized as: standard: any reference model employed in statefull system specification spectrum: the state dynamics space supported by a standard

Some varieties of specification include: sketch study spreadsheet structural outline step by step instructions

State Dynamics Solver


Automated solvers produce solutions the state dynamics modeling problems. Solving of this sort is systematic searching. Solution strategies guide searching in the solution space. Specifically: solver: produces optimized state dynamics models solution: a strategy case drawn from a solution space solution space: a state dynamics solution candidate space solution strategy: a systematic way of searching for a solution

Varieties of optimality metrics include: stiffness: the adaptability range of a strategy strictness: the effectiveness of adaptation stinginess: the efficiency of adaptation swiftness: the expedience of adaptation sureness: the likely success of a strategy

Varieties of solver failures include: sticking: searching the same space stalling: running out of space to search

Varieties of solutions include: seed: a starter solution used to find a better one saddle: a locally optimal solution supreme: a globally optimal solution

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Stereotype
A stereotype is a system modeling space. The elements of stereotype are: stereotype: a space of species and specimens species: an abstract stereotype specimen: an actual stereotype

Stereotypes may be modeled in terms of: summation: the totality of stereotype specimens sample: a specimen that captures stereotype similarity

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Technology
Technology is the dynamics of tools and techniques. Specifically: technology: any combination of tools and techniques theory: the mechanics of tools and techniques

A high technology is one based on mature mechanistic theory. All other technologies are handicraft technologies. The elements of a technology are: tool: anything useful technique: any use of a tool

Technological systems are modeled in terms of: technostructure: mundane technology system technocracy: managerial technology system technometrics: technology valuation frameworks

Combinations of these are: toolkit: any combination of tools treatment: combination of techniques

Established technologies may be evaluated in terms of: track record the test of time

Degrees of technological maturity include: tried and true: maximum technological maturity thoroughly tested: major technological maturity tractable: moderate technological maturity tame: minor technological maturity teething: minor technological immaturity trail and error: major technological immaturity thinkable: maximum technological immaturity

Primary varieties of mundane technique include: transformation: make technique translocation: move technique

Primary varieties of transformation include: tailor: minor transformation transmute: major transformation

Primary varieties of managerial technique include: track: measure technique trigger: mandate technique

Primary varieties of testing include: tryout: instantaneous test

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trial: interval test

Extremes of testing include: typical testing torture testing

Testing may be accomplished by means of: test bed test track test stand test set

Testing may be modeled in terms of: test case test course

Varieties of casual treatment include: touchup: minimal casual treatment tweak: minor casual treatment tune: moderate casual treatment

Varieties of casual exploratory treatment include: tease: minimal exploratory treatment toy: minor exploratory treatment tinker: moderate exploratory treatment troubleshoot: major exploratory treatment

Varieties of deconstructive treatment include: take out: minor deconstruction take apart: moderate deconstruction teardown: major deconstruction

Varieties of dysfunctional treatment include: tamper: disruptive treatment trash: destructive treatment

The primary varieties of trial are: try on: form trial try out: function trial

Technological advantage often arises from: trick: a clever treatment twist: a novel treatment

Techniques to be avoided include: trap: dangerous technique taboo: disallowed technique

The elements of technological problem solving include:

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trouble: any failure of technology tripwire: any means of detecting trouble therapy: any technological fix

Technological decision factors include: turnon: technological benefit turnoff: technological burden tradeoff: technological balance

Close technical decisions include: tossup: a technology decision tradeoff tie tiebreaker: a means of making close technical decisions

A task models the dynamics of technology. Every task involves some combination of: target: a technological change task: a technique appropriate to a task

Varieties of waiting and working tasks include: todo: a task that will be started toil: a task that has been started try: a task attempt transpiration: the dynamics of a try throughout: the duration of a task time out: a task pause through: a task that has been successfully completed terminated: a task that did not complete successfully turnaround: the time required to complete a task throughput: the rate at which tasks are complete

Those involved in any task are a team. Teams are modeled as: team: all of those involved in a task taskmaster: team manager technologist: know-why team member technician: know-how team member

Task dynamics are modeled in terms of: thread: a dynamic of a task twine: all the dynamics of the task

The dynamics of technique are modeled in terms of: tenancy: technique instant transition: technique interval

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Territory
Territory is the mechanics of territory, topography, and translocation. Terra: our planet, the totality of territory territory: any area on Terra turf: a territory slice element

The shape of territory may be modeled as: topography: the shape of territory topos: a topographic shape element terraformation: changes to topography over time

Varieties of territory include: terrestrial: land territory terraqueous: land and sea territory thalassic: sea territory tropospheric: sky territory

The dynamics of movement include: translocation: transportation and transmission transportation: chunky movement technology transmission: continuous movement technology

Varieties of information transmission include: teleinformatics: informatics model transmission telecommunications: transmission of voice, video, etc telemetry: remote sensing transmission

The dynamics of translocation is modeled in terms of: traversable: a sequence of terminals and transfers transfer: a translocation path between terminals terminal: a translocation place transit: translocation of a traversable traffic: combinations of transit

Things translocated include: tonnage: translocation property traveler: travel person troop: a combination of travelers

Means of translocation include: translocator: a translocation mechanism transporter: any transportation mechanism transmitter: any transmission mechanism

Transportation dynamics may be modeled in terms of: translation: rectilinear motion turn: rotational motion about one axes twirl: rotational motion two axes

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tumble: rotational motion three axes

Varieties of terrestrial transportation include: truckage: road carriage trainage: rail carriage

The primary varieties of transportation include: travel: transportation of people transshipment: transportation of property

Varieties of terrestrial transportation routes include: trailway: a sequence of truckway and trackway truckway: a road pathway trackway: a rail pathway

Varieties of road transportation mechanisms include: thoroughfare: street throughway: highway turnpike: free superhighway toll road: fee superhighway

Varieties of transportation bridges include: table bridge tied arch bridge tilt bridge trestle bridge truss arch bridge truss bridge

Varieties of underground transportation mechanism include: tunnel: underground roadway tube: underground railway

Varieties of transportation terminals include: tarmac: sky terminal tieup: sea terminal truck stop: road terminal terminus: rail terminal

Modular terrestrial transporters consist of: train: tractors plus trailers tractor: a propelling conveyance trailer: a propelled conveyance

Varieties of travel include: trip: travel from a departure place to destination place turnaround: from departure place to destination place and return trek: a trip with intermediate destinations tour: a turnaround with intermediate destinations

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A transposition cycle models simple place to place translocation: takeoff: pick transpose: propel touchdown: place

Varieties of transposition effort include: tension: push effort traction: pull effort torsion: pivot effort

Varieties of transposition effect include: thrust: push effect tug: pull effect twist: pivot effect

Some transposition mechanisms include: tote: manual courier trundle: manual cart taxi: motorized cart

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Time
Time is the basis for: time telling: measuring datetimes timekeeping: measuring durations

Time measurement always requires a timebase: timebase: anything that produced ticks tick: timebase duration resolution

Timebases enable: timer: any means of measuring duration timing: any measurement of duration

Real-time timebases model the natural time of physical reality. Other timebases model various sorts of artificial time. There are endless varieties of artificial time. The countdown timing of a rocket launch is an example of artificial time. The primary public timebases are: Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB) Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) Ephemeris Time (ET) Greenwich Apparent Sidereal Time (GAST) Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time (GMST) Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) International Atomic Time (TAI) Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT) Universal Time (UT, UT0, UT1)

Varieties of current time include: today: the current date and time time of day: the time current time time of year: the current calendar time

Primary varieties of timing model include: timeframe: a hierarchical timing model timeline: a linear timing model timetable: a tabular timing model

Varieties of time limits include: timeout: a duration limit timeup: a date and time limit

Variety of timing elements include: time slice: a repetitive time span time span: a interval time spot: a instant

Timeless is timing performance with respect to time limits include:

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too soon: excessively early timely: on time tardy: late too late: excessively late truant: no show

The totality of time can be partitioned into: till now today time to come

Some degrees of time duration include: twinkling transient tenuous transitory temporary tenacious timeworn terminable termless timeless

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Work
Work is the practical mechanics of production. The elements of work are: work: systematic production works: any system for doing work Work that gets done requires workability: any work that can be done wherewithal: any means of doing work worthwhile: any work worth doing Varieties of about the people that do work include: worker: an individual that does work wage: remuneration for work

Varieties of worker include: working man working woman

Varieties of worker aggregates include: workforce: the totality of works workers workgroup: an aggregate of workforce workers

A work piece is anything we working: workpiece: workable property working inventory: the totality the workpieces of a works

Varieties of about intermittent work include: working: a worker or work piece involved in work waiting: a worker or workpiece not involved in work

Varieties of about work dynamics include: workload: work to be done workflow: the dynamics of work

Workplace is where work is done: workplace: a place where work is done worksite: layout of a workplace workspace: the physical space of a workplace

Varieties of about the layout of work include: workshop: a structure where working inventory is worked workstation: a place in the workshop where work is done warehouse: a structure where waiting inventory waits

Varieties of about the potentiality of doing work include: workable: work which is practicable by usual means workaround: work which is practicable by unusual means

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Varieties of about adequacy and assurance of work include: workmanship: the quality of work warranty: indemnification of workmanship

Varieties of working time include: workday: the working day workweek: the working week

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7: GTPS Reference Model Encyclopedia


Introduction
The GTPS Reference Model Encyclopedia includes over 325 entries involving over 5000 primitives. The reference models presented here are smaller and more specialized than those in the GTPS Atlas. Most entries consist of only one or just a few differential forms. In most applications these minor models serve to flesh out major models constructed from perspectives in the GTPS Atlas. The elements included in the GTPS Encyclopedia are: Accommodation Ad Interim Additivity Affect Age Aggression Aid Airspace Allopathic Remedy Anabasis Anamnesis Annihilation Antisocial Any Appropriateness Area Arena Argumentation Armed Force Artery Background Bad Folks Banal Banquet Bargaining Bastion Bearing Beau Monde Belligerence Bent of Mind Bestowal Big Do Big Idea Big Problem Binding Agreement Binding Behavior Blemishing Body Boldness Botheration Brainless

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Bravery Bridal Party Briskness Brutalization Build Business Buzz Off Calculus Charmed Civilized Behavior Conspicuity Cookery Corpse Costliness Costume Courageous Craftwork Skill Crowdedness Curtain Call Custodial Punishment Deglutition Depuration Desirability Disparagement Distaff Diurnal Dressing Dullard Dustbin Dysfunction Economy Elite Emotivity Empirical Energetics Engineering Ethicalness Every Excess Cost Excitability Facileness Falsity Familiarity Fanciness Fandango Farming Fashionability Feral Fervor Festivities Feud Fine Form Finesse

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Fire Fighting Firm Flux Focus Following Foolery Foreseen Formidability Fortitude Freedom Friendship Furnishings Fussiness Futurity Gala Gaming Generality Ghostly Giftedness Gladness Going Good Goodness Grapevine Gratification Grossness Group Growth Guardianship Guise Gustation Habitation Habituation Hamper Happening Harassment Hard to Believe Hardness Haute Monde Headquarters Heuristic High Speed Highness Hinder Holistic Wellness Hoodlum Humor Ill Suitability Impairment Implementation Skill Impossibility Impracticality In Play

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Indignity Indiscretion Information Intelligentsia Interference Interlocution Investigation Jectigation Joyfulness Justice Land Laudable Laughable Lavation Laziness Lifetime Linear Liveliness Lodgment Longing Lowlife Lucidity Lucubration Macroeconomics Majesty Malady Maleficent Malignancy Manuscript Market Markup Matrimony Maturity Merchandising Methodicalness Microeconomics Mistake Mnemonic Moment Monstrosity Moodiness Morality Narrative Nation Network Nice Nomenclature None Noxiousness Nuisance Value Oftenness Oldness Orgy

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Ornery Outer Outperformance Outsider Over Pantheon Parietal Place Partnership Party Pathosis Payoff Pecking Order Pedigree Perpetrate Personal Pickled Piety Plump Policing Politics Polyform Portage Portrayal Postal Service Posting Professionalism Promptness Propulsion Prosperity Provender Publication Radiation Religion Reprobate Riches Rights Rough Stuff Run Down Sacred Sapience Satisfactoriness Scam Scandal Secrecy Seismic Self Importance Self Severity Self Will Selfdom Sensing Sickness Silhouette Simplistic

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Size Slander Small Smart Set Smoothness Sociopathy Soiled Solvency Space Speech Spruce Up Stance Statistics Steadiness Stick Stiffness Storytelling Structural Element Struggle Subsistence Supernaturalism Support Surety Surface Decoration Talkativeness Tangible Tantalization Tastefulness Teleology Temperament Temporary Theater Thing Tidiness Tone Trading Trial Tribalism Trickiness Tropical Trustworthiness Trying Tuition Tune Unawareness Underclass Unfit Universe Use Valuation Variation Vetting Virtualization

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Viscosity Volumetry Voyage Vying Wakefulness War Water Supply Waver Way of Life Weather Wedding Wildcard Wilderness Wildness Willfulness Wittiness Woebegone Worthless

Accommodation
The elements of accommodation are: alimentation: eating and drinking ablution: washing attire: clothing o apparel o accouterment abode: living space

Ad Interim
Varieties of ad interim include: all afternoon all day all fall all morning all night all spring all summer all the time all weekend all winter all year as the sprit moves at all hours at dawn at dusk at odd intervals

Additivity
Additivity is the dynamics of synergistic asset combination. Varieties of assets that are used together include:

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ancillary: a necessary part of a functional whole auxiliary: a synergistic addition to a functional whole

Varieties of task-specific asset additivity include: accouterment: appurtenance or accessory appurtenance: task-specific ancillary accessory: specialized auxiliary

Varieties of asset combinations include: arrangement: distribution of assets assortment: diversity of assets Varieties of incremental additivity include: addition: annexing or appending annexing: expansion by engulfment appending: expansion by elaboration

Varieties of special additivity cases include: accordant: additives that naturally go together like left and right shoes adornment: a purely decorative additive

The extremes of additivity are: alone: absence of additivity accompanied: accomplished additivity

Varieties of pair-wise additivity include: adjacent: near but not touching abutting: touching but not joined adjoining: touching and joined

Varieties of induced force integrations: attraction: pull together induced force aversion: push apart induced force angular: rotational induced force

Varieties of fixed adjoinment include: attach: affix or adhere affix: attached by any sort of fixed fastener adhere: attached by any sort of adhesion

Varieties of regular alignment include: allineate: arrangement in a line array: arrange with multidimensional regularity

Varieties of arrangement dynamics include: alignment: relative arrangement adjustment: dynamic alignment

Varieties of flexible adjoinment include:

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anchored: secured in one or more degrees of freedom articulated: jointed adjoinment

Varieties of arrangements include: admixture: arrangement of unattached assets assembly: arrangement of attached assets agglomeration: arrangement of blended assets

Varieties of agglomeration include: amalgam: heterogeneous agglomeration alloy: homogeneous agglomeration

Affect
Affect is the personal perspective of ourselves and others. Affect models personal reality rather than physical or practical reality. We have many metrics for affect but no mechanics for affect. The place to start is the emotion, expression, and effectuation of personal perspective: attitude: the emotion of personal perspective affect: the expression of personal perspective acting out: the effectuation of personal perspective

It is often the case that affect and attitude differ. You may be angered by somebody's behavior but affect appreciation. Varieties of affect include: air: apparent affect artificiality: assumed air

Varieties of primary affect include: aura: the primary affect of a person atmosphere: the primary affect of a population

Varieties of vituperative treatment include: aspersion: mudslinging affront: maligning

Varieties of violent treatment include: abasement: maltreatment abuse: mistreatment

Degrees of comfort for any sort of adversity include: alleviate: minor comfort assuage: moderate comfort allay: major comfort

Varieties of shame include: abashed: shame of self ashamed: shame of others

Degrees of hatred include: abhorrent: minimal hatred

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abominable: minor hatred atrocious: moderate hatred accursed: minor hatred anathematic: massive hatred

Varieties of fair and false dealing include: aboveboard: fair and frank dealing artful: deceptively false dealing

Varieties of social graced deficits are: abrupt: lacking social grace angular: lacking social grace generally

Degrees of personal simplicity include: abstemious: minor lifestyle simplicity abstinent: moderate lifestyle simplicity austere: major lifestyle simplicity ascetic: maximum lifestyle simplicity

Degrees of virtue recognition include: accolade: informal recognition of virtue award: informal recognition of virtue

Degrees of personal irritation include: acerbate: minimal irritation annoy: minor irritation aggravate: moderate irritation anger: major irritation

Degrees of positive personal association include: acquaintance: knowing a person affection: liking a person attachment: lingering affection

Degrees of belief include: acquiescence: discovering what you believe acceptance: deciding what you believe adherence: doing what you believe

Degrees of esteem include: admiration: minor esteem adulation: moderate esteem adoration: major esteem awe: massive esteem

Varieties of harmless bad behavior include: adolescent: immature behavior asinine: idiotic behavior

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Degrees of risk seeking include: adventurous: minor risk seeking audacious: moderate risk seeking aweless: major risk seeking

Varieties of high passion include: aficionado: hearty passion addict: harmful passion

Varieties of amazement include: agape: surprised amazement aghast: shocked amazement

Degrees of mental suffering include: aggrieved: minor mental suffering anguished: moderate mental suffering afflicted: major mental suffering

Varieties of physical manifestation of anxiety include: agitation: minor physical manifestation of anxiety antsy: major physical manifestation of anxiety

Degrees of personal doubt include: agnostic: disbelief aproectic: doubtful adverse: doubting

Degrees of entertainment include: agreeable: minor entertainment amusing: moderate entertainment awesome: major entertainment

Degrees of mutual accord include: agreement: mutual acceptance accord: multiple mutual agreement attunement: mutual agreement on most issues

Degrees of selflessness include: accommodating: minor selflessness aiding: moderate selflessness altruistic: major selflessness

Degrees of personal physical suffering include: ailing: minor physical suffering aching: moderate physical suffering agonized: major physical suffering

The extremes of familiarity are:

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alien: anything unfamiliar accustomed: anything familiar

Varieties of socialization failure include: alienation: social misfit anomie: social malfunction

Varieties of failure of sociality include: alone: lacking companionship abandoned: loosing companionship

Varieties of personal evasions include: aloofness: passive personal evasion avoidance: proactive personal evasion

Varieties of failure of skill include: amateur: lack of skill awkward: loss of skill

Degrees of romantic attraction include: amative: minor romantic attraction amorous: major romantic attraction

Degrees of surprise include: amazement: minor surprise astoundment: moderate surprise astonishment: major surprise

The primary virtues of being clubbable include: amiability: cordiality amicability: consideration

Varieties of divinity include: angelic: divinity of person ambrosial: divinity of food or dink

Varieties of hostility include: antagonism: passive hostility aggression: proactive hostility

Varieties of failure of purpose include: apathy: general lack of purposefulness aimlessness: lack of specific purpose

Varieties of asinine behavior include: animality: critter behavior apish: childish behavior antic: clownish behavior

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Varieties of self -reform include: apology: admitting error atonement: answering for error amendment: avoiding error

Varieties of social resonance include: appeal: interesting to others affinity: mutual appeal

Varieties of public approbation include: applause: minor public approbation acclaim: major public approbation

Degrees of fear for future events include: apprehension: minor fear for future events anxiety: moderate fear for future events angst: major fear for future events

The virtues of sociability include: approachable: easily acquainted affable: genial and gracious

Varieties of response to virtuous conduct include: approval: acknowledgement of virtuous conduct approbation: praise for virtuous conduct appreciation: gratitude for virtuous conduct

Varieties of useless argument include: argumentative: unproductive argument acrimonious: unfriendly argument

Varieties of notability and nobility include: aristocratic: notable person august: noble person

Varieties of fear for present events include: aroused: minor fear for present events alarmed: moderate fear for present events afraid: major fear for present events

Major varieties of personal passions include: artistic: passion for the arts apostolic: passion for charity and compassion athletic: passion for sports and games academic: passion for study and learning amorist: passion for passion analytic: passion for reasoning and reflection

Varieties of failure of manners include:

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asocial: uninterested in social interaction antisocial: hostile to social interaction

Varieties of failure of manners include: artlessness: lack of manners asperity: rough manners abrasiveness: rude manners

Degrees of substantial vituperation or violence include: accost: minimal vituperation or violence assail: minor vituperation or violence assault: moderate vituperation or violence attack: major vituperation or violence

Degrees of appropriate confidence in dealing include: assurance: confident composure aplomb: cool assurance assertiveness: firm or forceful dealing

Degrees of excessive confidence in dealing include: assumptive: minor excessive confidence arrogant: major excessive confidence

Degrees of passive hostility in dealing include: astringent: minor passive hostility acerbic: moderate passive hostility acidic: major passive hostility

Degrees of interestingness include: attractive: minor interestingness alluring: moderate interestingness arresting: major interestingness

Varieties of reliance on others include: autarkic: an extremely self-reliant person autistic: an extremely self-involved person

Varieties of adversity to authority include: agitator: a person that derides the legitimacy of authority anarchistic: a person that denies the legitimacy of authority

Degrees of the will to dominate include: authoritarian: demanding person autocratic: domineering person absolutist: dictatorial person

Varieties of dislike include: aversion: minor dislike antipathy: moderate dislike

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animosity: major dislike animus: personal dislike

Degrees of degrees of passionateness include: avidity: minor passionateness ardor: moderate passionateness agog: major passionateness aflame: massive passionateness

Degrees of critical disapprobation include: awful: minor critical disapprobation appalling: major critical disapprobation abysmal: moderate critical disapprobation

Age
Some degrees of age include: ageless age old antediluvian archaic ancient antique au courant avant-garde

Aggression
The modes of adversarial conduct are: armistice: passive adversarial mode aggression: proactive adversarial mode

Varieties of aggression include: attack assault assassinate assail arrest attrite ambush annihilate apprehend

Aid
Some varieties of aid include: abettor adjutant aide de camp accomplice assistant agent

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accompanist ancillary attendant adjutant

Airspace
Airspace models three dimensional movement. The elements of airspace are: airspace: a combination of airways airway: an aerial translocation path avigation: aerial navigation avigation fix: a place in airspace

Primary varieties of airspace are: atmospheric aerospace

The elements of an avigation fix are: altitude: distance from the bottom of the airspace alacrity: lateral air speed acceleration: differential air speed ascension: rate of climb acclivity: differential rate of climb azimuth: direction of travel attitude: angular orientation at coordinates: positional coordinates

The elements of attitude are: roll: rotation around the forward axis pitch: up or down rotation with respect to the forward axis yaw: left or right rotation with respect to the forward axis

The elements of at coordinates are: latitude: geodetic north to south coordinate longitude: geodetic east to west coordinate level: geodetic height coordinate

Allopathic Remedy
Some varieties of allopathic drugs include: adrenergic analgesic anaphrodisiac anesthetic angiotensin anodyne antacids anthelmintics anti-allergy antianginals antiarrhythmics

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antibiotic anticancer agents anticoagulants anticonvulsants antidepressants anti-diabetics antidiarrhoeals antidote antiemetics antiflatulent antifungals antihistamines antihyperlipidemics antihypertensives anti-inflammatory antiplatelets antiprotozoals antipruritics antipsychotics antiseptic antitoxin antivenin antivirals anxiolytics aphrodisiac aspirin astringent

Anabasis
The stages of anabasis include: approaching: on the way to an area arriving: area entry abiding: area endurance absenting: area exit abandoning: outbound from an area

Anamnesis
Anamnesis is the history of our lives. How do we spend our lives? We are either: asleep awake

If we are awake then we may be: awakening aware alert attentive aroused active absent minded absorbed

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abstracted airheaded at rest at ease ardent addled abeyant acute astute assiduous amnesiac

At any given time of day we may be: abed about

At any given time of day we may be: all right ailing

At any given time of day we may be: at home away from home

Annihilation
Some varieties of annihilation include: at gunpoint at knifepoint arson asphyxia assault accident adulteration

Antisocial
Varieties of antisocial include: abominable addicted afraid aggressive alcoholic alienated aloof anchoretic animalistic anorexic antagonistic apathetic ascetic ashamed

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atavistic atrocious autarkic autistic

Any
Some varieties of any include: anyone anywhere anytime anything

Appropriateness
Degrees of appropriateness include: all right amiss afield astray awry all fouled up all wrong

Area
Area is the mechanics of arrangement in space. The elements of area are: area: any bounded surface in space ambit: the border of an area ambient: the outside of the area adjacent to the border axes: directional and distance reference frame

With respect to an area a thing may be: attendant: in the area absent: not in the area

Varieties of personal accessibility include: at hand: within reach about: in sight around: out of sight away: beyond the area

Longer distances with respect to an area include: afield: tens of miles afar: hundreds of miles distant abroad: thousands of miles distant

Varieties of alignment with respect to an area include: above: upward alow: downward amid: in the middle

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ahead: forward aback: rearward aside: to either side o aport: rightward with respect to forward o astarboard: leftward with respect to forward

Varieties of aside are: abeam: parallel abreast: not parallel

Varieties of abeam are: afore: forward abeam astern: rearward abeam

Varieties prevailing wind orientation varieties include: awind: towards prevailing winds alee: away from prevailing winds

Varieties of transportation modes include ashore: on dry land o afoot: walking o aboard road transport: bus, bicycle, automobile, etc o aboard rail transport: subways, trams, trains, etc. afloat: aboard marine transport o at sea: underway o at anchor: in port airborne: aboard air transport o aground: boarding, taxiing, etc. o aloft: in the air

Varieties of linear moving are: advance: moving forward aback: moving backward avert: turning arrest: stopped

Arena
Varieties of arena include: amphitheater armory armed combat zone assembly hall athletic field auditorium

Argumentation
Argumentation is the mechanics of arriving, hopefully, at an agreement. Agreement is communal assent. The elements of argumentation are: arguable: any model which might be agreed

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argument: the dynamics of agreement assertion: any model relevant to an arguable

Degrees of arguable assent include: adamancy: major assent acceptance: moderate assent acquiescence: minor assent ambivalence: neither assent nor adversity apprehension: minor adversity antagonism: moderate adversity animosity: major adversity

The roles in analytical argumentation are: assenter: one that accepts an argument abstainer: one that accepts an argument or is adverse to the agreement adversary: one that is adverse to an argument

The roles in advocacy argumentation are: advocate: one that advances an argument antagonist: one that attacks an argument

Argumentation may be: analytical: cooperative argumentation adversarial: competitive argumentation

The narrative of argumentation includes: allocution: assertion recitation ask: assertion request answer: assertion response

Varieties of assertion include: accredit: verify by means of authority accuse: assertion of separate fault acknowledge: verify an adverse assertion admit: confess culpability advise: counsel affirm: confirm an assertion allege: assertion of separate fault allow: affirm possibility applaud: approve apprise: incremental assertion asperse: defame attest: verify from experience attribute: assert causation authenticate: validate authoritatively aver: agree with an assertion avow: admit guilt

Accepted assertions may be: assumptive: any supposition assertion

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accredited: any supported assertion

An assertion may be considered: admissible: pertinent assertion allowable: probative assertion abusive: prejudicial assertion

Varieties of assertion media include: affidavit: written assertions asseveration: sworn assertions

Any assertion may vet or void an arguable: abetting: an assertion tending to vet an arguable abasing: an assertion that tending to void an arguable

Varieties of meaningless assertions include: ambiguous: assertion lacking certain meaning absurd: assertion lacking credible meaning

Varieties of assertion metrics include: authenticity: assertion actuality metric authoritativeness: assertion authority metric

Armed Force
The elements of armed force are: armed force: armed force combatants and arsenals armed force combatant: men and women at arms arsenal: weaponry for war fighting

Person roles in an armed force combatant include: armed combatant auxiliary combatant

The elements of arsenal include: arms: durable weaponry o manual arms: arms for single combatants o mechanized arms: arms for teams of combatants ammunition: disposable weaponry

Varieties of mechanized arms include: aerospace armada armor artillery

Artery
Some varieties of artery include: access road

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aisle artery aqueduct air lane arterial avenue alleyway autostrada autoroute alternate route

Background
Varieties of background include: blue blood bon ton big bucks bosses bourgeois bohemian blue collar bondservant bum

Bad Folks
Some varieties of bad folks are: bandit bank robber barbarian bastard beast beggar berserker bigamist bitch black marketeer black sheep blackguard blackheart bluebeard bootlegger bounder bravo brigand brute buccaneer bully bum bunko artist burglar bushwhacker butcher

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buzzard

Banal
Varieties of banality include: badinage banter blather blether bombast babble bull bullshit bilge bosh ballyhoo bunkum bloviate bunko blarney blah-blah-blah baloney balderdash bunk bluster bravado buzz

Banquet
The elements of banquet are: banquet: a meal for multiple persons bill of fare: the menu for a banquet

The items of a bill of fare are: beverage: potable drink broma: palatable food

These items may be served by means of: bar: collection of beverage buffet: collection of broma

Bargaining
The elements of bargaining are: backbite backpedal backstab badger bag bailout betray

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bait ballyhoo bamboozle bandy bankrupt bash beckon bedevil beggar beguile belittle benevolence beseech besmirch bewilder bicker blackmail blandish blarney bless blindside blitz bluff blunt bluster boast boggle bolster boosterism bootlick bore bother bowl-over brag brash brazen bribe brinksmanship browbeat brusque brutalize buffalo bug buildup bulldoze bully bumptiousness bushwhack buttonhole

Bastion
The elements of bastion are:

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barracks barricade battlefield battlefront battleground breastwork blockhouse barrier bastion battery battalion billet brig base bulwark bunker beachhead bridgehead

Bearing
Degrees of bearing towards others include: bounteous big hearted benevolent beneficent benign baleful belligerent bellicose bloodthirsty

Beau Monde
The elements of beau monde are: beauty brains brawn big bucks breeding big name bon ton bloodline

Belligerence
The elements of belligerence are: barbarity bestiality besiege beset blitz battle

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beleaguer blockade blast barrage bloodshed bomb batter board broadside barrage brutality blow up break thought break out butchery

Bent of Mind
Degrees of bend of mind include: beside oneself bright balmy breezy blithe blas blahs blues bummed out bleak black

Bestowal
Varieties of bestowal include: bouquets bravos bows boos brickbats Bronx cheers

Big Do
Varieties of big do include: baby shower bacchanal ball banquet bar crawl barbeque bash beer bust bender

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benefit big game big night out binge birthday blow out bon voyage bonfire bridal shower

Big Idea
Varieties of big idea include: bombshell breakthrough bell ringer brainstorm brilliant brainy bright bland boring banal baffled befuddled benighted

Big Problem
Varieties of big problem include: bane banshee bte noire bogeyman bugaboo bugbear

Binding Agreement
Binding agreement is the dynamics of combinations of benefits and burdens. The elements of binding agreement are: bond: a combination of burdens and benefits binding agreement: an agreement creating a bond

Bonds arise as the result of: bestowment bequeathal bargaining

Bond roles include: benefactor: assumes bond burdens beneficiary: acquires bond benefits

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The value of a bond may be modeled as: burden: value given up by the benefactor benefit: value gotten by the beneficiary balance: benefits less burdens of a bond

Degrees of balance include: bonanza boon bumper crop bounty bonus blessing break betterment balanced bother bad news bummer booby prize bomb blight bane bust

Binding Behavior
Some varieties of binding behavior include: buddy bosom buddy best buddy beau beloved

Blemishing
Varieties of blemishing include: birthmark black and blue mark black eye black mark blackhead blemish blister bloody nose bloom blot blotch blur boil boo-boo brand

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bruise burn

Body
The elements of body are: bulk: the inside of the body beyond: the outside of the body border: the divide between bulk and beyond boundary: any border barrier brink: the immediate outside of the body

Boldness
Some degrees of boldness include: brook bear brave beard beat best

Botheration
Degrees of botheration include: basics benign bothersome burdensome backbreaking ball busting

Brainless
Varieties of brainless include: birdbrain blockhead bubblehead bonehead boob buffoon bozo blockhead blundering boorish bovine born yesterday baboon babe in the woods bungling

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Bravery
Varieties of bravery include: bald ballsy bantam barefaced blaring blatant bodacious bold brash brassy brave brazen

Bridal Party
The elements of bridal-party are: bride father bride mother best man bridesmaid bride father bride mother bridegroom father bridegroom mother betrothed

The betrothed include: bride bridegroom

Briskness
Degrees of briskness include: blue streak breakneck brisk brooking no delay balky bogged down broken down

Brutalization
The elements of brutalization are: butt bunt bang bang bash

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bat batter bean beat beat-up belt blacken blast bloody bludgeon box brandish break browbeat bruise brutalize buffet bulldoze backhand bully bump-off burn

Build
Varieties of build include: baby balletic bantam barrel-chested bay window beanstalk bearish beefy beer belly behemoth bent over big big boned blimp bloated blooming blubbery bonnie bonny bony bowed bowlegged bosomy brawny broad shouldered Brobdingnagian broomstick

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bruiser buff bulging bulimic bulky burgeoning burly busty butterball buxom

Business
Business is systematic bargaining. The elements of business are: businessperson: a person engaged in business business: a concerted combination of businesspersons

Businesses are distinguished by: business line: the sorts of bargaining a business does business plan: business strategy, tactics, and operations

Varieties of business bargains include: buying and selling: fiat money exchange bargains bartering: fungible value exchange bargains brokering: fiduciary exchange bargains

Business economics is modeled in terms of: bankroll: business liquid assets borrowing: business debt business stock: capital and circulating assets balance sheet: accounting measures of income and expense bottom line: business profitability bookkeeping: accounting, inventory, payroll, etc. business books: the records of a business budget: fiscal business plan

Varieties of overall business valuation include: book value: the overall mundane (liquidation) value of the business bourse value: the financial market value of the enterprise (mundane + managerial value)

The economic dynamics of a business may be measured in terms of: booked bargains: contracted bargains billed bargains: completed bargains banked bargains: closed bargains

The result of successful bargaining is: bargain: terms of business arrangements bill of sale: a list of things brokered or bartered

Some varieties of financial businesses include:

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bank: debt and deposit business bourse: financial exchange business

Some varieties of mercantile businesses include: boutique: one or a few business lines bodega: multiple business lines bazaar: many business lines

Degrees of business success include: breaking records booming burgeoning busy business as usual below par beat up bombing bottoming out bankrupt broke belly up

The degrees of market business condition are: bubble boom bullish balance bearish bust burst

Buzz Off
Varieties of buzz off include: begone ban bar blackball boycott blockade blacklist banish boot bundle off brush off bump

Calculus
Calculus is the applied mathematics of curves and change. Calculus, in a very general sense, can be seen as the algebra of infinitesimals. The two most useful forms of calculus in practical pursuits are:

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calculus of continuous curves o differential calculus o integral calculus calculus of conservative change o Hamiltonian calculus o Lagrangian calculus

Charmed
Varieties of charmed include: crave covetous cherish contemptuous creeped out

Civilized Behavior
Degrees of civilized behavior include: contempt condescension curtness civility courtesy cordiality

Conspicuity
Varieties of conduct conspicuity include: conspicuous: purposely shown conduct concealed: purposely shielded conduct

Varieties of managerial concealment include: cover up: concealment of organizational form cover story: concealment of operational function

Varieties of mundane concealment include: cloaking: concealment by screening covert: concealment by stealth

Varieties of cloaking include: closeting: depositing out of site covering: draping over

Varieties of covertness include: camouflage: cloaking of mundane organizational form charade: cloaking of mundane operational function

Covert means of managing information include: clandestine: covert information guarding cloak and dagger: covert information gathering

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Varieties of secret information include: confidential: secret classified: state secret

Other elements of concealment include: cache: a place of concealment cryptograph: concealed information chameleon: self-concealment

Compartmentalization is the careful control of information flows within and among communities. Specifically: compartmentalization: a set of communities with controlled information flows Chinese wall: any means of maintaining compartmentalization

Cookery
Varieties of cookery include: caf cafeteria chophouse canteen commissary chuck wagon cook shack coffee shop cocktail lounge

Corpse
The elements of corpse are: corpse: human mortal remains cadaver: a corpse used for medial carrion: an unburied corpse

Internment of remains may involve: coffin: a burial box catafalque: a funeral coffin platform

Other repositories for remains include: cinerary urn: a urn for cremated remains Canopic jar: a funerary viscera jar in ancient Egypt

Places involved in cremation include: cinerarium: a place where cremations are done columbarium: a system of niches for cinerary urns

Other varieties of internment places include: churchyard cemetery

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crypt charnel catacomb

Costliness
Varieties of costliness include: costs an arm and a leg costs a lot costly competitive cut price cheap complementary

Costume
The elements of costume are: clothing: items of underwear and outerware cosmetic: pastes, powers, etc. applied to the body coiffure: hairdo cravat: hat chaussures: shoes couture jewelry: jemstone jewelry costume jewelry: junk jewerlr

Courageous
Degrees of courageous include: cheeky cocky confident cool chicken caitiff craven

Craftwork Skill
Degrees of craftwork fruition include: consummate: major minimal fruition of craftsmanship crackerjack: moderate minimal fruition of craftsmanship copasetic: minor minimal fruition of craftsmanship common: minimal fruition of craftsmanship crass: minor failure of craftsmanship crude: moderate failure of craftsmanship coarse: major failure of craftsmanship

Crowdedness
Degrees of crowdedness include: crushed cramped

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close quarters crowded cozy comfortable capacious copious commodious cavernous

Curtain Call
Varieties of curtain call responses include: cheer clap catcall cry

Custodial Punishment
Varieties of custodial punishment include: clink can calaboose concentration camp cooler cell block coop

Deglutition
The elements of deglutition are: deglutition: dining and drinking diet: dishes and drinks

The elements of diet are: dish: something to dine on drink: something to down

The dynamics of degustation involve: dine: consuming a dish down: consuming a dish

The dispensation of diet involves: dish up: serving a dish draw off: serving a drink

Some varieties of degustation places include: diner dining car dining room dining hall

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Drinks are served as: dram: lesser serving draught: larger serving

Varieties of degustation include: square meal snack

Degrees of drinking include: sip slurp swallow swig

Degrees of dining include: sample sup scarf scoff stuff

Depuration
Depuration is the dynamics of durables and dirt. A durable may be: dirty dirtless

A durable may be: damp dry

Achieving a dirtless durable involves: decontaminate degrease deodorize deterge dip disinfect disinfest douche douse drain drench drip dry dry clean dunk dust

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Desirability
Degrees of desirability include: dandy delectable delightful ducky desirable decent displeasing disagreeable dislikable distasteful dreaded

Disparagement
Some varieties of disparagement include: deride disgrace dig denounce defame discredit dishonor demonize discredit debase decry demean denigrate deprecate

Distaff
Varieties of distaff include: dame damsel daughter deb debutante dish doll dowager doxy doyenne dragon lady dreamboat duchess duenna dyke

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Diurnal
The elements of the diurnal cycle: dawn daylight dusk darkness

The solar cycle is: sunup sunny sundown sunless

Some diurnal events are: morning mid morning midday mid afternoon mid evening midnight

Primary diurnal periods are: morning afternoon evening night

Dressing
The dynamics of dressing involve: deck: sequence of clothing supplements denude: sequence of clothing subtractions

These involve: doff: remove an item of clothing don: put on an item of clothing

The extremes of dressing are: disrobed: fully undressed decked out: fully dressed

Varieties of dressing include: dress up dress down dandify disguise dizen do up doll up

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dude up drape

Dullard
Some varieties of dullard include: dimwit dingbat dodo dolt doofus dope duffer donkey dullard dumb dumbbell dummkopf dunce dippy dunderhead dup

Dustbin
The contents of a dustbin include: debris detritus dreck dregs draff dross dust dirt dung

Dysfunction
Varieties of dysfunctions of concealment and confusion include: disguise: any means of concealing character decoy: any means of creating confusion

Varieties of dysfunctions of expectation include: dim: flagging expectation dampen: faltering expectation dash: failing expectation

Varieties of the varieties of deformity and dysfunction include: defect: failed deformity: flawed dysfunction: faulted dud: fatal failure

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Varieties of varieties of dysfunctions due to failures and failings include: disadvantage: minimal loss of ability deficiency: minor loss of ability debility: moderate loss of ability disability: major loss of ability

Varieties of dysfunctions due to insufficient skill include: DIY: (Do It Yourself) skill incompleteness dysfunction dabbling: skill insufficiency dysfunction dilettantism: skill immaturity dysfunction

Varieties of varieties dysfunctions of attitude toward others include: dislike: minor bad attitude toward others deplore: moderate bad attitude toward others despise: major bad attitude toward others

Varieties of varieties dysfunctions of attitude toward duty include: distaste: minor bad attitude toward duty detest: moderate bad attitude toward duty disgust: major bad attitude toward duty

Varieties of dysfunctions of fashion include: dmod: out of fashion dowdy: unfashionable

Varieties of dysfunctions of unwarranted pessimism include: dropout: unnecessary abandonment dissident: unnecessary objection defeatist: unnecessary pessimism generally doomsayer: extreme unwarranted pessimism

Varieties of dysfunctions of insufficient use include: dusty: not often used disused: never used discardable: not useful

Varieties of dysfunctions of lack of currentness include: dated: minor lack of currentness dinosaur: major lack of currentness

Varieties of dysfunctions of personal flexibility include: diehard: lack of flexibility dogmatist: loss of flexibility

Varieties of dysfunctions of reputation, responsibility, and rank include: demerit: reduction of reputation downgrade: loss of responsibility demotion: reduction of rank

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demission: loss of relationship

Varieties of the result of major breech of duty include: defeasance: cancellation of deal dismissal: cancellation of duty

Varieties of dysfunctions of mentality include: dementia: failure of reason delusion: false reality denial: rejection of reality

Varieties of dysfunctions of courage include: disquiet: lessening of courage dismay: lack of courage dread: loss of course

Varieties of about inevitable dysfunction include: despair: impending inevitable dysfunction doom: inevitable dysfunction damnation: irreversible dysfunction

Varieties of varieties of alarm include: desperate: minor alarm dreadful: modest alarm dismal: moderate alarm dire: major alarm drastic: maximum alarm

Varieties of varieties of personal deficiency dysfunctions include: daft: a mentally deranged person devil: wicked or malevolent person dastard: a person not to be trusted dingbat: an excessively eccentric person dope: an unintelligent person dotty: a senile person dodderer: a feeble person duffer: an unskillful person dullard: a person with particularly poor social skills

Varieties of dysfunctions of morale include: disgruntlement: minor morale dysfunction demoralization: moderate morale dysfunction disillusionment: major morale dysfunction

Varieties of dysfunctions of unrest include: dissatisfaction: minor unrest discontent: moderate unrest disquiet: major unrest

Varieties of incapacity dysfunctions of intoxication include:

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drunkenness: incapacity due to alcoholic drinks drugging: incapacity due to legal or illegal drugs

Varieties of dysfunctions of mood include: discouragement: grey mood disheartenment: glum mood dejection: gloomy mood distemper: grouchy mood

Varieties of dysfunctions of mood include: distress: hapless mood despondence: hopeless mood depression: helpless mood

Varieties of dysfunctions of liveliness include: dry: minor lack of liveliness dull: moderate lack of liveliness dreary: major lack of liveliness

Varieties of dysfunctions of decor include: drab: lacking in color dingy: grimy or grubby dirty: stained or soiled

Varieties of dysfunctions of imprisonment include: detainment: detention or durance detention: short-term imprisonment durance: long-term imprisonment

Varieties of dysfunctions of hospitality include: displeasure: hospitality annoyance discommodation: hospitality aggravation discomfiture: hospitality anger

Varieties of dysfunctions due to major failures of persons or property include: downtime: duration required to reverse dysfunction discontinuance: irreversible dysfunction

Varieties of dysfunctions of insolence include: disrespect: contempt disdain: scorn detraction: fault finding

Varieties of dysfunctions of necessities include: deprivation: lack of sustenance or sleep dispossession: loss of possessions generally dislodgement: loss of shelter, safety, security, etc.

Varieties of dysfunctions of impertinence include:

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derision: ridicule deprecation: belittling disparagement: mockery

Varieties of dysfunctions of consolation include: dolefulness: sad grief disconsolation: grief beyond consolation

Varieties of dysfunctions of venom and vituperation include: derogation: minor vituperation denigration: moderate vituperation defamation: major vituperation

Varieties of dysfunctions of involuntary human removal include: displacement: involuntary residence expulsion deportation: involuntary exile expatriation Diaspora: mass displacement or deportation

Varieties of dysfunctions of full dealing include: deviousness: artful misrepresentation dissemblance: cover-up misrepresentation doubletalk: malarkey representation duck: minor avoidance misrepresentation dodge: major avoidance misrepresentation

Varieties of dysfunctions of fair dealing include: dishonesty: minor false dealing deceitfulness: moderate false dealing duplicity: major false dealing defraudation: loss due to false dealing

Varieties of dysfunctions of faith include: doubt: lack of faith disbelief: loss of faith

Varieties of dysfunctions of the sacred include: desecration: insult to the sacred defilement: injury of the sacred

Varieties of dysfunctions of direction include: dumbfounding: seriously surprised dilemma: seriously stumped

Varieties of minor dysfunctions of awareness include: daydreaming: stargazing drowsy: sleepy dozing: sleeping

Varieties of major dysfunctions of awareness include:

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dizzy: shaky disoriented: stupefied dazed: stunned delirious: seeing things

Varieties of potential dysfunction risks relevant to risk and reward include: drawback: potential gain limitation downside: potential for loss

Varieties of dysfunctional differences between desire and doings include: divagation: deviation or divergence deviation: instant difference divergence: interval difference

Varieties of business service dysfunctions include: disarticulation: failure of communication disservice: failure of conduct demerit: loss of regard or reputation

These dysfunctions of information inaccuracy include: distortion: information inaccuracy disinformation: intentionally inaccurate information doctoring: incremental addition of inaccurate information

Varieties of business continuity dysfunctions include: disturbance: minor loss of continuity disruption: moderate loss of continuity discontinuation: major loss of continuity

Varieties of failures of habitable property maintenance include: disrepair: minor failure of property maintenance dilapidation: moderate failure of property maintenance decrepitude: major failure of property maintenance decay: massive failure of property maintenance

Varieties of dysfunctions of trustworthiness include: distrust: minor loss of trustworthiness discredit: moderate loss of trustworthiness disgrace: major loss of trustworthiness downfall: massive loss of trustworthiness

Varieties of major economic dysfunctions include: devaluation: loss of currency value deflation: increase in currency value depreciation: loss of market value

Varieties of varieties of business condition dysfunction include: downturn: start of a business recession or depression downtrend: worsening of a business conditions

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Varieties of dysfunctions of enterprise decline include: downsize: site and staff reductions downgrade: loss of credit rating or equity rating

Varieties of major individual dysfunctions include: disease: loss of liveliness disfigurement: loss of looks dismemberment: loss of limb death: loss of life

Varieties of stock logistics dysfunctions include: diminishment: unexplained minor loss disappearance: unexplained major loss

Varieties of varieties of property loss include: damage: minor property loss destruction: moderate property loss devastation: major property loss desolation: massive property loss

Varieties of ethical dysfunctions include: debasement: minor ethical dysfunctions degradation: major ethical dysfunctions degeneration: massive ethical dysfunctions

Varieties of Dionysian dysfunctions include: debauchment: lack of temperance decadence: loss of temperance

Varieties of precipitation dysfunction include: deluge: too much precipitation drought: tool little precipitation

Varieties of enterprise dysfunction include: detriment: any barrier to enterprise success dearth: lack of demand for enterprise services

Varieties of economic dysfunction include: deperdition: any loss deficit: running in the red

Varieties of extreme enterprise dysfunction include: defund: loss of funding delisting: end of exchange trading defunct: out of business

Varieties of self-confidence dysfunctions include: discomposure: inadequate self-confidence

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diffidence: lack of adequate assertiveness dithering: lack of adequate decisiveness

Varieties of economic dysfunction include: diversion: misuse or misappropriation of money destabilization: financial instability depletion: financial insolvency destitution: financial insufficiency

Varieties of financial transaction dysfunction include: defalcation: a fraudulent financial transaction dishonorment: a failed financial transfer

Economy
An economy is an organic mass system that manages exchange among enterprises. Varieties of economies include: market economy: free pricing and participation mixed economy: fettered pricing and participation managed economy: fixed pricing and participation

Economies are modeled by: economics: the science that studies economies economic model: any model of an economy econometric model: a quantitative model of an economy

Economies are often modeled in terms of: economic sector: major range of economic activity economic segment: moderate range of economic economic specialty: minor range of economic activity

Varieties of economic models include: microeconomics: the economics of marketplaces macroeconomics: the economics of money

Elite
The elements of elite include: eagerness earnestness clat edification education elegance eloquence eminence energy enlightenment enthusiasm erudition esteem

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etiquette excellence experience expertise

Emotivity
Degrees of emotivity include: emotionless easy going even tempered emotive excitable edgy

Empirical
Empirical modeling and meaning is the mechanistic meaning of physical and practical reality. Empirical knowledge and understanding is: experiential: based on observable order experimental: verifiable by experimental means

We understand the empirical world by means of: exposure: existing in the empirical world enquiry: exploring the empirical world

Systematic empirical understanding comes from: examination: systematic exposure experimentation: systematic enquiry

These result in: experience: examination models of empirical reality evidence: experimentation models of empirical reality

We use these models in order to: explain: find mechanisms that match models elucidate: add mechanisms to existing empirical modeling frameworks elaborate: augment mechanisms in existing empirical modeling frameworks

Energetics
Energetics drives evolution. Nothing interesting happens in physical reality or practical reality without energy dynamics. Thermodynamics is the most the most general way of looking at energy dynamics. All evolution mechanisms are reducible to energetics. From a thermodynamics standpoint every mundane thing is an engine. You yourself are a very complicated engine. Every engine works ultimately by means of an increase of overall entropy. Any useful work done results in a localized decrease in entropy. So a refrigerator increases the entropy of the earth but decreases the entropy of you food.

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The thermodynamics of an entity are summarized in terms of: enthalpy: total thermodynamic energy entropy: useless thermodynamic energy exergy: useful thermodynamic energy ergon: thermodynamic equivalent physical work

Entropy, for practical purposes, is the thermodynamic energy tied up in structure. This energy is unavailable for useful purposes. More regular structure involves lower entropy. More random structure involves higher entropy. So water has higher entropy than ice and steam has higher entropy than water. At any given instant the total thermodynamic flow over the edge of an entity is: endothermic: net heat entering the entity exothermic: net heat exiting the entity equithermic: static heat equilibrium

Varieties of net energy change include: excitation: increase in net energy enervation: decrease in net energy

Varieties of energy flows include: exergonic: any energy outflow endergonic: any energy inflow

Every engine must have one or more each of: energizer: a means of energy inflow exhaust: a means of energy outflow

In the case of our planet solar radiation is the primary energizer. Infrared reradiation at reduced entropy is the exhaust of the Earth. Etiology models the dynamics of evolution in terms of: effort: energy exerted effect: evolution exhibited

Instantaneous equalization is modeled in energetics terms by: equipoise: instantaneous motion balance equipotential: instantaneous momentum balance

Energy transfer may involve any combination of: energy conversion: changing one form of energy to another energy conduction: conveying energy from place to place

Cyclic energy conversion involves: energy cycle: recurrent energy conversion (e.g. photosynthesis) engine cycle: regular energy conversion (e.g. internal combustion)

Energy transfer in may involve: emission: kymatic energy transfer as in the case of radiation encounter: kinematic energy transfer as in the case of recoil

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Engineering
Engineering is statefull applied science of mundane artifact dynamics. There are lots of kinds of engineering mechanics. So for present purposes the elements of engineering are: make engineering o materialization engineering maturation engineering manufacturing engineering o maintenance engineering move engineering

Ethicalness
Degrees of ethicalness include: eminent excellent exceptional exemplary everyday excusable erroneous exorable evil

Every
Some varieties of every include: everyone everywhere everyday everything

Excess Cost
Degrees of excess cost include: extortionate exorbitant expensive economical

Excitability
Degrees of excitability include: even tempered excitement effervescence exhilaration exuberance exultation ecstasy euphoria

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Facileness
Degrees of facileness include: first and foremost forte flair facileness fumbling feckless futile

Falsity
Falsity is any failure of truth. Primary varieties of falsity include: fibbing: minor falsehood fictitiousness: customary fiction falsehood: deliberate false dialog fraud: false dealing for gain

Varieties of literary falsity include: fictionality: any false literary narrative figurativeness: analogical or allegorical reference fancifulness: minor fiction fabulousness: massive fiction fantasticality: major fiction

Varieties of false action include: faking: false conduct feinting: false movement finagling: slight of hand feigning: false illness or injury

Varieties of unlikely falsity include: fishy: implausible falsity farfetched: incredible falsity

Varieties of false caginess include: foxiness: cunning falsity fancy footwork: tactical cunning falsity finesse: strategic cunning falsity

Varieties of false allegiance include: faithless: false loyalty flip-flop: false commitment

Varieties of false concealment include: furtiveness: secret falsity faade: false front

Varieties of self-falsity include:

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foolishness: laughable falsity fatuousness: ludicrous falsity

Varieties of obsequiousness include: flattery: false praise fulsomeness: excessive false praise flummery: sweet talk fawning: false affection

Varieties of self-delusion include: fantasy: imaginary falsity figment: an element of fantasy

Varieties of tall tales include: fairytale: tall tales for adults flapdoodle: tall tales for adults

Varieties of evasive falsity include: fabrication: false cover story frame-up: false accusation

Varieties of false faith include: fallacy: false belief fanaticism: furious false belief

Varieties of documentary falsity include: falsification: deliberate false documents forgery: false currency or document fudging: false calculation

Varieties of falsity involving property include: foisting: false representation of property fobbing: fraudulent representation of property fencing: false sale of stolen property

Varieties of falsity involving false dealing include: flimflam: fast false dealing fleece: faster false dealing

Some varieties of general purpose falsity include: folderol fiddlesticks fiddle faddle

Familiarity
The degrees of familiarity are: ferocious forbidding

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frigid frosty formal familiar folksy friendly forward fraternal fond fawning

Fanciness
Varieties of fanciness include: festoon flounce flourish frill furbelow frou-frou fandangle fancywork filigree

Fandango
The elements of fandango are: frolic fling fun foolishness

Farming
The elements of farming are: farmstead farmyard farmhouse farm building farmyard farmhouse farm building farmer farm field farm hand farm stock

The fruits of faming are: foodstuff fodder forage feed

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fiber flowers fruit fuel fertilizer

Fashionability
Some degrees of fashionability include: forward looking fashionista fashion plate fashionmonger fashionable faddy foppish flashy faded froufrou frumpy fuddy-duddy frowzy

Feral
The elements of feral are: fight fend flee forage feed fornicate feculate

Fervor
Degrees of fervor include: familiarity fondness fancy fascination fanaticism fetishism fixation

Festivities
Varieties of festivities include: fete fair field-day feast fast

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festival fiesta funeral fireworks fanfare

Feud
Feuding is the dynamics of factional conflict. The elements of faction are: faction: one group of feuding factionists factionist: a member of a faction

The elements of feud are: feud: factional conflict arising over some furor furor: any contentious issue

The elements of furor are: fussing: vituperative feuding fighting: violent feuding

These are composed of: flap: a feud fuss face off: a feud fight

Varieties of fussing include: fulminate fume find fault

Varieties of fighting include: fisticuffs free for all fracas fray

Fine Form
Varieties of fine form include: feeling fine fine fettle fine form fighting form fit and trim fighting weight fit as a fiddle

Finesse
Degrees of finesse include: feat first class

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fine found wanting far from the mark

Fire Fighting
The elements of fire fighting include: fire truck fire hose fire station firehouse fire hydrant fire brigade fireman firewoman

Firm
A firm is any community engaged in economic activity. The elements of firm are: facilities: firm property faculty: firm personages

Some varieties of firm include: factory family farm fungibles trading fiduciary trading

Firms have financial order including: financial organization: funds and funding financial operation: fund flows

Important aspects of financial organization include: fortune: the net worth of the firm funding: capital sources and structure

Part of financial structure is capital structure: fixed capital: durable assets financial capital: deposits and drawing rights

Two particularly interesting sorts of fund flows are: fettered cash flow: cash flow required for operations free cash flow: cash flow available for investment

Degrees of firm fortune include: flat out fantastic success fructiferous flowering flourishing

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forging ahead floundering fighting for survival folding folded

Flux
The physical world is always in a state of flux. Flux is the dynamics of substance flow. Flux is due to force which is proportional to folds in fields. Specifically: force: anything that makes physical substance flow field: substance distributions in spacetime flexure: any field folding flux: substance flow proportional to flexure

Repetitive flux may be modeled in terms of: fluctuation: range of flux frequency: rate of flux

At the scale of practical reality the most important fields are: condensed matter energy fields o elastic: vibrations, water waves, springs, etc. o enthalpic: heat content, heat conduction, heat convection, etc. o entropic: bonding energy of molecules, metals, crystals, ceramics, etc. cosmological energy fields o electromagnetic: electricity, magnetism, light, radio, etc o Einsteinian: gravity and inertia

At any sufficiently small point in space the condensed matter field may be characterized as: fixed: any non-elastic solid firm: pliable solid flexible: plastic solid flaccid: viscous solid fluid: any liquid phase flowing substance fume: any gas phase flow flowing substance free space: no condensed matter field

Condensed matter distributions may be characterized as: footed: resting on the ground founded: fixed to the ground flying: proactive flight flung: ballistic flight freewheeling: gliding flight free fall: gravitational dropping floating: water non-negative buoyant floundering: water negative buoyant

Varieties of condensed matter flux include: fluff: any gas containing solid farrago: any mixture of solids freshet: any mixture of liquids

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fizz: any liquid containing gas fog: any gas containing liquid foam: any solid containing gas flotsam: anything floating on liquid flakey: solid gains, granules, etc. floury: solid powders, particulates, etc. feculence: sewerage and slurries of all sorts

Heat flux in practical applications mostly involves: fuel: anything combustible frigerant: compressible fluid used in cooling feedwater: incompressible (usually water) fluid used in heating

Some commonplace heat flux mechanisms include: fan: various air moving mechanisms fluid compressor: increases flux flow pressure fluid condenser: gas to liquid phase change fluid heat exchanger: fluid to air heat transfer mechanism

Byproducts of heat flux include: flame: the site of combustion frost: condensation of ice from water in the air

Commonplace cooling mechanisms include: freezer fridge

Commonplace combustion mechanisms include: furnace fireplace

Degrees of temperature include: frozen freezing frosty frigid fair febrile fiery flaming

Focus
We focus our efforts on many things. Degrees of focus include: flirtation feeler flyer fling foothold foray

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fully committed

Following
Following is enthusiasm for: fashion fad famous persons

Degrees of follower enthusiasm include: follower fancier fan freak fiend

Foolery
The elements of foolery are: fool's gold fool's errand fool's paradise fool notion

Foreseen
That which is foreseen may be: felicitous fortuitous favorable fateful foreboding frightening fatal

Formidability
The degrees of formidability are: fireball frenzied fired-up frisky fresh fatigued flagging faded fizzled fallen

Fortitude
Degrees of fortitude include:

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frozen frightful fearful fretful firm fearless foolhardy

Freedom
Some varieties of freedom include: freedom from want freedom from fear freedom of worship freedom of expression freedom of association freedom of assembly freedom of the press

Friendship
Some degrees of friendship include: fair weather flinching firm fortitudinous foursquare

Furnishings
Varieties of furnishings include: furniture fabric fitting fixture floor covering frill

Fussiness
Degrees of fussiness include: fussy finicky fastidious fussbudget fascist

Futurity
Degrees of futurity include: fated to win favored to win fair chance

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fifty-fifty fighting chance fat chance forlorn hope

Gala
A gala is a gathering of: gala givers gala guests gatecrashers

The goals of a gala are: gaiety geniality

Varieties of gaiety include: good cheer good times

The dynamics of being a guest are: going out greetings getting involved goodbyes going home

Galas often involve: gigs games

Galas sometimes involve: gifts goodies

Galas usually involve: gab gags giggles grins goings-on

The guests of an elite gala are typically: gentry glitterati glamorous gorgeous gifted

Varieties of elite gala getup include:

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glad rags gauderies gems

Gaming
Gaming is a model of the dynamics of communal conduct. Commerce and combat are commonplace examples of gaming. So are collaboration and cooperation. The elements of gaming are: game: a system of communal conduct gamer: any game role gameplay: game conduct

Gaming may be modeled in terms of: gameness: willingness to game gamble: risky game conduct gamesmanship: skill at gaming o gambit: routine game conduct o gimmick: novel game conduct game plan: gaming strategy, tactics, technique goal: the game challenge gauge: any measure of game conduct guideline: the rules of the game

Generality
Degrees of generality include: global general generic genre genus genuine

Ghostly
Varieties of ghostly include: ghost ghoul goblin gremlin genie gnome golem

Giftedness
Varieties of giftedness include: gab generosity geniality genius gentility

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get up and go ginger glamour glory good heart good humor good looks good luck goodness gorgeousness grace grandeur grasp gravitas greatness gregariousness gumption gusto guts

Varieties of gift genesis include: god given grown into

Gladness
Degrees of gladness include: gaga giddy gleeful gay glad glum gloomy grim grave

Going
Varieties of going include: get up go home go to work go to school go shopping go to bed go home go out

Good
A good is any merchantable item of movable property. Primary varieties of goods include:

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groceries: gastronomic goods o grog: drinkables o grub: edible garments: getup goods gear: everything else

Some varieties of good combinations include: grab bag gallimaufry

Goodness
Degrees of goodness include: glamorous glorious grand graceful genteel garden variety gaudy garish grotesque god awful

Grapevine
Grapevine is the dynamics of rumor transmission. The elements of grapevine are: gossip o gospel: fair gab o garbage: false gab glory grieve gloat groan gainsay gibberish

Varieties of groan include: gripe grouch grump grumble

Varieties of gibberish include: gabble gobbledygook guff gas gibber

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Gratification
Gratification is the dynamics of giving and getting. Specifically: give: release of value get: receipt of value gratify: corresponding give and get

Gratification roles are: giver getter

Combinations of giving and getting are: given: that which is given gotten: that which is gotten gain: gotten less given

Varieties of gratification include: grace grant gratuity godsend gesture gift grudge giveaway giveback guerdon gratuity greasing palms graft gesture grubstake golden apple golden parachute

Some degrees of gratification are: greathearted generous giving good enough grudging grasping greedy

Grossness
Varieties of grossness include: gunk grease goo grunge

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grime glop goop grit guano gum garbage

Group
A group is a combination of: gal: female personage guy: male personage

Varieties of passing groups include: get together: social group gathering: serious group

Varieties of persistent groups include: gang garrison guild gaggle

Growth
The stages of human growth include: gametes genesis gestation growing grown up getting on gray haired geriatric grizzled gone to the grave

Guardianship
Guardianship is the dynamics of maturity management. The elements of guardianship are: guidance: counseling governance: control guarding: preservation and protection goading: provocation toward maturity

Guise
Varieties of guise include: gape gawk gasp

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gaze glance glare gloom glow glower grimace grin guffaw

Gustation
Primary gustation roles include: gastronome gourmet gourmand glutton

Varieties of gustation include: gag gluttonize gobble gnaw grind gorge gormandize grab a bite gulp guzzle graze gorp

Habitation
A habitat is a place where humans live, work, or play. habitat: a place suitable for human occupation habitation: a collection of habitats habitant: an occupant of a habitat

Some varieties of habitation include: home hideout hangout headquarters home office hotel hospital hermitage harborage haven

Housing serves as a home habitation for humans. Specifically:

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housing estate: a combination of housing housing: a habitat for a household household: one or more habitants householder: a home habitant

Some elements of household include: house: a free-standing home homestead: a home with land and often other buildings house pet: domesticated animal in the home houseplant: home horticulture houseware: a household disposable heirloom: an antique home furnishing household god: the deities of a household household good: goods employed in homemaking home furnishing: a household durable

The dynamics of household include: homebuilding: materialization of homes homemaking: managing household housekeeping: home cooking, cleaning, and caregiving home economics: household management system

Household roles include: household head: the leader of a household housekeeper: a housekeeping role homemaker: a homemaking role

Habituation
Habitation is the dynamics of usual conduct. The elements of habitude are: habitual: things we usually do and don't do o habit: things that we usually do o hang up: things that we usually do not do habiliment: things we habitually use

Also see habitat and habitu.

Hamper
Varieties of hamper include: hem in hold back hold down handicap hamstring hamper hobble handcuff hog tie

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Happening
Varieties of happening include: historical: past happening here and now: present happening hereafter: prospective happening

Varieties of hereafter happenings include: hazard: prospective hope: prospective

Degrees of hereafter happening certainly include: hasn't got a chance highly unlikely hit or miss highly likely has to happen

A happening may be: hypothetical: pedagogical example hypostatical: physical event

Degrees of historical happening volition include: happenstance: inadvertent historical happening hardly accidental: intentional historical happening

Degrees of historical happening validity include: hallucination hard fact

Degrees of historical happening veracity include: honest truth hogwash

Degrees of happening enjoyment include: heavenly honeyed high times happy times hoot hunky dory hardship horrible hideous horrendous harrowing hellacious

Degrees of happening intensity include: hushed

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halcyon humdrum humming hectic hubbub hyperactive hysterical havoc

Harassment
Varieties of harassment include: hassle haunt harass harry hound heckle hector hunt harangue

Hard to Believe
Varieties of hard to believe include: hogwash hokum humbug hooey horseshit hype hocus pocus hollow pretense hard sell hot air hullabaloo

Hardness
Varieties of hardness include: hard bitten hard hearted hard boiled hard headed hardened heartless heedless high handed

Haute Monde
The elements of haute monde are: high fashion

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high society high style high culture high living high finance high born highbrow high net worth

Headquarters
Varieties of roles at headquarters include: hand shaker hanger on head honcho head man head woman heavy hitter heavyweight heir apparent helper henchman hero heroine higher up high level high man on the totem pole high muck a muck high official high powered high priest high prince high profile high ranking high roller hired gun hired hand hireling hotshot hack

Varieties of staff candidates include: hopeful hot property

The dynamic of staffing often involves: hiring freeze hiring frenzy

Reductions in staffing involve: heave ho housecleaning

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Heuristic
The elements of heuristic include: hint hunch heads up hot tip hearsay hazy idea

High Speed
Degrees of high speed include: hasten hurry hie hump hustle hightail haul ass hurtle highball headlong

Highness
Degrees of highness include: high and mighty high on the hog has enough hand to mouth hardscrabble hard up have not humble and miserable

Hinder
Some varieties of hinder include: hamstring handicap hobble hamper halt halter hem in hold back hold down handicap hobble handcuff hog tie

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Holistic Wellness
The elements of holistic wellness are: happy healthy hearty hardy hale hygienic

Hoodlum
Some varieties of hoodlum include: hatchet man hooligan highwayman hijacker highway man holdup man hostage holder hostile hacker housebreaker heister hustler

Humor
The primary varieties of humor are: high humor: our pleasant humors hard humor: our painful humors

Varieties of high humor include: happy hard working harmonious healing heart of gold heartwarming helpful heroic high minded high spirits hijinks hilarity holiday honorable horny hospitable huggy humane humorous

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Varieties of hard humor include: harassing hard nosed hardheaded harmful harrying harsh hassling hateful haughty haughty hawkish headstrong heart of ice heartburn heartless heartsick hectoring heinous hermitage hidebound high and mighty highfalutin hindering hissy fit holier-than-thou hopeless hopping mad hostile huff humorless hungry hurtful hypercritical

Ill Suitability
Varieties of ill suitability include: incapable incapacitated ineffectual inefficient ineligible inept inexperienced inexpert incompetent

Impairment
Varieties of impairment include: illness

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infection incapacitation indisposition infirmity injury insanity imbecility iced

Implementation Skill
Varieties of implementation skill include: impeccable immaculate indifferent inept inexpert incompetent

Impossibility
Varieties of impossibility include: invincible indestructible invulnerable irresistible invisible indiscernible insensible imperceptible immovable immutable impervious imponderable indomitable

Impracticality
Varieties of impracticality include: impolitic imprudent intractable irrealizable infeasible ineffective inefficient inexpedient impossible irrecoverable irremediable irreversible irreparable irrevocable

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In Play
Degrees of in play include: inevitable impending imminent immediate in progress

Indignity
Varieties of indignity include: impoliteness incivility impudence impertinence inconvenience imposition insinuation innuendo intimidation invective insult

Degrees of indignity include: irked irritated incensed inflamed infuriated

Indiscretion
Varieties of indiscretion include: immorality impurity infamy iniquity infraction infamy inhumanity injustice impolitic infringement

Information
Primary varieties of information include: impression: measurement model information idealization: mandate model information

Information systems involve:

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intelligence: the entirety of available interesting information infodynamics: the flow of intelligence informatics: the automation of infodynamics

Information may have multiple alternative interpretations: interpretation: information idiom + inscription + invariant infomorphism: a change of idiom that preserves the invariants

Information always involves both: idiom: the stylistic medium of the information invariance: the substantial meaning of the information inscription: the idiomatic expression of invariant meaning

Intelligentsia
Varieties of intelligence roles include: intellectual illuminati in the know

Interference
Varieties of interference include: impedance impingement imposition incursion infection infringement insurgency interception intercession interloping intermeddling interposition interruption intervention intrusion invasion irruption infliction imposture

Interlocution
Interlocution is the message mechanics of intercommunication. The elements of interlocution are: initiation: establishing communication introduction: setting the stage for communication inquiry: ask a question indication: make an assertion instruction: communicate a command illustration: communicate an example

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illumination: communicate an explanation invitation: communicate an encouragement

Varieties of instruction include: imperative: must always instruction imposition: must instruction indulgence: may instruction inclination: might instruction indifference: might or might not instruction indisposition: might not instruction inhibition: must not instruction injunction: must not instruction interdiction: must never instruction

Investigation
Investigation is systematic issue resolution. investigation: systematic resolution of an issue issue: an indeterminate measurement

Questioning conducting in the course of an interview may be: interview: helpful questioning interrogation: hostile questioning

Investigation is often about causation: imputation: assignment of cause indictment: assignment of criminal culpability

In criminal investigations the result may be: incrimination: likely criminal culpability innocence: lack of criminal culpability

Jectigation
Varieties of jectigation include: jiggle joggle jink jostle jerk jolt jump jar jog jounce

Joyfulness
Varieties of joyfulness include: joshing joviality

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jubilation jollity joking joyousness jocularity jesting jeering jibing

Varieties of systematic joyfulness include: jamboree jubilee

Justice
The elements of justice are: judicature: system of administration of justice jurisdiction: the scope of a judicature

Justice is based on jurisprudence: jurisprudence: the foundations of a legal system jurist: an expert in the jurisprudence

The arbiters of justice are: judge: an arbiter of law juror: arbiter of law

Combinations of these are: judiciary: a combination of judge jury: a combination of juror

Justice seeks just remedies in justiciable cases: justiciable: any issue of justice jeopardy: any potential just remedy judgment: any particular just remedy

The quality of justice may be modeled in terms of: justification: the application of justice judiciousness: the quantity of justification justness: the quantity of justification justifiability: any potential justification

Land
Land is any region solid ground. Specifically: land: any telluric region lot: a division of land layout: the location of lots land holding: a lot held as property landholder: one that holds hand

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Land is characterized by: landscape: the way that land is used lay of the land: the topography of the land landmark: any distinctive land feature

Location is a specific land palace. location: locale or locus locale: land plot locus: land point

Laudable
Varieties of laudable include: larger than life luminary laureate legendary limelighter lionized leading light

Laughable
Varieties of laughable include: lame brain lightweight loon lout lubber lummox lunkhead laughing stock loudmouth lightning rod

Lavation
Lavation is the maintenance of personal hygiene. Varieties of lavation mechanisms include: laundry: a place for washing up lavatory: a sink for washing lavage: a bathing tub or shower loo: a solo toilet latrine: a shared toilet

Laziness
Varieties of laziness include: lackadaisical lazybones layabout laggard limp

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leaden lassitude lethargic listless laid back lukewarm lifeless Laodicean logy languor longanimous

Those who are lazy tend to: lollygag loiter linger luxuriate loaf languish laze lounge lie around loll

Lifetime
Life is our allotted time on earth. life stage: a distinctive division of life evolution lifetime: a sequence of life stages

Life may be modeled in terms of: lineage: ancestry learning: what we know legacy: what we leave behind lineament: personal appearance life lot: fortune and fate lifespan: birth to burial legend: anecdotes and apocrypha living conditions: the substance of living lifestyle: the style of living lifework: what we do with our lives line of work: practical pursuits livelihood: how we make our living long suit: particular gifts love life: love affairs life focus: why we live luck: the role of chance in life

Love life may be modeled in terms of: love affair: combination of liaisons libido: love life preferences liaison: love making

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lover: love partner life love: primary love partner

The elements of luck are: luckiness: fortuitous luck lucklessness: forlorn luck

Economists tell us that our lifespan is divided between: labor: life for pay leisure: life for play

Degrees of the lifestyle include: lordly lavish luxurious luscious lovely livable lackluster lowly lousy loathsome lacking

Some varieties of life focus include: live for art live for sport live to work live to party live to play live to learn live to shop live to love live to travel live to fight live for family live to profit

We may: live in the past live for the moment live for the future

We may: live in hope live in fear

Linear
Commonplace varieties of linear order are:

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largeness lineup

Largeness order is modeled as: largest: first in largess larger: relatively largest lesser: relatively least least: final in largess

Lineup order is modeled as: leader: first in line leading: relatively leading lagging: relatively lagging laggard: final in line

Liveliness
Degrees of liveliness include: lightening lickety split like a bat out of hell like wildfire like quicksilver light footed lively leisurely laid back lethargic listless leaden lifeless

Lodgment
The elements of lodgment are: lodge: a collection of lodgings lodging: a place to live landlord: the proprietor of a lodge lodger: one who lives in a lodging

Longing
Varieties of longing include: liking loving lovelorn lusting loneliness lamentation

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Lowlife
Varieties of lowlife include: lady of the evening Lazzaroni larcenist lawbreaker lascivious Lazarus lazybones lecher leper loner low road traveler Lothario loudmouth lewd liar libertine lifer loafer loose morals looser lothario lounge lizard

Lucidity
Degrees of lucidity include: logical level headed lucid lame ludicrous Lucian laughable

Lucubration
Lucubration is systematic research. The elements of lucubration are: legwork library work lab work

Macroeconomics
Macroeconomics is mostly concerned with money: money supply: the totally of money in the economy monetary aggregates: the various kinds of money in the economy monetary policy: managing monetary aggregates

Monetary aggregates, in very general terms, model:

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M0: currency in circulation plus central bank accounts M1: M0 + demand deposits M2: M1 + short maturity time deposits M3: M2 + longer maturity time deposits

The degrees of macroeconomic business conditions are: rotten receding retrenching remaining recovering rising remarkable

Majesty
Majesty is the mien that legitimizes leadership. Majesty starts with: might: power mortality: probity

The virtues of majesty include: munificence: generosity magnificence: glory magnanimity: good will

The vices of majesty include: miserly: cheap meretricious: cheesy maleficent: cranky

Majesty is aided by: mystique: majestic charisma magnetism: majestic charm

Malady
The stages of malady include: malaise misery mobosity morbidity moribundity mortification mortality memorialization mourning

Medical treatments in response to malady include: medical advice medical therapy

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Maleficent
Varieties of maleficent include: mad bomber maggot malefactor malinger marauder mass murderer militant miscreant misdemeanant misfit misleader mobster monster mountebank muckraker mug multiple murder murderer mutineer

Malignancy
Degrees of malignancy include: mean malicious malevolent murderous

Manuscript
Some varieties of manuscript include: memorandum memorial missive manual message minutes monograph manifesto memoir mail

Market
A market is any system of managing trade among enterprises. The elements of market are: marketplace: any means of managing enterprise trade market: a combination of marketplaces

A marketplace involves: market player: participants in the marketplace

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market mechanism: the mechanics of trading

Varieties of market mechanism include: authority arbitration agreement advertisement auction

Varieties of market player include: market maker: any market intermediary player market trader: any market independent player

Markup
The elements of markup are: markup: a mark structured model mark: an atomic markup element

Some atomic mark varieties include: magnitude: a real number valued mark multitude: an integer valued mark monetary: a currency mark moment: a point in time mark meantime: a time duration mark myriad: a mark with a list of alternative values moniker: a name reference mention: a mark reference marker: a mark that can be referenced

Matrimony
The element of matrimony include: matchmaking marriage match marriage married life

Maturity
Maturity is the development of personal mastery. Maturity may be modeled in terms of: mtier: distinctive personal suitability mastery: distinctive personal skill

Mastery may be modeled in terms of: muse: the wellspring of mastery merit: the worth of mastery mien: the ways of mastery

Mastery may be characterized in terms of: mettle: maturity of character and temperament

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moxie: maturity of initiative and innovation

Maturity of lifestyle may be modeled as: modus vivendi: way of living modus operandi: way of working

Mental maturity may be modeled in terms of: mentality: thinking strengths mentation: thinking skills mindset: things to think about

Varieties of mature accomplishments include: masterpiece: accomplishment indicative of mastery magnum opus: a masters single greatest accomplishment

Varieties of masterpiece include: masterwork: a mundane masterpiece masterstroke: a managerial masterpiece

Merchandising
The elements of merchandising are: packaging perception persuasion placement positioning presentation pricing promotion publicity pull through

Methodicalness
Degrees of methodicalness include: muddled messy mindful methodical meticulous

Microeconomics
Microeconomics models the dynamics of markets. The elements of microeconomics are: market equilibrium: the balance of supply and demand market elasticity: the equilibrium space of the market market efficiency: how well the market works

The key issues of microeconomic modeling are: marginal market equilibrium

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marginal market elasticity

Markets match up: market demand: things procured in the market market supply: things provided in the market market price: the price at which supply satisfies demand

Market price is determined by: marginal demand marginal supply

These depend on: marginal utility marginal price

These in turn depend on: marginal productivity marginal substitution

Elements of market efficiency include: market liquidity: supply and demand levels market latency: typical time required to market something

Mistake
Varieties of mistake include: muff mess up mar mangle mutilate miscue muck up misstep

Mnemonic
Varieties of mnemonics include: mark: DBAs, exchange symbols, trademarks, trade names, service names, and so on monogram: proprietary acronym such as IBM for International Business Machines memento: items such as hats, T-shirts, pens, etc. that reinforce enterprise identity medal: any sort of award mascot: metaphoric personas (e.g. Smokey the Bear)

Mnemonic messages include: motto: any short summary messages maxim: any phrases that make key points mantra: any the primary maxims

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Moment
Degrees of moment include: momentous major moment moderate moment minor moment material moment marginal moment moot meaningless

Monstrosity
Varieties of monstrosity include: mayhem murder manslaughter mle massacre mugging molestation mutilation maiming misappropriation

Moodiness
Degrees of moodiness include: miserable melancholy morose mournful mellow mirthful manic moonstruck mad as a hatter

Morality
Degrees of morality include: monstrous mortal sin mean morally neutral modest meritorious magnanimous

Narrative
A narrative is the dynamics of noting. The elements of narration are:

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narration: the dynamics of narrative narrator: one who narrates

Narration involves: notice: recognizing notables notation: recording notables

The degrees of notability are: noise o non sequitur o nonsense o nugatory nothing new o normalcy o natural novel o newsworthy o news flash

The meaning of narrative may be modeled as: nub: major meaning nuance: minor meaning

Nation
A nation is a soverign political state. The elements of nation are: nation: a nation state national soverignty

Persons are distinguished by their: nativity: nation of birth nationality: native or naturalized nation naturalization: change of nationality

Network
A network is a graph model of system dynamics. Specifically: network: a combination of nodes and nexuses node: the basic network element nexus: a pair of nodes

Network centrality may be modeled in terms of: nucleus: a central set of nodes and nexuses navel: a central network node

Network flow dynamics are modeled in terms of: navigation: choosing a sequence of nexuses negotiation: cruising a sequence of nexuses

Nice
Degrees of nice include:

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nonpareil notable nothing special nice enough not quite right not so hot not worth a damn

Nomenclature
Nomenclature is a system for naming. The elements of nomenclature are: nomenclature: a system of names nomen: a name in a nomenclature namable: something that can be named naming: assigning a name to a namable

Varieties of names include: noun number

Varieties of naming include: nomination: noun naming numeration: number naming

None
Varieties of none include: nonentity nonexistent nothingness null null and void nada nil naught nullity nothing nowhere nugatory never nobody no one no how NOOP

Noxiousness
Degrees of noxiousness include: nutritious neutral nasty noiesome

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nauseating noxious necrotizing

Nuisance Value
Degrees of nuisance value include: nullity negligible nettle nuisance nastiness nightmare nemesis

Oftenness
Degrees of oftenness include: on no occasion only once once in a blue moon once in a great while once in a while on occasion often over and over ordinarily on every occasion

Oldness
Varieties of oldness include: obsolescent of old old hat old time olden oldfangled out of date out of style outdated outmoded outworn

Varieties of extreme oldness include: ogygian old as the hills old as Adam old as Methuselah old as history old as time

Varieties of old folks include:

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over the hill old timer oldster old folks old geezer old fossil octogenarian

Orgy
The elements of orgy are: overindulgence out of control over the top obscenity outrage

Some degrees of orgy are: shindig stag party spree spasm Saturnalia

Ornery
Some varieties of ornery include: on an even keel out of sorts on the rag oppugnant obstructive over the moon

Outer
Varieties of outer include: outpost oasis outskirts outback outlying out of the way outer edge outer reaches outer banks

Outperformance
Outperformance is the mechanics of superior performance. The primary varieties of outperformance are: outdo: outperform by brawn outwit: outperform by brain

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Varieties of degrees of successful orchestration include: overshadow: minor orchestration success overpower: moderate orchestration success overwhelm: major orchestration success

Varieties of outperformance include: outshine: outperform by doing better outstrip: outperform by doing more

Varieties political objectives include: oust: remove an opponent from office ostracize: remove an opponent from officialdom overturn: reverse an established policy overthrow: effect a regime change

Varieties of tactical military objectives include: outrun: elude an enemy outflank: maneuver an enemy to disadvantage outmaneuver: maneuver to advantage

Outsider
Varieties of outsider include: oddball offbeat orphan outcast outlander outlaw

Over
Varieties of over include: overassess overesteem overestimate overpraise overprize overreckon oversell overvalue

Pantheon
A pantheon is a population of divinities. Primary varieties of divinity include: personified deity person deified

Varieties of divinity include: deity

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demigod demiurge divine offspring divine hero

Parietal Place
Some varieties of parietal place include: park parking lot playground pleasance parade piazza paddock paddy promenade preserve plantation pasture plain

Partnership
Partnership is the basis for voluntary personal roles and relationships. Specifically: partnership: all of the partners to a pact partner: any participant in a partnership

Pacts are the basis of partnership: pact: a collection of provisos proviso: a provision of a pact parlance: the terms of a proviso

Mechanisms for making pacts include: parley: bargaining a partnership powwow: a bargaining session

Proviso varieties include: pledge: a unilateral proviso promise: a bilateral or multilateral proviso parole: a sworn proviso

Varieties of parley roles include: party: principle or peripheral principle: pact participant peripheral: pact non-participant

Partnership roles may involve rank. Varieties of partner rank relationship include: peer: equality of rank prepotent: inequality of rank

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Party
Some varieties of party include: pageantry pantomime parade picnic play pomp and circumstance potlatch potluck processional promenade pyrotechnics

Pathosis
Pathosis is any sort of disease, discomfort, or disability. Some major varieties of pathosis include: pain: searing, stabbing, etc. palsy: shaking pang: spasm of pain paralysis: failure of muscle movement pyrexia: fever prostration: enervation and exhaustion

Pathosis may be characterized as: paroxysm: sudden onset prodrome: subtle onset

The causes of pathosis include: physical trauma: accident or attack physiological malfunction: diabetes, cancer, etc. pathogen: any cause of pathosis parasite: commensalism pathosis pestilence: contagious disease poison: chemical pathogen pollution: contaminant pathogen

Pathosis treatment roles include: physician: medical science practitioner paramedic: emergency medical technical pharmacist: medical drug scientist patient: person exhibiting pathosis

Pathosis may be modeled in terms of: pathogenesis: the development of pathosis pathology: the diagnosis of pathosis prognosis: the direction of pathosis

Pathosis may be treated by the administration of: physic: any pathosis remedy

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palliative: pain reliever purgative: bowel cleansing physic

Pharmaceutical are a common means of curing pathosis: prescription: a course of pharmaceutical therapy pharmaceutical: any medicinal drug pharmacopeia: available pharmaceutical

Pharmaceuticals are delivered in therapy by means of: pill poultice potion prick

Special sorts of pharmaceuticals include: placebo: a useless pharmaceutical panacea: a universal pharmaceutical

Pathosis may be managed by means of: prophylaxis: resisting pathosis prosthesis: replacement of pathosis damage premunition: immunological defense due to vaccination

Varieties of psychic pathosis include: psychosis: loss of coping skills psychosomatic: imaginary pathosis

The ultimate result of pathosis is: pull thought: full recovery pass away: failure to recover

Payoff
Payoff is any incentive to produce. This includes both economic and non-economic incentives. Primary varieties of economic payoff incentives are: pay: gains from production pension: any deferred payment pourboire: any gratuitous payment

Varieties of social payoff include: praise: any commendation plaudit: any award of special recognition plum: any prized preferment or assignment

Special varieties of economic payoff include: purse: any competitive prize plunder: any special opportunity for profit

Other forms of payoff include:

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perk: any usual benefit perquisite: any unusual benefit privilege: any unusual opportunity prerogative: the exclusive right to make some sort of choice

The mechanics of repetitive payoff include: paymaster payday purser payday pay stub paycheck payroll personnel benefit payroll tax

Pecking Order
Degrees of pecking order include: potentate prince peerage patrician plutocrat parvenu propertied professional pencil pusher pink collar proletariat peasant peon prisoner

Some places at the top of the pecking order include: pasha peerage pontiff pooh bah potentate premier president prime minister prince provost

Pedigree
Pedigree is the structure of bloodline and breeding realtionshps. The elements of pedigree are: patrimony: inherited charactreistics provenance: prior placement pureblood: breed from a standardized pedigree

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patria: nativity place partriality: nationality place progenitor: any direct ancestor progeny: offspring precursor: parents of parents predecessor: any ancestor parentage: immediate ancestors proliferation: production of progeny propogaton: the inheritance of charactersitics procreation: production an offspring propinquity: similarity of patrimony parturusion: childbirth pregnacy: with child

Perpetrate
Varieties of perpetrate include: peculate picklock pickpocket pilfer pillage pinch pirate plunder poach pocket prey purloin purse snatch pyromania

Personal
A person may be characterized in terms of: pneuma: spirit physicality: soma personality: sentience

The elements of physicality are: physique: body structure physiognomy: facial characteristics physiology: organic functions physical development: personal evolution phenotype: genetic endowment expression polymorphism: unique genetic endowment

The elements of personality are: psyche: sapience perception: senses

Two dubious approaches to understanding personality are:

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palmistry phrenology

Varieties of physique include: twiggy thin trim thickset tubby

Some stages of personal development include: prenatal postnatal postpartum perinatal puerility pre-teen puberty prime of life past prime passing on postmortem posthumous

Pickled
Some varieties of pickled include: pie eyed plastered polluted potted puking drunk problem drinker pathological drinker

Piety
The elements of piety include: paean paradise pardon peaceableness penance perdition persuasion philanthropy pietism pilgrimage praise prayer predestination profession of faith

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promised land propitiation propriety proselytizing prostration providence psalm purdah purgatory purification

Plump
Some varieties of plump include: pleasingly plump padded paunchy pokey ponderous porcine porky portly potbellied pudgy

Policing
Policing is the dynamics of policy enforcement. perlustration: watching everything patrol: walking a beat

Public policing often involves: public security o peacemaking: dealing with disorder o peacekeeping: deterring disorder public safety: fire, rescue, etc.

Policing operates to punish policy infractions: police investigation: looking for policy infractions policy infraction: any conduct contrary to policy penalization: the established penalty for policy infraction

Varieties of penalization include: pardon: exemption from penalization probation: police supervision punishment: loss of liberty or lucre

Varieties of punishment include: penal servitude: freedom penalty punitive payment: fee penalty

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Politics
Politics is the dynamics of making and maintaining both public and private policy. The elements of politics are: political district: a natural or artificial political place subdivision polis: the population of a political district polity: a political system of a political district

Politics involves: policymaker: one that makes policy policy proposition: a candidate policy policy pronouncement: confirmed policy

Policy is established by: policy proclamation: enunciating policy policy promulgation: effecting policy

Policy is changed by: policy revision: changing a policy policy repeal: canceling a policy

Policy may be made by any combination of: prerogative politics: policy by fiat command partisan politics: policy by free consensus

Varieties of partisan politics include: parliament: representative politics plebiscite: popular polling

Parties in multiparty systems may be characterized as: party in power party in opposition

Policy consensus may be confirmed by polling: polling: consensus counting poll preference: polling result

Partisanship is political advocacy. The elements of partisanship are: political class: those involved in politics political culture: the culture of politics

Political parties are systematic partisanship: political partisan: a person concerned with a particular policy political party: a combination of partisans political platform: the policy propositions of a party

Political parties often include: political class: those involved in politics political elite: the leaders of the political class party hack: a doer of political odd jobs

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perpetual candidate: one who is always running for some political office political operative: a professional political campaigner political activist: one that influences policy issues pollster: one that measure policy issues politician: professional policy maker provocateur: poser of provocative policy issues propagandist: partisan proponent of policy issues polemicist: provider of political policy rants psephologist: one that studies political processes proselytizer: one that recruits new party members pamphleteer: one that writes on political issues pundit: an expert in policy issues

Dysfunctional politics may result in: political prisoner political refugee

Dissatisfaction with policy may result in: political unrest: fulminating political violence: fighting

Varieties of political revolution include: putsch: revolution by the masses palace coup: revolution by the masters

Some varieties of partisanship include: reformer radical reactionary realpolitker red retentionist restorationist revisionist revolutionary right winger

Polyform
These are discrete geometry primitives. Specifically: point: any specific spot in shape space plane: defined by three not collinear distinct points

These are point combinations. Specifically: polypoint: any combination of points polyline: a set of line segments defined by a polypoint

These are shapes defined by a polypoint. Specifically: polygon: any closed ployline polyhedron: any closed polygon surface polytope: any open polygon surface

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These are special polyhedrons. Specifically: prism: polygon with two parallel faces pyramid: polygon defined three, four, or five points

These are continuous generated shapes. Specifically: parametric: a parameterized shape equation generally polynomial: a polynomial parametric expression polynomial ratio: a ration of polynomial expression

Portage
Portage is the place dynamics of persons and property. The elements of portage are: plexus: a region with a network of fixed passages plenum: a region of free passage

Portage posiblities are modeled in terms of: passage: a means of passage between places passageway: a sequence of passages portage: movement along a passageway

They dynamics of portage are: path: movment along a passage pathway: movment along a passageway portal: the beginning or end of a pathway

Portage roles include: porter: any means of portage pilot: any mean of controlling portage passenger: people passing payload: property passing

Portrayal
Varieties of portrayal include: photoplay picture print portrait photograph painting panorama projection photoplay

Postal Service
The elements of postal service are: postal carrier postal worker postal clerk postal carrier

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post office postage postpaid postcard package post post office box postal drop box poste restante priority mail service private postal service public postal service

Posting
A posting is a personnel structure position. Some elements of posting are: post: a personnel assignment preferment: assignment to a post prelation: assignment to a higher post pratfall: major mistake resulting in demotion and dishonor passover: failure of expected preferment or prelation purgation: loss of a post

Professionalism
The virtues of professionalism include: profound practiced personable presentable possessed polite poised polished popular pleasant plucky

Promptness
Degrees of promptness include: proleptic: way before time premature: well before time precocious: before time prompt: on time past due: late past all hope: really late past caring: not likely to happen

Propulsion
Propulsion is the dynamics of place change. Primary varieties of propulsion include: push: thrust force pump: push-pull

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pull: tug force

Varieties of push include: push-in push-out push-up push-down

Varieties of pull include: pull-in pull-out pull-up pull-down

The propulsion cycle is: pick propel put

Varieties of pick include: pick up puck out

Varieties of put include: put in put on

The package cycle is: pack: put into a package parse: pull out of a package

Varieties of pack include: pack-in pack-up

Varieties of pack include: parse-out parse-up

Prosperity
Degrees of prosperity include: posh: extremely well to do plush: exceptionally well to do prosperous: well to do proper: getting by poor: getting through penury: needy perdition: ruined

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Provender
The elements of provender are: provender: potables and palatables o potable: something good to drink o palatable: something good to eat pantry: a combination of provender

A pantry is handy when you are: pinched with hunger parched with thirst

Potables come by the: pot pitcher

Palatables come by the: plate platter

The contents of the pantry may be characterized as: pure enough: safe and salubrious putrid: rotten or rancid poisonous: tainted or toxic

Publication
The elements of publication are: page paragraph passage phrase pictorial prose

Publication required proper: punctuation pronunciation pagination

Some varieties of publication include: pamphlet paperback periodical preprint primer

Radiation
Radiation is a model of the dynamics of ray. The elements of radiation are: ray: the path of a particle e.g. photon, electron, molecule

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radiation: a combination of rays

A ray may me modeled in terms of: radiate reflect refract recoil reabsorb reradiate

Religion
The elements of religion are: rapture rebirth redeemer redemption reincarnation rejoicing relic repentance resurrection revelation reverence righteousness ritual

Some major varieties of religion include: abrahamic Asiatic animist

The primary varieties of abrahamic religion are: Christianity Islam Judaism

Major varieties of Asian religion include: Bah' Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Shinto Sikhism Taoism

Reprobate
Varieties of reprobate include: racist racketeer racketeer

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rag picker ragamuffin raider rake rakehell rapist rapscallion rascal rat ravager rebel recidivist recluse recreant renegade rentier repeat offender reptile riffraff robber robin hood rogue Romeo rotter rou ruffian runaway

Riches
Degrees of riches include: rich respectable reduced ragged receivership ruined

Rights
Some varieties of rights include: right to vote right to read right to privacy right to petition right to trial by jury right to reasonable punishment

Rough Stuff
Varieties of rough stuff include: racketeer raid

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ransack rape ravage reeve repel repress repulse resist restraint retaliation retribution revenge revolution rhubarb riot rip off robbery rout row rhubarb rub out rumble run amok run in

Run Down
Varieties of run down include: rackety ragged ramshackle ratty raunchy ravaged ready for the scrap heap ready to collapse rickety rinky-dink rotten rubbishy rubble ruined rusty

Varieties of run down response include: repair infeasible repair recommended repairs urgently required

Sacred
Varieties of sacred include: scripture: sacred writing

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saint: sacred person sacrament: sacred practice sanctuary: a sacred place of worship shrine: a place of sacred devotion sacrifice: a sacred offering sepulcher: a place where relics are kept

Sapience
The elements of sapience are: sagacity sanity savoir faire savoir vivre savvy scruples sensibility sensibleness sensitivity sentience sharpness shrewdness skillfulness slyness smarts sobriety sophistication strong mindedness subtlety

Satisfactoriness
Primary varieties of satisfactoriness include: superlative satisfactory substandard

Varieties of satisfactory include: seems OK serviceable so-so standard sufficient suitable solid sound

Varieties of superlative include: sans pareil splendid standout stellar

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striking stunning sublime super superb superior supreme surpassing swell

Varieties of substandard include: scabby scruffy second rate seedy shameful shitty shoddy shopworn slapdash sleazy slipshod sloppy slovenly slummy sordid sorry squalid stinking

Scam
Varieties of scam include: snow job skin job snooker sting scam shell game switcheroo skunk swindle spoof shuck skin stratagem snake oil snare sandbag sucker

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Scandal
Some elements of scandal include: shame sin skeleton in closet sexual misconduct

Secrecy
Some elements of secrecy include: shamming scamming sneaking surreptitiousness scheming scamming secreting shadowing shamming shenanigans shredding shrouding skullduggery slyness smokescreen smuggling sneakiness snooping spying stealthiness sub-rosa subterfuge surreptitiousness

Seismic
Some element of seismic are: seiche seismic event seismic energy seismic sea wave seismic surface wave seismic subsurface wave seismograph seismologist sinkhole shear faulting step faulting

Self Importance
Varieties of self importance include:

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smug snitty snobbish snooty snotty sniffy stuck up supercilious sanctimonious superior swaggering swollen headed

Self Severity
Varieties of self severity include: self mortification self chastisement self torture self mutilation sackcloth and ashes sanbenito self humiliation self reproach self immolation

Self Will
Varieties of self will include: starch staying power stick to it ivness stubbornness staunchness single mindedness singleness of purpose steadfastness sedulousness

Selfdom
Elements of selfdom include: self admiration self assurance self awareness self confidence self contentment self control self dignity self esteem self estimate self fulfillment self image

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self love self opinion self worth

Some virtues of self include: self contained self control self determining self discipline self discovery self governing self improvement self knowledge self possession self regard self reliance self reliant self respect self restraint self ruling self sacrifice self study self sufficient self supporting

Some vices of self include: self absorption self important self indulgence self involvement self justification self loathing self pity self righteous self satisfied

Sensing
Varieties of sensing include: size up sample sapor savor scan see shove seize sip shove slap smell sniff

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spit out swirl around spot squeeze stare stick strain an ear strike stroke swallow

Varieties of tactile sense include: touch texture thermal tearing tumescence

Varieties of signal senses include: olfactory: smell optical: sight oral: taste otic: hearing

Varieties of kinesthetic sense include: kinetic sense: weight, posture, etc. kinematic sense: pressure, propulsion, etc.

Sickness
Some varieties of sickness include: scalding pain sciatica searing pain septic wound shaking sharp pain shits shivering shooting pain shortness of breath shuddering sick headache sick stomach sickness significant fever sleepiness sleeplessness smarting pain sneezing sniffles sore pain

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sore throat spasm spitting up stabbing pain stinging pain stroke stuffy nose sweating swelling

Silhouette
Varieties of silhouette include: scarecrow scrawny shapely short sinewy skeletal skinny slender slim solid spare tire spindly square squat stacked statuesque steatopygoussarcous stout strapping string bean stringy strong stubby sturdy svelte sylphlike

Simplistic
Varieties of simplistic include: scholastic screwy senseless shallow shortsighted silly small minded sophistic sophomoric specious

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stupid superficial

Size
The elements of size are: scale: range scope: reach

Some degrees of scale include: shrimp slight small substantial sizeable sweeping stupendous

Some degrees of scale scope: personal parochial provincial pandemic planetary

Slander
Some varieties of slander include: slur smear smirch sully slime smudge stain stigmatize

Small
Varieties of small include: smidgen smattering scintilla scruple soupcon splat sliver shred spot shaving splinter snippet

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speck snip shard sprinkling

Smart Set
The smart set is characterized as: sharp showy smart snappy splashy stylish snazzy swish soign swank

Smoothness
Varieties of smoothness include: sleek silken satiny smooth shaggy scratchy sabulous sandpapery stony

Sociopathy
Varieties of sociopathy include: saboteur sacrificial lamb sad sack sadist sadomasochist salacious sans-culotte satanic Saturnalian satyric savage scamp scandalmonger scandalous scarecrow scarlet woman scatterbrain schizophrenic

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schlemiel schmo schmuck schnook scofflaw scrappy screwball scrooge scrub scum of the earth scumbag scurvy knave seducer seductress self-deceptive self-destructive self-mutilator sensationalist sensualist separatist servile sex addict sex maniac sexual deviant sexual predator shady shameless sharp shifty shirker shoplifter shylock simpleton sinful sinister sinner sissy skinflint skirt chaser skunk slacker slattern slave sleazeball slick slob slothful slouch slovenly slugabed sluggard slutty sly

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smutty sneak snitch snubbed sodden sodomite solicitor solipsist solitudinarian sot souse space cadet spaz speed freak sponge spurned square peg squealer stalker standoffish star crossed stealer stoner stooge stool pigeon straggler stranger strangler street person streetwalker strikebreaker striker stumblebum stupid subhuman suborner subversive sucker suicide sulker super patriot supine supremacist survivalist swindler swinger sybarite

Soiled
Some varieties of soiled include: spotted scuzzy

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sickening slimy slovenly slummy smeared smelly smudged smoky sooty sordid squalid stained stinking sullied

Solvency
Degrees of solvency include: stinking rich snug solid sound solvent strapped stone broke

Space
Space is the sphere of motion. Speed is the dynamics of motion in space. Specifically: space: the realm of motion speed: the dynamics of motion in space sphere: a spherical spatial coordinate system (e.g. a geode)

Anything in space is either: sitting: motionless speeding: moving

Transitions between moving and motionless include: stir: start moving stall: stop moving

Some major regions of space include: soil: dray land space shore: space adjacent to the sea surf: space between the shore and the sea subterranean: underground space sea: water surface space subsea: underwater space seabed: the bottom of the sea sky: aeronautic space supernal: astronautic space

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Some marine space regions include: supernatant: on a water surface submerged: below a water body surface sunken: on the bottom of a body of water

Degrees of sitting duration include: stop: minutes siting stopover: hours siting stayover: days siting sojourn: weeks siting stationing: months siting settling: years siting

The dynamics of spatial movement include: standstill: no motion starting: speeding up from standstill slowing: increasing speed speeding up: decreasing speed steering: changing direction steady: constant speed stopping: slowing to stop

The direction of movement may be modeled as: straight: forward direction starboard: rightward direction sinister: leftward direction

Varieties of water surface movement include: swim: on the surface water movement skim: over the surface water movement

Varieties of glide movement on ice include: skate: proactive ice glide movement slide: passive ice glide movement

Varieties of glide movement on soil include: slither: proactive ground glide movement slip: passive ground glide movement

Varieties of marine locomotion include: sail: marine movement under wind power steam: marine movement under mechanized power

The flight cycle is: spring: leave the ground stay aloft: loiter in the air settle: land on the ground

Varieties of rapid downward movement include: swoop: rapid downward airborne movement

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sound: rapid downward seaborne movement

Varieties of rapid upward movement include: surge: rapid upward waterborne movement soar: upward airborne movement

Varieties of speeding impact include: slam: impact something solid splash: impact something liquid

Slope is the grade angle of with respect to the ground: slope: ratio of vertical to horizontal grade straight: no slope slanted: some slope

Varieties of slanted include: shallow: minor slope steep: moderate slope sheer: major slope

Varieties of failed motion include: stuck: lacking the means of motion stayed: constrained from moving stranded: lacking a motion alternative

Varieties of incline movement include: scale: ascent an incline slip: descend an incline skirt: go around an incline

Varieties of ballistic flight include: shoot: passive ballistic flight skyrocket: proactive ballistic flight

Degrees of speed include: supersonic subsonic screaming swift speedy snappy spirited sprightly spry stately subdued sedate sluggish slothful snail's pace

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stagnant stopped

Speech
Some varieties of speech include: sound off scream screech shout shriek sigh simper sing snicker sniggle snort sob speak loudly speak normally speak softly squeal susurrate saccharine sacrilegious sad salacious salty sarcastic sardonic satirical scandalous scathing scatological scholarly scintillating scornful scraping screwy scurrilous sedate seditious seductive seething self-important senatorial sententious sentimental serious servile severe shady shocked

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showy silly sincere sing song sinister sizzling slanderous slapstick slavish sloshed smooth smutty sniveling sobbing sober solacing solemn somber sonorous soothing sorrowful specious speechless spineless sportive spurious staggered staid steady stern stiff stilted stirring stoned straight-talk stunned stuporous stuttering submissive subservient subtle superabundant supercilious superior supportive surprised sweet sycophantic

Spruce Up
The elements of sprucing up are: scald

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scour scrape scrub shake out shampoo shine shower sluice soak soap sponge squeegee steep sanitize sterilize straighten up submerge suffuse swab sweep squirt sop scent saturate

Any given mundane thing may be: sterile septic

Any given mundane thing may be: spotless spotted

Degrees of spruce up success include: sanitary shining snowy sparkling speckless spic and span spotless squeaky clean stainless spit and polish

Stance
Varieties of stance include: saunter sit sit straight sit back

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sit down stand up stand slouching stretched out supine stooping sprawled out squat stroll sprint swimming spread eagle straddle slumped over stretched out shuffle shamble stagger swoon sagging in snuggling swirling spinning sidesaddle submerged stumble splash shower slip stride strut skip swagger spring

Statistics
The elements of statistics are: statistical study statistical survey statistical sample statistical series statistical distribution

Statistical samples are characterized by: sample minimum sample maximum sample count

Statistical distributions are characterized by: statistical mean

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statistical moment statistical variance statistical standard deviation statistical skewness statistical kurtosis

Steadiness
Degrees of steadiness include: singular scarcely ever semioccasional seldom sometimes special occasions spasmodically sporadically spontaneously scheduled steadily

Stick
Some varieties of stick include: slab slat staff stake stalk spike shaft stave stem strip switch

Stiffness
Degrees of stiffness include: spirituous sloshy soupy syrupy semiliquid squishy spongy springy soft supple stretchy stiff solid stony

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Storytelling
Storytelling is the dynamics communicating a story. Some story varieties include: saga: an epic story sales pitch: sales story satire: a lampooning story seminar: a learned lecture story sequel: continuation of a story sermon: sacred story sensationalism: a shocking or scandalous story set piece: a formalistic story short story: a short fictional story shot 'em up: a gratuitous violent story show and tell: display and demonstration story shtick: a comic story sideshow: freaks, wonders, and curiosities silver screen show: a cinematic film story situation comedy: a comedy of manners and mores story sketch: a dramatic story skit: a simple dramatic story slapstick: an apish story sleight of hand: a conjuring story slice of life: a documentary story soapbox: any advocacy oration story soap-opera: melodrama story solo: a single performer story sonata: a small musical ensemble story song and dance act: a mixed musical review story specialty act: unusual or exotic entertainment spectacle: a grand entertainment story spiel: a lengthy or extravagant story spin-off: a story that elaborates another story spoof: an antic story sporting event: an athletic event or match story spot: an advertising story sound byte: a very brief story stage play: a dramatic story stump speech: political oratory story sworn testimony: story under oath symphony: a large musical ensemble story symposium: an exchange of ideas story

Varieties of spoken and sung narrative include: script: a sequence of spiels and songs speaking part: spoken prose narrative stanza: spoken poetry narrative signage: signed narrative song: sung narrative

Varieties of story framing include: spectator: a story witness sightline: the spectator view of the story

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Varieties of story framing include: standpoint: a story viewpoint shot: the view of a story from a standpoint on a sightline

Varieties of element story perspective dynamics include: scan: the scope of a spectator sightline sweep: differential scan setback: distance from standpoint to the scene

Varieties of scripting include: soliloquy: self-narration scripting speech: separate-narration scripting

These add spice to stories include: stunt: a story feat sound effect: any audible story effect

Varieties of story abbreviation include: story summary: story overview story synopsis: story outline

Varieties of elements story revisionism include: spin: minor story revisionism slant: moderate story revisionism skew: major story revisionism

Varieties of story location include: stage: the site of a story staging: stage dynamics

Varieties of the structure story include: scene: a story subdivision scenario: a succession of scenes

Varieties of the venue of a story include: setting: the siting and surroundings of the scene scenery: the property included in the scene

Varieties of story actors include: superstar: major actor star: moderate actor supporting: minor actor supernumerary: minimal actor

Varieties of primary varieties of story include: storyline: a verbal story screenplay: a visual story

Varieties of slide presentations include:

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slide: a story graphic slideshow: a sequence of slides

Varieties of elements of rough stories include: snapshot: a instantaneous story record storyboard: a sequence of snapshots

Structural Element
Some varieties of structural element include: scaffolding scantling shaft sill spar stanchion stay stringer strip strut stud strap stanchion stirrup

Struggle
Struggle is the mechanics of communal competition. Varieties of struggle include: sport: contest striving: contention strife: conflict savagery: combat

Varieties of the contestant goals include: stake: a competitive purpose success: a contesting purpose perfection setback: a contesting purpose perfection

Varieties of competitive conduct aggression include: stymie: diminish competitor conduct subdue: deter competitor conduct subjugate: dominate competitor conduct

Varieties of competitive conduct agonism include: slacken: minor agonism of contestant resistance stem: moderate agonism of contestant resistance staunch: major agonism of contestant resistance

Varieties of punishment include: scold: vituperative punishment scourge: violent punishment

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Varieties of scouring include: slap: major scourging with the potential for discomfort slug: major scourging with the potential for damage, disability, or death

Varieties of competitive deception include: smokescreen: conflict deception involving organization form subterfuge: conflict deception involving operational function

Varieties of conflict minimization tactics include: supplicate: any sort of tactic intended to avoid a contest sandbag: any sort of surprise offensive tactic

Varieties of competitive confrontation include: showdown: the beginning of a confrontation standoff: passive conflict set-to: proactive conflict shootout: decisive proactive conflict stand-down: end of conflict

Reductions in competitive capability include: suffer: fractional reduction in competitive capability succumb: fatal reduction in competitive capability

Varieties of conflict resolution include: suspension of hostilities: armistice resolution settlement: accept a deal resolution submission: accept fractional domination resolution surrender: accept full domination resolution

Varieties of tactical responses to attack include: stand fast: fight response scram: flight response

Varieties of competition personal risk include: safe: minimal contest personal risk survivable: minor contest personal risk suicidal: major contest personal risk

Varieties of conflict avoidance tactics: shun: reject conflict avoidance shrink: retreat conflict avoidance sidestep: roundabout conflict avoidance

Varieties of combat fortification assaults include: storm: a sudden attack by surprise and shock siege: a systematic attack by surrounding and sequestering

Varieties of siege tactics include: surround: siege site isolation

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strangle: siege supply interruption

Varieties of offensive contest tactics include: strike: minor offensive tactic swarm: major offensive tactic

Varieties of direct combat include: sortie: combat involving besieged and besieging forces skirmish: combat involving field forces

Varieties of divide and conquer tactics include: segregate: cut off a force subdivide: cut up a force

Varieties on attacks on citizens include: savage: an attack intended to murder citizens slaughter: an attack intended to massacre citizens

Varieties of competitive defeat include: sting: an strategic defeat sap: an tactical defeat

Varieties of attacks intended to yield property include: sack: an attack intended to yield personal property seize: an attack intended to yield real property

The kinds of loot obtained by sacking: swag: minor value sack loot spoils: major value sack loot

The elements of ritualized contest include: sport: any sort of ritualized context stadium: any sort facility

Metrics of sporting competition include: score: any sport success metric shutout: any sporting match where a contestant does not score

Varieties of contentious arguments include: spat: minor contentious argument squabble: moderate contentious argument scene: major contentious argument

Varieties of contest alliances and antipathy include: solidarity: contestant alliance schism: contestant antipathy

Varieties of defense mechanisms include: sanctuary: defense organizational form

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safeguard: defense operational function

Varieties of contention by stealth include: sabotage: damage by stealth subvert: disruption by stealth

Varieties of strategic advantage metrics include: surmount: overcome strategic disadvantage surpass: gain an overall strategic disadvantage

Varieties of delay contest tactics include: stall: minor delay tactic stonewall: major delay tactic

Varieties of defensive contest tactics include: shield: obstruct offensive conduct tactic screen: obscure defensive capability tactic

These contest trickery tactics include: snare: entrap trickery tactics seduce: entice trickery tactics

Varieties of contest conduct tactics include: sway: influence conduct shackle: interdict conduct

Varieties of contest communication tactics include: squelch: suppress communication silence: stop communication

The bases of contest solidarity include: solicitude: commonality of interest sympathy: commonality of intent

Subsistence
Subsistence is the mechanics of the basic necessities of mankind. These are essential to the maintenance of: strength: heartiness of body salubrity: healthiness of body sanity: healthiness of mind

Varieties of necessities for survival include: safety: protection against inadvertent harm security: protection against intentional harm sanitation: protection against infectious disease

The basic human comforts are: sheltering: an adequate human habitation sustenance: palatables and potables

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sartoria: clothing, shoes, etc.

Human maturity requires: schooling: systematic improvement of education skilling: systematic improvement of experience socialization: systematic improvement of etiquette and ethics

Human morale requires: social interaction: companionship and company sport: contest and competition

The human mind requires: serenity: relaxation spirituality: reflection sleep: rest

Supernaturalism
Varieties of supernaturalism include: Satanist sciomancer seer seeress shaman sibyl soothsayer sorcerer sorceress sortileger spellbinder spiritualist stargazer

Support
How do we support our lives? Varieties of support include: salary: annual salary savings: investment principle and interest scholarship: educational assistance seasonal employment: a summer or holiday job supplementary employment: additional part of full time employment self employment: working for one's self self sufficiency: living of the land separation pay: wages paid in lieu of notice when laid off sick pay: payment of injury or illness benefits sideline: profitable hobby or interest sinecure: employment with minimal duties slavery: human bondage social benefits: public or private pensions, welfare, etc. soft touch: the generosity of others sponsorship: sporting, missionary, governmental or other grants stemma: support from the family tree

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stipend: an allowance or gratuity straight time: hourly wage student loan: educational loans subsidy: any sort of non-cash social benefit subvention: endowment income such as a trust fund

Surety
Some degrees of surety include: superstition speculation supposition shot in the dark suspicion surmise say so substantiation self evident

Surface Decoration
Varieties of surface decoration include: scattered shaded shot solid speckled splashed spotted spread sprinkled stained stippled streaked strewn striated striped stripped studded swathed

Talkativeness
Degrees of talkativeness include: tongue tied terse taciturn talky tumid turgid too many words

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Tangible
Degrees of tangibility include: trace tittle tincture tinge touch taste thick teeming thoroughgoing totality

Tantalization
The elements of tantalization are: taboo: any prohibited action temptation: propensity to do the taboo

Responses to temptation include: tolerance: stand firm in the face of temptation transgression: surrender to temptation

Temptation tendencies include: temperance: tendency towards tolerance turpitude: tendency towards transgression

Tastefulness
Degrees of tastefulness include: tiptop topnotch terrific typical tacky trashy terrible

Teleology
Teleology models trends. The elements of teleology are: tenor: the things that don't change much the in thing: the things that change constantly

A trend is any foreseeable change. Specifically: trend: likely future change tendency: minor trend tide: major trend the next big thing: monster trend

Varieties of trend evidence include:

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tea leaves: minor trend evidence tip off: moderate trend evidence telltale: major trend evidence

Temperament
Degrees of temperament include: temerity tenacity timidity tentativeness timorousness trepidation tremulousness terror

Temporary
Varieties of temporary include: tentative test bed throw away time being transient transitional trial run

Theater
The elements of theater are: theater: a venue for theatricals theatrical: a sequence of tableaus tableau: a theatrical scene

Theater roles include: thespian: a theatrical performer troupe: a combination of thespians

Theaters serve: ticket: a right to a theater seat ticket holder: one who holds a ticket

Thing
Everything is a thing. If you don't know what a thing is try: thingamabob thingamajig

Classifications of things are modeled as: type: a class of things typology: a combination of types

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Types may be modeled by means of: totality: all of the things of a type typification: a thing representative of a type

A taxonomy is a hierarchical typology: taxon: a taxonomy type taxonomy: a hierarchy of taxons

Terms are names for things. Specifically: terminology: a collection of terms term: a name for a thing

Terminologies have tongues: tongue: a terminological dialect translation: a mapping of terminologies across tongues

Terms build texts: text: a structure of terms tome: a combination of texts transliteration: a translation mapping of texts

Varieties of terms include: tag: short term e.g. Paris title: long term e.g. Cities, Europe, France, Paris token: an atomic title term

Thesauri model terminological commonality: thesaurus: a commonality structure on terms thesaurus term: a term involved in a term commonality thesaurus tie: a term commonality

Tidiness
The degrees of tidiness include: tidy trig trim tousled tossed topsy-turvy

Tone
Degrees of tone include: tenderness thoughtfulness tactfulness teasing taunting tormenting torturing

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traumatizing

Trading
Trading is systematic economic exchange. trade: a set of transfers transaction: a set of trades

The elements of transfer are: transfer: a take and a tender tender: give a tradable take: get a tradable

Trades involve: trader: a trade role tradable: anything tradable

Varieties of failed transfers include: turn down: refuse a tradable take back: recover a tradable

Trial
Degrees of trial include: trivial trite trifling tolerable troublesome toilsome trying taxing tough terrible tribulation titanic

Tribalism
The elements of tribalism are: tribe tribespeople tribal chief tribal council

Varieties of tribespeople include: tribesman tribeswoman

Tribal cultures may be characterized by: totem: non human tribal god tiki: human tribal god

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talisman: magic object taboo: that which is not done tattoo: body art talion: eye for an eye justice thaumaturgy: magic rites theurgry: magic rituals

Trickiness
Degrees of trickiness include: tame tractable ticklish touchy testy tricky temperamental thorny truculent trenchant treacherous

Tropical
The topics are everything that lies between: tropic of Cancer topic of Capricorn

These are the boundaries between: torrid zone temperate zone

Degrees of tropical temperature include: temperate tepid tropical toasty torrid

Varieties of tropical storms include: tropical storm tropical cyclone tropical disturbance tropical wave tropical depression typhoon

Trustworthiness
Trustworthiness is the reliability of trust arrangements. Varieties of trust arrangements include: troth: individual trust arrangement treaty: international trust arrangement

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Trustworthiness models the risks of trueness and treachery: trueness: conduct and communication befitting trust treachery: conduct and communication in breach of trust

The elements of trueness are: truthfulness: true communication tenacity: true conduct

Varieties of trustworthiness roles include: turncoat: one that changes sides true blue: one that continues on the same side

Varieties of turncoat include: traitor: passive treachery treason: proactive treachery

Varieties of treachery include: tergiversation: changing sides tort: misfeasance, malfeasance, or nonfeasance transgression: illegal or immoral conduct trespass: interference with persons or property trickery: false conduct

Varieties of trickery include: two faced: false communication two timing: false conduct

Trying
Varieties of trying include: taunt tease tempt terrorize threaten titillate torment torture toy trick trifle trouble turn on

Tuition
The elements of tuition are: teaching training tutelage

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testing

Tune
A tune may be characterized in terms of: theme tempo tenor temper tone timbre tremolo

Unawareness
Varieties of unawareness include: uncaring unmindful unobservant unsuspecting unthinking unwary

Underclass
Those in the underclass include: underachiever underprivileged undesirable unfertile unfit unhinged unproductive unpromising unprosperous unqualified untouchable unwed unwell urchin used up

Unfit
Varieties of unfitness include: untrained unequipped unhandy uninitiated unproficient unqualified unskilled untrained

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Universe
The universe just is what it is. We cope with the universe by dividing it up into convenient units. unit: an interesting chunk of the universe union: any combination of units universe: the totality of units

Units in the universe are either ubietous or ubiquitous: ubietous: a thing that is somewhere in the universe ubiquitous: a thing is everywhere in the universe

You are ubietous. Gravity, as far as we know, is ubiquitous. Some units are more common in the universe than others: unknown: a units that is nowhere in the universe unique: a one of a kind unit unusual: a one of a few unit uncommon: a unit that occurs with some frequency unexceptional: a fairly common unit usual: a commonplace unit unlimited: infinite or indefinite unit universal: a unit that is intrinsic in the structure of the universe

Uniformity is the self-similarity of union: uniformity: similarity of union formulation unification: any means of achieving uniformity

Varieties of uniformity include: unanimity: a union with no unit diversity unity: uniformity of form unison: uniformity of function

The dynamics of unity may be modeled as: unite: unity fusion undo: unity fission

Varieties of unknown include: unobserved: not impossible but not yet observed unlikely: not clearly impossible unnatural: clearly impossible unimaginable: simply inconceivable

Some models in theoretical physics models predict that antimatter exhibits antigravity but so far this is unobserved. Practical time travel is unlikely. Perpetual motion is unnatural. There are absolutely no examples of the unimaginable

Use
Any given thing is either:

usable: some practical use useless: no practical use

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Usables are employed in undertakings: undertaking: systematic usage underway: an undertaking in progress unfolding: the progress of the undertaking upshot: the results of an undertaking

Varieties of potential for use include: usability: any potential use in an undertaking utilization: a use in an undertaking

Use metrics include: usefulness: worth metric utility: wealth metric

Some varieties of usage include: unused used used up unavailable up for grabs unusable

Valuation
Valuation is any metric for measuring or mandating value. The elements of valuation are: valuable: anything than can be valued value: any quantitative or qualitative characteristic

Primary varieties of practical value include: enterprise valuation economic valuation engineering valuation

Varieties of qualitative value include: virtue vice

Some varieties of personal vice include: villainous vacillating vain vainglorious vapid vaporous vacuous vehement venal venial vengeful venomous verminous

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vexing vicious victimized vile villainous vindictive violative virago virulent visceral vitiate vitriolic vituperative vociferous volatile volcanic voluble voracious vulgar vulnerable vulpine vulturine voluptuousness

Some varieties of personal virtue include: vitality vigor valiant valent vigilant verve vim vivacity virility valorous venturous victorious

Some degrees of practical value include: trash tinsel throwaway trinket trapping treasure

Variation
Everything varies. Variation is the dynamics of varying. The elements of variation are: variant: instant varying variation: interval varying

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Commonality of variation may be modeled as: vein: a class of varieties varia: combination of varieties

Commonplace variants include: vanilla: a common variant variety: a common class of variant

Differential variation is modeled as: variegation: self variation at different instants variance: separate variation at an instant

Versioning is sequential variation: version: one in a sequence of self-variations over time versioning: a sequence of versions

Variation may be characterized in terms of: variability: the range of variation volatility: the rate of variation

Potential variation is modeled as: variformity: a range of potential variation versatility: a range of variant uses

Varieties of unusual variation include: vagary: an extreme variant vicissitude: unexpected variation

Vetting
Vetting is the application of value standards to persons, property, practice, or policy. The dynamics of vetting include: verification: calibration of values validation: certification of values

Consensus vetting often involves voting: voting: consensus vetting o vote for o vote against veto: an overriding vote against vetting

The result of vetting is a verdict. Varieties of verdict include: verdict: vindication or vexation vindication: finding of veracity and validity vexation: failure of vetting violation: any grounds for vexation

Some elements of vetting include: vouch: testimony about others

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vow: testimony about ourselves vita: life history

Vetting serves to reject: vetanda: forbidden property verboten: forbidden practice

Virtualization
Virtualization is any systematic means of modeling. Primary varieties of virtualization include: verbalization: verbal virtualization visualization: visual virtualization

The results of virtualization are: verbiage: verbal model visual: visual model

The quality of virtualization may be characterized in terms of: verisimilitude: quality of virtual form vicariousness: quality of virtual function

Viscosity
Some degrees of viscosity include: vitreous viscid viscous volatile vaporous vacuous

Volumetry
The elements of volumetry are: volume: a bounded area of space verge: the boundary of volume vicinity: the area outside of the verge veneer: any covering of a volume

Voyage
Voyage is the dynamics of visiting. The elements of voyage are: voyager: one who ventures a voyage visitation: a voyage at a venue

Particular sorts of voyager include: vagabond: habitual voyager vagrant: homeless voyager ventureer: heroic voyager vacationer: holiday voyager

A voyage models venture dynamics. Specifically:

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voyage: a sequence of vias and venues venue: a venture place via: a venture path between venues vertex: a crossing of vias

Things useful in a venture include: vade mecum: a guide to voyaging viaticum: the provisions for a voyaging vehicle: any means of voyaging

A vehicle may be modeled in terms of: viator: a vehicle occupant velocity: vehicle speed vector: vehicle compass heading

Vying
In vying some are victorious and others are vanquished. The elements of vying are: vier: one who vies victory: successful vying victor: those that outdo in vying vanquished: those that are undone in vying vexed: those that are outdone in vying

The aim of vying usually includes: valuables: reward vengeance: revenge

Success at vying often involves: volition: sureness of purpose vigilance: surveillance valence: strength

Those who vie may be: vincible: subject to wounding vulnerable: subject to weakening

Wakefulness
Varieties of wakefulness include: went to sleep wrestling with sleep woozy wrung out worn out worn down weary wakeful wide awake wired wild

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War
War is systematic conflict or combat. Primary varieties of war include: war of vituperation war of violence

Primary of war of vituperation are: war of words war of wits

Primary of war of violence are: war of nerves war of weapons

War generally results in some combination of: winner: victorious at war worsted: vanquished by war

The elements of violent war are: warfare: the conduct of war warrior: warfare role

The elements of warfare are: weaponeer: a specialist warrior war chest: the funding for war war zone: where a war is fought war casualty: wounded and wiped out weapon: anything wielded by a warrior

Some varieties of war include: war of expansion war of interdiction war of insurgency war of ideology war of independence war of revolution war of religion

Water Supply
Some elements of water supply are: wastewater water water system water table watercourse waterfall watershed waterworks well wellhead

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wellspring wetlands

Waver
Some varieties of waver include: waddle wag waltz wigwag wave waver weave whirl wiggle wince wobble worm wrench wriggle writhe

Way of Life
We each have our own unique way of life. The elements of way of life are: worldview: ways of seeing the world walk of life: ways of working in the world working life: when we are working in the world wont: accustomed ways of living

Degrees of walk of life achievement include: world-beater wizard wunderkind wonder-worker wonk warhorse workaholic workhorse well established wiz kid working up the ladder wet behind the ears would be wannabe whilom washed up washout

Ideally a way of life should be: well rounded: all the good things well balanced: everything in moderation

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A way of life may be valued in terms of: wealth: economic welfare: comforts and contentments wellbeing: happiness wellness: health and heartiness

The virtues and vices of a way of life may be modeled in terms of: worthiness: major virtues worthwhileness: minor virtues weakness: minor vices wickedness: major vices

The balance of a way of live may be modeled in terms of: weal: blessing and benefits woe: burdens and bothers

Degrees of wont include: wealthy well to do well off well healed white collar working class working poor without means

Weather
The primary elements of weather include: windiness warmth wetness

Varieties of windiness include: becalmed breezy blowy blustery boisterous blasting

Varieties of warm include: bitter cold biting cold brumal brisk balmy blazing boiling baking heat blistering heat

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Varieties of wet include: skies are clear skies are partly cloudy skies are cloudy snow sleet showers sprinkles squalls stormy storming with thunder and lightning scatted showers sandstorm

Wedding
The elements of wedding are: wedding anniversary wedding cake wedding ceremony wedding day wedding gown wedding guest wedding night wedding party wedding reception wedding ring

The wedded life cycle is: wowing wooing wining wedding wedlock widowhood or widowerhood

Wildcard
Wildcards provide a basis for commonplace referential meaning. These include: what: any primitive reference who: person reference where: place reference when: instant period reference while: interval period reference why: purpose reference way: practice reference which: property reference

Wilderness
Wilderness is the undeveloped world. The elements of wilderness include:

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wild habitat wild flora wild fauna woodland wasteland water meadow wildlife wildlife sanctuary weald

Wildness
Varieties of wildness are: whoopee wantonness wackiness wickedness waywardness

Varieties of systematic wildness include: wingding wassail wang-dang-doodle

Degrees of wildness include: racket romp rumpus ruckus rollick rambunctious roughhousing rowdy rejoicing reveling raising the roof raising Cain raising the devil

Willfulness
The elements of willfulness are: will: that which we would have happen in the world wisdom: understanding what we should will wit: understanding how to win what we will worldliness: understanding what can happen in the world

Degrees of willfulness include: willing: consenting will wishy-washy: conflicted will will not: contrary will

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Varieties of willfulness include: want: necessity willfulness wish: nicety willfulness whim: nutty willfulness will-o'-the-wisp: not likely willfulness

Wittiness
Varieties of wittiness include: wisecrack whimsy witticism wordplay

Woebegone
Degrees of woebegone include wistfulness whimpering whining weeping wailing

Worthless
Varieties of worthless include: wreckage wastage wrack wear waste wrox

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8: GTPS Differential Dictionary


Introduction
The GTPS differential dictionary is a diverse collection of differential practice modeling forms. These forms round out the GTPS foundation framework by providing a wide range of differentia. These forms are employed to round out applications constructed form GTPS Atlas and GTPS Encyclopedia perspectives. The eventually goal of the GTPS differential dictionary is to provide differential forms covering most of the practical word senses found in a good collegiate dictionary. The examples provided here are a first step toward this very ambitious goal. These examples include over 15,000 primitives arranged in over 600 differential forms.

A-B-C
a day late and a dollar short, all your ducks in a row la mode, all the rage, at all the best shops a, any, all ab initio, ab ovo abacus, adding machine abduct, abscond abductor, adductor abject, august abjection, affluence able bodied, all but dead able bodied, athletic, Adonis aboveboard, artful abracadabra, alchemy, astromancy, astrology, augury, arcane art, answer to everything absconding, absenteeism, astray, AWOL absence of choice, abundance of choice absent authority, animalism, abandon, anarchy, anything goes absolute, allegorical, approximate, analogical absolutely, actually, admittedly, assuredly absolution, amnesty abstinence, addiction abstinent, addicted abusive authority, authoritarianism, aristocracy, autocracy, absolutism academy, athenaeum accidental success, assiduous success accord, acrimony accustom, adapt ace, aerialist, aeronaut, astronaut, airman, aviator ache, agony ache, appetite Achilles heel, ace in the hole acidic, alkaline acme, apex, apogee acolyte, archpriest acquiescent, ardent act badly, act out, act up actor, acrobat actor, actress

388

ad hoc, ad interim, abiding Adam, Abraham, Ark, Annunciation, Advent, Ascension, Apocalypse Adamite, angel add, abstract adherence, abjuration adherent, apostate adieu, au revoir, auf Wiedersehen, arrivederci, adios, aloha ado, activity adolescent, adult adopt, abandon adore, abhor adultery, affair adytum, ark, asylum aerial, atmospheric aerodrome, airdrome, airfield, airstrip affable, antisocial affection, animas affianced, amorous affirmative, all right, amen, aye afflatus, animus afflux, advection afford, allow aficionado, adherent, admirer afore life, actual life, afterlife aforementioned, aforesaid aforethought, accidental, aleatory aforethought, afterthought aforetime, at the time, afterwards aftereffect, aftermath afterthought, addition aggression, accommodation, acquiescence agnostic, aproectic, adverse agonism, antagonism ahoy, attention ahoy, avast, aye-aye, arrr airliner, airline, airline pilot airship, aircraft, airworthy, airplane alarmed, apathetic alarmist, agitator, activist alas, alack, aw albatross, adversity albeit, although alcove, antechamber, apartment ale, apple cider, alcoholic beverage aleatory, artificial alert, alarm, alarum, advisory algorithm, algebra, automata, arithmetic, axiomatic alibi, accuse alight, ablaze, aglow, afire, aflame alike, akin, agnate all against all, all for one and one for all all at once, at different times all at sea, all ready to go

389

all dressed up an nowhere to go, all dressed up and somewhere to go all eyes, all ears all over, all around all rounder, all but useless all sorts, all shapes and sizes, assortment all the rage, all but over all the tea in China, all the gold in Fort Knox all the time in the world, all out of time allay, alleviate, assuage allegiance, alliance allocute, audit allure, appeal, attract ally, adversary alms, aid almsgiver, altruist, angel alone, accompanied also-ran, all the rest alumnus, attendee amanuensis, archivist amateur, accomplished Amazonian, Arctic ambassador, attach ambiguous, airheaded, asinine, absurd ambitious, audacious ambulatory, anchored ameliorate, accrete, augment, amplify, aggrandize amnesty, auto-da-f amour, adultery amphigoric, absurd amplify, attenuate amputate, ax amuck, astray, awry, adrift, afield, amiss amusement arcade, amusement park, adventure park amusement, alarm anchor, announcer anchored, articulated anchorite, ascetic anecdotal, analytical angelic, abominable angle, amplitude angle, approach angle, attempt anhydrous, anoxic animate, abiotic anniversary, annual annoying, agreeable anon, at once anonymous, attributed anorexic, adipose antecedent, afterward antenna, aerial anterior, afore anthology, album, analects

390

anthropology, archaeology, anthropometry antinomy, antilogy, aporia antipathetic, antipodal, antithetical antisense, antonym antithetical, alike anxious, at ease any port in a storm, anyplace you hang your hat is home anybody's guess, absolute certainty anything goes, according to Hoyle anywhere else but here, all's well that ends well apathetic, abeyant, active, assertive, aggressive apathy, avidity apercu, apothegm aperitif, appetizer, antipasto apex, abyss aphelion, apogee Aphrodite, Apollo aplomb, agitation apocryphal, authentic apodictic, absence of evidence apoplexy, ataxia, aphasia apostle, apostate appetite, aversion applaud, acclaim, approval, appreciation, approbation, accolade, award, approval, admiration apples and oranges, all alike apprehend, arrest, accuse, arraign, adjudicate, adjudge, acquit, attaint apprehensible, accessible, applicable apprentice, adept, ace approximately, around, about apron strings, adolescent angst apt, absurd aquatic, amphibious, abyssal arbitrator, adjudicator arboreal, agricultural arboriculture, agriculture, agronomy Arcadian, apocalyptic arcane, abstruse, abstract, academic archenemy, archrival, adversary archetype, antitype archipelago, atoll arctic, algid, acold area, acreage argufy, absquatulate Argus eyed, asleep at the switch arid, arable arise, abide, abolish aristocrat, arriviste Aristotle, Alexander arm's length, arm in arm arms, alms aromatic, aliphatic arouse, awaken arrest, apprehend

391

arresting, attention getting, attention grabbing arsenal, armamentarium arthritic, acrobatic as good as it gets, as bad as it gets asceticism, abandon ascribed, archived asexuality, androgyny, ac-dc asinine, august asleep, awake asocial, antisocial aspersion, aggrandizement assail, advance assemble, adjourn assembled, asunder assert, advocate assize, appellate astute, asinine at a premium, at a discount at once, after a while, any day now at the wheel, along for the ride at wit's end, all's well ataraxia, anxiety atheist, agnostic, apostate, antitheist atlas, almanac, album, address book atrophy, augmentation attaboy, awshit attenuate, attrite, atrophy, abate, annihilate attune, adjust atwitter, atremble au fait, au currant au natural, attired audacity, arrogance audible, acoustic, auditory auger, announce augural, auspicious augury, acid test aurora, aureole, aura auscultate, articulate autistic, altruistic auto route, air route, aquatic route automobile, autobus, auto autotroph, allotrope, auxotroph autotroph, auxotroph avaricious, altruistic avenue, approach avulse, abscise, amputate aw shucks, aw shit, awesome aware, acquainted, adept awry, askew, aslant, aligned axe to grid, appeased axiomatic, arguable azoic, abiotic B team, backbencher, back burner, bush league

392

Babbitt, boor, bore, booster babble, bubble, boil babe, bombshell, bimbo, broad, bunny baby step, big step, bet the farm baby, bambino, brat Bacchic, behaved bachelor, bachelorette back and fill, beat around the bush, beg the question, backpedal, balk back country, boonies, backwoods, backwater, bucolic back down, back off, back out back from the dead, back from the brink of death back out, bail out, bow out back seat, benchwarmer, bottom rung back the field, back the front runners back to the drawing board, back to square one, back to basics back up against the wall, boundless options backbone, backsliding backbreaking, breeze backdoor, behind the scenes, below the radar, behind closed doors, backroom backer, booster, Babbitt backfire, backlash, boomerang, backwash backfire, blossom backing, backer, back up, back out backorder, backlog backside, behind, bottom, booty, bum, butt, buttocks, buns backstabber, Benedict Arnold, betrayer backtrack, balk, barge ahead backup, backstop backwards, backwoods, backwater, boondocks backwoodsman, bumpkin, bush leaguer bad break, bad luck bad habit, bad behavior bad name, black mark, blemish bad person, bad lot, bad egg, bad hat, bad character, bad guy, bad child, bad seed bad to the bone, born to be a saint bad way, bedridden, bed fast bad will, bad blood, bad feelings, beef, bitterness badge, banner, brand bagatelle, big deal baggage, burden bagged, blind, blotto, boiled, bombed, boozed up, buzzed, blanked out bailiwick, bailiff bailout, bankruptcy, buyout bait, beckon, beguile, bewitch bait, bounty bake, barbecue, blanch, boil, braise, brew, boil, broil, brown, baste, broast balance of power, balance of trade, balance of payments bald, bushy headed balefire, bonfire, beacon fire ball, blow, bugger ball, buckshot, bullet ballgame, ballpark ballistic, buoyant

393

balloon, bubble, blimp, bladder, ball balm, bane bamboozle, bilk, bleed, bunco, burn banausic, banal band aid, bailing wire, bubble gum band, bind, blend, bond, bracket, bunch band, bloc, bunch, bevy, batch, bouquet, bundle bandage, bind up bandit, bandito bandit, bogie bandy, back and forth bank holiday, busman's holiday bank on, believe in, bet on bank, bursary bankable, blarney banknote, bill bankroll, back, bet on, bankroll, boodle, bread, bucks baptism by fire, baptism by water baptize, break in bar, beanery barb, brickbat barbarian, butcher barbarous, benignant barbarous, bloodthirsty, brutish bare bones, baroque bare skinned, bareass, buck-naked, bare-naked, birthday suit barefaced, blunt, brief, brusque bargain, bargain basement, below cost, below market bargain, beg bargello, brocade bark, bay, bite bark, bite barnstorm, busy trip barred, banded, branded barren, bleak barrier, bind, blockage, bottleneck, brick wall, brake, bridle, booby trap barroom, bistro, beer garden base, bedrock base, bottom, basement, bed, bedrock, basis baseline, beginning bash, butt, batter, bunt, beat, bang bashful, brutal basic, bare basis, basics basket case, best of sprits bassoon, base drum bassoon, base drum, bongo drum bastardize, blemish Bastille, big house, brig bat, ball bat, baton bath, bather, bath brush, bath soap, bath towel

394

bathometer, barometer bathtub gin, bootleg whisky battery, bulb battle ax, broadsword, bowie knife bauble, bangle, bead, bow bawdy, boisterous bawdy, burlesque, bump and grind bawl, beam be assured, believe me, beyond doubt beacon, beam, broadcast bead, bearing, bull's eye beans, beef, beer, bread, butter bear, break bear, brook bearing, breeding beat about the bush, beat a hasty retreat beat the clock, beaten by the clock beat, best beat, buffet beat, bushed, bedraggled, burned out beaten, battered, bloodied, bowed beau monde, beggar beau monde, blue-collar beauteous, bewitching beautician, barber beautiful, bad looking becalmed, blown beckon, bid becoming, beastly bed of roses, bed of thorns bed, breakfast bedim, becloud bedlam, booby hatch, bughouse bedrock, bottom line, brass tacks bee in the bonnet, bats in the belfry beef up, bolster, brace, build up, buttress beeline, bowshot been there done that, bound to go there and to that been, be, become beer, brew, bitter, bock befall, betide beforetime, beforehand, before beg off, bells on beggars can't be choosers, chooser's can't be beggars begrudge, bestow beguiling, bad taste behest, behalf behold, become aware beholden, bound behoove, befit belated, beforetime belfry, bell tower belie, betray

395

belie, bolster believable, barely believable, beyond belief belle, beau bellwether, beacon belly, bowels belly, bowels belt and suspenders, brazenfaced belt tightening, belt loosening bemoan, bewail benchmark, barometer, basis of comparison bend over backwards, by the book bender, binge, bout beneath contempt, beyond all praise benediction, blessing benediction, browbeating beneficent, bellicose beneficial, boondoggle benevolent, big hearted, bleeding heart benign, bothersome bent, bowed, buckled bereavement, be in mourning berth, bunk beseem, befit besmirch, blacken bespeak, betoken bespoke, betrothed best behavior, bad behavior best intentions, bad intentions best of everything, barely living best of show, best of breed bestial, beatific bestiality, brotherhood betoken, buoy, bolster, boost, bash, berate, blister betokened, blindsided better late than never, better never than late between two fires, beset on all sides bewilder, baffled, befuddle, bemuse, bedevil bewitching, bad manners bewitchment, black art, black magic bible-thumping, bibulous bicker, backbite biddable, belligerent bifurcation, branching big cheese, big brains, big boss, big wig, big wheel big city, bedroom community, boondocks big deal, back burner big deal, big zero big head, big heart big idea, brainchild, breakthrough, brainstorm, blockbuster big lie, bitter truth big part, bit part big pond, bounding main, briny deep big shot, beggar

396

big spender, big tipper big talker, big spender big time, big league, big boys big top, boards, Broadway, box office big win, bloody nose big, bonnie bighearted, bounteous bigmouth, boaster, babbler, braggart, blabbermouth, big talker, big head, bullshitter bigoted, broadminded bigoted, brotherly bigoted, bullheaded bigotry, bias bigwig, big shot, boss man, biggie, big boss, big cheese billet, bed, board, bath billy club, blackjack, bludgeon bimbo, broad, bunny binge, banquet, blowout, big times biogenesis, biocide biological, botanical, beastly birds of a feather, broad diversity birth, baptism, burial birthright, bequest bitch, bellyache, beef bite the bullet, business as usual bite the hand that feeds you, bless the hand that feeds you bite, bit to eat biting, bland bitstream, bandwidth, baseband, broadband bitter beginning, bitter ending bitter, blissful bizarre, batty, barmy, bonkers, berserk blab, betray, blurt out black sheep, best beloved blackball, bankroll blacken, bedim blackjack, bingo, baccarat, bet on a sequence blackout, breakdown blade, bowie knife, broadsword, backsword blameless, blameworthy blanch, blacken bland, bitter blare, blast, boom blas, botheration blast, blowout, backfire, boom, bang blazing, bright blazing, burning bleach, brighten, blanch, blench bleak, bright bless, blaspheme blessing in disguise, burden in disguise blind alley, broad artery blind bargain, best bargain blind faith, blind luck

397

blind leading the blind, brilliant leadership blindsided, bewildered blinkered, blindfolded blinkered, blindfolded, blind spot blithe, bitchy blockbuster, best-seller blockbuster, blooper blonde, brunette blood brothers, blood feud bloodless, bloody blooper, boo-boo, boner, blunder, bungle, bollix, botch, bad form, blot blow in, breeze in, bob up blow over, blow up blow the whistle, blow your career blow, bollix, bugger up, bumble, bungle, butcher blowout bash, beggar's banquet blue blazes, bottomless pit blue blood, best blood blue water, beyond national boundaries, briny deep blue, buoyant bluebird of happiness, bat out of hell bluenose, bawdy blueprint, block diagram, basic principles of operation blunt instrument, billy club, bat, bludgeon, blackjack blunt, backhanded boardinghouse, bed and breakfast boast, brag boat, barge body, bureaucracy boffo, brilliant bog down, bind up, bring to a halt bog, bottom land, bottoms bohemian, beatnik, bum bold, bashful Bolshevik, Bircher bolster, berate bolt from the blue, business as usual bolt, beat it bolt, break and run, beat it, blow town, bug out bolter, backslider bombshell, blow bon vivant, bumpkin bona fide, bogus bone of contention, basis of concord bone to pick, bone of contention bone up, brush up, become versed bonhomie, brutality boo, berate, belittle, bawl out, bad mouth, bash boohoo, blubber, bawl, break down book, booklet, brochure book, bookshelf, bookcase, bibliotheca bookish, brilliant bookworm, boffin, brain, brainiac

398

boor, bon vivant boorish, beguiling boost, beef up bootleg, bootstrap borderlands, badlands borderline, beyond doubt bored, beguiled, bewitched boredom, bedlam boring, banal, blah, bland born looser, born winner born under a lucky star, born under an evil star born yesterday, been around borrowing time, biding time bosom buddies, best friends bosom buddy, bitter enemy botheration, butterflies boudoir, bedroom boulevard, boardwalk, backstreet, byway bouncer, babysitter, bodyguard bound for glory, bound for grief bounded, boundless bounding box, bounding ball bounteous, beaucoup bountiful, barren bow and arrow, boomerang bowdlerize, blank out bowl, basin, bathtub, bidet bowl, bottle box, bracket, bound box, barrel, basket, bin bracket, band Brahmin, bozo braided, broidered brainwash, bring around, break down brainworker, brainpower, brain trust brainy, bovine bramble, briar brand spanking new, bought second hand brave words, bold deeds brave, blenching bravura, bland bravura, bumbling brazen, blushing bread and water, beefsteak and wine breadwinner, bum break in, break out breaking point, beyond bearing breakneck, brisk breast feed, bottle feed breastplate, backplate breathtaking, boring brew, boil bribe, blackmail

399

bribe, buyoff, baksheesh bribery, bank robbery, bootlegging, breaking and entering, burglary bride, bridegroom bridge, bind, bond bridle, bit brittle, bendable broadcast, backchannel broadcast, besprinkle, bestrew bromide, banality brood, bethink brood, brethren, breed brook, ban brook, bear, brave, beard, beat broth, bouillabaisse, bisque brothel, bordello, bawdy house, bagnio brotherhood, bigotry brotherhood, bonhomie, brotherly love brouhaha, big stink, big scene, bedlam, brawl, barroom brawl browbeat, butter up bruiser, bull brunt, bulk brush off, backslap brusque, breezy brusquer, balladeer bubbling, babbling, boiling buck, blade buck, bounce bud, bloom, blossom buff, burnish, brush buffer, bumper, barrier, bulwark bugaboo, blessing bughouse, brain trust build, buy building plan, blueprint bulletin, big news, breaking news bullish, bearish bully, butter up bum, borrow bumper, bonus bundle, breakout burden of proof, burden of payment burden, burthen buried treasure, buried munitions burlesque, bawdy burn bridges, build bridges burn out, buck up burned out, basket case, broken down burning midnight oil, bankers' hours burp, belch, barf burrow, bore, bite bushwhack, blindside, backbite, backstab, betray businesslike, bumbling, bugling bust, bosom, breast

400

bust, break busted, broke, bankrupt busy bee, burned out bulb busy, brisk, bustling butcher goods, baked goods butcher, baker, brewer butt in, barge in, burst in butt in, butt out butte, barrow butter up, brownnose, boot lick butterflies in the stomach, blissful composure buttinski, blabbermouth, busybody, blatherskite, bossy buxom, broomstick buxom, busty buy, boycott by ear, by wrote, by heart by the skin of your teeth, by a country mile bygone, blown over bystander, beholder byte, bit byway, beaten track, bypass, beltway Byzantine, baroque, boscage, bedizened Byzantine, businesslike cable, chain caboodle, carloads caboodle, chisel, con, cozen, crib, cross, cadge, cop caboodle, crowd cachinnate, cackle, chortle, chuckle, crack up, crow cacoethes, compulsion cadaver, carcass, corpse, carrion, cold meat Caesar, Cicero Caesar, czar, caliph caesura, comma caf society, crme de la crme, cream of society caffeine, coffee, chai, cocoa, caf au lait, cola, caf latte, caf noir cage, commit cakewalk, child's play, cinch caliginous, candescent Caligula, Confucius calipers, compass, counter call girl, camp follower, chippie call house, cathouse, chicken ranch calling card, contact card, credit-debit card calling, career, craft callous, charitable callous, coldhearted, case hardened callow, cultivated callus, corn, clavus calm, cool, collected calm, craven cameo, character part campaign, court the electorate can, cannot

401

can, cast off, cashier canaps, crackers and cheese candelabra, centerpiece candle, candlelight candy, confection, cake, chocolate cane, crutch canned food, convenience food, cooked food cannibalize, communalize cannon, catapult, crossbow cannonade, crossfire canonical closed, canonical close, canonical cursory canopy, cover cantankerous, crusty, cross, colicky, cranky canyon, chasm, clove, coulee, crevasse, crevice, cut canyon, chasm, coulee cap, chapeau cape, cloak, coat, capote caper, cavort capital asset, circulating asset capital punishment, crucifixion capper, crowning touch, crowning glory capstone, crown, crest captain, copilot captivate, charm, court captive, commercial car, compact, convertible, coupe card, cutup, clown, comedian, crackup cards on the table, cards close to the vest careen, come about, come to, change course carefree, careworn careless, careful cares of the world, comforts of home carillon, chimes, cymbal caring, cold carousing, clean living carousing, clocked in carpet, curtains carpetbagger, cad carport, car garage, car stall, car lot carriage, caisson carry a torch, carry a grudge cart before the horse, careful planning cash account, credit account cash accounting, cookie jar accounting cash in your chips, cease living, croak cash in, capitalize casing, covering Cassandra, complainer, crepehanger, cynic, Calamity Jane casserole, curry cast off, cut loose, cast away cast, chuck, catch, catapult, castoff, castaway castoff, cherished

402

casus belli, cause of war cat and mouse, come to grips cat, canine catapult, crossbow catatonic, comatose catch basin, cesspool catchpenny, cheesy, common, commonplace, crap, crappy, crud, cruddy catchword, catchphrase caterwauling, canorousness catharsis, comedy, commiseration, compassion, commonition cathedral, chapel, church, cloister, chapter house catholicon, cure all cat's out of the bag, cat's got your tongue caudal, cranial caustic, charming cavalryman, charioteer, cameleer cave in, cede, concede, capitulate cavern, cave cavity, crater, cave, cup celibacy, carnality cell phone, camera, calculator, computer center, center of mass, center of gravity, center of action cerebral, carnal ceremonials, civvies certified, counterfeit c'est la vie, carpe diem chafe, chap challenge, countersign change hands, come into the hands of changing, changeless channel, cataract, cascade, chute channeler, conjurer chanteuse, chantress, chanter, caroler, coloratura, cantatrice, crooner chaotic, commotion, cacophony, clutter, carousing, confusion, conflagration, contagion, corrosion chaperone, corrupt char, coddle, cream, curry charge, chase charge, credit charm, crave, covet, couldn't care less, contempt, creeps charwoman, cleaning lady chary, coy chase, capture, clean getaway chase, channel chaste, celibate chauffeur, cabby, coachman cheap, charitable cheap, convenient, copious cheap, costly check in, check out check up, check over, check around, check on check, circumvent, counter check, criterion

403

checkered, capricious checkered, checked, calico checklist, checkmark cheer, comfort, console cheerful, churlish cheerio, ciao, catch you later cheerless, cheerful cheese, cream, curds chef d'oeuvre, crummy chef-d'oeuvre, classic, collector's item chess, checkers chic, chichi chicken eggs, cow's milk chicken out, cop out, cold feet chickenfeed, chump change chieftain, coolie chilblain, cold chill, cream, croak, crucify china, crystal Chinese puzzle, conundrum, closed book chintzy, closefisted, catchpenny chinwag, chew the fat chitchat, cry up, carry on, crack wise, crack a joke, crack up, chew out, cuss out choir, chorus, chorale choke, clog, congest choke, congest choose carefully, cherry pick chops, cheeks chord, chain, cable chowder, consomm, cream soup, clear soup chronicled, current, coming chump, champ churchiness, Christliness cinched, clear cut, clinched, confirmed cinema, coliseum, concert hall cipher, calculate circle the wagons, clear the decks circle, circumference, center, chord citified, countrified clairvoyance, chiromancy, clairaudient, cartomancy, cleromancy clangor, clamor clarinet, cello clarion, clear, cloudless, clement classical, contemporary, cutting edge clean hands, clear conscience, crimeless clean slate, clemency, confession, contrition clean up, cash out clear as glass, clear as mud clearheaded, certifiable cleavage, cleft, clough, chink, cut, crack, crevice clenched teeth, clenched fist clerk, cashier clich, chestnut, classic

404

clinical, cold clipper ship, cutter, cruise ship clipper, cutter clipper, cutter, chopper, cleaver clobber, clout, club, crack, cudgel, cuff clockwise, counterclockwise clodhopper, country folk, country bumpkin, country cousin clog, clot clotheshorse, clothes conscious, coxcomb, Corinthian, cavalier clothier, cobbler cloudless, cloudy clueless, clued in clunker, coffin, crate coach, cab coadunate, combined coagulate, congeal, clot coal, charcoal coalesce, crumble cobblestone, concrete cock, cunt, crotch cockeyed, catawampus, cockamamie, crooked cockeyed, cracked, cuckoo, crazy, crackpot cocktail, cordial cocky, cocksure, conceited coddle, challenge coddle, cultivate, conduce codon, codeword cognac, claret coil, crackle, crease, crimp, crumple, crimple, curl, contort coitus, carnal knowledge cold comfort, compassionate comfort cold feet, cool headed cold fish, Casanova cold fish, cold blooded, cold hearted cold steel, claymore, cutlass cold turkey, cut back over time collector's item, catchpenny coloration, chordation colorful, colorless columnar, column, crossbar, crosswise, cantilever columnist, contributor, correspondent combat management, country club management combat troops, ceremonial troops, commando troops come around, come to a new way of thinking, change your spots come by, cough up come clean, confess, crack come in, come around, come by, come out come into money, coin money come into the world, come of age, come to the end of life come to bight you, come to benefit you come to terms, come to blows come to your senses, clear your head come what may, cut and run

405

come, conge comfort, castigate comfort, composure, contentment command, command chain, commander, corporate ladder commission, cashier commode, comfort station, closet, cloakroom, crapper commoditization, customization commoditize, commercialize, consumerize common case, corner case, challenge case common sense, counterintuitive commonplace, curious commonsense, cockeyed commotion, cheer, clap, catcall, cry compact, chunky compact, compress, constrict, constringe, cramp, crush compassionate, compassionless compassionate, cruel compensate, cancel out competitive, charitable complaint, care, convalescence, cure complement, clash complicity, conspiracy, collusion, connivance, cahoots composed, crazed composure, consternation comprehending, clueless comprehensible, confusing comprehensive, cursory compress, cast, cataplasm, cold pack compression, compaction compunction, clear conscience compunction, conscience computation, calculation computer, camera, color television, cell phone conceded claim, contested claim, conclusive claim concupiscent, chaste condescend, cower condiments, chow cone, crater confess, clam up configuration, combustion, cineration, cinders, charring, catch fire conflicted, convinced conjectural, confirmed conjure, cast spells conjure, conceptualize conjure, contrive connectionism, computationalism conniption, convulsion, coma, catalepsy connive, conspire, collude, cahoots connoisseur, crass conscientious employee, clock watcher conscientious, crooked conscript, cavalryman, commando constant, changeable

406

constraint, carte blanc consultant, contractor consummate, clumsy contagion, cooties contagious, communicable contamination, contaminant, contaminator, cleanup contested, conceded continental divide, continental margin, cordillera continental, costal continue, cutoff continuous, combinatorial contraceptive, coil, condom contrite, chastened, compunctious contrite, conscienceless contrite, contumacious controvert, confront, cross swords contumacy, cussedness contumelious, crushing conurbation, countryside conversation, crosstalk converse, contradistinction cook up, concoct cookie cutter, commodity cookies, crackers cookout, campfire, charcoal grilling cool, crude cooperation, compulsion cop a plea, clam up cop, constable cop, culprit copse, clearing coquettish, coy corner, crook, cranny corps de ballet, chorus, chamber orchestra, chamber ensemble corpulent, chunky, chubby cosmetic, contributory costly, costless cottage industry, competitive industry cotype, countertype couch, cot cough, cold, chill could, could not counterforce, containment countless, countable coup d'tat, coup de grce courage, cowardice court of public law, court of public opinion court, circle, cul-de-sac courteous, cheeky cover your assets, cover your ass covered risk, clay pigeon covered, coverless cowboy, conservative

407

cowboy, cowhand cowpoke, cowpuncher crack, chink crack, coke, crank crackdown, cleanout, cleanup cradle, crche, crib crafty, clumsy cramp, charley horse cranium, cerebellum, cortex crapulence, crown fire, common hangover cream of the crop, crusts and crumbs cream, curd creditability, candor, coloring, casuistry, chicanery creed, conviction creep, crawl, clamber crme de la crme, canaille crest, crown, capstone crestfallen, crushed cri de Coeur, crocodile tears crime against community, crime against citizen crime against person, crime against property crime of passion, crime for profit Croesus, Christ cronyism, corruption crook, cop crooked, corrupt cross question, cross examine cross the Rubicon, cool your heels cross words, cross swords crosses to bear, choices at hand crosspatch, curmudgeon crossways, crossover, crossing crow, confess crown trade, carriage trade, common trade, cheap trade, charity trade crown, coronet crowning victory, crushing defeat crudities, charcuterie, cold cuts cruise along, coast along, come to a halt crunchy, crispy cry, call crystal, ceramic cubbyhole, cubicle cuckold, cutoff cuddle, cling, canoodle, copulate, caress, clasp, curl up, cunnilingus cuisine, cooking, chuck cultivate, curtail cumbersome, clumsy cunctation, celeration cupola, capitol cur, crossbred curable, cureless cure, comfort curio, curiosity, conversation piece

408

curl, coil, convolve, circumvolve curlicue, corkscrew, coiled curry, casserole curry, court curry, currycomb curtsy, courtesy curvaceous, classic proportions cushion, couch, chair cuss, curse cut a deal, cancel a deal cut corners, consume extravagantly cut the mustard, crash and burn cut to the chase, circle the truth cut your losses, cover your losses cut, cinch, clutch, clinch, cement cut, contusion, canker, cyst, cicatrix cut, cull cute, creepy cutlery, cookware cutthroat, clubby cyclic, cycleless cylinder, circle, cone

D-E-F
dab, dollop, daub, dose, drop, dot, dash, driblet, dram daily, during the day, daytime dainty, delicate damage, destroy, doom, desolate, despoil, depopulate, depredate, devastate, depopulate dance hall, dance band dance, drama dandy, dapper, dressy, debonair, dernier cri danseur, danseuse daredevil, dastard daring, dashing, defiant, dauntless, doughty dark horse, dead certainty dark, depressing, dismal, dim, dull, drab darling, donkey dastardly, dishonorable, diabolical datacenter software, departmental software, desktop software, device software dated, dowdy, dmod dauntless, daunted dawdle, dash dawn of time, doomsday daydream, dj vu, delusion daydreaming, drooping, drowsy, dozing, dreaming, dormant dazzle, daze de novo, de capo de trop, deficit dead and buried, dead as a dodo, dead as a doornail dead end, drop-off dead in the water, destined for glory deadline, due date

409

deadly weapon, deadly force, deadly intent, deadly action deadpan, demonstrative deadpan, detached, dispassionate deadweight, deadwood deadweight, drag deaf, dumb dear, dear one, dearest, dearie, darling death defying, devil may care, damn fool, damn the consequences, damn the torpedoes death rattle, death song, death throes death wish, despondency deathless, deciduous deathless, destructible debase, doctor, denature debit, deduct, draw, dock debt security, debenture, demand note debunk, dismiss, deflate, demystify, discredit deceased, dead, departed deceive, defraud, delude, double cross, dupe, diddle deceive, delude, dupe, diddle decent, decorous decide, dither deciduous, disposable, durable, diuturnal decisive, diffident dclass, deluxe decode, decipher decoherence, dematerialization decompose, decompound decorous, debauched deep down, deep seated, deep rooted deep learning, devoid of learning deep pockets, drained pockets deep sea, deep space deep six, discard, dispose of, destroy, dispense with defective, deficient defector, deserter, double agent, double crosser defend, debunk deficit, dearth definitive, Delphic deflagration, detonation deflect, divert deforest, defoliate defray, donate defrock, dethrone, depose deft, dexterous defuse, derail degree of fixity, degree of freedom delectable, delicious, delightful delectable, distasteful delicacy, desert delicious, disgusting delight, dismay deluge, downpour, drencher deluxe, dingy

410

demagogue, democrat demerit, demotion demiurge, drone dmod, de rigueur demon, deity demonic, diabolical demure, depraved denigration, dehumanization, demonization denizen, dweller denounce, denunciate, disparage, dress down dense, diaphanous dense, discerning dense, discrete densification, dispersal dentition, digestion deportation, Diaspora deposit, deduction deposit, drop depot, depository depreciation, depletion depression, dome depths of despair, dizzy with delight derelict, down and out, drifter dermis, derma dernier cri, de rigueur descent, decline, downfall, doom, demise deserter, defector deserving, disqualified desiccate, dehydrate desire, drive, determination, dint desperado, desperate criminal desperado, do-gooder destroy, develop detective, dogger, dick dtente, dispute detention, detainer deviant behavior, desirable behavior device, dingbat, dohickey, dojigger, dingus, doodad devise to order, design to order, develop to order, deploy to order devoid, dense devoid, dripping dharma, dogma diabolical, divine diabolist, diviner, druid diamond, dung diatesseron, diapason didactic, donnish, doctrinaire different kettle of fish, different kind of thing altogether dig your own grave, dig yourself out of a hole dig, delve, dredge, drill dilly, doozie diminishing returns, declining returns diminutive, dinky, dwarf, downsized

411

dimple, dent, ding dinner table, dining room dioecious, dame, dude Dionysian, disciplined dippy, dingy, daft, deranged, delirious, demented dipsomania, delirium tremens, drunkenness, dry heaves direct, desultory dirge, death song dirk, dagger, dudgeon dirty laundry, defamation dirty laundry, dirty linen, dirty little secret dirty look, disapproving look dirty politics, dirty pool, dirty tricks disability, doablity disaccustom, disuse disappear, dematerialize, disintegrate disbursement, dissaving, disinvestment discard, ditch, divest discern, descry, detect, distinguish, discriminate discharge, disemploy, declare redundant, dismiss disclosure, disclaimer disconnect, detach, dismantle discontinue, discount discourage, dissuade disdain, despise disempower, disenfranchise, disendow dish antenna, dipole antenna dish out, dole out, deal out disheveled, dirty dishwasher, disposal dislike, detest, despise disloyalty, defection desertion dismiss, deflate, demystify, discredit disobedience, defiance, dissention, disinclination, disregard, disrespect disown, disclaim dispel, disperse, diffuse, disseminate, distribute, dissolve, diffuse dispense, disburse displacement, deformation disproportion, distortion, disarray, discrepancy, divergence, disagreement, dissimilarity, disparity, deviation disputable, doubtful, dubious, dead wrong disqualification, disbarment dissaving, disinvestment dissect, dismember, decapitate distance, duration distinctively new, dj vu distinguished, degenerate distortion, deformation, disfiguration distraction, digression distribute, divide, dispense, dole, deal ditch, dike, dam, drain dither, dally, delay, dilly-dally divarication, divergence

412

dive, drinkery diverse, diversiform diversion, distraction divide and conquer, do it all at once divide up, divvy up divide, disconnect, disintegrate, disengage, detach, disunite do anything with nothing, do nothing with anything do good, do well do or die, do your best do the crime, do the time do the daily grind, do as you please do the right thing, do your duty do unto others, do what must be done do what comes naturally, do what comes normatively do your own thing, do what others do do yourself a favor, do what's right doctor, dentist, druggist doer, dreamer does, does not dog-eared, down at the heels dogfight, donnybrook dogmatic, dialectic dogsbody, domestic slave, doormat donate, dedicate donkeywork, drudgery, daily grind don't call us, don't hesitate to call doom, deliverance doomed, done for, dying, dead door, doorway, doorknob, door fame dope out, dig out, dig up, dredge up dope, drug dory, dingy dos, don'ts dose, dram, draft, draught, drink doubletalk, doublespeak, double entendre doublethink, doubletalk doubting Thomas, doubtless believer doughty, dauntless, dashing, daring dour, disagreeable, discourteous, downcast dovetail, dock dower, dowry, dowager down at heel, down on one's luck down the tubes, down the drain down to earth, devoid of pretense, drama free, down home down to the wire, doubtless result downer, dead animal downer, disappointment downgrade, demote downhearted, downtrodden downplay, dramatize downtime, dynamism downtown, downscale, democratic doxology, dithyramb

413

draft, definitive draft, demo draft, done draftee, doughboy, dogface drag out, delay drain, deplete, diminish drained, dog tired, dead tired dramatic, dull dramatis persona, drama ensemble cast dramaturgy, dramatist, drama drape, dangle, droop drat, damn, dang, darn draw, doodle drawn out, done in a flash dream world, daily life dream, desire dream, dread dreamer, down to earth dreaming, delusional dregs of society, darling of society dressed to kill, down at the heels drill, do repetitively drink, down drinkware, dishware drive in restaurant, doughnut shop drive, dampen droll, drivel drone, drudge drop, dribble, drool, douche, drench, deluge dropout, diehard drudge, drone druthers, discretion dry spell, drought, dust bowl dry wall, detail carpentry dry, dipsomaniac dry, droughty, dehydrated dub, designate duck, dodge, dance duct, drain dudgeon, decrial, disparagement dudgeon, deference due course, due process, due diligence due deliberation, damn the consequences due diligence, dice roll duel, do battle dueness, deservedness duff, derriere dukkah, dharma, dasein dulcify, defuse, deescalate dulcify, disturb dull, dazzling dull, drab, dreary, desolate dumbstruck, dumbfounded

414

dummy, doll dung, droppings dung, droppings, defecation dungeon, debtor's prison, detention center, doing time dusky, dim, dark duty before desire, desire before duty duty, druthers dwelling, domicile, dormitory, digs, den, dump dyad, duplex, duplicate, duple, dual, duo, doubleheader, double dynamite, dandy dynamite, detonate dynamite, dull as dishwater dynamo, doer dynasty, descent, descendent, dynast each, ensemble, en mass ear, earlobe earliest, eldest earnest, evasive earthling, extraterrestrial earthy, elegant ease, economy, extremity ease, exacerbate easy mark, easy touch, easy pickings easygoing, edgy easygoing, eventful easygoing, extremist eat at home, eat out eat, excrete economic investment risk, enterprise investment risk economic transparency, economic tomfoolery Eden, end of days edge, end, endpoint effort, ease egalitarian, elite egg, embryo egoist, egoless egoist, extrovert, exhibitionist, ecdysiast eke out, extract eke, extend el dorado, Eden, Erewhon elect, elite eleemosynary, exploitive elevating, ennobling, enriching elevator, escalator eleventh hour, early days elfin, elephantine eligible, engaged eligible, engaged, elopement, espoused elliptical, ellipsoid, egg shaped embalm, entomb, exhume embark, en route, end up embellish, embroider embezzlement, extortion, expropriation

415

emblematic, emblem embodied, ethereal embrace, encase embrace, eschew embrocation, emolument emcee, entertainer emigrant, evacuee, expatriate emir, elector emotional, emotionless empathy, entente, enmity emperor, everyman empirical, exact empirical, exact, esoteric employer, employee employment, enjoyment emporium, entrepot empower, emasculate emptied, exhausted, exiguous, extraneous, enough, extra, excess emptor, emporium empty handed, everything and more empty words, empty head, empty suit enchant, enamor, endear enchantment, evil eye, exorcism encircle, enfold, envelop encoding, exposition encomium, excoriation encourage, egg on encourage, embolden encourage, enjoin encyclopedia, enchiridion encyclopedic, exhaustive, entire end of life, exhaustion, execution, euthanasia endoskeleton, exoskeleton enema, enteric remedy energize, enervate energumen, enthusiast engage, enrapture, engross, enthrall, entertain, entrance engorge, evacuate engulf, expel enhancement, erosion enigmatic, explicable enmity, esteem ennui, Epicureanism ennui, everydayness, existential angst enslave, emancipate entertainment, extreme boredom entice, elicit entre, entremets entry level, experienced level, expert level entry, exit envy, evil eye, enmity epicedium, eulogy, elegy, encomium Epicurean, esthete

416

epiphany, eureka, eye opener episteme, everything empirical epithet, emblem, ensign epitome, exception epos, epic equal measure, each for each, equivalent value equilateral, equiangular equity, ethics, electoral, etiquette, esthetics, ecclesiastic, eudemony, ethnicity equivocal, evasive, elusive, elliptic, enigmatic equivocation, exactitude erect, elevate eremitism, encratism, eschewal of the world eristic, easygoing errand, excursion erstwhile, earlier, emeritus erupt, explode escape, ease, escapade, exhilaration escape, evade, elude escapee, ex-con eschatology, end of days, everlasting life eschew, embrace establish, eliminate esteem, en rapport, enmity esteem, enmity estimation, exactitude estrangement, enmity etching, engraving ethical, evil euphemistic, exact euphoric, exasperated evanesce, evaporate evangelical, ecumenical eve, evening even tempered, explosive temper even, eccentric, erratic evening, eventide evergreen, everlasting, evermore every man a brother, everyone for themselves everyman, everywoman evict, expel, eject evitable, exorable ex nihilo, ex nihilo nihil fit ex officio, extralegal exacting, easygoing exalt, extol exasperate, enrage, embitter exceptional intelligence, egghead, Einstein excite, enthuse, enliven exciting, extremely dull exclude, encompass excursionist, expeditionist, explorer exemplary, enormity exequies, entombment

417

exigent, easeful exiguous, enough, extra existential, elaborate, emergent, empirical existential, empirical exodus, emigration expansion, even, ebb expletive, exclamation explicand, explicandum exploit, employ, enjoy exponent, enemy exponent, exposer expostulate, enter a protest express, elliptical expression, equation expunge, eradicate, erase, efface exquisite, elegant, expensive extempore, extemporaneous extermination, extinction, eradication extramural study, extension study, evening study extraordinary, extra special extraterrestrial, earthy extravaganza, exhibition extreme, excessive, egregious eye candy, eyesore eye for an eye, everyone deserves a second chance eye popping, electrifying, exhilarating eye to eye, eyeball to eyeball eye, eyelash eyeball, eardrum eyeball, espionage, eavesdrop, earful eyes wide open, eyes wide shut eyewitness, espier fabulous, fantastic, far out face in the crowd, face in the mirror face off, face down, face up face value, fair value faceless, famous fact finding, fantasizing fact finding, fishing expedition, fine tooth comb factual, figurative fair game, forbidden fruit fair minded, fascistic fair, false faithful, faithless fall from grace, find forgiveness fall guy, fair haired boy falling tears, fit of tears, flood of tears false piety, false praise, false posturing false pride, false modesty Falstaff, Faust fameless, famous, forgotten familiar, foreign fancy, fondness

418

fan-in, fan-out far flung, far off, faraway, foreign fardel, fetter fare, freightage farm, forest, fishery farmed, fallow farsighted, foolhardy fart, flatulence farthest, furthest, furthermost fascine, fascicle, faggot Fascist, freethinker fast track, fen fast, fleeting fast, foodless fasten, fix, fetter fat chance, fair chance, fine chance fates worse than death, fates better than death fathom, forget fathom, furlong fatuous, fulsome faulted, faultless Faustian, Franciscan favor, frown favored, forlorn fay, fairy fear, fright fearful, fearless feasible, futile feast, famine feast, feed, fall on, finish off feat, flop febrile, feverish feces, fertilizer, feculence federalism, feudalism feeble, forceful feed the kitty, feed your habit feedforward equalization, feedback equalization, foresight equalization feeding, fasting feedstock, fruits feet to the fire, fooling around feigned, frank feisty, frisky felicitous, futureless fellow feeling, final solution feminine, female, fair sex fence, fosse feral, familiarized ferniest, fornent ferocious, friendly fertile, fallow fertile, fecund, fructuous fertile, firing blanks ferule, flog

419

fervid, freezing festival of license, festival of limitation fetch, ferry fetid, fusty, fishy, fusty fever, fatigue, flu fiance, fianc, future spouse fiddle while Rome burns, focus on the basics fiddle, fidget, finger, fondle fiddle, fine tune, fuss fiddle-faddle, fritter, fiddle fidgety, flustered, freaked fief, freehold field, forest fight fire with fire, fight fire with water fight the good fight, fulfill your destiny fight to the end, fall on your sword fight, facilitate fight, frolic figurehead, front man filament, finger filch, fence file to fit, first try fit filibustering, fast action fill, flush fillet, fascia, fiber, filament, floss filly, fox, femme fatale fin, flapper, flipper final version, final revision, final release financier, fiduciary find a niche, fill a niche find out, ferret out, figure out find, ferret, flush, fish fine dining, family style, fast food, foraging dumpsters fine fettle, failing health fine gold, fool's gold finery, frippery, full feathers finesse, forte, flair, facileness, fumbling, feckless finger food, fun food, full meal fingerbreadth, furlong fingerprint, footprint finish, finalization, finis, finale fire drill, fire in the hole fire resistant, fireproof, flameproof fire sale, for sale fire, furlough, forced retirement firebrand, fixer firebrand, fomenter, fanatic firebug, firefighter fire-eater, firebrand, fanatic fireplace, flue firetrap, falling down firm, fickle firm, fleshy, flabby, fatty

420

firman, fiat first class, flophouse first cut, first pass, first effort first place, failed to finish first place, front rank, first and foremost first, foremost first, further, final firstly, first of all fiscal, financial fish or cut bait, featherbedding fish out of water, fit in perfectly fish, flesh, fowl fit, failed fit, flabby fitting, farcical fix it, feature it fix up, fit out fixed, fluctuating flag, finger flagellate, flay, flog, fustigate, flail flagitious, felonious, fugitive flagrant, furtive flamboyant, flashy, flaming flamboyant, frugal flaming, freezing flapper, floozy flash in the pan, flavor of the month flash, flicker, flare flash, fraction of a second, fractional minute flashback, fast forward flashlight, flare, floodlight flashy, frayed flavor, fragrance, feel flawed, flawless fleabag, five star fledging, freshman fledgling, freshmen, first timer, first year fledgling, full fledged, flying fleece, fur, fell fleet, fast, flying flesh out, finish up, finish off fleshy, fat flexibility, fidelity, fusion flighty, focused flinching, fearful fling, fandango fling, fornication fling, fun flip-flop, fluctuate flippant, frivolous, facetious flirt with death, fight for life flirt, fall for floating debt, funded debt

421

floodlight, flash bulb, flare, flashlight, footlight floorplan, footprint florid, faded flotilla, fleet, flagship flounder, fish flounder, float flourishing, faltering flower, foliage fluctuating, fluttering, fluid, floating fluke, feat fluke, flatworm flush, fluid, flat broke flute, fife flying start, false start fob, fribble focused, flailing fogy, fuddy-duddy, fossil foil, film fold in, fold out, fold up, fold over fold, flatten fold, flock fold, furl, fold up, fold over, fold out foliage, foliation, frondescence foliated, fractured, fractal folk art, folk music, folk song, folk dance, folk tale folk wisdom, folklore, folkway folklore, folkway, folksong, folktale, folk medicine folkway, folklore follow, flee follow-through, follow-up fond farewell, fuck off fondle, fuck, fellatio food fit for the gods, food fit for the dogs food, fare foodstuff, fare fool around, fool about, fritter away, fiddle around, fiddle away foolhardy, foredoomed foolish pride, fitting pride foolish, foolhardy foolproof, fail-safe foolproof, fallible fool's errand, finished business fool's paradise, fond hope footloose, fancy free, free as the wind, free as a bird, freewheeling footloose, fettered footstep, footfall, footprint forasmuch, for forbid, forefend force, fraud forced, fluid forced, free forceful, fainthearted forceful, forceless

422

forceless, forceful ford, ferry foreboding, fretfulness forecast, forewarning, foretelling forefront, foreground, forepart forego, forebear, forfeit, forsake, forswear, forgive, forget, forgive foregoing, following foregone conclusion, fat chance foreign, familiar foremost, first class, five star, first rate, first string, first team foremost, forgotten foreordained, formable forerun, follow forerunner, foreshadow foresee, forestall, forefend foreseeability, foreseeable, fortuitous, fluke, freakish foresight, foretaste forest, farm forestall, foreclose forestall, further forever, fleeting forewarn, forefend fork, funnel forked, foliated, furcated form, fact, format, flowchart, field, fill formal march, forced march formerly, from now on formidable, feeble formidable, frightening, fearsome, fierce, ferocious, fight hungry fornicate, fraternize, fuck forte, fatal flaw forthright, flowery forthright, foursquare forthright, furtive forthwith, fast action, first on the list fortified, flat footed fortitude, fortune fortress, fortalice, fastness forum, fair forward, flirting fossil fuel, fauna fuel, flora fuel, farmed fuel foster, fund, forward, further, facilitate, fertilize found object, fashioned object foundation, footing, flooring foundations, fundamentals founder, framer, father foundling, foster child foundry, forge fracture, fragment fragrance, fetor fragrant, foul frantic, frenetic, frenzied, furious fraternal, familiar, filial

423

fraud, front fraught, filled freak, fiend, Frankenstein freckled, flecked free agent, freelance, freebooter, for a fee free and easy, finger in a dike free cash flow, fettered cash flow free money, found money, filched money, fast buck free spender, freeloader free spirit, formalist free thinker, free spirit, free lover free trade, fair trade, forced trade free will, fate, fortune free will, fiat free, fee free, filled freebee, free lunch, free pass freeborn, freedman, forced laborer freedom, fixity French horn, flugelhorn fresh, flat fresh, fossilized fresh, fragrant fresh, further, final fret, fume fretful, fearful, frozen fretwork, filigree, fishnet Freud, Foucault friction, fellowship frictionless, facile fridge, freezer friend in need, fast friend, false friend friend, family friend, foe frieze, fresco, fret frivolous, flakey, flighty, fickle, fitful frivolous, fresh, flippant from scratch, from stock front line, first line of defense, firing line front, flipside frontier, frontage frontward, forward frost, flame frozen food, fresh food fruitcake, freak fruitful, fragmentary, fruitless fruits, fats fuck around, fuss around, fool around fuddy-duddy, fashion plate fuehrer, fugleman, figurehead, fantoccini, flunky, foot soldier fulfilled, frustrated, foiled full and frank, full of shit full blown, fragmentary

424

full blown, full fledged, full scale full of ginger, full of pep, full of piss and vinegar, full of vitality full of vinegar, full of beans, full of pep full up, famished full, fair, frank full, fractional fundamentalist, formalist fundraising, financing, funding funeral, farewell fungible money, fiat money, folding money fungible, frequently traded, freely tradable fun-loving, fast-living funny, funereal furbish, facelift furbish, furnish furious, fuming, flipped out furlough, fire furlough, free time furrow, fissure, flute further, foil further, frustrate Fury, fairy godmother fury, ferocity fury, frenzy, fit fuss, flap, furor, firestorm fuss, foofaraw, ferment fussbudget, fusspot future, forthcoming

G-H-I
G.I Joe, guardsman, guerrilla, grunt gadfly, gnat, gossipmonger gaffe, goof up, gum up, garble gag, garrote, guillotine, gibbet, gallows gain friendship, get to know, gather together gainsay, grant galaxy, galactic cluster, galactic group, galactic sheet, galactic filament, galactic supercluster gale, gust gallant, groveling gallop, gambol, gait gallop, go great guns, go fast as the wind galoot, goof, goon galore, great number galoshes, gumboots galvanize, goad, get to galvanized, go getter gamin, guttersnipe, gutterpup gang up, go it alone garden, greenhouse gargantuan, gigantic, giant garish, gaudy, glitzy, gauche gasconade, gloat, grandstand

425

gastronomic goods, groceries, grub, grog gatekeeper, guard gather, garner, glean gauche, gawkish, gawky, graceless, gaudy, garish gauge, guess gauzy, gossamer, glassy gear up, group up, gird up gelid, glacial gem, garbage general management, genre management general manager, genre manager general, grunt generation, grandparent, generator, grandfather, grandmother, greyhead, greybeard generous, grand, gigantic, gargantuan genesis, Gotterdammerung genial, glacial genital, gonad, gamete, germ plasm genteel, grueling genteel poverty, grinding poverty gentle, genial, gregarious, good natured, gracious gentleman, gentlewoman gentry, gentlefolk genuflect, glorify, grovel geology, geography germane, goofy gestalt, gist gesture, gesticulate get a foot in the door, get to first base, get the business get a line on, get the low-down get angry, get even get going get in the game, go kamikaze get in, gain entrance, gain admittance get in, get out get moving, get going, get a move on, get underway, get the lead out get off, getaway, go Scot free get on, get off get over it, get on with it get tough, get going get underway, grind to a halt get your game on, get out of the game getaway, get lost, go away, go forth, go out, git getting behind, getting nowhere, getting ahead getting nowhere, getting somewhere gewgaw, gimcrack, gingerbread, galoon, gimp, garniture ghost writer, gag writer ghost, ghoul, goblin, gnome ghostly, genuine gifted, giftless gild the lily, gild the pill gingerly, guarded gird up, give in gird your loins, grit your teeth

426

girl, gal, gorgon, grand dame gist, garnish give ground, get ground, give in, give up give it all you've got, go along and get along give them hell, give them a break give, get give, grudge glacial, greased lightening glaciate, gasify glad, galled glad, grieving glamorous, ghastly glasshouse, greenhouse glazed, glass, glossy gleam, glimmer, glint, glisten, glitter, glow, glint gleaming, grimy glib, genuine glitterati, ghetto gloat, grovel global distance, great circle distance globe, glomeration globetrot, gallivant glom, grapple, gaff, grip, grab, grasp glorious, grim glory, gaffe glossary, gradus glossolalia, gibberish, gobbledygook, garbage, gabble glossy, greasy glutton for punishment, glutton for praise glutton, gastronomy gnarl, gnarr, growl, grunt go ahead, green light, grant permission go ballistic, get a grip go getter, gofer go great guns, go take a nap go in, go out go off the deep end, get it together go overboard, go to extremes go the distance, give up go through the roof, go to the mat go up, go down gobble, guzzle god fearing, godless godly, god fearing, god loving, godly living godly, godless godparent, godfather, godmother godsend, gremlin going down in flames, going up in smoke going in style, go out in style going to hell in a hand basket, going to heaven in a chariot gold mine, garbage dump goldbrick, go-getter goldbrick, good-for-nothing, goof-off

427

gold-digger, greedy gal golden ager, gramps, granny goliath, giant golly, gosh, gee good conduct, gross misconduct good for nothing, god forsaken good fortune, godsend, gravy train, gold mine good health, goner good humored, gruff good nature, good humor, good heart, good head good natured, good humored, good tempered good turn, grave injury good will, good work, good deed goodly, gruesome goody two shoes, gone bad goof off, gold brick, good for nothing Gordian, graspable gorge, glen, gap, gulch, gully gorgeous, graceful, glittering, grand, good looking, glamorous gorgeous, grotesque gosh, golly, gee whiz gospel, gibberish got it, got away gotcha, gremlin, glitch, goof Goth, grunge, grub grab the brass ring, grasp at straws grab, grasp, grip, grapple graceful, gangly graceful, graceless gracious, gauche gradient, geodesic gradient, graduation, gradation, grade graft, germinate, grow grand slam, game over grand, gross grandiloquent, get to the point grandparent, grandfather, grandmother grant, gainsay graphic, graspable, garbled, glossolalia grapple, give up grasp, get it grasslands, grange, georgic grassroots, groundswell, gestalt grave consequences, glad consequences grave, goofy grave, gray, glum, gloomy, grumpy, grouchy gravitas, glee gravy train, galley sentence grease the skids, get in the way great, god awful green, guileless, gullible greenhorn, greyhead greens, grains

428

greeting, goodbye gregarious, grouchy grid, graticule gridlock, Gordian, god awful mess grieve, gratify grifter, grafter, gypsy grin, grimace grind thought, gloss over grind, gruntwork, gainful employment grinding, grueling, galling, gargantuan grisly, gory, ghastly, gruesome gritty, grainy, gravely, granular gritty, gutsy, gung ho, gallant, gonzo groan, guffaw grok, get it, get the hang, get the knack, get your head around, grasp groomed, grubby groove, gap groovy, great grotesque, gargoyle, gothic grounded, gadabout grounds, genesis groundwork, genesis, getgo, getting ready group, galaxy growing concern, going concern, gone out of business concern growing up, getting on grubby, grungy, grody, gross, gamy grueling, gentle grumpy, good humored guaranteed, gamble guardian angel, grim reaper guidebook, guidepost, guided tour guided, guessing, groping in the dark guidepost, goalpost guiding light, guiding force, guiding star guiding spirit, guiding light, guiding force, guiding star guileless, guileful guiltless, guilty guilty as sin, get away with murder gulag, gaol, ghetto gullibility, guardedness gumshoe, G-man, gun dog gun, gat, grenade gung ho, gumptionless gunman, gangster gunshot wound, grazed by a bullet guru, grand old man gust, gale gustatory, gastric gusto, gloom gut feel, good staffwork guts and glory, god and grace gutsy, gutless gym, gridiron, green

429

gym, gymnasium gymnastic, geriatric habitual, hackneyed, homely hacienda, homestead hack, ham hack, hash, hew hack, horse hackneyed, highly original hag, hottie hail from, home hail, herald hail, hiss hairy, hairless hairy, hirsute, hispid halcyon, happy half baked, harebrained, hallucinatory half hearted, half baked, half assed halfhearted, headlong hall of fame, hall of shame hallmark, high quality hallmarked, honest to god, honest to goodness hallowed, hellish halo, harp halo, hoop halted, halfhearted, hurried, hasty, headlong halter, harness ham handed, hack job, heavy handed hamartia, hubris, hauteur hamlet, hometown hammer, haggle, horse-trade hammer, hash hammy, high flown, histrionic hammy, hokey hamper, hasten hand off, hand in hand waving, hand wringing handclasp, handshake handcrafted, hand made, handiwork, handicraft, hobbyist handful, hard case, hardcore handgun, heavy ordnance, howitzer handicap, head start handout, honorarium hands on, hands off handsome, homely handsome, hunk hands-on, hands-off hang around, hang out, hooky, hobnob, habituate, huddle hang back, hot dog, hell bent hang in there, hang it up hang it up, hang fire, hang loose, hang tough hang tough, head for the hills hangdog expression, haughty expression hanging jury, hung jury

430

hangman, hatchet man hangover, headache, heaves hangs on, hinges on, holding for, hoping for, have need of, have necessity of hank panky, hard work haphazard, hit or miss, highly unpredictable happen upon, hit upon, hunt down happy go lucky, hard as nails happy, heartbroken harbinger, herald, heads up harbinger, herald, hint harbor, harm harbor, hide hard bitten, hard hearted, hard boiled, hard headed, hardened, heartless, heedless, high handed hard labor, high office hard question, hard nut to crack, headache hard working, hardly working hardball, hard fought, hard won harden, habituate hardworking, hardly working harlequin, humorist harlot, hooker, hostess harmonica, harmonium, harpsichord, harp harmony, hatred harmony, havoc harness, halter harnessed, housebroken harpy, harridan, hell cat, hellion, hussy, home wrecker haruspication, horoscopy harvest, hoe, harrow hatch, hammer out hatch, hatchway hatch, hole hate, hanker haul, heave, heel, hoist, hump have mercy, have pity, have a heart have, hold haves, have-nots hayseed, hick, hillbilly, homeboy hazardous, harmless he man, henpecked head game, honorable game head in the sand, head in the clouds head over heels, hard to get, heart on your sleeve head, heart, hands head, heels head, hind head, hindquarters headache, hassle, hardship headache, heartache headcount, hired help headgear, hat, helmet headliner, hoofer, humorist

431

headlong, headfirst headmost, hindmost headstand, handstand headstart, handicap headstrong, humble headway, hesitation, hiatus, halt headwind, headstart headwork, homework, hard thinking heady notions, head on a platter healing, hurtful health and happiness, hell and high water health club, health resort, hot spring healthful, harmful healthy, hurting heap, hoard, holdings heard, harvest, hunt, husbandry, hook, haul out, horticulture hearken, hear heart of stone, heart of gold heart, hub, hotbed heartening, horrifying heartfelt, hollow hearth tax, head tax, home tax heartthrob, hideous heartthrob, honey, honeybunch heat stroke, heat rash, heat exhaustion heated, huffy, high dudgeon heathen, holy heaven on earth, hell on earth heaven, hell hedonist, he man heedful, heedless heft, heaviness hegemony, heteronomy heir, heiress heir, heritor hell to pay, happy times hell, Hades hell-bent, half-hearted hellcat, hellion, holy terror hellhole, hellhound hello, howdy, hi helm, heading help along, hold back help, hinder helping hand, hand out, hand-me-down, hand up helpless, helpful helter-skelter, harem scarum, haywire hem, haw herbal, horticultural, hothouse, herbarium herbs, hot sauce Hercules, Hamlet hereafter, heaven, hell, happy hunting grounds, Hades heretic, hothead, haranguer

432

heretofore, hereafter heritage, heritance hermaphrodite, heterosexual hero worship, hurrah, hosanna, hooray, hallelujah, hail, huzza hero, heel heroic, half-hearted heroic, hapless heroin, horse, hard stuff hesitant, hasty hesitant, hell bent heterodox, heretical hew, hack, hammer hey, hi, hello, howdy, halloo heyday, highpoint, heights hex, hocus pocus hiatus, holdup, halt hiatus, hole, hollow hibernating, highly active hidden away from sight, hidden in plain sight hidden talent, hidden flaw hidden, highlighted hide, hair hidebound, heretical hideous, heartwarming hiemal, hyperborean hierarchical, heterarchical hierarchy, heterarchy higgle, haggle, horse trade high hopes, heyday, has been high living, hard living high mindedness, hanky panky high on the hog, holding on high profile, hush-hush high risk, hedged high seas, home waters high sprits, high anxiety high strung, hypersensitive, hasty, hair trigger, hysteria prone high technology, handicraft technology high, humble highborn, hoi polloi highbrow, hardhat highland, headland, heath highlight, high point highlights, hammer and tongs hijinks, high times, hilarity, high spirits hijinks, humdrum hike, hoof hilarious, hoot, howler hilarious, horrendous hill, hump, hillock, hummock hindquarters, hips, haunches, hams, heinie hindsight, history hint, hard evidence

433

hip, haute, hot his, hers history, heritage hit or miss, highly methodical hit the hay, hit the deck hit the sack, hit the clubs hitch on, hook on, hook up hitch, harness hitch, hazard, hurdle, holdup hitch, hiccup ho hum, hot damn hoard, hold, husband hoarse, hard of hearing hoarse, harsh, husky hoary, humdrum hoax, hornswoggle, hoodwink, hustle, hose job hobbyist, hardcore, hotshot hobnob, hideout hobo, hippie, homeless Hobson's choice, have lots of choices hocus pocus, high technology hocus pocus, honest truth hocus pocus, hoodoo, hex hodgepodge, hash, heap, hotchpotch hoedown, hootenanny hogging, hoarding, holding, harboring hoi polloi, herd hokey, hackneyed, humdrum hokey, heartfelt hold the fort, hit the road hold the phone, hold the line holdup, heist, hijack hole, hollow holistic, hybrid, hodgepodge holler, howl, hoot holocaust, hecatomb, homicide holocaust, hot holy cow, how about that, holy mackerel holy, heathen homage, honor, high praise homage, hostility home base, home plate, home away from home home cooking, haute cuisine home port, host port home remedy, healing arts home town, home country, home world homebody, habitu homebrew, homemade, homespun homeland, hinterlands, heartland homeopathic, holistic homespun, haute couture homo sapiens, humankind homogeneous, heterogeneous

434

homosexual, heterosexual honed, hardened honest day's work, honest day's pay honeycomb, hive, honeybee honeyed, harsh honeymoon, housewarming honor, humiliate hooch, homemade sprits, homebrew hood, hoodlum, hooligan hoodwinker, hangdog hook, hinge, hasp hooligan, holy man hoop, halo, horizon hoopla, hard facts hoosegow, holding cell, house arrest, high security prison hoot, holler hope, hanker, hunger hopeless, hopeful hopscotch, haphazard travel hopscotch, hide and seek horary, hourly horde, host hormonal thinking, head thinking horn in, have your say, hold forth horn of plenty, hunger and poverty hors de combat, helpless hors d'oeuvres, heavy meal horse and buggy, high technology horse of a different color, has to do with something completely different horseplay, hijinks horseplay, hooliganism hosier, haberdasher, hatter hospital, hospice host, hostess host, hotelier hostel, hotel hostile, hospitable hot to trot, having second thoughts hot water, hornet's nest, hole hot, ho hum hot, horny, hard on, hot to trot hot, humid hotbed, heart hotbed, hothouse, haven housefrau, housewife, homemaker househusband, housewife housemate, helpmate hovel, hut, how d'ye do, how do you do, howdy do hub, heart hubris, humility huckster, hawker hue, halftone screen

435

huff, heave, hiccup hug, hit hug, hold humane, heinous humanity, heaven humble, humiliate, hammer humor, heckle humorous, horrific humpback, hunchback hunch, hypothesis, hard facts hunk, hottie hunting, hawking, hounding hurrahs, hoots, hissing, hanging hurried, halting husbandry, herding hush up, hold your tongue, hold back hushed, hollered hush-hush, hushed up, highly confidential husky, hulking, huge, humongous, heavyweight, heavy hybridization, harmonization hydrophilic, hydrophobic hymn, hosannas hyper, hypo hyperorthodox, heterodox hypoactive, hyperactive hypocrisy, honesty iceberg, ice floe, ice shelf, icepack icon, ideogram idea, inkling, intuition ideation, implementation ide fixe, idea idiopathic, intelligible idolater, idol worshiper, image worshiper idyll, idealization iffy, infallible ignition, inflammation, incandesce, incineration ignoble, immoral ignorant, informed ignore, investigate ill will, ill nature illiberal, intolerant illuminate, irradiate illuminated, ill lighted, indistinct, inky illumination, inspiration, ingenuity illusion, in fact illustrious, infamous imaginable, inconceivable imaginative, illusive, insane imbibe, ingest, inhale imbroglio, impasse immaculate, indecent immeasurable, incalculable, infinite, innumerous immovables, impedimenta

436

immure, impound, imprison, incarcerate, intern imparity, imbalance impartial justice, iniquitous justice impasse, impediment, imbroglio, inhibition, irritation impassive, inscrutable, inexpressive impecunious, insolvent, impoverished, indigent impersonal, interpersonal impious, infidel implead, interplead implicit, implied, inferred impolite, impeccable impoliteness, incivility, indignity imposing, impotent imposing, intimidating, impressive, inspiring impregnate, inseminate impregnation, insemination, inception, incubation impressionable, impulsive, impetuous impressionist, impersonator impressive, inane impromptu, improvised, impulsive improvised, impromptu impulsion, inertia in actuality, in effect, in fact, in reality in charge, in chains in clover, in the clink in good hands, in grave danger in good shape, in the pink, in top condition in line, Indian file, in sequential order in loco, in lieu, instead in possession, in play in situ, in place in stead, in lieu in the black, in the red in the good graces, in the dog house in the hands of the gods, in your own hands in the loop, in the dark in the loop, in the know, inside information source, insider in the sort run, in the long run in vacuo, in vivo in vivo, in vitro inactive, inanimate inamorata, intimate inane, idiotic, immature inbreed, interbreed incandescent, inferno incarcerate, immure, imprison, impound incendiary, inciter, instigator incessant, intermittent incest, intercourse in the family incident, instance incipient, infant, inchoate, initial, inaugural, immature incite, inflame inclination, indifference, indisposition

437

inclination, intention inclusive, indiscriminate incognito, in disguise, innominate inconsiderate, insensitive inconspicuous, invisible inconvenience, imposition incorrigible, innocent incorruptible, incorrigible incremental, integral incumbency, inclination incumbent, in office incur, invite independent, interdependent indication, implication, impression, imputation indifference, insouciance indifferent, impassioned indifferent, incurious indigenous, imported, international indigent, impecunious, impoverished, insolvent indirection, index, indication indisciplined, indiscriminate indisputable, irrefutable, incontrovertible, indubitable individual intelligence, institutional intelligence individual order, individual organization, individual operation individualistic, idiosyncratic indocile, indisciplined indulge, ignore indulgence, imprimatur indulgent, inhumane industrial order, industrial organization, industrial operation industrious, indefatigable industrious, intense ineffable, inexpressible, incommunicable ineffective, inefficient, inexpedient ineluctable, ineludible, inescapable, inevasible, inevitable, inexorable inert, inanimate, inactive, insensible, insentient inert, invigorate inertia, initiative inestimable, incalculable inevitable, impossible inexplicable, insolvable infamous, ignominious, illustrious, immortal infamy, ill repute, ignobility infant, innocent, imp infantile, immature infatuation, idealization, idolization infatuation, indiscretion infect, inoculate infection, infestation, incubation inference, induction, implication inferno, icescape inferno, ignition infighting, internecine fighting

438

infinite, infinitesimal infinite, innumerate, immeasurable, inestimable, incalculable, immense infinite, itty-bitty inflation rate, interest rate inform, indoctrinate informatory, inflammatory ingnue, intrigante ingenuous, idiotic ingestion, intake inglorious, ignominious ingratiate, intimidate inhabitant, incumbent, indweller, inmate inhale, ingest inhibit, indulge inhibited, inebriated inimical, intimate inimical, irenic initial, ink initial, interim initial, inveterate, initially, in the end injection, infusion injury, injustice ink, inscribe, initial, impress inlay, insert, inset innards, internal organs innocent, inkling, intimated, informed innocuous, inoffensive, innocent innovative, imitative insemination, intercourse insensible, imperceptible insertion, incision insertion, introduction insignificant, insurmountable insinuation, innuendo, intimation insist, implore insolent, impudent, impertinent, impolite insolvency, insufficiency insomuch, inasmuch, insofar inspired, insipid installation, ingemination instant, interval instatement, installment, induction, inauguration, investiture instead, in place, in lieu, in default of instigate, inhibit institutional order, institutional organization, institutional operation instruct, instill, inculcate, indoctrinate insubordinate, intractable, insurgent insult, injury insurance, indemnification insurrection, insurgency intact, inviolate integrity, iniquity

439

intellect, insight, imagination, intuition, intelligence, ideology, ideation intellectual, instinctual intellectual, instrumental intelligentsia, illiterati intelligible, impenetrable intelligible, inexplicable, inconceivable, indescribable, inscrutable, impenetrable, incomprehensible intelligible, inscrutable intemperate, immoderate intense, indolent intense, inert intentional, inadvertent, involuntary intercosmic, intergalactic, interplanetary, interstellar interest, indifference interesting, inspirational, instructional interesting, intriguing, intoxicating intergalactic medium, intergalactic void, intergalactic supervoid interleave, intersperse, intermingle interlude, intermission, intermezzo, interregnum, interim intermedium, intermediation intermodal, international internalize, intellectualize internationalism, interventionism, isolationism internet web, internet document web, internet data web, internet digital media web internment, indenture, institutionalization interpose, interject, insert interstitial, interjacent intertwine, interweave intimidating, inviting intone, inscribe intoxicated, inebriated, in you cups intoxication, inebriation, intemperance intoxication, influence of alcohol intranational, international intrastructure, infrastructure intrepid, invincible, indestructible, imperishable intrepid, irresolute intrinsic, inborn, instinctive, innate, inherited, inbred, inveterate intrinsic, inwrought introductory, informatory introspective, inward looking, internally focused, idiotropic invariant, inconstant investment risk, investment return investment, indebtedness invidious, inspirational invigorating, injurious inviolate, immediate, immutable, irresistible invisible, indiscernible invocation, intercession invoke, imprecate involved, implicated invulnerable, irresistible iota, infinitesimal

440

ipsiety, identity reference ipso facto, ipso jure irascible, irritable ire, irk, incense, irritate, infuriate, inflame irenic, irritating iron fist, iron will, iron boot, iron grip iron in the fire, it's in the bag iron will, iron fist, iron nerve ironic, innocent irreproachable, incompetent irreproachable, irresponsible irresistible, impotent irretrievable, irrecoverable irrevocable, irreversible irritation, infatuation irritation, itchiness, inflammation is, is not island, inland, isthmus isobar, isotone, isolationist, internationalist isoline, isotherm, isobar, isocline isometric, isodynamic, isochrous, isochronous isomorphic, isometric isotope, isomer itch, inclination itch, infatuation itch, irritation item, instance, individual, it itinerant, impedimenta itinerant, installed ivory tower, intellectual island, intellectual isolation, intellectual community

J-K-L
jabberwocky, jive, jazz jack of all trades, journeyman jackal, jackass jade, jewel jagged, jutting, jaculiferous jail, jailhouse, jug, joint, juvie jailbird, juvenile offender, jammed up jalopy, junker jam packed, just a few jam, jammed up jape, jaunt jargon, jive, jingo jaunt, joyride java, juice, junk food jawbone, jabber, jibber, jive, jaw jeep, jitney jerry built, jury rigged, jumbled, jittery, junker jet set, just folks jet setter, journeyer, junketer

441

jettison, junk jettisoned, jetsam jewel, junk jigger, juggle, juxtapose, jumble jim-dandy, just so, just what the doctor ordered jinx, jeopardy jinx, juju, jinni job, journey jobholder, journeyman jockey, juggle, jostle joie de vivre, joyousness join, juxtapose joke, jest, jibe jokesmith, jokester, jester, joculator journal, jotting journal, journalism, journalist journey, junket, jaunt, jet joust, jest joyful, joyless judgment, justification judgmental, judicious judicious, jackass judo, jujitsu juice, jam, jelly juke joint, juice joint, jerk joint jumble, junk jump at the chance, jump thought hoops jump for joy, jump out a high window jump the gun, just in time, just too late jump to conclusions, justified conclusions jump, jig jumpy, jerky junction, joint, join junior, jumbo junk heap, junk pile, junkyard junkie, juicer, juggler Juno, Jupiter junta, junto just deserts, justice denied just, jaundiced juvenile, jackass, jackanapes juvenile, jejune, junior kairos, kronos Kaiser, king kaput, kibosh, killed karate, kendo karma, kismet keen edged, knife edged keep a sharp lookout, know in advance keep an ear to the ground, keep your eyes peeled keep it clean, kill the bum keep the faith, keep your chin up, keep your powder dry, keep you nose clean, keep your nose to the grindstone

442

keep up with the Joneses, keep body and soul together kegger, karaoke, kaffeeklatsch, klezmer kernel, key key person, key position, key point, key role, key moment, key signature kibitz, kick around, kvetch kick around, knock around kick ass, kiss ass kick in the teeth, kick in the but kick the habit, kick the bucket kick up, kick back kick, knock, knout kid gloves, knuckle sandwich, knockout punch, kill shot kill with violence, kill with kindness killed, kaput, kyboshed killjoy, keen as mustard kindle, kick off, keep going, kill off kindle, kill kindness, kidding, kisses kinetic, kymatic king, knight, knave kingmaker, kingfish, kingpin, king of the hill, king for a day kiss of death, kiss of life kiss on the cheek, kiss on the lips kit, kludge, kitty kith, kin kithless, kinless kitsch, knickknack kleptomaniac, kidnapper, killer knack, ken, keenness, know-why, know-how, knowledge knickknack, kitsch, kickshaw, keepsake knob, knot, knurl knockdown dragout, kiss and make up knot, knob, knurl know thyself, know the world knowledgeable, know it all knuckle under, kneel, kowtow, kiss ass kosher, kooky, kinky, knavish kudos, kibosh labor of Sisyphus, labor of love labor, leisure labor, lying in, live birth laboratory, lecture hall, library lace, lacery lack, lone, lots lackey, lap dog, lickspittle, leech, liability lackluster, leaden, lifeless laconic, loquacious lacunae, lack lade, load ladies' man, lady killer lady love, lover boy laid back, low pressure laid low, laid up, laid out, laid to rest

443

laid on, laid off laity, liturgical lake, lakeshore, lakeside, levee lamb to the slaughter, lion in the path lamb, legumes lamb, little angel, little darling, little doll, little one lame, legitimate lame, limber lame, limping, labored lamenting, lugubrious, lachrymose lampoon, legitimatize land, lava, loses landlocked, littoral landlord, leaseholder language, lingo languor, lather lanyard, lariat, lasso, line, loop lap of luxury, life of leftovers lapse, letup lapsing, lasting larcenous, legal larder, liquor cabinet larder, liquor cabinet large, little largess, liberality largess, little enough largest, least last chance, lost cause last gasp, last hurrah, last legs, last words lasting, lingering, longstanding, long-term late, long overdue latent, liquid lather, larrup, lash, lambaste latitudinal, longitudinal latitudinarian, liberal, libertarian laud, lament laud, loath laudable, laughable laughing academy, loony bin, lunatic asylum, la-la land launch, landfall laundry, linen law abiding, lawbreaking law of the jungle, law of the land, law of the nature law, lemma law, limit lawbreaker, lawmaker lawful, lawless lawn mower, lawn tractor lawsuit pleadings, lawsuit presentation lay aside, lay away, lay by, lay in, lay up lay bare, lay open, leak out, lay out, let out lay off, let go, leave of absence lay, lift

444

layer, level lead from behind, lead from the fore lead, lag lead, leg-up, leverage, leeway, luck leader, lieutenant, loyalist, liegeman, lackey leader, loner leadership, legislature, law court leading man, leading lady leading question, loaded question, legal question league, level league, linked up leaky, leak proof lean to, lodge, log cabin lean, lardy leap in the dark, long sightedness leap of faith, logical necessity leap, launch, land leap-frog, lag behind learn of, look up, light upon learned, lowbrow learning, literature, letters, literacy, legend, lore leave, lam, light out leave, liberty, license, leeway, latitude lecture, lambaste, lick lecture, lesson ledger, list, logbook left behind, left hanging, left alone left in the lurch, left holding the bag, left standing at the alter legal loophole, legal landmine legalism, laisser-faire legion, load, loads, lots of, lousy with legislative favor, logroll legislator, lawmaker, lawyer lemon, lousy lender, lendee lengthen, lop leniency, lambasting, lock up, liquidation, lynching lenitive, liniment, lotion lesbian, lass lessen, lengthen lesser of two evils, lots of alternatives lesser, larger lessor, lessee letdown, loss lethal, livable lethargic, lightning letter, letter box, letter drop lettered, literate level best, less than your best level playing field, lopsided playing field level, listing, leaning, lopsided, laid over levelheaded, loose cannon levity, laughs, light heartedness

445

lex talionis, like for like, law of retaliation liaison, legation liberal, Luddite liberalization, legalization lick, lash, lambaste lie low, live it up life is what you make it, life is what makes you life of luxury, life of labor life of the rose, life of religion life preserver, life jacket, life vest, life boat, life raft, lifeguard, life belt, lifeline lifeboat, life raft lifeform, life force, living thing, living tissue lifeform, lifelike lifejacket, life preserver lifeline, lifesaver, life giving lifetime, lifespan lift, lower ligation, ligature, ligament, linkage, link light hearted, lamenting light lunch, liquid lunch light, leaden light, lenient, lax, liaises-faire, look the other way lighting, lantern, lamp, light fixture lightning rod, loved by all lightning, lickety-split like, love, loath, laud, lust, long likeable, loveable, laudable liked, lauded, leading, lollapalooza lily livered, lion hearted lilywhite, lewd limbo, life after death limbo, little change limerick, lyric limit, liberate limit, limitation, lid, line of demarcation limitation, liberty limited, latitudinous limited, limitless limpid, lucent, lucid linear, logarithmic linear, looping, labyrinth, lattice link, lyse lion, lamb lionize, lampoon lion's share, leftovers, leavings lip service, leg pulling lip, lid liquidated, lifeless liquidation, liabilities discharged liquidation, life ending liquor, libation liquor, liqueur liquor, liquid

446

liquor, lubricant, libation liquored, lit lit up, loaded, looped, lushed, lubricated literal, literary lithe, lankly, lardy, lumpish lithe, lithic lithic, lapidary lithography, letterpress, laser print litigation, legislation, lobbing litmus test, legal dichotomy litter, leavings, leftovers little know, little used little, Lilliputian live and learn, live and let live live for the family life, life in the fast lane live, lodge, locate liveliness, lethargy lively, listless livid, laughing living, lifeless loaded, lacking resources loads, lots of loadstone, loadstar, lighthouse lob, launch local, limited, long-haul location, locus, locale lock up, lock away lock, latch, latchkey lockin, lockout lockstep, loosely coupled lockup, liberate loggerheads, logjam logic, logos logo, lettering loner, lonely heart, lone wolf long hair, littrateur, literati long shot, likely long shot, lottery ticket, lotsa luck long suffering, living with, longanimity long way, light-years longing, loathing longtime, lifetime longtime, longstanding, longsome, long in the tooth look alike, likeness look see, look around, look over look sharp, listen up, look alive, look out look, listen looks, lineament lookup, locate loom, linger, leave loom, lurk looming, likely, liable loopy, loony, loco, lost in space

447

loose patience, loose face, loose faith loose your ass, loose your cool, loose your mind loose, leashed loose, liberate loot, lighten loot, lucre, legal tender loquacious, long winded lord, lady lost cause, likely cause lost, located lost, long lost lot, load lounge, lobby loveable, loathsome lovely, lurid lover of virtue, lost to virtue loving, loveless low man on the totem pole, last to know, last rung on the ladder lowly, lofty lubricant, lotion, lenitive lucid, loony luck, lucre, love, long life lucky, luckless lucrative, looser lucre, loot ludicrous, laughable, Lucian luggage, load lukewarm, Laodicean lull, letup, lacuna, layoff luminary, leper luminous, lit up, lightless lumped, localized, large scale lunch, luncheon lunchroom, luncheonette lunge, lurch, leap, list lurid, lovely lurk, lie in wait, lay for, lie in ambush lustrous, lackluster lustrous, luminous luxurious, Lenten lynch, liquidate lyre, lute lyrics, libretto

M-N-O
machination, maneuver, manipulation machine gun, musket mad money, make ends meet money madden, mollify madhouse, mental health institution, mental hospital maelstrom, madhouse maelstrom, marine vortex

448

mafia, mob magacorp, multinational magic, mechanics magician, miracle worker, magus, Merlin, medicine man, medium magistrate, marshal magma, mantle magnify, marginalize mahatma, misanthrope maiden, matron maidenhood, maidenhead maidservant, manservant main idea, main thing, meat and potatoes mainframe computer, minicomputer, microcomputer mainspring, main thing, marrow mainstay, mother lode, meal ticket, moneymaker mainstream, marginal majestic, madcap majordomo, manager make a difference, make a dent make a killing, make a fatal mistake make a stand, make a run for it make amends, make a clean break make believe, mime, mummery, melodrama, masquerade make good, make up for, make whole make life work, make a change make peace, make war make trouble, make waves, make friends make up, make amends, mend fences make way, move aside, move off make work, mark time make your way in the world, make your way to the next world makeshift, make do, made up makeup, maquillage, makeover malcontent, moaner, mutineer male, manly, macho, masculine male, muliebral malediction, malison malevolent, magnanimous malformed, misshapen mall, mart, market malleable, moldable malnutrition, malassimilation mama, mother, mom mammon, money man at arms, military man, mercenary, minuteman, marine man, maid manageable, mutinous managerial automation, mundane automation mancipation, manumission mandala, map mangy, messy manifold, multifarious, multiplex, multifid, multiform, multiplex, multivalent manly, milquetoast

449

mankind, mother nature manna, misfortune mannequin, marionette mannerly, mannerless manor, mansion manqu, master mans sana, madness many, measureless, mess, mint, mucho, multitudinous, myriad marathon, match, meet marbled, mottled, multicolor march, margin marina, mooring mark, maul, modulate mark, mule market entry barrier, market exit barrier, market exchange barrier market, monetize markup, margin markup, markdown maroon, meathead, moron, muttonhead Mars, Madonna marsh, moor, mud flat, morass, marshland, muskeg, meadow martial law, municipal law martial, maternal, mental, menial martial, military martini, margarita martyr, monk, missionary martyrdom, murder martyred, murdered masjid, mosque mask, masquerade mass custom, mass commodity massage, manipulate, manhandle masterful, mediocre, maladroit mastermind, moron masterpiece, miscarriage masters, masses masticate, munch match, meet, marathon match, mismatch mate, menace mateless, mated material, malapropos matter of fact, matter of law maudlin, mawkish may, may not may, may not mea culpa, my fault, my mistake mead, moor mead, mulct mean, median, midway, middle, midpoint meantime, meanwhile measurable, measureless meat, marrow, manna

450

meat, marrow, milk meat, mutton meddle, mind your own business median, middle, mean medic, medico, medical doctor meditate, make a decision medium, mind reader meek, macho meek, mild meet, miss megalith, monument meiosis, mitosis melee, mob scene melee, mob violence mellifluous, maledictory melodic, musical, mellifluous meme, memory memorabilia, memento memorable, momentous menace, mate mnage, mansion menial labor, manual labor, moil menu, main course, minor course mephitis, miasma, mist, murk mercenary, mendicant mercenary, missionary mercy killing, murder killing mere, marine merited, meritless merry, morbid mesh, matrix, maze mess around, molest, monkey with, muck about metal, mineral metestrus, menses, menstruation, menarche, menstruation method in madness, madness in method metronome, meter stick metropolis, megalopolis metropolitan, municipal mettlesome, milksop microfauna, mesofauna, megafauna Midas touch, moneybags, millionaire, multi millionaire middle of the road, mainstream, marginal midwifery, medical obstetrics miff, mortify, madden might, might not might, might not militant, monomaniac, muckraker militarist, Mameluke military arts, military science, military strategy, military tactics military service, main force, militia, mercenary milk and honey, meat and potatoes milksop, milquetoast, momma's boy, marshmallow, mouse Mill, Marx

451

millet, maize millstone, misfortune millstream, milldam, millpond mime, mimic mind bending, mind boggling, mind blowing mind in the gutter, mouth in the gutter, muddled in the gutter mind your own business, mind others' business mindless, mindful mine, meum et tuum minor illness, major illness, mortal illness minor, mite, moppet minority, majority minx, moll, muliebral, matron, missus, mistress, maiden, matriarch, mirth, misery mirthful, mirthless mirthful, morbid mirthless, miserable, melancholy misadventure, masterstroke misanthrope, misogynist, misogamist miscellanea, marginalia mischievous, malicious miser, mean, miserly, meager, money saving misfit, malcontent misgiving, mistrust mishandle, manhandle mishap, mischance, misfortune, misadventure, miscarriage, malfunction misinterpretation, misevaluation mislay, misplace mislead, misdirect mismatch, misfit misquotation, misunderstanding miss, morn misstatement, malapropism mister, misses mistreat, maltreat, misuse mittimus, mandamus mitzvah, malefaction mix, match mob rule, martial law mob scene, mostly empty mobster, moll model meaning, model medium moderate, militant moderate, muted modern, medieval modest, megalomaniacal modesty, morality modicum, mite, morsel, minim, moiety moist, muggy moisten, mist, moisturize mold, mildew, mushroom mold, mildew, must molecule, molecular structure, monomer, multimer

452

mollycoddle, maltreat molten, melted mom and pop, multinational mom, matriarch, mum, mother momentary, meteoric, mercurial momentary, millennial momentum, moment of inertia monarch, mandarin, maharaja, mogul, magnate monarchy, meritocracy monastery, monkery money, moola moneyed, moneyless moneygrubber, magpie, mooch moneymaker, money looser monk, man about town monkey business, mischief, misbehavior mono, multi monocellular, multicellular monochrome, multichrome monocracy, monarchy monocracy, mobocracy monoculture, multiculture monodimensional, multidimensional monoform, multiform monogamy, monandry monomania, megalomania monopoly, multiplicity, monopsony monotone, multitone monotonic, multitonic monotonous, melodramatic monotonous, mixed bag monotonous, monotone, monochrome monovalent, multivalent monstrous, misshapen, misbegotten monument of truth, major turning point moon shot, maturation over time moonlighting, multiple jobs moonrise, moonset moonshine, mountain dew mope, mosey, meander moral, monstrous more money than god, more troubles than Job morsel, mouthful mortal span, mists of time mortification, martyrdom mortmain, marketable mortuary, morgue mother nature, mankind mother nature, mother earth, mother goddess, magna mater motherly, maternal motif, metaphor motorcar, motorcycle, motorbus, motorbike mound, mesa, mountain, mastiff, mass

453

mound, moat mound, mount mount, multiply mount, multiply, mushroom mountain, molehill mountain, mountain range, massif mountebank, miracle worker mounted, mountless mouth, maw moving, maudlin moving, motionless mud, muck, mire, manure, mulch muddle, muscle in, make inroads muddy, marshy, mushy muddy, misunderstood mugwump, moderate, middle of the road mulatto, mestizo, mustee mule, mutt, mongrel muliebral, maiden multilingual, monolingual multivariate, multivalue mum, motor mouth mummify, mothball, moisture proof munch, mash, masticate munchies, meal munificent, mean munificent, miserly munitions, mine, mortar, missile murder, massacre murmur, mutter, mumble muscle, motor muse, mull, meditate, mentation museum piece, masterpiece music hall, movie theater musical score, musical scale, musical signature musket, mouser, magnum must, must not must, must not musty, malodorous, mephitic, miasmatic mutant, monster mute, magniloquent mute, muffle, mask, muzzle mutilate, mash, maul, mangle, maim, mar muzzle, manacle, mure myopic, mantic mystagogue, mystery man mystification, misinformation mythical, matter of fact nab, nail, net, nick nadir, nth degree nail in the coffin, notch in the pearl handle nailed down, nebulous, nugatory naive, natural man, noble savage

454

nave, needle-sharp naked truth, no punches pulled, nothing but the truth naked, nude, natural nanny, nurture, nourish narcissistic, not about me natatorial, nautical, naval, Neptunian native, naturalized nativity, nuptials, necrosis natural, non natural nature, nurture naval, nautical navigational sign, navigational signal Neanderthal, Neolithic near, nigh neat, natty neb, nib, nail neck, nestle, nuzzle nectar, nightcap needless, necessary needlework, needlepoint ne'er-do-well, no good nefarious, notorious negate, neutralize, nullify, neuter negate, nullify, naysay, nuke negative, nix, no, nay, nope, no way, no way in hell negative, null, non-null, non positive, non negative neglect, negligence, nonfeasance negligible, no big deal, nothing to worry about, nothing to write home about negotiable, non negotiable neighborhood, nearby neophyte, newbie, novice, new comer, new kid nerd, nebbish nervous, nerveless nesting, nestling nestle, nuzzle, nibble, nookie net past value, net present value, net prospective value net, nab, nick neutral zone, no man's land never complaint, never explain never give up, never give in new, novel, neoteric, newfangled, new fashioned, new wrinkle, new wave, next big thing newborn, nipper, nursling, neonatal, nestling newlyweds, nuptials news hound, newsman, newspaperman nice and easy, never all dull moment nice, neat, nifty nice, neutral, nasty nicety, necessity niche, narrow niche, nook nickel and dime, next big thing niggle, nitpick, noodle night person, night owl

455

nihilism, non belief, nothing matters, nothing-ism ninny, nincompoop, numbskull, numbnuts, nut case nip it in the bud, nurse it and nurture it nip, nibble, nosh, nourishment, nutriment nirvana, nightmare nirvana, nothingness, navel gazing nit, niggling nix, nod no laughing matter, nothing for it but laughter no man's land, neutral zone, neutral territory no prisoners, no quarter, no holds barred, no mercy no problem, not possible no sweat, no way no worries, nothing to worry about, no matter nobility, nobody noble, nice, nasty, naughty, nefarious nobleman, noblewoman nobleness, new money noblesse, nobility no-brainer, natural choice nocturnal, nightly, nighttime nocturnal, nighttime nod, nap, night's rest nodule, node noggin, noodle, noesis noisy, noiseless nomadic, nested nonchalant, nervous, nonplussed, neurotic nondescript, nebulous, nugatory nondescript, notable none, numerous nonexistent, nascent, new nonfiction, novel no-no, no-go nonpareil, nothing like it, ne plus ultra, nonesuch, number one nonsense, non sequitur, nutty nonstop, now and then, never nook, niche, notch noose, necktie normal, nonconformist, non compos mentis, nuts normality, novelty normally, never normative, narrative nose, nostril nose, nozzle nosy neighbor, noisy neighbor, nasty neighbor nosy, none of my business not now, now or never not worth it, no bargain, no good notation, nomenclature noteworthy, nobody, notorious nothing but worries, nothing left to worry about nothing in excess, nothing but excess

456

nothing to loose, nothing to gain notice, neglect notify, nudge, needle, nag, nettle notion, needle noumenon, notion novel, nostalgic now, never nubile, nuptials nuke, nullify numb, narcotized, necrotic numerable, numberless numeration, nomination numerology, number theory numerous, naught nun, novice nurse a grudge, nurse an ambition nurse, nanny nurse, nurture nursery, necropolis nuts and bolts, nitty-gritty, name of the game, nutshell nuts, noodles oath, odium, outburst, objurgating, opprobrium, obloquy, obscenity oats, oilseeds obedient, obstinate, oblivious obese, overweight obey, object object, obstruct objectionable, obnoxious, offensive, outrageous, odious, obscene oblation, offering obligatory folly, optional folly obliging, obstinate oblique, orthogonal obliteration, oblivion obloquy, opprobrium obscene, offensive obsequious, ornery, obstinate, obdurate, oblivious obsequious, overbearing obsequy, obituary observable, occult observant, oblivious observe, overlook observe, overstep obstreperous, opinionated obstructive, officious obtest, obsecrate occupation, odd job ocean, oceanfront, oceanside oceanic, open sea octave, overtone oddity, oddball oddments, olio, omnibus, odds and ends odorous, odorless odyssey, on the road

457

oeuvre, opus, opuscule, output off base, on the nose off color, offensive, obscene off guard, on guard off on the wrong foot, off on the right foot off the books, off the record off the books, on the books off the cuff, on the record off the hook, on the hook off the rack, off the board off the rack, off the board, off the shelf, off the floor off the wall, on the mark offal, organs offender, outlaw offering, oblation, obeisance offhand, off the cuff offhand, official office building, office park, office suite, office officeholder, office seeker officer, official, officeholder official language, official religion, official function, official representative ogle, observe oh boy, on no, oh well, oh my gosh oil on troubled waters, out for blood old guard, old school, old style old money, optimacy, oligarchy old times, other lives olfactory, ocular, oral, otic oligopoly, oligopsony Olympian, ordinary ombudsman, overseer ominous, optimistic omission, observance omission, ostracism omission, oversight omnibus, omnium gatherum omnibus, overview omniverse, ourverse on a short leash, out of control on an even keel, over the moon on road, off road on target, on the mark, on the money, on the nose on the carpet, on a pedestal on the clock, off the clock on the fiddle, on the level on the fritz, on the air on the job, on the dole on the loose, on the lam, on the run, on the march, on the warpath, on the way on the mark, on the money, on target, on time, on budget on the market, out of season on the mend, on last legs on the record, off the record on the ropes, on top of the world

458

on the sort list, off the radar on the spot, out on a limb, on the hot seat on the wagon, off the wagon on the way up, on the way down on the wrong track, on the right track on time, on track, on target on your own, on a team on, off on, outside onboard, outsource oncoming, outbound on course, off course oneself, others onload, offload onlooker, observer onrush, onslaught, offensive onshore, overhead, oceanic, orbital onstage, offstage onus, option onward, on oomph, odyle, overdrive oops, oh dear, on no, ohmygosh ooze, outflow, outpour open, obstruct open, occlude opening, opening shot opening, orifice, outlet opera house, orchestra hall operating, overhead opiated: out of it opine, orate opinionated, open minded opinionated, open minded, objective opportunity, opening, occasion opportunity, optimism oppose, oppress oppositional, obstructive opprobrium, odium, obloquy opprobrium, overruling oppugn, oppose optimum, ordinary optional, obligatory oracular, obvious oration, ode oration, outpouring orb, orbicular, obit orbit, oscillation orbiter dictum, off the subject orchestra, opera order, oblivion orderly, orderless orderly, orgiastic orderly, ornery

459

ordinary, outr ordination, orders ore, oil orexis, ophelimity organic, overall oriental, occidental original, overused ornamental, occupational ornamental, operational ornamented, ordinary orthodox, outlandish oscillator, oscillation, off and on, out and back, over and under otherworldly, of this world ought to, ought not our little secret, open secret our problem, others' problem, overall problem ourselves, others out of action, on the ball out of kilter, out of sorts, on the fritz out of this world, of another world, otherworldly out of town, on the road, on travel out, one, others, oodles, oceans outbuilding, outhouse outburst, outpouring outdoors, outside, out of doors, open air outfit, obtain outfit, organization outfit, outerwear outgo, outlay, overhead outgoing, offish outgoing, outgiving outgrowth, offshoot outgrowth, outcome outing, overnight outlandish, outrageous outr, overstated outreach, overture outright, out and out, out in the open, overt outsize, oversize outsized, oversized outspoken, open outward, outermost, outer, outlying oval, oblate, ovate ovation, odium over decorated, opulent, ornate overarching, overriding overdo, overindulge overexcited, overwrought, on the edge overfill, overflow overhang, outcropping, overlook overhaul, optimize overlie, overarch, overhang, overlap, overlay, overshadow overlord, overseer, oppressor

460

override, overrule, overturn overseas, offshore overspecialization, obsession, one track mind overworked, overtaxed, overwhelmed overzealous, on the make

P-Q-R
pablum, porridge pace, parsec pacify, provoke pack a punch, pull a punch pack animal, plow animal, provender animal pack of lies, proven case packaged food, prepared food, precooked food padded cell, psychiatric hospital, psychiatric ward, psycho ward paddock, pen padlocked, public padre, parson, pastor, preacher, preacher man, prelate, priest, pope paella, pilaf pagan, paganism, paganization pagan, puritan pain, pest, pill pain, pleasure paint, plaster, putty paint, putty, paint bush, painter, painting cloth painted woman, party girl, pickup, pro pal, playmate, paramour paladin, patriot, public servant, philanthropist, patron, protector pale, parapet, palisade pallet, platform palliative, painful pallid, pale, pasty, peaked palmy, prosperous palooka, prizefighter, pugilist paltry sum, peanuts, pittance, pocket money pamper, punish pan out, perfect pan, pooh-pooh, poor mouth panacea, placebo panfry, parboil, parch, percolate, poach, pressure cook Pangaea, Panseaea panoptic, purblind panoramic, pointed pap, pulp, paste, pith, putty, pure, powder paparazzi, photographer, photo shoot paper goods, plastic goods paper trail, paperwork, paper chase paper, paperwork, paper trail, paper flow papula, papule, puss, pustule papyrus, parchment, paper, paraffin, PDF paradigm, paragon, proof, phoenix, perfect specimen paragon, parody

461

parallel, perpendicular paramnesia, perfect recall paranoid, persecuted paraphernalia, personal possessions pare, peel, prune, pit parish, pulpit, parishioner parkway, pike, pavement parliament, politburo, presidium parliamentary procedure, parliamentarian, point of order, point of procedure parlor trick, peasant magic parrot, playback, plagiarize, paraphrase parsimonious, profligate parsimony, prodigality partake, pass up particular, plural partisan, pococurante partisanship, prejudice, predisposition, penchant, propensity, proclivity, predilection, predilection, proneness, passionate parturient, pregnant parturition, pass away party circuit, party crowd, party season, partygoer, party giver party pooper, poor sport, picked last parvenu, peerage pasquinade, parody, put on pass the time of day, put time to good use pass, pass on, pass away, perish passage, pilgrimage pass, popular passel, peck, pile passenger car, passenger bus, passenger plane, passenger ship, passenger train passion, passivity passionate, peppery, peppy, plucky passive, proactive passport, proof of nationality patch things up, part amicably patent medicine, pharmaceutical patent, plain patent, pronounced, perspicuous, plain as day paterfamilias, papa, pops, patriarch, pa, poppa, pappy pathological, perfect patience, perseverance, persistence patina, polish patina, pretense patisserie, pastry shop patois, parlance patrician, plebian patrilineal, patronymic patrol, picket, perimeter, platoon, phalanx patronize, purchase patsy, pushover, pigeon, prey pay for the team, play for yourself payroll tax, property tax, personal property tax, praedial property tax, purchase tax, poll tax, profit tax, proceeds tax

462

peace pipe, peace offering peace, pandemonium peaceable, pacifist, peacenik peacemaker, pacifier peak, pinnacle, plane, pass, plateau, palisade, precipice, point peak, plateau, plunge peanuts, popcorn pearly gates, pie in the sky, pipe dream peasant, plow jockey, plowman peck at, put away, pig out, polish off, pork out pecking order, power structure, political structure pecuniary, pro bono publico pedagogic, pontific, pedantic, preachy pedagogical, professional pederast, pervert peel, penetrate, puncture, pare, prune, perforate, pierce, punch, prick, poke peer pressure, peer group, pack peeve, please peewee, petite, pint sized, pocket, pocket sized, pygmy, peanut, pixie pegged, pinned pejoration, perfection pelagic, piscatorial pellet, projectile pell-mell, posthaste pelt, pommel, pound, punch, punish, pummel, pounce pen name, pseudonym pen, pencil penal, punitive, punishing pendent, pendant pending, preliminary, partway, plenary penetration, protrusion penitent, probationer, prisoner pension, personal retirement account, pensioner peradventure, perhaps perambulate, pace, plod percentage, pro rata, proportion perceptible, perceivable, palpable Pre Lachaise, potter's field perfidy, perjury perforate, penetrate, pass thought perforce, positively perfumed, putrescent perfunctory, pice de rsistance peristalsis, pump permeable, porous, pervious permissible, proscribed persecute, pursue perseverant, pigheaded persiflage, persifleur person of fashion, popinjay, peacock person tax, property tax, profit tax, poll tax persona grata, persona non grata personal computer, personal digital assistant

463

personal right, property right, political right personification, prosopopeia perspicuity, perceptivity peruse, peer, poke, probe, plumb, prod, pry peruse, pore pesudepigrapha, plagiarism pet project, pig in a poke pet, pest pettifogging, pinpricking petulance, pique phallic, penile, pistil phantasm, phantom, poltergeist phase in, phase out pheasant, peacock philanderer, playboy philistine, philosopher phlegmatic: phrenetic phlogiston, pyre phobia, passion phonetic, phonic, phoneme phony, proven phytophage, predator, photosynthesizer, parasite piano, pianoforte picaroon, pirate, privateer picayune, profound piccolo, pipes pick up, pinch, pull in pickings, plunder pickles, peppers pice de rsistance, plat du jour piece together, pick apart pied, piebald piedmont, palisade, promontory pig out, put on weight pigeonhole, postpone, put off, procrastinate piggybank, pawnshop pigment, pigmentation, palette piker, philanthropist piling, pillar, pole, post, plank, pipe pillar of society, pariah pillar of society, pillar of the church, pillar of the state pillar of society, plague on society pillory, promote pillow talk, palaver, prattle, poppycock pimp, procurer, prostitute, pandering pimple, pock, pustule pin down, pinpoint pine, pray pinhole, peephole, panoramic, panoptic pinpoint, precision pioneer, point of the spear, pathfinder, point man pioneer, procrastinator pious, peccant

464

pipe down, pipe up pipe dream, prudent hope pipeline, powerline pipelining, parallelism piping, playing music piping, pretty hot piquant, provocative piquant, pungent, peppery pique, peeve, perturb, pester, plague, provoke, pain piss, piddle, pee pit, pile pitch over, plummet, plunge pitched, passionate pitfall, peril pithy, profuse pitiless, pity pitter, patter, pad pivotal, principal pizzazz, panache, pop, pow placid, perturbed, panicky, petrified placid, pyrotechnic plains, prairie, pampas plainspoken, prolix plait, pleach, plash plait, ponytail, pigtail planetary, perambulatory, peripatetic plangent, pathetic plangent, piercing, penetrating, piping plant produce, pasta, potatoes plant, pluck plateau, peak, peter out, perish platitude, proverb, pearl of wisdom platonic, prurient plaudit, protest plausible, potty plausible, preposterous plausible, purposeless play fast and loose, play by the rules play first chair, play second fiddle play for keeps, play for fun play for time, play for a draw, play to win, play to loose play hooky, plug away play toy, plaything playbook, playbill pleasantries, profanities pleasurable, pleasureless pledge, promise, pawn pleiotropy, polygeny plenteous, profuse, prolix, purple, protracted, pleonastic plenty, paucity Pliocene, Pleistocene, Paleolithic plug away, plow thought, pound away, peg away, plod along plumage, panoply, putting on the Ritz

465

plumb, pitched plunge into, pull out of pluralism, particularism plutocrat, poor relation pocket, pouch poetry, poesies, poetics, poet poetry, prosody pogrom, purge pointed, pithy, poignant pointed, pointless pointed, prickly, pronged pointer, piece of advice poised, prepared poisonous, pernicious, pestilent, polluted, putrid pokey, peppy polarization, photonic parallelism polarized, positive and negative, poles apart, polar opposites polecat, pariah poles, polar circle, polar axis police, pacify police, paramilitary police, policeman, policewoman, patrolman, patrolwoman polite, presumptuous politesse, politeness politic, political suicide politically correct, professorially correct, piously correct, professionally correct, physically correct politically flexible, pertinacious politicize, polarize Pollyanna, Pandora polychromy, polyphony polymath, polyglot, polyhistor polysaccharide, protein, peptide, polypeptide polyscalar, pervasive polytheist, pantheist pomp and circumstance, poverty and crime pond, puddle, pool, plume ponder, perpend, puzzle, pull hair out ponder, philosophize pony up, pay up, part with poor, palatial poorhouse, penthouse pop group, philharmonic popcorn, peanuts, pretzels, potato chips poppycock, preposterous, phooey popular, party pooper porch, portico pork out, push away from the table pork, payoff, payola pork, poultry portal, partition portent, precursor, presentiment, prophesy, premonition, prognostication posse, platoon

466

posting, promotion, preferment postpone, put off postulate, posit pot, pan Potemkin, put on potency, paralysis potion, potation, punch potluck, piecemeal potpourri, patchwork, pastiche potty, pissoir potty, preposterous pour, pelt, patter pourparler, parley pout, pissed off power behind the throne, pulling strings behind the scenes power conversion, power train, power transmission power source, power plant, power cell, power generator powerful, powerless practical, prohibitive prandial, preprandial, postprandial prank, practical joke pre human, proto human pre payment, progress payment, post payment preamble, prelude, preface, proem, prolegomenon, prologue, prolusion predator, prey predestined, preventable, precluded preen, primp, puff up, psych up, prink prefect, procurator pregnancy, parturition, parenthood premature, primetime, past time presently, promptly, posthaste, PDQ, pronto, presto prestidigitation, parlor trick, peasant magic prestidigitation, pretense prt-a-porter, permanent press pretend, playact, put on pretense, posed, pseudo, put on preternatural, paranormal prevail, persist, parish prevaricate, pettifog, palter, pussyfoot prevenient, preceding preview performance, premiere performance prickly, petulant, peevish pricy, pretty penny, premium priced pride yourself, punish yourself prima donna, pop idol, pop icon, pacesetter primal, primary primary colors, pastels prime mover, point person, power broker prime, primo, prima prime, pump primitive, pre-industrial primitive, primordial, prehistoric, primal, primeval prince, plowman

467

prince, princess, palace principal, proceeds, payback, profit, pay in, pay out principally, particularly, prominently principled professional, public practice professional, private practice professional prior, post prior, present, posterior priority, posteriority priority, precedence prism, pyramid, parallelogram, parallelepiped prison, penitentiary, pound, pokey, pillory prisoner of hope, past all hope prisoner of war, prisoner of hope, prisoner of conscience prisoner, parolee pristine, polluted privacy, publicity privation, poverty, penury privatize, publicize privy, private privy, public convenience, potty, public lavatory, powder room prized, panned probability, proof probable, precarious probative, prejudicial probative, prejudicial, perjurious probity, perfidy probity, perversion Procrustean, personalized prod, poke, pester, push, press, pressure profane, pious profess, profane professional military, paramilitary proficiency, profession, pastime profitable, profitless profuse, penurious programming language, practical language proleptic, premature, precocious proliferate, pullulate, propagate prolific, profuse, prodigious, plentiful promiscuous, picky promising, pessimistic promoted, passed over promoter, popularizer, publicist promotion, puffery, propaganda proof of principle, proven prototype, proven precedent, proven product proof of purchase, point of purchase, products of purchase propaedeutic, primer, prefatory propaganda, plain truth propagate, poison proper, peccant prophet, patriarch prophylaxis, prevention, precaution, preservation, protection, preemption, parrying propitious, pernicious propone, propose, pose, plug, put forward, pray, petition, plead, propose

468

proportionality, parameterization propose, pop the question propriety, peccancy prorogue, postpone proscenium, proscenium arch prose, poetry prosecutor, prosecuting attorney, public defender, private defending attorney proselytization, proselytizer, proselyte proselytize, putdown proselytizing, pamphleteering, propagandizing prospect, prediction, projection, prognostication, prognosis, prospectus prostration, powerlessness prostration, proneness protean, petrified protean, pliable, plastic protector, persecutor protest, picket, parade, perorate protest, play ball protoscience, pseudoscience protrude, penetrate protuberant, projecting, prominent proud, pathetic proud, patronizing, pompous, puffed up, pretentious proud, penitent proud, pigheaded, pompous, portentous provide, procure provision, provender provocateur, peacemaker provocative, profane provocative, prurient, pornographic, perverted provoke, pacify prowl, patrol prowler, patroller proximate, peripheral proximity, propinquity proxy war, police action proxy, plenipotentiary, puppet, pawn prude, prig, puritan, pietist prudence, puerility psephology, political science pub, public house pubic, private public, proprietary, private, personal publicity, press coverage, plug, promo, product placement puddle, pothole pudency, purity puff, pan puffery, PR, pitch, plug pugnacious, peaceable pulchritudinous, pretty pull the plug, plug away pull through, pass away pulling power, popularity, popular genre

469

pulpit, platform, podium pulverous, parched pump, piping pun, play on words, paronomasia, polysemy punch line, point punch, pat pundit, prophet pungent, piquant punish, pardon punitive, pyrrhic punk, predator puny, piddling, petty, paltry pupil, prentice, protg puppy, pooch purchase, political power purchase, procure purchase, pulling power purdah, privacy pure pleasure, pain in the but pure, polluted purebred, pastiche purist, perfectionist puritanical, priggish, prudish, prissy, prim, proper purity, perversion purse, pocketbook purse, prize purse, pucker pursuivant, pensioner purulent, putrescent purvey, purchase pus, piss, phlegm, perspiration pusher, pill popper, pothead pushover, pugnacious pushy, passionate, perfervid pushy, patient pusine, primogenital pussy, pudendum put forth, put forward put out, produce put together, pull apart put up, prop up, pull down putative, proven putdown, parting shot put-on, pretext putsch, purge putz, penis, pud, prick, pecker pyramid, piggyback, parlay, Ponzi scheme pyramid, pylon quadrant, quarter quaff, quench quag, quagmire, quicksand quaint, queer qualia, quantity, quality

470

qualified, quack qualm, queasy quandary, quagmire quandary, question quango, quasi-governmental quarry, quest quartet, quintet queasy, quivering, quaking, quailing queer, questionable quench, quell, quit, quash, quiet, quiesce question, query questioner, quizmaster, querist quibble, quarrel quicken, quench quiescent, quicksilver quiet, quarrelsome quintessence, quiddity, quale quintessential, quotidian, questionable, queer quip, quote, quirky, queer quiver, quail, quake, quaver quixotic, questing quixotic, quotidian quorum, quota quota, quantity rabble rouser, ringleader rabid, rhapsodic, red-hot, raging race against time, running out the clock race, religion radius, ray raft, rowboat rage, rant, ridicule, rave, ramble, rail raging, restrained ragout, ratatouille rags, riches rah, razz raise the roof, retire to bed early raise, ratchet raise, raze raise, reduce raised, recessed rambler, ranger, roamer, rolling stone, rover rambunctious, rowdy, rough, rollicking, riotous, raucous, rude, rocky, raucous ramified, reticulated, rete, reseau ranch, rangeland rancid, rank, reeking, rotten, redolent randomized, regularized range, radius rangy, rawboned rankled, riled, raging, rabid, raising hell rash, reticent rat, reveal rat, rodent

471

ratify, reject rating, ranking ratiocination, rumination, reasoning, reflection, reckoning rational, rattled, rambling, ranting, raving rat's nest, Rube Goldberg, recondite rattle, ring, resonate, resound, reverberate ravishing, repulsive ravishing, resplendent, radiant raw, refined raw, rude, raunchy, ribald raze, remodel reaction, reagent, raw reagent, resultant reagent read, register, record reading, readout ready for love, ready for war ready to cook, ready to serve, ready to eat real McCoy, rough copy realistic, romantic rear end, rump, rear rear, raise, ready reason, religion rebarbative, repellant recalcitrance, refractoriness, riot, revolt, rebellion, revolution rchauff, reheated recherch, rare recluse, raconteur recognize, realize, resolve recoil, reaction recoil, retreat recondite, recognizable recondite, riddle reconnaissance, recognizance record, rewind, replay recrudesce, recur recruit, rookie rectilinear, radial rector, reverend recuse, retire red blooded, robust, rugged red herring, real deal red letter day, rainy day red tape, rush job red, raw redact, redraw redefine, rename redivivus, restoration redolent, reminiscent redouble, reinforce redoubt, refuge redux, repeat reef, rocks, rouge wave reference, referent reformatory, reform school

472

refractory, rathskeller refractory, rigid, resilient, rubbery, runny refrigerated, rchauff refrigerator, range refugee, returnee regal, royal, retinue, regalia regal, rude regard, rubberneck, reconnoiter regatta, race, road race, running race reign, rule, run things reinforcements, reserves rejoice, rue relativistic dynamics, rest dynamics relaxed, riveted relay, repeat, reiterate relegate, refer relish, revulsion relishing, ravenous, rapacious reluctant, raring remain, roam reminisce, recollect, recall, remember, remind remorseful, remorseless remorseless, relentless, ruthless remote, right here remote, rugged rendezvous, rencounter, run into renown, recognition, repute repairable, ruined repast, regalement, refection repay, renege repentant, recidivous repentant, recusant replica, ringer report, rumor repouss, raised, relief republic, realm republican, royalist repudiate, reconfirm repudiate, renege, renounce, recant, retract, revoke repugnant, repulsive, revolting reputable, risqu rerun, repeat reserved, reckless reserves, reinforcements residence, room resolve, resignation resort, recreation center resort, retreat, refuge respectable, reproachable rest on your laurels, rest on your oars restart, resume, revive, recommence restaurant, room service restive, relaxed

473

restrained, reserved, reticent restrained, riotous retard, reinforce retell, retrace, review, revisit, rehash reticule, registration retire, recline, rest, repose, rouse, rise retort, repartee, rejoinder retract, recant retrieve, replace reversal of fortune, renewal of fortune, ruin of fortune revile, revere revoke, reinstate revolve, roll, rotate revue, review revulsion, repugnance, repulsion revved, restless, restive, relaxed reword, rephrase Rhadamanthine, reprobate rhubarb, row, ruckus, run-in rib tickler, riot, roar ribald, reverent ribbon, rhinestone rice, risotto rice, rye rich, reductionist rich, ruined rich and famous, rank an file rickety, rackety ricochet, rebound, recoil rictus, rigor mortis riddle, ream riddle, revelation ride, roam, round, range ridge, rut riffraff, rabble right person, right place, right problem righteous, remiss righteous, rouge rigid, relaxed rigmarole, red tape, regulatory ritual, razzmatazz rill, rille, runnel, rivulet, river ring, racket, rat pack ring, resonate, reverberate riotous, risible rip, rend, rive rippling, rising, rolling, roiling, receding rise to the occasion, ruin the occasion rise, retire rising star, ruined career rising, receding risqu, rousing, racy ritzy, razzle-dazzle, rich ritzy, rundown

474

riverside, river, riverfront roadblock, rub, restraining order roadworthy, ready for the scrap yard roar, roast, radiate roar, rumble, roll, report robotic, remote control, radio controlled rock the boat, row the boat rocker, roadie rocket science, rudimentary rogue elephant, ravenous lion role model, reprobate roll with the punches, return the punches rollout, rollback roly-poly, rail thin Roman holiday, romantic holiday ronin, robin hood, righter of wrongs root around, rummage, ransack rooted, roaming rope, ribbon, rubber band ropes, rudiments, rules, roles rosy, rotten rotation, reflection rotation, reflection, reversal rotund, roly-poly rough and ready, rinky dink, rough hewn, rudimentary roughneck, roustabout, roughrider roulette, raffle, random shot round up, roust, run in round, rectangular round, rotund round, rounded, ring, rotary roundabout, roaming, rambling roundup, rollup, recap, rundown, report, review, recapitulation, reconciliation royalism, republicanism royalty, royal family royalty, rube rubber stamped, ran the gauntlet rube, ruralist, rustic, rancher, redneck rue, regret, remorse ruffle, rouse rug, runner rule the roost, ride herd, regiment and regulate ruminate, ratiocinate ruminate, regurgitate rumpus, ruction run things, rule things runabout, roadster, rattletrap, racing car runaround, ruse, red herring runaway, refugee runaway, regulated rundown, roundup runs, retching runway, railway, roadway, riverway, right of way

475

rural, rustic, remote ruse, real rush to judgment, righteous judgment rush, railroad rush, run, race, rocket rustic, rococo rustle up, ready rusty, razor sharp rut, ripe, randy

S-T-U
self-reliance, sponging sabbatical, shore leave, sick leave sack, send packing, suspend sacked out, snoozing, sawing logs, slumbering, sack time, siesta, shuteye sacred, secular sacrosanct, sacrilegious sad spectacle, sorry sight safe haven, safe harbor, safe house safeguard, savage safeguard, steal safeguarding, safekeeping, sheltering sagacity, stupidity sail, steam sailor, seaman, seafarer saint, sinner saintly, satanic salaam, salute, say hello, shake hands salacious, smutty, sexy, steamy salacious, stainless salaryman, salarywoman salient, standout, striking salient, superfluous salmagundi, salad salon, soire, shindig, singsong, social meal, social shower, supper party saloon, salon salt flat, salt marsh, salina salt of the earth, scum of the earth salt water, sweet water, swamp water, sewer water, standing water, stagnant water salt, seasonings salty, saltless salty, sweet, sour, spicy salute, scorn Samaritan, savior same wavelength, simpatico sanctuary, slaughterhouse sandbox, swing set, slide sandwiched, set between sang-froid, serenity sanguine, suspicious, skeptical sanitarium, surgical hospital sanitary, squalid

476

sap, setup, sitting duck, softie, sport, sucker, scapegoat, sacrificial lamb sapor, savor sarcophagus, sepulture satanic, soulless, stony sate, satiate, slake saturated, sopping, soaked, soggy, sodden sauce, seasoning sauces, spices sauna, shower, steam room sausage, seasoned meat saut, sear, seethe, simmer, scald, steam, steep, stew savage, slaughter savage, subdued save for a rainy day, spend like there is no tomorrow save, sacrifice save, spend saving, splurging savior fare, sharp tongue savior, scourge savory, savorless savory, spoilt saw, saying, slogan, shibboleth saxophone, snare drum say, state, swear scale, surmount scalloped, serrated scallywag, scamp scapegoating, screw job scar, scab, sore, sepsis, scald scatterbrained, systematic scenic, striking scepter, staff schadenfreude, sympathy schlep, struggle scholar, scholarship, scholarly pursuit student days, salad days, sunset years science, scripture scientific, subjective scion, successor scissors, shears, snipper scold, scorch, scourge, swear a blue streak scoop, shovel, spade, spoon scooter, skateboard scorch, sear, singe scoria, slag scotch, suppress scout, sleuth, scour, search, survey scout, sleuth, spotter, spy scram, slip away, scram, skedaddle, sneak away, skip out, split, skidoo, skate scramble, stand down, stand fast scrap, scrape, shuffle, scuffle scratch, scrape, sliver, slash, sting, stab screaming, shattering

477

screechy, scratchy screen, scrutinize screen, select screen, shield screw loose, screwball, screwy screw over, shaft, stick it to, snow, string along, suck in, sucker screw up your courage, swill liquid courage scribble, scrawl, squiggle scrimping, squandering scrub, shrimp, squirt, small-fry, stunted, shorty scrub, shutdown scrubland, savanna, steppe scrumptious, sickening scrupulous, shameless scummy, scurvy, shameful, sordid, sorry, swinish, sleazy, scuzzy scurry, stampede, scamper, scuttle, scarper, sprint scythe, sickle, shear seafaring, seagoing, seaworthy, salty, sailing the seven seas seafood, shellfish sealed, signed, settled search, screen, score, select seaside, strait, shore, seacoast, seaboard, seashore, sand bar, sandy beach, strand, seabed, surf, salt marsh seasoning, shakedown seating room, standing room seaway, sea lane second nature, standard custom second place, second best second rate, shoddy, sleazy, small time second string, second fiddle, small fry, small time secondary effect, side effect secret advantage, secret weapon, sure advantage secret influence, secret partner secret, shown sect, school, splinter group secular, structural secure, surrender sedan, station wagon, subcompact sedate, sedentary, sluggish, slothful sedative, soporific, somnifacient sedentary, strenuous seduce, stave off sedulous, shirker seed, spore, sperm, semen seeds, starches seek out, smoke out, scout out, sniff out seeming, self styled, so called seesaw, stay the course segmentation, stratification seine, snare seize the moment, sleep on it seize, surround, sequester seizin, squat

478

selectivity, specificity, saturation self denial, self sacrifice, self abnegation self gratification, self denial self made, self styled self preservation, societal preservation, species preservation self serving, self sacrificing self contained, spread out selfish, selfless selfishness, solipsism, swellheadedness selfism, socialism, statism self made, self styled sell short, slight, show disrespect sell to, sell through selling, shopping seminal, shaping the future seminal, sperm senate, synod send, secure sensible, senseless sensitive, self conscious, shy, sheepish, shrinking, skittish, suspicious sensor, stimulator sensual, sumptuous, sybaritic sent up the river, sold down the river separate, shared sequence, serialization, succession sequester, seclude, set apart serene, startled, skittish, spooked, scared serene, stressful serialized, sequential, successive seriatim, subsequent, sequela, sequent, series, shunt serious, silly sermonize, scandalize serpentine, sinuous, sigmoid serpentine, sly, seductive serviceable, shot serviceman, servicewoman set fire, stoke, smother, snuff out set for life, sentenced for life set forth, sally forth set in motion, see thought to completion set out, show up settle accounts, settle a score, settle a bet, settle a debt settle in, stay a while seventh heaven, serious trouble severe, simple, spare, stark, subdued, Spartan sewer, storm drain sextet, septet sexy, sexless sexy, smutty shackle, straightjacket, subjugate shadow, shade, spirit, spook, specter shake hands on, sign up for, subscribe to

479

shaken, stunned, staggered, stupefied shall, shall not shallow, soundless shalom, salaam shame, scorn, sneer, scoff, stare, spit, sniff, stone shame, stature shameful, shameless shanghai, skyjack, snitch, snatch, spirit away, strip, shoplift, stick up, swipe, steal Shangri-la, Shambhala shapely, shapeless share of enterprise equity, securitized debt, saleable investment security, securitized investment shark, small fry sharp, slowwitted sharpshooter, sniper shave cream, soap, shampoo shaver, shaving cream, stubble shed, slough sheik, sheriff, sultan, shah, sachem shelter, screen, sheath shelter, shack, shanty, shed sheltered, spoiled, selfish, self seeking, self centered shimmer, sparkle, scintillate, shine, spark shinny, scuffed, shopworn, scruffy, shabby, seedy, shambles shiny, shabby ship, steamship, sailing ship, small craft, schooner, sloop, sailboat, steamboat, scow, skiff shirt, suit, skirt, sportswear, sleepwear, shift, slacks, shoes, socks shit, spit up, salivate, sweat, shed skin, slobber, spit, sniff, snivel, sneeze shit, stool shiver, shudder, shake shoal, sandbar, shallows shock and awe, sadness and anger shoehorn, squeeze in shoestring, sybaritic shoo in, slim chance shoot your wad, save your strength shorn, stripped, sheared, shaved short drink, snort, shot short fuse, self control short list, shit list short shrift, serious consideration short sighted, sagacious short, surly, snippy shortcut, scenic route shorten, stretch shorthand, stenography shot, slewed, sloppy, sloshed, smashed, sodden, stewed, stiff, stinking, stoned, swacked shotgun wedding, Sabine rape shotgun, single focus shotgun, small arms should, should not shoulder to the wheel, sit on the sidelines shovel, spade

480

show dog, stray dog showboat, showoff, swagger showdown, skirmish, set piece, siege, set to, sortie, shootout, steamroll, storm, sally, swarm, sack showground, sports ground showmanship, spotlight, showcase, soapbox, showpiece showoff, showboat, show your stuff showroom, stall, shop, strip mall, shopping center, store, stock exchange showstopper, snag, snafu, stumbling block showstopper, something else, stunner, solid gold, something else, super duper shrift, sacrament of penance, shrive shucks, shaw, shoot shuffled deck, stacked deck shun, shirk, spurn, shrink, snub, sidestep, sideslip, skirt, slight shut down, shutter shutter, shut up shy, scintillating shyster, sawbones Siberian, Saharan sibilation, stridor sick, swell sicken, suffer, survive, succumb sickle, scythe sickly, sprightly side drum, snare drum, steel drum sidearm, shotgun, submachine gun sidebar, snack bar, salad bar, smorgasbord, self serve sift, sieve sight, sound, smell sighted, sightless sign on, severance, separation sign, signal, semaphore, siren, signal flare, smoke signal sign, symptom signage, storefront signal, static signaling, sightline, satellite, subsurface, submerged, skywave significant, specious signpost, signboard silence, shush, squelch silent, spoken silent, strident silk stocking, smart set, social elite silly, sappy, schmaltzy, sentimental, slushy, soppy, syrupy silver lining, sooty livery silver spoon, stark poverty silverware, serving dishes similarity, sharing simoom, sirocco simple as pie, simply impossible simple, sophisticated simple, stately simpleton, savant simplify, sophisticate

481

simplify, sort out simultaneity, synchronization simultaneous, synchronized, synchronous sincere, sarcastic, sardonic, satirical sine die, set date sine qua non, supplementary sinful, sanctified sinful, sinless single household residential structure, multiple family residential structure single story, several stories, skyscraper single, several single, spouseless, stag singular, similar singular, singleton, single singular, special sinister, seraphic sink, shower sinking ship, safe harbor sinless, scandalous sinus headache, splitting headache, simple headache, sick headache, severe headache siphon, suck, spew sire, spawn, sibling, scion siren, seductress, sexpot, stunner sissy, soldierly sit tight, set forth sitting duck, snarling tiger sketchy, spotty skewer, spear, spit, stick ski, skate, snowboard skim, steal skin on, skinless skin, scalp skulk, slink, sneak, slip, steal skullduggery, shenanigans skullduggery, straight talk sky god, storm god, sea god, sun god, sex god sky high, steep, stiff skyline, silhouette, shadow slab, strip, sheet, stele, slice slacker, stickler slammer, solitary, Statesville, stir, stockade, stocks slander, salve slang word, swear word slant, spin, standpoint slap, slug, spank, strike, smack, sock, smack, spar slavery, slaver, slaveholder, slave driver, Simon Legree slay, snuff, slaughter sleep like a baby, stay up all night sleeping dogs, snarling dogs sleepwetting, sleepwalking, sleeptalking sleepy, sleeping, snoring sleigh, sled, sledge sleight, skill

482

sleuth, solve slice, serving, side dish slight, stark slim picking, sweet pickings slime, slather, snot, scum slimy, slippery, slick, sappy, syrupy, soapy, sticky slingshot, spear slipshod, shipshape slipstream, sonic boom slob, stickler slough, swale, swampland slow down, slacken, subdue slow motion, stop action, stop and go slow, sudden sludge, sediment, sewerage, silt slum, Shangri la slumberous, sleepy slump, stagnation, spurt slump, streak, surge small amount, small change, small potatoes small change, sea change small potatoes, smalltime, small matter smart, sting smart, stupid smartass, smart aleck, smarty pants smarten up, spiff up, spruce up smell, stench, stink smidgen, smattering, scintilla, soupon smile, scowl smoke and mirrors, sleight of hand, stage magic smoke and mirrors, solid and substantial smoke, smolder, sizzle, spark, spit, sputter smoking gun, suspicious circumstances smother, starve, suffocate, strangle smutty, snowy snack foods, sweets, salty foods snake, serpentine snap, snipe, snip snap, spontaneous snap, spontaneous, spur of the moment snare, snag, snarl snarl, slow snarl, snap, show fangs sneezing, sniffling, shivering sniff, smell snitch, stoolpigeon, stoolie snort, squeal, screech snowball, shrivel snowboard, surfboard snow pack, sandy desert snowstorm, snow pack, snowfall, snowmelt, snow snuggle, sexual intercourse, spoon and spark snuggle, snuggle up

483

so long, summation, swan song sob, snicker sober, stupor sociable, solitary sociable, spleenful social register, social climber, socialite socialite, slum dweller society, syndicate sock away, salt away, squirrel, stash away, store up Socratic, sophisticated sodality, solidarity soft drink, soda pop, soda soft spot, solicitude soft, scratchy soften, stiffen softhearted, severe soggy, stale, spoiled soign, stodgy soil, subsoil solicitude, sympathy, slighting, spitefulness solidarity, schism solitary confinement, social confinement solo, shared solo, solitary, set apart Solomon, Socrates, seven sages solute, solvent soma, soul, self, spirit somber, silly someday, soon, shortly, starting now someday, sooner or later, sometime in the future sonorous, screeching sophistry, sincerity sore, seethe, smart, smolder, stew, scheme sorghum, soybeans sorority, sisterhood, sorosis sort, stereotype, stamp, species, stripe, sameness soul mate, spouse soulful, soulless sound as a bell, sound as a dollar sound off, shut up sound, silence sound, spurious sound, suspect soup up, speed up, step up soup up, strip down soup, salad, sandwich sour grapes, sincere congratulation sourpuss, spoilsport, sorehead southpaw, sinister sovereign power, shared power sovereign, subject spa, swimming pool spacious, sardined

484

spadework, setup, scheme up spanking, switching, stroking spark, spur, stimulate spark, stifle sparkplug, slacker sparkplug, spearhead, stage manage sparse, saturated Spartan, sumptuous spasm, spell, seizure, stroke spat, squabble, scene spear, spike special case, sui generis, something uniquely special specialty, sideline specialty, strong suit, saving grace specie, shekels, scratch specific, summary spectral, solid spending money, serious money spendthrift, stingy sphinxian, straightforward spicy, spiceless spigot, spout spike, spine, stinger, splinter spill the beans, sealed lips spill the beans, snitch, squeal, sell up the river spin, safari spirited, spiritless spirited, spunky, snappy, saucy, snazzy spiritless, sullen, sulky, surely spiritual, sensual spirituality, sophia, satori, sein, nyat, sanctity spiteful, schadenfreude spitfire, scold, she-devil spitting image, some semblance splash, slosh, shower, spritz, spurt, spout, splatter, spray, squirt, splatter, spatter splay, splice splendid, scruffy split second, short while, shake spoils, scalps spoke, strut, spine spontaneous, staged spoof, send up, squib, satire spook, spy, secret agent spooked, shocked, startled, stunned, scared spooky, soothing spoon, spark, screw spoor, scent trail sport, spoilsport sporting, spoilsport spot price, subsequent price spotless, sullied spotlight, searchlight spotlight, sidelight

485

sprightly, somnambulant spring for, shell out, spend on springboard, special advantage, special treatment spur, stop square deal, shady deal square one, startup, start over square, short, stiff squeamish, stony stack, silo, siphon Stalin, Smith stalk, stem, spray, sprig, sprout, sucker, shoot, switch stand fast, scram stand up guy, son of a bitch stand, suffer, submit, swallow, stomach standard language, slang language, simplified language standardize, streamline, systematize standoff, stalemate, standstill star, stellar, sidereal start power, stardom, starstruck, starring role starting block, stumbling block startup financing, seed financing, solvency financing, strategic financing, startover financing startup, shutdown startup, surcease starve, succor stasis, static equilibrium, steadiness state of emergency, state of siege state of war, state of siege state, society stately, shabby stateroom, steerage stationary, shifting status quo, state of affairs, situation at present stave off, stymie, stall, sit on stay at home, see the world stay, stray steady, seasonal steady, shaky steal a march, spring a trap stealthy, showy steely, sappy stellar, shitty stem, staunch, stay, stump, short circuit, stifle, suppress stem, stern, side stencil, silkscreen, spray paint sterile, septic sterile, stale, senescent, superannuated sterling, shady stern, submissive stick to your guns, stand your ground stiff, strict, stringent, severe stifle, stymie, suppress, subdue stiletto, scimitar, switchblade, saber, shiv stillborn, successful

486

stimulant, sedative stimulate, suppress sting, soften up, sap, scourge, savage stingy, scrooge, skinflint, stiff, shylock, screw stir up, smooth over stir, stall stoic, sensitive stoic, sybarite stolid, stilted, stuffy, stiff, starchy, stoic stonewall, stampede stonewall, stand firm, stand pat stop a bullet, sidestep a bullet stop, shut down, shut off, shoot down, stamp out, snuff out stop, start stopgap solution, solid solution stormy, smooth stout, spineless stouthearted, stalwart straight and narrow, sin and sorrow straight arrow, sport straight arrow, straight shooter, straight and narrow, salt of the earth, square shooter, squaresville straight laced, swinger straight, starboard, sinister straightforward, self evident, self explanatory strapping, scrawny stratify, section, segment, separate, subdivide, segregate, slice strawman, scarecrow street person, shopping cart person, shopping bag person, shelterless street, sidewalk, subway, surface street, side street, superhighway, skyway streetcar, subway train streetwalker, slut, slattern strengthen, subside stress, shear, strain stretch, span, sphere strew, scatter strict, sloppy strike a deal, strike a blow strikebreaker, scab stringent, slack stroke, strike strong arm, squeeze, shakedown strong as an ox, strong as a horse stronghold, stockade, strongroom strongman, Samson strongman, shogun, satrap strongman, softie structural isomer, stereoisomer stub, stump stubborn, self willed, single minded, steadfast, stiff necked, staunch, steady, sure stubby, sawed off, stumpy, squat, stout stud, slut stud, spangle, sequin

487

student, starter, seasoned, senior, short timer stunning, spectacular, sensational, stupendous, super colossal stunted, swollen sturdy, shaky style, substance suasion, sway, sphere of influence subclass, superclass subconscious, subliminal, submerged subdued, striking sublease, sublet, subcontract sublime, solidify sublime, sordid subnormal, supernormal subscription sign, signature, seal, stamp, sticker, signet subsequent, supervening, succeeding subsistence, sumptuous substratal, sidereal substructure, superstructure subtend, sweep, span subtle, sledgehammer subtract, supplement suburban, small town, sticks, sylvan subvert, sandbag, sabotage success, setback succor, suffer, suppress succulent, savory, scrumptious sudden, speedy, swift suffering, sensuality suffocating, stagnant, stuffy sugar cane, sugar beet sugar daddy, Santa Claus sugar, sweetie, sweetie pie sugar, sweets sugary, sugarless suicide, suttee, seppuku, self immolation suitcase, saddlebags, satchel, shoulder bag, shopping bag, sack, sports bag, schoolbag suitor, spark, squeeze, swain, sweetheart, steady date sullen, spirited sultry, sweltering, sticky, steamy, stifling sum, subtract summary, synopsis, survey, summation summon, send away summon, send for sun, sunspot, solar flare, solar eclipse sunburn, sun tan, sunstroke sunny, shaded, shadowy, sunless, stygian sunny, sour sunny, stormy sunrise, sunset sunup, sundown super, sub supererogation, slacking off superheat, supercool

488

superhuman, sapless superhuman, simply human, subhuman superior, sniveling superiority, supremacy, sway sublime, scatological superpose, shield, shade supple, stiff supplicate, sandbag support, supplant support, suppress supporter, skeptic, scoffer suppress, spread supreme being, supreme evil surcharge, sweetener sure as fate, seems unlikely sure bet, sure thing, surefire surefire, safe, speculative surprised, shocked, speechless surreal, sane surrender, supplicate, submit, settle, sacrifice survey, surveil, scrutinize survival of the fittest, share and share alike suspend belief, severe scrutiny suspension of disbelief, suspension of belief sustainable, short-lived svelte, stocky swaggering, self conscious swamp, saturate, suffuse, sink swank, sleazy swashbuckler, swaggerer swath, strip sweat talk, soft soap, sway, seduce, stroke, soothe sweeping, shotgun, selective, singled out sweepstakes, speculation sweet talk, seduce sweet, saccharine sweet, sadistic sweetheart, sourpuss sweetness and light, storm and strife swell, shrink swell, superb, smashing, sublime swell, swirl, subside swift, slow swim, skim switchback, serpentine sycophant, straight shooter sylvan, scrubby symmetric, scalene symphonic orchestra, sinfonietta symphysis, synthesis syngamy, sex partner, sexual pair, sexual reproduction table setting, table linen table water, table wine

489

taboo, tolerated tacit, textual tackle, take the bull by the horns, take on tackle, temporize, thwart tacky, tasteless, tawdry, tinsel tactful, truculent tailspin, turning point, turnaround tailwind, traffic jam take a fall, take the initiative take a hike, take it or leave it, take what you need, take what you want take a look, take a stab take a new lease on life, take your life take a powder, take a stand take charge, take a back seat take five, take a break, take a breather, take a vacation, take it easy, take some time off take in, throw away, trade in take in, trick, two time, take for take it easy, take no prisoners take life as it comes, take life by the horns take part, take notice, take action take the count, take the prize take the floor, take a seat take the heat, take the easy way out take the lead, take the rear take the long view, take the money and run take the plunge, take it slow take the pot, taken to the cleaners take, turndown takeout, table service, table d'hte talebearer, tattletale, troublemaker, tipster talk to, tell off, tongue lash talk turkey, talk trash talk, text tame, temperamental tang, trace tangent, transverse tangible, theoretical tapas, tidbit tape, thread, twine taper, thin tapered, thorny, tined, tipped tapped out, tons of money tar, tarnish, trash tare weight, true weight tarp, tarpaulin, tent, tegument, top tarry, travel tart, tramp, trollop task, tax tasteful, tacky tasty, tangy, toothsome, tantalizing tasty, tasteless tattered, threadbare, timeworn, tarnished, torn tatty, tawdry, terrible, trashy, trumpery, two bit

490

taut, tight, tense tautology, truism tavern, taproom taxi, trolley taxpayer, tax collector tea room, tea shop technical truth, theoretical truth, traditional truth, theological truth tectonic plate, tectonic boundary, tectonic shift teeming, thick, thronged teepee, tent, tilt teeter, totter, tumble, topple teetotaler, tippler tekhn, totality of technology telecommunications, telegraph, telephone, television, two way radio, ticker, TCP telecommute, teleconference tell, tout, trumpet, toot your own horn teller, till temerity, taciturnity temperate, tempestuous tempest, tornado, twister temporal, timeless temporary, tentative, test bed, trial run, transient, transitional, throw away tenant, trespasser tepefy, thaw, toast terrestrial elliptic, terrestrial equator territorial, transnational test market, test audience, test group test match, tournament, trophy match test the waters, trial balloon tte--tte, test of wills tether, tie up, trammel text, tome, tract, textbook, treatise, tale, thesis, testament, transcript the best is yet to come, the best is now, the best is over and done the game is afoot, the game is up the poor will always be with us, the rich will always be with us the seven seas, the seven continents the sweet life, the sad life therefore, thereby, thus, therein, therefrom, thereupon theretofore, throughout, thereafter thermometer, tachometer, timer thick skinned, thin skinned thick, thin think inside the box, think outside the box third degree, tar and feather, toss in a blanket thirst, taste thistle, thorn, tine thoroughfare, throughway, turnpike thoughtless, thoughtful thrash, thresh, thump, thwack, trounce, transcend, total, top, triumph, trump, thwart threads, toggery, tonsorial, trousseau, threads, tailoring, tatters, tout ensemble, tuxedo three, ternate, triad, tertiary, trilateral, trihedral, triplicate thrifty, tightwad, tightfisted thrilled, tickled pink, thrilled to pieces

491

thrilling, tiresome thriving, tottering throng, troop, troupe, team, tribe thug, terrorist thumb you nose, tip your hat thumbs up, thumbs down thunder, thunderbolt, thunderstorm thunderstorm, tornado, twister thunderstruck, taken aback, thrown for a loop tick off, tee off, turn off ticket, tariff ticking time bomb, totally under control tickle the funny bone, tickle the fancy tickle, tingle, twinge, throb, throe, thrill tickled pink, terribly disappointed tidings, tidbits tidy, tacky tie, tangle tie, tossup, truce, treaty tie, triumph tiff, tussle, tangle, tantrum tighten your belt, take off weight tightlipped, tattletale tiller, trencher tilt at windmills, tackle hard problems tilt, tip tilt, tournament, trial, tug of war timberland, thicket, tree timberland, thicket, tree, trunk, twig, treetop time wasted, time well spent time, trouble, toil, treasure timeliness, tardiness timepiece, time signal timework, taskwork timocracy, theocracy timpani, tambourine tiny, tremendous tip of the iceberg, totality of the iceberg tip top, top drawer, top notch, topflight tipsy, tight, trashed, tanked, totaled tiptoe, tread lightly, traipse, trudge, tramp, tromp titillate, turnoff tocsin, tattoo, trumpet call, toll todo, tumult toehold, total dominance toff, trendy togs, toga token, ticket, toll token, trifle tomfoolery, tommyrot, trash talk, twaddle, tripe toneless, tuneless tongue in cheek, teasing irony too bad, tough break, tough luck

492

too hot, temperate, too cold too much of a good thing, too little of a good thing tool around, take the scenic route, take the direct route tool, toy toothless, terrifying top dog, top of the heap, titleholder top dog, total unknown top form, terrible form top of the heap, trying to make ends meet topnotch, topflight torchbearer, trailblazer torrid, timid torso, trunk, thorax tortoise speed, take it slow, toddle along, take it easy, trot along, tear along, tear up the road toss of a coin, turn of a card, throw of the dice total commitment total, tab, tabulation, tally, toll totalitarian, tyrannical touchy, thin skinned, trigger happy tough question, trick question, thorny question, touchy question tough times, tough luck, tough break tough, tender tourist, traveler towel, toothbrush, toothpaste, toilet paper tower of strength, trembling coward toxic, tolerated, tonic toxic, transmissible tracery, tessellation, triangulation, texture track down, turn up, trail after, trip over trade goods, truck trade literature, technical literature, textbook literature, theoretical literature trade, truck, traffic traffic cop, traffic control, traffic sign, traffic signal trail blaze, tag along train of thought, thinking out loud, thought process tramp, transient tranquil, tumultuous tranquilize, threaten transaction value, transportation value, time value transcribe, typewrite transducer, transformer transmit, televise transnational, transcontinental transpacific, transatlantic transparent, translucent, tinted, turbid, thick transvestite, transsexual traveling wave, turbulent wave, transverse wave, tangent wave tread water, take the initiative tread water, temporize, tarry, twiddle thumbs treadmill, ticket to the top treat, terror tree, top, twig, tributary trendy, tiresome

493

trial by combat, trial by fire, trial by jury trial, trifle tribute, testimonial tribute, tirade trickle, torrent, tidal wave tricks of the trade, tools of the trade trigger, temper tripped out, tripping, turned on, transcendent trishaw, tuk-tuk triumph, tribute, trophy triumvirate, triage, triptych, triple, trine, trinity, triune, triplicate, triune, troika trivet, teapot trodden, trite troll, trawl, trail troll, trill troll, troglodyte trombone, tuba, trumpet trophy, title troubadour, trovatore, tunesmith trouble, threat trouble, tragedy troubled, thrilled troublemaker, troubleshooter troubleshooter, tamer troublesome, tiresome, tedious troublesomeness, tolerance true believer, two faced believer true god, tin god truism, technicality trump up, think up, throw together, throw up trumped up, truthful truncate, telescope trunk, tendril, tentacle trunk, torso, thorax trust to the fates, temp the fates trustworthy, treasonous truth, travesty truthful, trumped up try out, take a shot, take up, turn to try, tumble tryst, tie-up tu quoque, turnabout is fair play tube, trough tug, trawler tumbledown, tottering tundra, taiga tunnel vision, thoroughness tureen, terrine dish turf, topsoil, tillage turgid, terse turkey, twerp, twit turn away, turn your back, turn a blind eye turn in, tell on, tattle

494

turn over a new leaf, tell the same old lies turn the other cheek, turn tail, take revenge turncoat, traitor, tergiversator turnstile, toll gate, ticket taker tussle, truce tutelary angel, tormenting daemon twine, twist twinkle, tinsel twister, tornado twit, tough two shakes, twinkling, trice twosome, tandem, twinned twosome, threesome tyke, tot, toddler, towhead type, typeface, typeset, typography typical, tantamount, twin, typecast, true to type tyrannical, tolerant tyro, tenderfoot, trainee ugly, ungainly ugly, unglamorous ugly, unsightly ulterior, underhanded ultimatum, ultimate contention challenge ultrafashionable, ultramodern umbra, umbrella umbrage, understanding umbrage, unsettlement, upset umbrella, unifying umpteen, uncountable, uncounted, untold unable, unwilling unaccountable, unreliable, untrustworthy unapproachable, unconcerned, unfriendly, uninterested, unresponsive, unsociable, unsympathetic, uppity unavoidable, unfolding, underway unavoidable, unnecessary unbowed, undone uncalled for, unavoidable unclothed, uncovered, undressed, unrobed uncombed, unkempt uncompleted, uncut, undressed, unfashioned, unfinished, unformed, unhewn, unpolished, unprocessed, unrefined, unwrought uncompromising, unflexible, unrelenting, unswayable, unyielding, uptight, unbending, unshakable unconfirmed, undeniable uncouth, uncivilized uncouth, uncultured, uncivilized uncover, unmask, unveil under control, uncontrollable under control, uncontrolled under the gun, under the wire under the radar, under the microscope under the weather, up and about under wraps, up in lights

495

under, upper underappreciated, underpaid undercurrent, undertone, unspoken meaning, understood meaning undercurrent, undertow, unseen current undercut, undermine, undo underdressed, undressed underground, underwater underhanded, unconcealed underpinning, understructure, underside, underneath underrate, underestimate, undervalue understandable, unfathomable understood, uttered undertake, underwrite, upkeep underwrite, undertake underwritten, unsecured undo, unravel, untangle unearth, uncover, unbury uneasiness, upset, unrest, uproar, upheaval unemployed, underemployed, unemployable, unavailable for employment unequivocal, undecided unessential, unimportant, unexciting, urgent uneven, unequal unfit, up to the task unflappable, upbeat, unhesitating, unsure, unsettled, upset, unglued unglued, unhinged, unzipped unidealistic, unromantic uniform, unvarying, unchanging, undeviating unilateral, unison unintended consequences, unexpected consequences, unforeseeable consequences, unavoidable consequences unite, undo unjust, unmerited, uncalled for, unpardonable unknown, unknowable unless, until unlock, unleash, unloose, unchain, unbolt, unfasten, untie, unbutton, unbind, unwrap, unknot unmistakable, unclear unmistaken, unimpeachable, unquestionable uno, umpteen unoccupied, untaken, untenanted unopposed, unsupported unpaid bill, unreciprocated favor, unfinished business unplug, unstop unprecedented, unoriginal unsure, unswerving unswerving, unsteady untried, usual untrustworthy, unctuous, underhanded, unfair, unscrupulous, unprincipled up the river, up the creek up to par, under par up to the minute, up to date uphold, undermine, usurp uphold, uplift, upraise upper class, underclass

496

upper curst, underworld uppermost, undermost upright, unseemly upright, upended, upset, upturn, upside down upscale, uptown, urbane, upper crust, uneconomical, upper stratum uptight, uninhibited urbane, uncivilized urge, ungratified appetite, unsatisfied necessity urgent, unimportant utile, utilitarian utmost, uttermost, ultimate, ultra utopian, utilitarian

V-W-X-Y-Z
vacancy, vacuum, void vacant, vacuum, void vacate, vamoose valid, veracious, veridical, veritable valuable, vendible vanguard, vanward vanish, vacate, vamoose vanity fair, vogue, very latest style vapid, venomous vaporize, vitrify varicolored, variegated, versicolored varnish veneer vase, vat, vessel, vial vassal, votary, vavasour vaunt, voice, ventilate veal, vegetables, vegetable oil vector, vertex, volume vegetables, veggies vehement, vacillating veil, vizard, visor vending, vendible, vendor, vendee venial, vestal vent, ventilate vent, verbalize Venus, Valkyrie verboten, valid veridical, valid, verified vicar, viceroy vicious cycle, virtuous cycle victim of circumstances, viciousness of character victory, vexation victuals, vittles, viands, vino vieux jeu, vogue vigilantism, vendetta, vengeance seeking vigorous, vegetative vile, valiant vilification, vindication villa, village, villain

497

violence never solves anything, violence always solves everything violin, viola, violoncello VIP, virtually unknown virago, vixen virgin, vernal, veteran, vintage virgin, virtuous virgin, vixen, vamp virtue of necessity, various options virtue of necessity, vice of necessity virtue, vice virtuoso, vulgarian vis mortua, vis viva visa, visitor's permit viscera, vital organs visible, veiled vision, visibility visit, view vital, vestigial vital, vitiate vivid, vague, vacuous vogue, vintage, venerable, vestigial voice, video volcano, volcanic vent, volcanic ash, volcanic lava, volcanic eruption, volcanism voluptuous, virginal voodoo, volitional vote in, vote out vote of confidence, voted out of office voucher, visa vouchsafe, veto voyeur, vicarious gratification voyeur, viewer vulnerable, virulent wade into the fray, win the day waft, whiff, wisp wager, winnings, wagerer waggish, woebegone wake up call, warning shot, word to the wise wale, wart, weal, welt, whip mark walk the line, wild abandon walk the plank, waltz away walkabout, wanderlust walkout, work stoppage, work to rule, wildcat strike walkover, waterloo, waltz, whipping, wipeout, washout wallet power, wherewithal wallflower, wildflower wallpaper, window coverings wanton, well behaved warble, whistle warder, warden warm, wintry warm, wooden warmth, wrath warning shot, wing shot, wrathful shot

498

warp, weft, woof warped, weird, way out, wacko warrant, writ warranted, wrongful warren, web warrior, wimp wart, weakness, wrongness wary, woolgathering wash, wallow, wade, welter wash, wring, wipe washed up, way out front washroom, water closet, washtub, washstand, washbasin, washtub, washrag waste, whack, wipe out, whelm, wound wasted effort, wasted labor, waste of time, waste of money waster, wastrel watch and wait, wade into the fray watch, wristwatch watchdog, watchman watcher, witness, watchman watchful, wary, witting, wakeful, wired watercourse, waterway, waterfall, weir watered, waterless waterfront, wetlands, water, water body waterline, water level watermark, witness mark waterproof, water repellant, water resistant waterspout, whirlpool, whorl watery, waterless wave, wake, whitecap wavefront, waveform, wavelength wax, wane way forward, way backward way out, way in, walkway ways and means, work and mortgage weak, wavering, woozy, wobbly weakling, wimp, wuss wealth, wampum wealthy, wanting wear, weather, withstand weasel out, worm out, wimp out weather, wane, wither, wilt, waste away weathercock, weathervane, windsock weathered, weatherproof wee, weighty wee, whopping weed, wildflower weigh, wrestle, worry welcome, ward off welcome, worrisome welkin, world well done, well played, well said well done, whipping well founded, well justified, well demonstrated

499

well founded, wrong well heeled, well worn heels well liked, whipping boy well rested, worn down, worn to a frazzle well to do, without means well, wretched well-read, well-informed Weltanschauung, worldview went wrong, went right western, wild, wooly wet blanket, Weltschmerz, worrywart wet blanket, wild and crazy wet your whistle, whet your appetite wetted, watery, wringing wet, water logged whack, wallop, whip, wail wharf, waterfront, wharfage, watercraft what will be will be, we only go around once what's on, what's what, who's who wheat, wild rice wheelbarrow, wagon wheelchair, walker wheeler-dealer, wirepuller whelp, whippersnapper, waif when in Rome, when the occasion demands when the chips are down, when the going gets tough while away, waste time, wait whimsical, weird whirligig, whatchamacallit, widget, whatnot, whatsit whisky, wine whisper, wail whistle, whoop white lie, whopper white slave, whore, working girl, wench well water, white water, waste water, washing water whitewash, window dressing, white lie, white out whittle down, winnow, weed out whiz, whoosh whiz-bang, wonderful whole story, what's it all about, whole truth wholehearted, wavering wholehearted, willing wholesome, warm, winning wholesome, wicked whorehound, wolf, woman hunter, womanizer, whistler why on earth, why not wide awake, woozy wide eyed, worldly wide open, worked out wideband, wireline widespread, wholesale, wall to wall widespread, workaday, wonted widow, widower wild idea, workable idea, worthwhile idea, worthless idea, wacky idea

500

wildcard, wrapped up will o' the wisp, wish fulfillment fantasy, wild fantasy will, will not willful, wavering, waffling, wimping out willful, willing willful, wishy-washy willies, worries willing, withholding willowy, well fed willpower, weakness willy-nilly, willingness win by a wide margin, win by a whisker wind power, wave power, water power wind, wend wind, windstorm, whirlwind wind, wrap, wreath windbag, windy, wordy windfall, win, wash, whipping windmill, watermill window dressing, wealth building window in time, when, while window, wall winner, whiner winning, warm, wooden, withdrawn wired, wireless wise ass, wise guy, wisenheimer, wiseacre wise, wacky wiseacre, wise man wish upon a star, work like hell wishful thinking, wise thinking witch hunt, wild goose chase, worthless pursuit witch hunt, work an accommodation witch, wizard, warlock, witch doctor, wiccan with, without within, without withstand, wither witting, willed, weighed witty, witless wizened, winsome wolf in sheep's clothing, when sheep wear wolf's clothing wolfish, well bred womb, world wonderful find, white elephant wonderful, woeful wonderment, weariness wood, water wordsmith, writer, word slinger work a job, welfare roles work and win, whine and worry work day and night, work late, work like a dog, work overtime, work like the devil work the room, work the phone work thought, work up, work out, work around work wonders, wreak havoc

501

workable, wedged worker, watcher world beater, wuss world of good, world of hurt worldly, world weary worse for wear, wearing away worshipful, wrathful worthwhile, worthless worthy, wanting, wrong, wretched, wicked would, would not wound up, worked up, wrapped up wrap up, wind down, wind up wrathful, wild with rage, worked up, wroth write down, write up, write off writing on the wall, written in the news yank, yo-heave-ho! yearn for, yen for, yammer for yearn, yawn yell, yammer, yodel, yak, yuck, yawn yellow, yeomanly yes, yea, yup, yep yield, yes yin, yang yodel, yell yogi, yoga, yama yokel, yahoo, yeoman yore, yesteryear, yesterday yore, yet to come youth, yearling, youngling, youngster, young'un yowl, yelp, yap, yip yo-yo, yielding, yes man yucky, yummy zazen, zazenkai, Zen, zendo, zenji zeal, zest, zing, zip zealot, zombie Zen, zeal zero in, zoom out zero, zenith zesty, zestless zig, zag, zigzag, zoom, zip zilch, zero, zip, zippo, zot zingy, zesty, zippy, zany zippy, zonked

502

9: A Sampling of GTPS Topics


Introduction
This chapter presents some examples from the GTPS topic library. One hundred different topics are represented here. A few example titles are presented from each topic. The topics presented here include: accounting system agricultural equipment apparel appliance architecture, engineering, and construction art form artistic genre automotive part business diagnostic chemical element chemical unit operation cleaning climate common color common reagent construction equipment contracting criminal crop culinary culinary genre culinary implement currency cutter tool derivative security domestic animal domestic chore domestic furnishing domestic linen econometric electronic component elementary particle English units fiber fish food food preparation form of address fuel geographical feature geological mineral geological period geological structure hand tool holiday

503

home place home remedy human condition human physiology industrial furnishing industrial material industry institutional exchange interest rate international organizations and agreements kinematic mechanism kitchen supply lumber machine component machine shop machine tool mathematical function mechanical fastener mechanical manufacturing medical condition medical therapy meteorological meteorological feature mortal muscle music genre musical instrument nation naval ship nervous disorder numerical control nutrient occupational specialty office machine optical component organic chemical packaging patent classification personal care product personal creed personal rank pharmaceutical pipe fitting precious material process piping public place spoken language sporting steel shape timezone transport equipment U.S. state wood

504

work place world region

Today there are several thousand published XML schemaware practice modeling standards. Some are public as in the case of those published by oasis-open.org, opeanapplications.org, and rosettnet.org. Many others are proprietary. Most of these schemaware models can adopted for use in conjunction with GTPS. GTPS is particularly well suited for combining XML practice model contexts drawn from diverse sources.

Accounting System
Accounting System, Finished Material Inventory Accounting System, Fixed Assets Accounting System, General Ledger Accounting System, Inventory Accounting System, Investment Accounting System, Job Cost Accounting System, Job Labor Cost Accounting System, Job Material Cost Accounting System, Managerial

Agricultural Equipment
Equipment, Agricultural, Mobile, Cultivation Equipment, Agricultural, Mobile, Cylinder Tine Separator Equipment, Agricultural, Mobile, Disk Ripper Equipment, Agricultural, Mobile, Disk Tools Equipment, Agricultural, Mobile, Draper Platform Equipment, Agricultural, Mobile, Drawn Cultivator Equipment, Agricultural, Mobile, Drawn Plow Equipment, Agricultural, Mobile, Dryer

Apparel
Apparel, Gown Apparel, Half Slip Apparel, Handkerchief Apparel, Hat Apparel, Helmet Apparel, Hosiery Apparel, Intimate Apparel, Jacket Apparel, Jeans Apparel, Jumper Apparel, Jumpsuit Apparel, Junior Apparel, Juvenile Apparel, Kilt Apparel, Leisure Suit

Appliance
Appliance, Home, Coffee Maker Appliance, Home, Coffee Mill Appliance, Home, Coffee Urn

505

Appliance, Home, Convection Oven Appliance, Home, Conventional Oven Appliance, Home, Cook Top Appliance, Home, Cup Warmer Appliance, Home, Deep Fry Cooker Appliance, Home, Dehumidifier Appliance, Home, Desiccator Appliance, Home, Dishwasher

Architecture, Engineering, And Construction


AEC Component, Corrosion Resistant Masonry AEC Component, Countertop AEC Component, Crane AEC Component, Cubicle AEC Component, Cubicle Hardware AEC Component, Curb AEC Component, Curtain AEC Component, Curtain Hardware AEC Component, Dampproofing AEC Component, Darkroom Door AEC Component, Data Processing Equipment AEC Component, Daylighting Panel AEC Component, Deck Insulation AEC Component, Decorative Finish AEC Component, Decorative Glazing AEC Component, Deluge Fire Suppression Sprinkler AEC Component, Demountable Partition AEC Component, Detectable Warning Surface

Art Form
Art Form, Oratorical Art Form, Painting Art Form, Performing Art Form, Photographic Art Form, Plastic Art Form, Poetic Art Form, Prose

Artistic Genre
Genre, Artistic, Conceptualism Genre, Artistic, Cubism Genre, Artistic, Cypriot Genre, Artistic, Dada Genre, Artistic, Der Blaue Reiter Genre, Artistic, Die Brucke Genre, Artistic, Dutch Genre, Artistic, Dutch Baroque

Automotive Part
Part, Automotive, Air Cleaner Mounting Brake

506

Part, Automotive, Air Conditioning Misc Relays Brake Part, Automotive, Air Duct Hose Brake Part, Automotive, Air Filter Brake Part, Automotive, Air Flow Meter Brake Part, Automotive, Air Injection Pipe Brake Part, Automotive, Air Mass Sensor Brake

Business Diagnostic
Business, Diagnostic, Ratio, Cash Receipts To Ending Receivables Business, Diagnostic, Ratio, Cash Turnover Business, Diagnostic, Ratio, Common Stock Leverage Business, Diagnostic, Ratio, Common Stock To Capital Business, Diagnostic, Ratio, Cost Of Sales Per Direct Labor Hour Business, Diagnostic, Ratio, Cost Of Sales Per Unit Business, Diagnostic, Ratio, Cost Of Sales To Sales

Chemical Element
Element, Chemical, Indium Element, Chemical, Iodine Element, Chemical, Iridium Element, Chemical, Iron Element, Chemical, Krypton Element, Chemical, Lanthanum Element, Chemical, Lawrencium Element, Chemical, Lead Element, Chemical, Lithium Element, Chemical, Lutetium

Chemical Unit Operation


Chemical Unit Operation, Dampening Chemical Unit Operation, De Dusting Chemical Unit Operation, Decompressing Chemical Unit Operation, Defluidization Chemical Unit Operation, Dehalogenation Chemical Unit Operation, Dehumidification Chemical Unit Operation, Dehydration

Cleaning
Cleaning, Fabric Softener Liquid Cleaning, Fabric Softener Sheet Cleaning, Facial Tissue Cleaning, Feather Duster Cleaning, Fine Fabric Soap Cleaning, Floor Cleaner Cleaning, Floor Polish Cleaning, Floor Wax Cleaning, Furniture Oil Cleaning, Furniture Polish Cleaning, Furniture Wax

507

Climate
Climate, Subtropical Desert Climate, Subtropical Steppe Climate, Trade Wind Climate, Trade Wind, Coastal Climate, Trade Wind, Littoral Climate, Tropical Climate, Tropical, Desert Climate, Tropical, Monsoon

Common Color
Color, Common, Dark Orange 3 Color, Common, Dark Orange 4 Color, Common, Dark Orchid Color, Common, Dark Orchid 1 Color, Common, Dark Orchid 2 Color, Common, Dark Orchid 3

Common Reagent
Reagent, Common, Barium Carbonate Reagent, Common, Barium Chloride Reagent, Common, Barium Hydroxide Reagent, Common, Benzaldehyde Reagent, Common, Benzene

Construction Equipment
Construction Equipment, Mobile, Excavator, Mass Excavation Construction Equipment, Mobile, Excavator, Medium Construction Equipment, Mobile, Excavator, Mini Construction Equipment, Mobile, Excavator, Pneumatic Construction Equipment, Mobile, Excavator, Small Construction Equipment, Mobile, Excavator, Track Construction Equipment, Mobile, Excavator, Wheel

Contracting
Contracting, Painting Contracting, Parking Contracting, Paving Contracting, Pipeline Contracting, Plastering Contracting, Plumbing Contracting, Refrigeration Contracting, Roofing Contracting, Sanitation Contracting, Security

Criminal
Criminal, Bank Theft Criminal, Bankruptcy Fraud Criminal, Barbiturate

508

Criminal, Battery Criminal, Bicycle Theft Criminal, Bigamy Criminal, Blackmail Criminal, Breach Of Peace Criminal, Breaking Criminal, Bribery

Crop
Crop, Edible, Celery Seed Crop, Edible, Celtuce Crop, Edible, Ceylon Spinach Crop, Edible, Chayote Crop, Edible, Cherokee Blackberry Crop, Edible, Cherry Crop, Edible, Chervil Crop, Edible, Chesterberry Crop, Edible, Chestnut

Culinary
Culinary, Punch Culinary, Puncture Culinary, Puree Culinary, Raise Culinary, Reduce Culinary, Refrigerate Culinary, Rice Culinary, Roast Culinary, Roll

Culinary Genre
Genre, Culinary, Native American Genre, Culinary, Nordic Genre, Culinary, North American Genre, Culinary, Northern Chinese Genre, Culinary, Norwegian Genre, Culinary, Nouvelle Genre, Culinary, Occidental Genre, Culinary, Oriental Genre, Culinary, Pakistani

Culinary Implement
Implement, Culinary, Bread Stick Pan Implement, Culinary, Brisket Cutter Implement, Culinary, Broiler Pan Implement, Culinary, Bundt Pan Implement, Culinary, Burner Cover Implement, Culinary, Burner Diffuser Implement, Culinary, Butcher Block Implement, Culinary, Butter Curler

509

Currency
Currency, National, Kuwaiti Dinar Currency, National, Kyrgyz Som Currency, National, Lao Kip Currency, National, Latvian Lats Currency, National, Lebanese Pound Currency, National, Lesotho Loti Currency, National, Liberian Dollar Currency, National, Libyan Dinar Currency, National, Lithuanian Litas

Cutter Tool
Tool, Cutter, Drill Tool, Cutter, End Mill Tool, Cutter, Face Mill Tool, Cutter, Feed Attribute Tool, Cutter, Flat Bottom Drill Blade Tool, Cutter, Flute End Mill Tool, Cutter, Four Flute End Mill Tool, Cutter, Gear

Derivative Security
Security, Derivative, Delta Hedge Security, Derivative, Equity Security, Derivative, Equity Future Security, Derivative, Equity Hedge Security, Derivative, Equity Option Security, Derivative, Equity Swap

Domestic Animal
Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, British Lop Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Bulgarian White Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Cantonese Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Chester White Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Czech Improved White Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Danish Landrace Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Dermantsi Pied Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Duroc Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Dutch Landrace Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Fengjing Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Finnish Landrace Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, French Landrace Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, German Landrace Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Gloucestershire Old Spots Animal, Domestic, Swine, Breed, Guinea Hog

Domestic Chore
Chore, Domestic, Dish Washing Chore, Domestic, Dog Walking Chore, Domestic, Doing Laundry

510

Chore, Domestic, Dry Cleaning Chore, Domestic, Dusting

Domestic Furnishing
Furnishing, Clock Furnishing, Clock, Floor Furnishing, Clock, Table Furnishing, Clock, Wall Furnishing, Coat Furnishing, Coat, Rack Furnishing, Coat, Tree

Domestic Linen
Linen, Domestic, Cloth, Dish Linen, Domestic, Cloth, Table Linen, Domestic, Cloth, Wash Linen, Domestic, Cover, Floor Linen, Domestic, Cover, Mattress Linen, Domestic, Cover, Pillow

Econometric
Econometric, Debt, Federal Econometric, Debt, Financial Econometric, Debt, Firms Econometric, Debt, Foreign Econometric, Debt, Households Econometric, Debt, State And Local

Electronic Component
Component, Electronic, Emitter Supply Voltage Component, Electronic, Emitter To Base Voltage Component, Electronic, Emitter To Collector Voltage Component, Electronic, External Base Resistance Component, Electronic, External Collector Resistance Component, Electronic, External Emitter Resistance Component, Electronic, Extrapolated Unity Gain Frequency

Elementary Particle
Particle, Elementary, Boson, Tensor, Higgs Particle, Elementary, Boson, Vector Particle, Elementary, Boson, Vector, Gluon Particle, Elementary, Boson, Vector, Photon Particle, Elementary, Boson, Vector, W Particle, Elementary, Boson, Vector, W Plus

English Units
Units, English, Butt Units, English, Cable Units, English, Chain Units, English, Clove

511

Units, English, Common Units, English, Cup Units, English, Dash

Fiber
Material, Fiber, Ramie Material, Fiber, Raw Silk Material, Fiber, Rayon Material, Fiber, Real Silk Material, Fiber, Shetland Wool Material, Fiber, Shoddy Material, Fiber, Silk Material, Fiber, Silk Cotton Material, Fiber, Sisal

Fish
Fish, Food, Snapper Fish, Food, Sole Fish, Food, Spot Fish, Food, Sturgeon Fish, Food, Sucker White Fish, Food, Sunfish Pumpkin Seed Fish, Food, Surimi Fish, Food, Swordfish Fish, Food, Tilefish

Food
Food, Bread Italian Food, Bread Oat Bran Food, Bread Oatmeal Food, Bread Pita White Food, Bread Pita Whole Wheat Food, Bread Protein Food, Bread Pumpernickel Food, Bread Raisin

Food Preparation
Food, Preparation, Spoiled Food, Preparation, Stale Food, Preparation, Steamed Food, Preparation, Steeped Food, Preparation, Stewed Food, Preparation, Stir Fried Food, Preparation, Strained Food, Preparation, Sweetened

Form Of Address
Form Of Address, Padre Form Of Address, Right Honorable Form Of Address, Right Reverend

512

Form Form Form Form Form Form

Of Address, Royal Highness Of Address, Seor Of Address, Seora Of Address, Seorita Of Address, Serene Highness Of Address, Signora

Fuel
Fuel, Gasoline, Premium Fuel, Gasoline, Super Premium Fuel, Gasoline, Unleaded Fuel, Hydrazine Fuel, Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate Fuel, Kerosene Fuel, Kerosene, Jet A Fuel, Kerosene, Jet B Fuel, Kerosene, Lighting

Geographical Feature
Geographical, Feature, Physical, Bocage Geographical, Feature, Physical, Bog Geographical, Feature, Physical, Bole Geographical, Feature, Physical, Bosk Geographical, Feature, Physical, Bottom Geographical, Feature, Physical, Bowl Geographical, Feature, Physical, Brake Geographical, Feature, Physical, Branch Geographical, Feature, Physical, Break Geographical, Feature, Physical, Brine

Geological Mineral
Geological Material, Igneous, Hypabyssal, Lamprophyre, Vogesite Geological Material, Igneous, Hypabyssal, Leucite Lamproite Geological Material, Igneous, Hypabyssal, Olivine Lamproite Geological Material, Igneous, Hypabyssal, Diabase Geological Material, Igneous, Hypabyssal, Picrite

Geological Period
Period, Geological, Phanerozoic, Paleozoic, Carboniferous Period, Geological, Phanerozoic, Paleozoic, Carboniferous, Mississippian Period, Geological, Phanerozoic, Paleozoic, Carboniferous, Pennsylvanian Period, Geological, Phanerozoic, Paleozoic, Devonian Period, Geological, Phanerozoic, Paleozoic, Ordovician Period, Geological, Phanerozoic, Paleozoic, Permian Period, Geological, Phanerozoic, Paleozoic, Silurian Period, Geological, Precambrian Period, Geological, Precambrian, Archean Period, Geological, Precambrian, Proterozoic

513

Geological Structure
Model, Geological Structure, Vein Stratiform, Layered Complex Model, Geological Structure, Vein Stratiform, Lenses Model, Geological Structure, Vein Stratiform, Massive Model, Geological Structure, Vein Stratiform, Nodules Model, Geological Structure, Vein Stratiform, Oolites

Hand Tool
Hand Tool, Circular File Hand Tool, Clamp Hand Tool, Claw Hammer Hand Tool, Closed End Wrench Hand Tool, Cold Chisel Hand Tool, Combination Square Hand Tool, Combination Wrench Hand Tool, Cotter Key Puller

Holiday
Period, Holiday, Corpus Christi Period, Holiday, Culture Day Period, Holiday, Day Of The Dead Period, Holiday, Day Of The Prophet Period, Holiday, Declaration Day Period, Holiday, Deepavali Period, Holiday, Defuncts Day

Home Place
Place, Home Site, Driveway Place, Home Site, Duplex Place, Home Site, Entry Place, Home Site, Exercise Room Place, Home Site, Family Room Place, Home Site, Fire Place Place, Home Site, Foyer

Home Remedy
Remedy, Home, Blister Remedy, Home, Brace Remedy, Home, Breath Odor Remedy, Home, Bunion Remedy, Home, Caffeine Remedy, Home, Callous Remedy, Home, Capsule

Human Condition
Human Condition, Cry Human Condition, Curtsy Human Condition, Dance Human Condition, Daydream Human Condition, Defecate

514

Human Condition, Discuss Human Condition, Dive Human Condition, Doze Human Condition, Dream Human Condition, Dress Human Condition, Drink Human Condition, Duck

Human Physiology
Human, Physiological, Gastrointestinal Regulation Human, Physiological, Glomerular Filtration Human, Physiological, Hearing Human, Physiological, Hemodynamic Human, Physiological, Higher Cortical Function Human, Physiological, Hypothalamus Human, Physiological, Intestinal Absorption Human, Physiological, Lactation Human, Physiological, Limbic System Human, Physiological, Liver

Industrial Furnishing
Furnishing, Industrial, Dolly, Drum Furnishing, Industrial, Dolly, Industrial Furnishing, Industrial, Dolly, Pallet Furnishing, Industrial, Dolly, Warehouse Furnishing, Industrial, Drum Furnishing, Industrial, Drum Faucet Furnishing, Industrial, Drum Grab Furnishing, Industrial, Dumpers, Bin

Industrial Material
Material, Industrial, Cement Board Material, Industrial, Ceramic Material, Industrial, Ceramic Coating Material, Industrial, Chrome Molly Steel Material, Industrial, Clay Material, Industrial, Cloth Material, Industrial, Cobalt Base Material, Industrial, Cold Work Steel

Industry
Industry, Animal Food Manufacturing Industry, Animal Production Industry, Animal Slaughtering And Processing Industry, Anthracite Mining Industry, Apiculture Industry, Apparel Accessories And Other Apparel Manufacturing Industry, Apparel Knitting Mills Industry, Apparel Manufacturing

515

Institutional Exchange
Institutional Exchange, London Metal Institutional Exchange, London Securities And Derivatives Institutional Exchange, London Stock Institutional Exchange, Ludhiana Stock Institutional Exchange, Luxembourg Stock Institutional Exchange, Macedonian Stock Institutional Exchange, Madhya Pradesh Stock Institutional Exchange, Madras Stock Institutional Exchange, Madrid Institutional Exchange, Madrid Stock

Interest Rate
Interest Rate, US, Auto Loan, Refinance, Thirty Six Month Interest Rate, US, Auto Loan, Used, Thirty Six Month Interest Rate, US, Banker's Acceptances, 120 Days Interest Rate, US, Banker's Acceptances, 180 Days Interest Rate, US, Banker's Acceptances, 30 Days

International Organizations And Agreements


International Organizations And Agreements, Council Of Arab Economic Unity International Organizations And Agreements, Council Of Europe International Organizations And Agreements, Council Of The Baltic Sea States International Organizations And Agreements, Council Of The Entente International Organizations And Agreements, Customs Cooperation Council International Organizations And Agreements, Defense Switched Network International Organizations And Agreements, East African Development Bank International Organizations And Agreements, Economic And Monetary Union

Kinematic Mechanism
Mechanism, Kinematic, Linkage, Five Bar Mechanism, Kinematic, Linkage, Four Bar Mechanism, Kinematic, Linkage, Six Bar Mechanism, Kinematic, Linkage, Three Bar Mechanism, Kinematic, Linkage, Two Bar

Kitchen Supply
Supply, Kitchen, Foil Pie Pan Supply, Kitchen, Foil Roasting Pan Supply, Kitchen, Foil Serving Pan Supply, Kitchen, Food Storage Bags Supply, Kitchen, Freezer Bags Supply, Kitchen, Lunch Bags

Lumber
Material, Lumber, 3 By 4 Lumber Material, Lumber, 3 By 6 Lumber Material, Lumber, 3 By 8 Lumber Material, Lumber, 4 By 10 Lumber Material, Lumber, 4 By 12 Lumber

516

Material, Lumber, 4 By 6 Lumber Material, Lumber, 4 By 8 Lumber

Machine Component
Component, Machine, Cogged Vee Belt Component, Machine, Compound Laminated Spring Component, Machine, Compound Leaf Spring Component, Machine, Compound Spring Component, Machine, Cone Brake Component, Machine, Cone Clutch Component, Machine, Cone Pulley Component, Machine, Coupling Component, Machine, Crank

Machine Shop
Machine Shop, Facing Machine Shop, Fastening Machine Shop, Filing Machine Shop, Flanging Machine Shop, Forging Machine Shop, Forming Machine Shop, Gear Cutting

Machine Tool
Machine Tool, Shaping Machine Tool, Shear Machine Tool, Single Function Machine Tool, Spindle Sander Machine Tool, Stamping Press Machine Tool, Table Saw Machine Tool, Threader

Mathematical Function
Model, Mathematical, Function, Special, Csgn Model, Mathematical, Function, Special, Dilog Model, Mathematical, Function, Special, Dirac Model, Mathematical, Function, Special, Ei Model, Mathematical, Function, Special, Erf Model, Mathematical, Function, Special, Fresnel

Mechanical Fastener
Fastener, Mechanical, Blind Rivet Fastener, Mechanical, Blued Hoop Nail Fastener, Mechanical, Blued Nail Fastener, Mechanical, Blunt Point Fastener, Mechanical, Boat Nail Fastener, Mechanical, Boat Nail Heavy Fastener, Mechanical, Boat Nail Light Fastener, Mechanical, Bolt

517

Mechanical Manufacturing
Manufacturing, Mechanical, Boring Manufacturing, Mechanical, Braze Welding Manufacturing, Mechanical, Brazing Manufacturing, Mechanical, Broaching Manufacturing, Mechanical, Buffing Manufacturing, Mechanical, Burnishing Manufacturing, Mechanical, Butt Welding

Medical Condition
Medical Condition, Tongue Medical Condition, Tonsillitis Medical Condition, Tonsils Medical Condition, Tooth Medical Condition, Toxic Medical Condition, Toxoplasmosis Medical Condition, Trachea Medical Condition, Tracheitis Medical Condition, Trachoma Medical Condition, Tract

Medical Therapy
Therapy, Medical, Application Of Neck Support Therapy, Medical, Application Of Orthodontic Appliance Therapy, Medical, Application Of Other Cast Therapy, Medical, Application Of Other Wound Dressing Therapy, Medical, Application Of Plaster Jacket Therapy, Medical, Application Of Pressure Dressing

Meteorological
Meteorological, Precipitation, 30 Day Meteorological, Precipitation, 90 Day Meteorological, Precipitation, Annual Meteorological, Precipitation, Rate Meteorological, Pressure, Barometric Meteorological, Pressure, Barometric, Falling Meteorological, Pressure, Barometric, Rising

Meteorological Feature
Feature, Meteorological, Cold Core Thunderstorms Feature, Meteorological, Cold Front Feature, Meteorological, Cold High Feature, Meteorological, Cold Low Feature, Meteorological, Cold Wave Feature, Meteorological, Collada Feature, Meteorological, Colorado Low

Mortal
Mortal, Phylum, Mesozoa Mortal, Phylum, Mollusca

518

Mortal, Phylum, Nemertea Mortal, Phylum, Onychophora Mortal, Phylum, Phoronida Mortal, Phylum, Platyhelminthes Mortal, Phylum, Pogonophora Mortal, Phylum, Porifera

Muscle
Muscle, Human, Auricularis Muscle, Human, Biceps Brachii Muscle, Human, Biceps Femoris Muscle, Human, Brachialis Muscle, Human, Brachioradialis Muscle, Human, Buccinator

Music Genre
Genre, Music, Boogie Woogie Genre, Music, Brazilian Genre, Music, Breakbeat Genre, Music, British Invasion Genre, Music, Cajun Genre, Music, Caribbean Genre, Music, Celtic Genre, Music, Celtic Folk Genre, Music, Children's

Musical Instrument
Instrument, Musical, Bugle Horn Instrument, Musical, Calliope Instrument, Musical, Carillon Instrument, Musical, Castanets Instrument, Musical, Celesta Instrument, Musical, Cello Instrument, Musical, Cembalo Instrument, Musical, Chanter Instrument, Musical, Chimes

Nation
Nation, Bangladesh Nation, Barbados Nation, Belarus Nation, Belgium Nation, Belize Nation, Benin Nation, Bermuda Nation, Bhutan

Naval Ship
Ship, Naval, Corvette Ship, Naval, Costal

519

Ship, Naval, Covered Lighter Ship, Naval, Cruiser Ship, Naval, Cutter Ship, Naval, Depot Ship, Naval, Destroyer

Nervous Disorder
Disorder, Nervous, Autism Infantile Disorder, Nervous, Bad Trip Disorder, Nervous, Barbiturate Abuse Disorder, Nervous, Bulimia Disorder, Nervous, Conduct Disorder, Nervous, Coordination

Numerical Control
Model, Numerical Control, Model, Numerical Control, Model, Numerical Control, Model, Numerical Control, Model, Numerical Control, Model, Numerical Control, Model, Numerical Control, Linear Shift, Cancel Linear Shift, X Linear Shift, Xy Linear Shift, Xz Linear Shift, Y Linear Shift, Yz Linear Shift, Z

Nutrient
Nutrient, Glycine Nutrient, Histidine Nutrient, Iron Nutrient, Isoleucine Nutrient, Leucine Nutrient, Lipid Nutrient, Lysine Nutrient, Magnesium Nutrient, Manganese

Occupational Specialty
Occupational Specialty, Agricultural And Food Scientists Occupational Specialty, Agricultural Engineers Occupational Specialty, Agricultural Inspectors Occupational Specialty, Agricultural Managers Occupational Specialty, Agricultural Workers Occupational Specialty, Air Traffic Controllers

Office Machine
Office Machine, Electronic Flipchart Office Machine, Electronic Labeler Office Machine, Electronic Pencil Sharpener Office Machine, Fax Office Machine, Financial Calculator Office Machine, Graphing Calculator Office Machine, Inkjet Printer

520

Office Machine, Labeling Machine

Optical Component
Optical, Cylindrical Optical, Diffraction Grating Optical, Diffusion Grating Optical, Double Lens Optical, Doublet Cylindrical Optical, Dove Prism Optical, Elliptical Mirror Optical, Equilateral Prism

Organic Chemical
Chemical, Organic, Peptide Chemical, Organic, Phenol Chemical, Organic, Phospholipid Chemical, Organic, Polycarboxylic Acid Chemical, Organic, Polysaccharide Chemical, Organic, Polysulfide Chemical, Organic, Polyterpene

Packaging
Packaging, Beaker Packaging, Bin Packaging, Bit Packaging, Block Packaging, Board Packaging, Bobbin Packaging, Bolt Packaging, Book Packaging, Bottle

Patent Classification
Patent Classification, Pin, Fastener, Necktie Holder Patent Classification, Pin, Fastener, Ornamental Patent Classification, Pin, Fastener, Ornamental Design Patent Classification, Pin, Fastener, Packages Patent Classification, Pin, Fastener, Packaging Patent Classification, Pin, Fastener, Pencil Holder Patent Classification, Pin, Fastener, Pins Combined Patent Classification, Pin, Fastener, Sheet Patent Classification, Pin, Fastener, Tag

Personal Care Product


Personal Care, Body Lotion Personal Care, Body Mist Personal Care, Body Oil Personal Care, Body Spray Personal Care, Body Wash Personal Care, Braces Ankle

521

Personal Creed
Personal, Creed, Bernardine Personal, Creed, Bolshevik Personal, Creed, Brahmanist Personal, Creed, Buddhist Personal, Creed, Calvinist Personal, Creed, Capitalist Personal, Creed, Capuchins Personal, Creed, Carmelite

Personal Rank
Rank, Personal, Brevet Officer Rank, Personal, Brigadier General Rank, Personal, Buckeen Rank, Personal, Burgomaster Rank, Personal, Cabinet Minster Rank, Personal, Cabinet Secretary Rank, Personal, Caesar

Pharmaceutical
Pharmaceutical, Anticoagulant Pharmaceutical, Anticonvulsant Pharmaceutical, Antidepressant Pharmaceutical, Antidiabetic Agent Pharmaceutical, Antiemetic Pharmaceutical, Antiflatulent Pharmaceutical, Antifungal Antibiotic Pharmaceutical, Antiheparin Agent

Pipe Fitting
Pipe Fitting, Gate Valve Pipe Fitting, Globe Valve Pipe Fitting, Inline Valve Pipe Fitting, Interior Coupling Pipe Fitting, Lap Joint Flange Pipe Fitting, Lateral Pipe Fitting, Lip Union

Precious Material
Material, Precious, Bloodstone Material, Precious, Carbuncle Material, Precious, Carnelian Material, Precious, Catseye Material, Precious, Chalcedony Material, Precious, Chrysoberyl Material, Precious, Chrysolite Material, Precious, Chrysoprase Material, Precious, Coral

522

Process Piping
PPID, Pressure Process Fluid Property PPID, Prill Tower PPID, Prime Mover PPID, Process Fluid PPID, Process Fluid Property PPID, Process Instrument PPID, Process Instrumentation PPID, Process Vessel

Public Place
Place, Public, Pipeline Place, Public, Playground Place, Public, Plumbing Shop Place, Public, Police Station Place, Public, Polo Field Place, Public, Post Office Place, Public, Poultry Shed Place, Public, Power Line Place, Public, Primary School Place, Public, Produce Shop Place, Public, Public Garden Place, Public, Public Library Place, Public, Public Park

Spoken Language
Language, Spoken, Major, Kirundi Language, Spoken, Major, Korean Language, Spoken, Major, Kurdish Language, Spoken, Major, Laothian Language, Spoken, Major, Latin Language, Spoken, Major, Latvian Language, Spoken, Major, Lettish Language, Spoken, Major, Lingala

Sporting
Sporting, Canoeing, Slalom Sporting, Canoeing, White Water Sporting, Cheerleading Sporting, Climbing Sporting, Cricket Sporting, Croquet Sporting, Curling

Steel Shape
Material, Steel, Shape, Square Bar Material, Steel, Shape, Square Structural Tubing Material, Steel, Shape, St Twelve By Fifty Material, Steel, Shape, Structural Tee Material, Steel, Shape, W Fourteen By Twenty Six

523

Material, Steel, Shape, W Shape

Timezone
Timezone, Greenwich Timezone, Guam, Daylight Timezone, Guam, Standard Timezone, Hawaii, Daylight Timezone, Hawaii, Standard Timezone, Japan Seasonal

Transport Equipment
Transport Equipment, Rail, Rolling Stock, Flatcar Transport Equipment, Rail, Rolling Stock, Gondola Transport Equipment, Rail, Rolling Stock, Refrigerated Produce Car Transport Equipment, Rail, Rolling Stock, Tank, Chemical Transport Equipment, Rail, Rolling Stock, Tank, Dairy

U.S. State
Place, US State, Massachusetts Place, US State, Michigan Place, US State, Minnesota Place, US State, Mississippi Place, US State, Missouri Place, US State, Montana Place, US State, Nebraska

Wood
Material, Wood, Birch Eastern Yellow Material, Wood, Birch Western White Material, Wood, Blackwood Material, Wood, Bloodwood Material, Wood, Bocote Material, Wood, Boxwood Material, Wood, Boxwood Caste

Work Place
Place, Work Site, Machinery Room Place, Work Site, Mail Room Place, Work Site, Mail Stop Place, Work Site, Mothers Room Place, Work Site, Office Place, Work Site, Office Suite Place, Work Site, Overhead Door

World Region
Region, World, Asia Region, World, Atlantic Ocean Region, World, Balkan Europe Region, World, Bering Straight Region, World, Bible Belt

524

Region, World, Black Sea

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Postscript: Getting To the End-User Informatics Future


The end-user informatics revolution will be a very special sort of technological revolution. This is the sort that always happens only once in the evolution of any complex technology. This is the craftwork to clockwork transition. This is the metaphysics to mechanics transition. This is the adolescence to adulthood transition. The starting point for understanding this transition is craftwork. Today practical informatics is the last remaining true craftwork culture in the modern industrial world. All other true craftwork cultures disappeared at least fifty years ago. By what sort of standard can software modeling be considered craftwork? By the standards of all mature principled practice. The pattern modeling we employ in software production today is obsolete and off limits in these much more mature sorts of practical pursuits. Some may be offended by the notion that nearly all of the informatics software work we do today is classical craftwork. Yet it clearly is craftwork. This is an open secret in the software world. It's very often brilliant craftwork, but it is craftwork nonetheless. So no apologies. If we really want to move the informatics software world forward we must first understand where we are. Only then can we understand where we're going and how we're going to get there. Today craftwork is where we are in the informatics software world. Software work is hard to visualize because it's all modelware. What if we could somehow magically materialize all these models as machinery? The result would resemble nothing so much as the controlled chaos of an automobile craftwork shop circa 1900. The software industry has never been reticent about touting high technology. There has never been any shortage of software industry high technology hyperbole. Yet the readily demonstrable truth is that nearly all practical informatics software technology today is handicraft technology rather than high technology. Established tradition, rather than empirical theory, is the basis for practical informatics software modeling practice. How do we produce informatics software today? We hack it together by means that are mostly haphazard. This is how nearly all informatics software has been produced for over fifty years. The genius of craftwork production is patterns rather than principles. Today the starting point for all software production is the fifty year accumulated legacy of software patterns. It is exactly this venerable pattern legacy that is the basis for everything we do in mainstream practical informatics software today. This current state of the art in practical software is the result of fifty years of inspired software pattern innovations. Working programmers rely mostly on the pragmatics of programming generally plus the pattern legacy. Abstract software science and computer science theory is occasionally inspirational, but seldom more than this. Theory is only very rarely invoked as a means of settling software practice issues. Where do practical informatics software patterns come from? They are highly simplified restatements of the applicable principles employed by informatics end-users in their myriad practical pursuits. Every new software project draws on the pattern legacy to construct suitable pattern program structures. This is why experience is far more important to software success than education. New kinds of software applications extend the pattern legacy by tailoring, tuning, and tweaking proven patterns. This sort of tinkering with established patterns is the basis for all tactical software progress. In this way the patterns of the software precedent legacy continually mutate and multiply. This is how pattern software technology evolves.
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All this is apparently optimal. At least it's optimal for the sort of low information quality, high information quantity informatics that we mostly do today. It seems particularly optimal for pattern informatics software packages. The gods probably don't know of a better way to do this sort of complex practical informatics software. Note that we do vast volumes of pattern programmed software. Craftwork production on this scale is utterly unprecedented in all of human history. This is all the more remarkable because craftwork cultures, by all modern management standards, are intrinsically unmanageable. Moreover, craftwork cultures operate optimally under 27 conditions of controlled chaos. Scott Adam's popular Dilbert cartoon strip manages to capture much of the essence of this controlled chaos. Craftwork is why informatics software projects are always a crapshoot . Youre never quite sure what youre going to get or when youre going to get it or how much it will end up costing. Youre never really sure that you're going to get anything at all. Craftwork is why managers see informatics software management as a running battle. All deliberate, deterministic, disciplined approaches to managing the practical informatics software are mostly futile. Under the best of circumstances the practical informatics software function is only marginally manageable. Craftwork is why folks in the software world are so extraordinarily clever. Competitive success in software ultimately comes down to extreme creativity, cunning, and craftiness. How can we understand the software craftwork culture? Fred Books classic book The Mythical 29 Man-Month , after more than thirty years, remains the best general introduction to the craftwork software culture. During the 1960s Fred served as the IBM Vice President responsible for the development of IBMs pioneering OS/360 operating system. At the time OS/360 was among the most ambitious software engineering projects ever undertaken. OS/360 was the operating system for IBMs pioneering System/360 mainframe architecture. This radical new mainframe product architecture was an extreme bet-the-company proposition for IBM. IBM went five billion dollars into debt in order to bring this new scaleable 32 bit solid state mainframe architecture to market. In those days five billion dollars represented about ten years of IBM annual profits. From the very beginning the OS/360 project was plagued with problems. There were numerous setbacks and startovers. Progress was painfully slow. Spending and scheduling targets were routinely missed by wide margins. Fred was in trouble. Fred reported to senior IBM engineering management. His superiors were veteran IBM electrical engineers and mechanical engineers. Freds managers expected the OS/360 work to follow the usual norms of empirical engineering efforts. They expected deliberate, deterministic, disciplined progress toward project goals. Instead what they observed was endless surprises and sporadic progress. Fred urgently needed to make the case that software production was fundamentally different. So Fred began to develop a set of aphorisms in order to explain the unique challenges and unconventional culture of software development. The best of these are collected in The Mythical Man Month. In the end Fred kept his job and probably saved IBM from ruin in the process. For several decades OS/360 set the standard for mainframe operating systems. The System/360 architecture provided IBM with a monopolistic market dominance in mainframe computing that is still maintained today.
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The many anecdotes and aphorisms in Fred's classic book illustrate much that is counterintuitive about the software culture. The aphorism from which the book draws its title predicts that adding headcount to a lagging software project will make that project much later. In this and many other ways the software culture seems upside-down, inside-out, and backward from other technical and institutional cultures. Consider some commonplace examples: Attempts to transplant proven modeling methods from other practical pursuits into software engineering always result in dysfunction. All too often these attempts prove disastrous. Some of the best practical software innovations are produced by high school hackers. Computer science and software science educational attainment is clearly not a perquisite to doing state-of-the-art software work. Liberal arts majors typically do at least as well as computer science majors in practical informatics software roles after about two years of experience. They often do considerably better. Acquiring subject matter expertise doesnt improve the productivity or proficiency of application software professionals. In many cases productivity and proficiency seem to decline substantially as a direct result of increased subject matter mastery. Intellectual property reuse is rare rather than routine in practical informatics software. Recurrent reverse engineering is routine rather than rare. The reverse is true in all other mature practical pursuits. Software modeling decisions almost always involve technical judgment without justification. There simply are no firm foundations or fully developed fundamentals that can provide definitive justification for software engineering judgments. Software is among the few high value products that we still cannot and do not mass produce today. Model automation factories, increasingly common in other high value modeling disciplines, are non-existent in practical informatics software modeling. Many of the most talented people in the software world do their best work gratis on free software projects. This seems to violate all the usual assumptions about economic selfinterest in capitalist societies. The reason for fee software is that craftwork cultures require extensive tradition transfer systems for success and survival. The primary rationale for the free software movement is clearly systematic tradition transfer. Software craft maturity comes from reading source code. It comes from reading as much source code of as many different kinds as possible. This is how craftworkers keep up to date with the latest patterns. This is what keeps software pattern evolution going. The software world has always been obsessed with style. There have always been endless software style fads, fashions, factions, and feuds. Other practical modeling disciplines focus firmly on improving the substance of practice rather than the style of practice. Software is different because craftworkers always strive to perfect their craft. Since craftwork is all about style this perfection must result from the evolution of style. Protecting proprietary informatics software IP is problematic at best. The software world maintains a unique underground trade in IP that makes protecting IP next to impossible. Practical informatics software has very high standards of professionalism, but it is not in any sense a principled profession. In practical informatics software professionalism stresses creative thinking skills. All principled professions stress critical thinking skills. Mastery of precedent rather than mastery of principle is paramount. There are few principled professional practice frameworks in software. Thus there is usually no systematic principled way of sorting out a solution to a practical informatics software modeling challenge. This is why prototyping, rather than principled analysis, is the primary means of systematic problem solving.

All of these unusual and unique aspects of the software culture are characteristic of craftwork cultures generally. If they seem odd it's only because this sort of culture is otherwise extinct in the modern industrial world. How can you recognize a craftwork culture if you see one? You might be a craftworker if:

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you spend a lot of time on tradition transfer you consider you skills a divine gift of grace you constantly work on mastering your tools you are constantly trying new kinds of tools you try every new style of working that comes along you constantly tinker with and test your components designing is not nearly as important as doing component assembly always involves file-to-fit tweaking you redesign rather than reuse your components every project is a unique craftwork creation your style of craftwork is utterly unique to you you do a lot of craftwork just to do craftwork your craftwork career was a childhood hobby

Do informatics software professionals really know what they're doing? In a mature mechanistic sense the answer is no. Even so, this really doesnt matter. These talented professionals do what they do anyway. They generally do it remarkably well. They often do it brilliantly. They create a lot of value by doing what they do. They pioneer a lot of interesting and important innovations. They mostly have fun doing what they do and live well by doing it. They keep a trillion dollar economic segment going by doing it. Mechanistic mastery isn't necessary in handicraft technologies. If it were necessary then there th would be little technological difference between the 17 century and the current one. Complex technologies could not evolve. In immature craftwork technology cultures you really dont have to deeply know what youre doing in order to do what you know. At least not in any technologically mature mechanistic sense. All you have to do is do it. If you can't do it then go do something else. Much of what passes for foundations and fundamentals in best current practice informatics software is not much more than mythology and mysticism. Even so, its wonderfully workable mythology and mysticism. The reason that these work so well is that they are mature functional mythologies and mysticisms. The history of complex technology is replete with these. Software is a highly complex technology. Complex technologies never spring to life fully grown. Maturation over time in stages is the natural evolutionary path observed in all complex technologies so far in human history. This path always starts with functional mythology and ends with functional mechanics. In the past the telephone, the telegraph, the automobile, the airplane, electric power, radio, and the steam engine all followed this evolutionary path. This is just the same path that software must inevitably follow. There is no reason whatsoever to believe that software is any way exceptional among complex technologies. The adolescent functional technology phase of complex technological evolution is the tinkering phase. This is the handicraft technology stage. This is what you do until you know enough to ask the right questions. The transition to the adult functional mechanics phase of complex technological evolution is the start of the high technology phase. This is the phase where the right answers are found for the right questions. This is the phase where all the practical mechanisms get nailed down. Today mainstream software is still clearly in the functional mythology stage of technological evolution. Workable mechanistic foundations and fundamentals have yet to emerge. Progress is sporadic rather than systematic. Geniuses in garages still produce many interesting software surprises. In this sense software today is still very much like radio in the first two decades of the 20 century. These were the days of rotating coil transmitters and rectifier receivers.
th

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Nobody really knew much about the physical or practical mechanics of radio communication in those early days. Tinkering with radio equipment was a major craze in the U.S and Europe. Radio equipment was carefully handcrafted by master electricians. Just this sort of primitive equipment was used to send the distress call broadcast during the sinking of RMS Titanic. Today the radio technical literature of the time seems mildly comical. Radio transmission was widely believed to have something to do with perturbing the luminiferous aether. In the early 1920s David Sarnoff at RCA and others started piecing together the functional mechanics of radio technology. By the mid-1920 the new functional mechanics of radio was mature enough to spark a revolution in radio technology. By 1930 mass production of consumer and commercial radio equipment was well established. Commercial radio broadcasting stations were starting up in major world cities and broadcasting networks were forming in the U.S. In just this same way practical informatics will surely undergo a mythology to mechanics revolution. Today the functional mythology of practical informatics software is mature. This is usually the point at which the transition to a full functional mechanics begins in earnest. So the time is ripe for the end-user informatics revolution. How do we know that end-user informatics is the next informatics technology revolution? We know this because it's the only one left. It's the only one that doesn't involve major miracles of people and of physics. It's the only remaining workable way forward. In order to perfect practical informatics we must replace mythology with mechanics. The mechanistic practice models required are not available in the software world. These many millions of models are only available in the world of elite informatics end-users. So it is ultimately these elite end-users that must perfect the functional mechanics of practical informatics. Today we finally know enough about practical informatics to ask exactly the right question. This is the question we must answer in order to perfect practical informatics. This deceptively simple question is "How do practical people use practical information in practical pursuits?" This is The Trillion Dollar Question. Addressing this question has the potential to unlock trillions of dollars of information technology value. This value includes both IT industry sales and IT end user practice benefits. The Trillion Dollar Question can only be adequately answered by means of descriptive information science. It is a utilitarian modeling question rather than a universal modeling question. In most ways the end-user informatics revolution is just the next stage of the World Wide Web revolution. This is the next round of "The Internet changes everything." This is the stage where the Internet data web gets finally gets built out. This buildout will likely be just as rapid and radical as the Internet document web buildout. In most respects the economics are substantially similar. In this buildout all of the informatics infrastructure hardware and software is just the same sort that we use today. Building out the Internet data web may well double the total informatics infrastructure in service worldwide. Data web buildout solution value will mostly involve newly enabled solutions. These will be high value solutions. They will be mass management and mass modeling solutions. They will be pervasive Internet automation solutions. They will be solutions that mostly complement rather than compete with the installed base of informatics applications in service today. How much will it cost to build new stocks of principled practical informatics models? The answer is little or nothing. Our end-users already have all their perfect principled modeling frameworks and model stocks. These will find a new home on the Internet data web.

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So the only real economic barrier is investment in informatics factories and intellectual property. This investment in informatics capital equipment will be substantial. The marketplace will sort out the who, the how much, and the when of these investments. For the first decade these will mostly be rapid payback, high return investments. There has long been a big backlog of Internet data web applications that can't be done with distributed data processing. All of these will eventually be done with end-user informatics. What about pattern packages and pattern programming? What about informatics programmers? How will the end-user informatics revolution impact what we do today in practical informatics? Is this the end of IT as we know IT? In the short term very little will change. Initially end-user informatics applications will be primarily low information quantity, high information quality. The sort of low quality, high quantity institutional informatics we do today will likely remain commonplace for decades to come. Today's installed informatics package population will eventually be supplanted by end-user informatics. In this way all practical informatics will eventually migrate to the Internet data web. This replacement will happen gradually. The bulk of this replacement will begin after most of the higher return investments in newly enabled solutions have been made. This will likely take a decade or more. New technologies seldom displace old technologies overnight. It took nearly a hundred years for the telephone to displace the telegraph. It took thirty years for transistors to displace tubes. Mainframe computers are still a substantial segment of the digital computer hardware market. Major technological revolutions can be disconcerting. The rapid rise of the Internet document web took many by surprise. Many that failed to see the potential of this revolution faired poorly. Those that fought the tidal wave often floundered. Those that rode the wave mostly did well. The enduser informatics revolution will likely work in very much the same way. When will the end-user informatics revolution happen? It's already happening. The technological pieces have been developing for a few decades. This is mostly been happening in obscure nooks and crannies of the software world. Now the primary challenge is to put all these diverse and disparate pieces together. So far the end-user informatics revolution is a slow revolution. Many major technological revolutions start out as slow revolutions. The transistor revolution started with solid state physics advances in the 1930s. Even so, this revolution didn't hit escape velocity until around 1960. Who decides the fate of the informatics industry? It's the informatics end-users that ultimately decide. These folks have long had a lot of grievances. They have never been able to get nearly the informatics value that they want or need. Even so, informatics end-users have been patient in the past. Patience has been their only option. Thus far there has been no workable alternative to craftwork informatics. When workable end-user informatics alternatives appear in the marketplace these informatics end-users will vote with their checkbooks. This is how the end-user informatics revolution will rise to escape velocity. How will the informatics industry cope with the end-user informatics revolution? Some in the industry will futilely work to fight and frustrate this revolution. Those with foresight will work to facilitate and finance this revolution. As a rule in major technological revolutions the pioneers prosper and the procrastinators perish. It's never quite that simple but this works pretty well as a rule of thumb. Where will the end-user informatics revolution take root? This may happen in Silicon Valley. It may happen in Brazil, Russia, India, or China. It may happen in many places at once. Only time will tell.

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The only thing we know for certain is that the end-user informatics revolution will happen. Functional mythology always evolves into functional mechanics. Craftwork is always supplanted by clockwork. Mythology always evolves into mechanics. Complex technology always finds its way to maturity. Today the primary barriers to the end-user informatics revolution are teleological rather than technological. Our notion of practical informatics progress is profoundly confused with science fiction notions of software magic. Examples include superintelligent software and the perfection of universal modeling. The technological future always lies with mechanics rather than magic. All we need to do is get serious about automating and animating the mechanistic meaning of practical prose. This is the only way that practical informatics can hope to find its way to the future.

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References
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Sowa, John F. Knowledge Representation: Logical, Philosophical, and Computational st Foundations. Course Technology; 1 edition, August 17, 1999, ISBN 0534949657 Schwanenflugel, Paula J. The Psychology of Word Meanings. pages 92-95, October 1991, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates 1991, ISBN 080580661X
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Scheutz, Matthias Computationalism: New Directions. The MIT Press, August 2002, ISBN: 0262194783

Booch, Grady Maksimchuk, Robert A. Engel, Michael W. Young, Bobbi J., Conallen, Jim Houston, Kelli A. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications. Addison-Wesley rd Professional, 3 edition, April 30, 2007, ISBN: 020189551X
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Date, C.J. An Introduction to Database Systems. Addison Wesley, 8th edition (July 22, 2003) ISBN: 0321197844

Arlow, Jim Neustadt, Ila UML 2 and the Unified Process: Practical Object-Oriented Analysis and Design. Addison-Wesley Professional; 2nd edition, June 2005, ISBN: 0321321278 Penrose, Rodger The Road to Reality. Alfred A. Knopf (publisher), February 2005, hardcover, ISBN 0-679-45443-8 Bernstein, J. and Gelbart, S. (Editors) with contributions by Bump, D. Cogdell, J. W. Gaitsgory, D. de Shalit, E. Kowalski, E. Kudla, S. S. Introduction To The Langlands Program. Birkhauser, Boston, May 2003, ISBN: 0-8176-3211-5 Chaitin, Gregory J. The Limits of Mathematics: A Course on Information Theory and the Limits of Formal Reasoning. Springer 1997, ISBN: 1852336684 Buss, S. R. Handbook of Proof Theory. Publisher: Elsevier Science, July 1, 1998, ISBN: 0444898409. Fagin, Ronald Finite-Model Theory - A Personal Perspective. pages 3-31, Elsevier, Theoretical Computer Science 116 (1993)
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Israel, Paul Edison: A Life of Invention. Wiley, February 11, 2000, ISBN: 0471362700 Ford, Henry My Philosophy of Industry. Kessinger Publishing, June 2003, ISBN: 0766159701

Ferrucci, David Lally, Adam UIMA: An Architectural Approach To Unstructured Information Processing In The Corporate Research Environment. Natural Language Engineering, v.10 n.3-4, p.327-348, September 2004 Fellbaum, Christiane (ed.) WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database. MIT Press, May 1998, ISBN: 026206197X Dekang, Patrick Pantel Induction Of Semantic Classes From Natural Language Text. Conference On Knowledge Discovery In Data Archive, Proceedings Of The Seventh ACM SIGKDD International Conference On Knowledge Discovery And Data Mining, ACM Press New York NY USA, 2001, ISBN 158113391X Angluin, Dana Computational Learning Theory: Survey And Selected Bibliography. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth annual ACM symposium on Theory of computing, p.351-369, May 04-06, 1992, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada Lenat, Douglas B. Guha, R. V. Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1990. ISBN 0201517523
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Souzis, A. Building A Semantic Wiki. Intelligent Systems Volume: 20, Issue: 5, Sept.-Oct. 2005, pages 87- 91, ISSN: 1541-1672

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Wing, Jeannette Computational Thinking. pages 33-35, Communications of the ACM, March 2006, Vol. 49 No. 3 Greenfield, Jack Short, Keith Software factories: assembling applications with patterns, models, frameworks and tools. Companion of the 18th annual ACM SIGPLAN conference on Objectoriented programming, systems, languages, and applications, October 26-30, 2003, Anaheim, CA, USA

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Stahl, Thomas Voelter, Markus Czarnecki, Krzysztof Model-Driven Software Development: Technology, Engineering, Management. Wiley, May 2006, ISBN 0470025700 An English translation of Raymond Lull's Ars Magna is available on the Internet at http://lullianarts.net/
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Taylor, Fredrick Winslow The Principles of Scientific Management. Echo Library, August 31, 2006 ISBN 1406807583

Alur, Deepak Malks, Dan Crupi, John Core J2EE Patterns: Best Practices and Design Strategies. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2001
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Adams, Scott Try Rebooting Yourself: A Dilbert Collection. Andrews McMeel Publishing October 2006, ISBN: 0740761900 for Success. 1999, available online at

Standish Group, Chaos - A Recipe http://www.standishgroup.com/sample_research


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Brooks, Fredrick P. The Mytical Man-Month. Addison-Wesley Professional; 1st edition, August 2, 1995, ISBN 0201835959

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