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Leadership

UNIT-1

Leadership is the process through which leaders exert such influence on other group of members. Also leadership can call as a process which develop ideas and a vision, and drive to the vision through mission living by values that support to the vision and core ideas, influence others to admit them in their own behaviors (to drive to the vision) and making hard decisions in resources. Noel Tichy has studied many outstanding business leaders, and described leadership as; "Leadership is accomplishing something through other people that wouldn't have happened if your weren't there. and in today's world, that's ;less and ;less through command and control, and more and more through changing people's mindsets and hence altering the way they behave. Today, leadership is being able to mobilize ideas and values that energize other people"(Organizational Behavior Hellriegel & Slocum - 10th ed.)

A traditional definition of leadership; Leadership is an interpersonal influence directed toward the achievement of a goal or goals. Three important parts of these definitions are the terms interpersonal, influence and goal. Interpersonal means between persons. Thus, a leader has more than one person (group) to lead.Influence is the power to affect others. Goal is the end one strives to attain. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership attributes, such a beliefs, values, ethics, characters, knowledge, and skills. Although your position as a manager, gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization, this power does not make you a leader. It simply makes you the boss. Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals, rather than simply bossing people around. As a process, leadership is the use of non-coercive influence to direct and co-ordinate the activities of group members toward goal accomplishment. As a property, leadership is the set of characteristics attributed to those who are perceived to employ such influence successfully. Leadership and Leader are two keywords combined always, because leader exists where ever leadership established and vise verse. Leader is the person who exhibits the key attributes of leadership (ideas, vision, values, ethics, knowledge) and influencing others and making hard and tough decisions to be more effective in working to achieve their mutual goals and maintain effective relationships among the parties (members) who involving to drive to the vision. There are several leadership theories, leadership models and leadership could see in the world. Remember...leadership is always associate with power, influence and fellowship. Without follower leadership does not exists. (even in the self leadership- self following is exists.) Many of leadership qualities could see with in leadership models and styles, and principles of leadership are describing them

Leadership Theory
Interest in leadership increased during the early part of the twentieth century. Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill level. While many different leadership theories have emerged, most can be classified as one of 8 major types. Great Man Theory: Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent- that great leaders are born not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term Great man was used because, at the time, leadership was through of primarily as a male quality, especially on terms of military leadership. Trait Theory: Similar in some ways to grate man theories, trait theory assumes that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. But if particular traits are key features of leadership, how to do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. Contingency theory: Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, no leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation. Situational theory: Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best course of action based upon situational variable. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for certain types of decision making. Behavioral Theory: Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belied that great leaders are made, not born. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities of internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation. Participative Theory: Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others in to account. These leaders encourage participation and contributions from group members and help group members feel more relevant and committed to the decision making process. In participative theories, however, the leader retains the right to allow the input of others. Management Theory: Management theories (also known as Transactional theories) focus on the role of supervision, organization, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a system, of reward and punishment. Managerial theories are often used in business; when employees are successful, they are reward; when they fail, and they are reprimanded or punished. Relationship Theory: Relationship theories (also known as Transformational theories) focus upon the connections formed between leaders and followers. These leaders motivate and inspire people by helping group members see the importance and higher good of the task. Transformational leaders are focused on the performance of group members, but also want each person to fulfill his or her potential. Theses leaders often have high ethical and moral standards.

LEADERSHIP MODELS
Leadership models help us to understand what makes leaders act the way they do. The ideal is not to lock yourself in to a type of behavior discussed in the model, but to realize that every situation calls for a different approach or behavior to be taken..

Three general approaches have been used to understand leadership. From the 1900s to the 1940s, most leadership studies focused a trait approach aimed at identifying individual characteristics, such as demographic factors or personality traits, those distinguished leaders from followers. Although some traits are central to leadership traits alone cannot fully predict effectiveness. Because trait based research failed to explain why some leaders are more effective than others, researchers focused on what leadership do rather than on whom leaders are. The behavioral approach considers two sets of behaviors that leaders use to be effective; those that relate to the task and those that relates to taking care of people. Task behaviors initiation of structureare concerned with defining and organizing the task to help followers achieve the goals. Relationship behaviors considerationsinclude behaviors aimed at creating mutual trust and respects with followers. Since the 1960s, the following assumptions have guided leadership research and practice: what makes a leader effective depends on the situation. Before we discussed the contingency approach to management on detail, we must recall that most leadership theories have been developed and tested in Western countries. Since culture influences perceptions and expectations of effective leadership and how leaders are chosen, leadership theories do not always apply to other cultures.

Leadership Qualities
1. Know yourself and seek self-improvement In order to know yourself, you have to understand your be, know, and do, attributes. Seeking self-improvement means continually strengthening your attributes- This can be accomplished through self study, formal classes, reflection, and interacting with others. 2. Be technically proficient- As a leader, you must know your job and have a solid familiarity with your employees tasks. 3. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions- search for ways to guide your organization to new heights, and when things go wrong, they always do sooner or later. Do not blame others; analyze the situation, take corrective action, and move on to the next challenge. 4. Make sound and timely decisions- Use good problem solving, decision making, and planning tools. 5. Set the examples- Be a good role model for your employees. They must not only hear what they are expected to do, but also see. We must become the change we want to see- Mahatma Gandhi 6. Know your people and look out for their well being- Know human nature and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers. 7. Keep your workers informed- Know how to communicate with not only them, but also seniors and other people. 8. Develop a sense of responsibility in your workers- Help to develop good character traits that will help them carry out their personal responsibilities. 9. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished- Communication is the key to this responsibility. 10. Train as a team - Although many so called leaders call their organization, department, section, etc. a team; they are not really teamsthey are just a group of people doing their jobs. 11. Use the full capabilities of your organization- By developing a team spirit; you will be able to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest capabilities.

Why Do We Need Leaders?

Leadership is a universal phenomenon across cultures. What it is about people that makes leadership necessary and possible? What problems does leadership address? What needs does it fulfill? Although these can be philosophical and even spiritual questions about the human condition, discussions that are beyond the scope of this book, there are more practical and maybe simpler reasons why we need leaders. These reasons closely fall in line with the functions and roles that leaders play and are related to the need or desire to be in collectives. Overall, we need leaders To keep groups orderly and focused. Human beings have formed groups and societies for close to 50,000 years. Whether the formation of groups itself is an instinct or whether it is b~d simply on the need to be with others to accomplish goals, the existence of groups requires some form of organization and hierarchy. Whereas individual group members may have common goals, they also have individual needs and aspirations. Leaders are needed to pull the individuals together, organize, and coordinate their efforts. To accomplish tasks. Groups allow us to accomplish tasks that individuals alone could not undertake or complete. Leaders are needed to facilitate that accomplishment, to provide goals and directions and coordinate activities. They are the instrumentof goal achievement. To make sense of the world. Groups and their leaders provide individuals with a perceptual check. Leaders help us make sense of the world, establish social reality, and assign meaning to events and situations that may be ambiguous. To be romantic ideals. Finally, as some researchers have suggested (e.g., Meindl and Ehrlick, 1987), leadership is needed to fulfill our desire for mythical or romantic figures who represent us and symbolize our own and our culture's ideals and accomplishments.

1. Great leaders are born, not made. Answer: Both, but mostly made. 2. Leadership and management are fundamentally different. Answer: Both are needed 3. Successful leadership is about power and control. Answer: The most effective leaders empower followers and work with them 4. Men make better leaders that's why most great leaders are men. Answer: False. Research suggests that women tend to have greater leadership potential than men 5. There is a shortage of great leaders today. Answer: There is no definitive research, but I suspect that this is false. Leadership refers to the ability of a person to motivate and inspire other persons towards a common goal. It is a critical management skill in the corporate world where the manager should lead his team towards achieving a common objective.His role as a leader is crucial in maximizing and integrating the potential of available resources. For that, he needs multiple skills, which many of us may think cannot be developed by an ordinary person. More often than not, we nurture certain misconceptions about leadership. Knowing what these misconceptions are helps us understand what leadership is really about and enables us to build effective leadership skills. Here are 10 of the most common myths about leadership.

1. Leaders are born and not made: This is the first and most common of all myths about leadership. Though some people have innate leadership qualities, it is rare. Mostly, leaders are made by their circumstances. The extraordinary circumstances that surround them propel them to become effective leaders. When it comes to the corporate world, you can learn leadership skills by consistent efforts. 2. Leaders know everything: It is not true that leaders know everything under the sun. What leaders do have is a vision and a sense of direction. They too learn from others. 3. Leaders are infallible: Leaders do make mistakes like all humans do. In fact, they could even appear to commit more mistakes than all of us because they take more visible decisions at every stage than others do. However, what differentiates good leaders from others is that they are candid in admitting their mistakes and in learning lessons from them. 4. Leaders only give orders: Leaders do not always give orders, though the position they are in requires them to do so. More often, they inspire others to do what is required of them in a given situation. 5. Leaders are charismatic: Charisma is not the absolute quality of a leader. Leaders are often followed because they are respected for their hard work, integrity, ideas, and commitment. 6. Leaders have imposing personalities: Leaders need not have impressive personalities. Though, sometimes, this does help attract people. What leaders do posses is the ability to influence people even if they dont have a distinguished personality. 7. Leadership comes with age: There is no specific age to become an effective leader. People become effective leaders with what they learn from their past experience, not just with increasing age. 8. Leaders possess absolute power: Not true always. Their true effectiveness is measured by their ability to command a following without wielding absolute power. Leadership is not tyranny. Bad leaders resort to strong arm tactics when their leadership fails and so end up creating followers. But if leadership succeeds, it creates leaders. 9. Leaders never delegate important stuff: Leaders do delegate the right work to the right person. They share work and responsibilities judiciously and get the job done. And this in no way undermines their credibility. In fact, as I said earlier, they pave the way for new leaders to emerge. 10. Leadership can be attained through study: Leadership is about attitude and not about knowledge. Even if you study thousands of books, you cannot develop leadership skills until you inculcate the right attitude. The misconceptions listed here are not what make you an influential leader but your ability to inspire a shared vision, facilitate collective efforts to reach a common objective and identify and nurture the right talent. Concepts of Leadership I used to think that running an organization was equivalent to conducting a symphony orchestra. But I don't think that's quite it; it's more like jazz. There is more improvisation. Warren Bennis Good leaders are made not born. If you have the desire and willpower, you can become an effective leader. Good leaders develop through a never ending process of self-study, education, training, and experience (Jago, 1982). This guide will help you through that process.

To inspire your workers into higher levels of teamwork, there are certain things you must be, know, and, do. These do not come naturally, but are acquired through continual work and study. Good leaders are continually working and studying to improve their leadership skills; they are NOT resting on their laurels. Definition of Leadership The meaning of a message is the change which it produces in the image. Kenneth Boulding in The Image: Knowledge in Life and Society Before we get started, lets define leadership. Leadership is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent. This definition is similar to Northouse's (2007, p3) definition Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. Leaders carry out this process by applying their leadership knowledge and skills. This is called Process Leadership (Jago, 1982). However, we know that we have traits that can influence our actions. This is called Trait Leadership (Jago, 1982), in that it was once common to believe that leaders were born rather than made. These two leadership types are shown in the chart below (Northouse, 2007, p5):

While leadership is learned, the skills and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his or hers attributes or traits, such as beliefs, values, ethics, and character. Knowledge and skills contribute directly to the process of leadership, while the other attributes give the leader certain characteristics that make him or her unique. Skills, knowledge, and attributes make the Leader, which is one of the: Four Factors of Leadership There are four major factors in leadership (U.S. Army, 1983):

Leader You must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and what you can do. Also, note that it is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the leader is successful. If they do not trust or lack confidence in their leader, then they will be uninspired. To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed. Followers Different people require different styles of leadership. For example, a new hire requires more supervision than an experienced employee. A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one with a high degree of motivation. You must know your people! The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation. You must come to know your employees' be, know, anddo attributes. Communication You lead through two-way communication. Much of it is nonverbal. For instance, when you set the example, that communicates to your people that you would not ask them to perform anything that you would not be willing to do. What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship between you and your employees. Situation

All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always work in another. You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the leadership style needed for each situation. For example, you may need to confront an employee for inappropriate behavior, but if the confrontation is too late or too early, too harsh or too weak, then the results may prove ineffective. Also note that the situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's action than his or her traits. This is because while traits may have an impressive stability over a period of time, they have little consistency across situations (Mischel, 1968). This is why a number of leadership scholars think the Process Theory of Leadership is a more accurate than theTrait Theory of Leadership. Various forces will affect these four factors. Examples of forces are your relationship with your seniors, the skill of your followers, the informal leaders within your organization, and how your organization is organized. Boss or Leader? Although your position as a manager, supervisor, lead, etc. gives you the authority to accomplish certain tasks and objectives in the organization (called Assigned Leadership), this power does not make you a leader, it simply makes you the boss (Rowe, 2007). Leadership differs in that it makes the followers want to achieve high goals (called Emergent Leadership), rather than simply bossing people around (Rowe, 2007). Thus you getAssigned Leadership by your position and you display Emergent Leadership by influencing people to do great things.

Bass' Theory of Leadership Bass' theory of leadership notes there are three basic ways to explain how people become leaders (Bass, Bass, 2008; Stogdill, 1989; Bass, 1990): A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Event or Great Man Theory. Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory.

People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational or Process Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today and the premise on which this guide is based. The first theory, The Great Man, was one of the first theories of leadership development and perhaps might explain leadership for a small number of people. A big event occurs and an individual takes charge and moves the direction of a country, movement, war, etc. For example Martin Luther King Jr. moves the Civil Rights moment to the edge of change and President Lincoln directs the course of the Civil War. The Great Man Theory drew attention to the specific qualities of these leaders and attempted to explain leadership in terms of personality and character, thus the Trait Theory was born. Two questions were generally asked: What traits distinguish leaders from other people? What is the extent of the difference? This was the primary theory of leadership until the 1940s. While traits remain an important part of leadership theory today, it has moved beyond this original conceptTransformational Theory. Transformational can best be compared to Transactional. A transactional leader works within the framework whereas a transformational leaders works to change the framework. For example, President Buchanan was content to stand-by and allow the union to fall apart, while President Lincoln stepped in and held it together. Thus President Buchanan has a consistent ranking by historians as one of the worst Presidents, while Lincoln is just the opposite. Buchanan worked within the framework of his time while Lincoln strived to change that framework. Change normally takes skills and knowledge, which can be taught, thus while the Transformational Leaders have good traits, they also strive to learn and grow. Total Leadership What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. When a person is deciding if she respects you as a leader, she does not think about your attributes, rather, she observes what you do so that she can know who you really are. She uses this observation to tell if you are an honorable and trusted leader or a self-serving person who misuses authority to look good and get promoted. Self-serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their workers. Be Know Do

The basis of good leadership is honorable character and selfless service to your organization. In your employees' eyes, your leadership is everything you do that effects the organization's objectives and their well-being. Respected leaders concentrate on (U.S. Army, 1983): what they are [be] (such as beliefs and character) what they know (such as job, tasks, and human nature) what they do (such as implementing, motivating, and providing direction).

What makes a person want to follow a leader? People want to be guided by those they respect and who have a clear sense of direction. To gain respect, they must be ethical. A sense of direction is achieved by conveying a strong vision of the future. The Two Most Important Keys to Effective Leadership According to a study by the Hay Group, a global management consultancy, there are 75 key components of employee satisfaction (Lamb, McKee, 2004). They found that: Trust and confidence in top leadership was the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization. Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence: Helping employees understand the company's overall business strategy. Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key business objectives. Sharing information with employees on both how the company is doing and how an employee's own division is doing relative to strategic business objectives. So in a nutshell you must be trustworthy and you have to be able to communicate a vision of where the organization needs to go. The next section, Principles of Leadership, ties in closely with this key concept.

For team"Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success." Henry Ford Key Elements of Team Building Connections It's not enough to call your group a "team." To build a real team, you need to help each team member feel recognized, valued, and known by other team members. Spend time as a team getting to know one another's interests and talents. Common Purpose Teams work together to achieve a common purpose. As team leader, you can help the team define and remember its shared vision. Commitment Your team must commit to working together to achieve success. Help all members see that each individual has talents, skills, or information needed to reach the shared vision. The team's most valuable strength is team members' diversity of experiences, ideas, and knowledge. Community Create a team atmosphere based on trust, encouragement, and cooperation. Each team member needs to feel that he or she has something unique to contribute to the team and also that the team has something to offer in return. Communication Guide your team to agree on basic ground rules for communication. The rules should include listening to one another, limiting interruptions, and keeping minutes of decisions that are made. Conflict Management All teams have differences and differences are likely to lead to disagreements. As team leader, learn ways to deal with differences while maintaining respect among individuals and commitment to the team's vision. Celebrations Build team spirit by celebrating achievements and the team itself.

Build

Teams for Leadership Excellence You can be a dynamic leader who excels in building successful teams. Through dynamic team leadership, you motivate team members to work hard toward your shared vision and become leaders themselves. Use the FCCLA Planning Process to create a project that strengthens team-building skills for dynamic leadership. Your project should show that you understand:

The most dangerous leadership myth is that leaders are born - that there is a genetic factor to leadership. This myth asserts that people simply either have certain charismatic qualities or not. That's nonsense; in fact, the opposite is true. Leaders are made rather than born. -Warren G. Bennis

LEADERSHIP VERSUS MANAGEMENT Management is doing things right; leadership is doing the right things. Peter F. Drucker ROLES OF MANAGERS Management is often expressed as the process of achieving an organizations objectives through guiding development, maintenance, and allocating resources. The primary roles of managers are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Planning The very essence of leadership is that you have to have vision. You cant blow an uncertain trumpet. Theodore M. Hesburgh Planning is the process of determining a course of action for future conditions and events with the goal of achieving the companys objectives. Effective planning is necessary for any business or organization that wants to avoid costly mistakes. There are four different types of planning that are associated with management: strategic, tactical, operational, and contingency planning. Strategic planning involves creating long-range goals and determining the resources required for achieving these goals. Strategic planning is the most far-reaching level of planning and involves plans with

time frames from one to five years. Essential to the notion of strategic planning is that it involves an assessment and consideration of the organizations external environment, and that the organization is adaptive to these outside, noncontrollable variables, adjusting and possibly redirecting its strategy to account for this changing environment. Tactical planning denotes the implementation of the activities defined by the strategic plans. Generally, tactical planning involves shorter-range plans with time frames of less than one year. Operational planning involves the creation of specific methods, standards, and procedures for different functional areas of an organization. In addition, the organization chooses specific work targets and assigns employees to teams to carry out plans. 40 PEOPLE, MANAGEMENT, AND POLICY TLFeBOOK Contingency planning involves the creation of alternative courses of action for unusual or crisis situations. In todays society, companies are placing greater importance on contingency planning in order to respond to crisis situations. For example, realizing the impact of terrorism on businesses in the wake of September 11, 2001, many companies have developed contingency plans to respond to potential terrorism events. Organizing This management role involves blending human and capital resources in a formal structure. The manager will divide and classify work by determining which specific tasks need to be carried out in order to accomplish a set of objectives. Leading Managers also have the role of leading or directing employees and plans.

Some managers may be more successful at leadership than others. The goal of leading is to guide and motivate employees in order to accomplish organizational objectives. This role involves explaining procedures, issuing directives, and ensuring that any mistakes are corrected. Controlling Controlling allows a manager to measure how closely an organization is adhering to its set goals. It is also a process that provides feedback for future planning. 1. Setting performance standards. A company needs to set the standards by which performance will be measured. In a sales organization it may be sales growth or quarterly sales figures. Perhaps the manager will set the dollar amount for sales that are to be made that quarter. 2. Measuring performance. Using the previous example, measuring performance for sales will require tallying up the number of sales made during the quarter. Leadership and Team Building 41 TLFeBOOK 3. Comparing actual performance to the set performance standards. Now the difference between the set performance sales and the dollar amount of actual sales made during the quarter must be determined. 4. Taking the necessary corrective action steps. If the sales were much below the set level, it is important to analyze what went wrong and try to correct it. 5. Using information from the process to set future performance standards. LEADERSHIP STYLES

Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it. Dwight D. Eisenhower Individual managers have their own styles of managing, and within organizations there is often a predominant style of leadership. The predominant leadership stylesautocratic, democratic, and laissez-fairehave many variations. We can compare and contrast the effectiveness of each of these styles as it affects employee performance. Autocratic Leadership This style of leadership is both directive and controlling. The leader will make all decisions without consulting employees and will also dictate employee roles. Micromanaging is a form of autocratic leadership in which upper management controls even the smallest tasks undertaken by subordinates. The autocratic style of leadership limits employee freedom of expression and participation in the decision-making process. It may result in alienating employees from leadership and will not serve to create trust between managers and subordinates. Further, creative minds cannot flourish under autocratic leadership. Autocratic leadership may best be used when companies are managing less experienced employees. U.S. companies operating in less developed countries often use autocratic leadership. It allows the parent corporation more control over its overseas investment. In countries 42 PEOPLE, MANAGEMENT, AND POLICY TLFeBOOK where the government controls the economy, U.S. corporations often use autocratic leadership because the employees are used to making decisions to satisfy the goals of the government, not the parent corporation. Managers should not use the autocratic leadership style in operations

where employees expect to voice their opinions. It also should not be used if employees begin expecting managers to make all the decisions for them, or if employees become fearful or resentful. Democratic Leadership This style of management is centered on employee participation and involves decision making by consensus and consultation. The leader will involve employees in the decision-making process and they will be encouraged to give input and delegate assignments. Democratic leadership often leads to empowerment of employees because it gives them a sense of responsibility for the decisions made by management. This can also be a very effective form of management when employees offer a different perspective than the manager, due to their daily involvement with work. A successful leader will know when to be a teacher and when to be a student. Democratic leadership may best be used when working with highly skilled and experienced employees. It is most useful for implementing organizational changes, for resolving group problems, and when the leader is uncertain about which direction to take and therefore requires input from knowledgeable employees. One of the downsides of democratic leadership is that it may lead to endless meetings and therefore create frustration among employees if used for every decision made by a company. Democratic leadership is not a good idea in situations when the business cannot afford to make mistakesfor instance, when a company is facing a crisis situation such as bankruptcy. Laissez-Faire Leadership Delegating work works, provided the one delegating works, too. Robert Half This free-rein form of leadership, if it is to be successful, requires extensive

communication by management with employees. It is the style Leadership and Team Building 43 TLFeBOOK of leadership that makes employees responsible for most of the decisions that are made, and in which they are minimally supervised. Employees are responsible for motivating and managing themselves on a daily basis under this leadership style. Laissez-faire leadership may best be used when employees are educated, knowledgeable, and self-motivated. Employees must have the drive and ambition to achieve goals on their own for this style to be most effective. Laissez-faire leadership is not a good idea in situations where employees feel insecure about the managers lack of availability or the manager is using the employees to cover for his or her inability to carry out his or her own work. This type of situation can create resentment and result in an unhealthy work environment. As with many categories that describe business concepts, an organization and its leadership may apply any or all of these leadership styles. For instance, the managing partners of an architectural firm may utilize autocratic leadership style with the lower levels in its clerical and administrative functions but employ a democratic or laissez-faire leadership style with its professional staff of architectassociates and partners. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Two additional styles of leadership worth exploring are transformational and transactional. Both have strong ethical components and philosophical underpinnings. Transformational Leadership. Leaders who have a clear vision and are able to articulate it effectively to others often characterize this

style of leadership. Transformational leaders look beyond themselves in order to work for the greater good of everyone. This type of leader will bring others into the decision-making process and will allow those around them opportunity to learn and grow as individuals. They seek out different perspectives when trying to solve a problem and are able to instill pride into those who work under them. Transformational leaders spend time coaching their employees and learning from them as well. 44 PEOPLE, MANAGEMENT, AND POLICY TLFeBOOK Transactional Leadership. This leadership style is characterized by centralized control over employees. The transactional leader will control outcomes and strive for behavioral compliance. Employees under a transactional leader are motivated by the transactional leaders praise, reward, and promise. They may also be corrected by the leaders negative feedback, threats, or disciplinary action. The most effective leadership style is using a combination of styles. Leaders should know when it is best to be autocratic and when to be democratic. They can also be transformational and transactional at the same time; these are not mutually exclusive styles and in fact can complement one another extremely well.

leadership
1. The activity of leading a group of people or an organizationor the ability to do this. Leadership involves (1) establishing a clear vision, (2) sharing that vision with others so that they will follow willingly, (3) providing the information, knowledge and methods torealize that vision, and (4) coordinating and balancing the conflicting interests of allmembers and stakeholders.

A leader steps up in times of crisis, and is able to think andact creatively in difficult situations. Unlike management, leadership cannot be taught, although it may be learned and enhanced through coaching or mentoring. Someone with great leadership skills today is Bill Gates who, despiteearly failures, with continued passion and innovation has driven Microsoft and the software industry to success. 2. The individuals who are the leaders in an organization, regarded collectively.