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PROJECT REPORT

A study of Post Recession effects on the


Demand of Nokia Mobile Phones

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A STUDY OF POST RECESSION EFFECTS ON THE
DEMAND OF NOKIA E- SERIES







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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
MEANING OF RECESSION+
DEFINITION OF RECESSION
CAUSES OF RECESSIONS
EFFECTS OF RECESSIONS
STOCK MARKET AND RECESSIONS
RECESSION AND POLITICS
HISTORY OF RECESSIONS
CURRENT RECESSION IN SOME COUNTRIES
WHY INDIAN INDUSTRIES TO DO WELL DURING
RECESSION EFFECTS OF RECESSION
US RECESSION CAN IT AFFECT INDIA?
IMPACT OF A POSSIBLE US RECESSION ON INDIA
THE EFFECTS OF THIS RECESSION ON INDIA MAY BE DIFFERENT
FROM THOSE OF THE PAST ?
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION WORLD-WIDE
SUB-PRIME CRISIS
COMPANY PROFILE
VISION & MISSION
DEVICES BUSINESS
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
DATA COLLECTION
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
OBSERVATIONS & FINDINGS
CONCLUSION & SUGGESTIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
QUESTIONNAIRE & ANNEXURE
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INTRODUCTION

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RECESSION



















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Meaning of Recession
Recession are the result of reduction in the demand of products
in the global market. Recession can also be associated with
falling prices known as deflation due to lack of demand of
products. Again, it could be the result of inflation or a
combination of increasing prices and stagnant economic growth
in the west.

Recession in the West, especially the United States, is a very bad
news for our country. Our companies in India have most
outsourcing deals from the US. Even our exports to US have
increased over the years. Exports for January have declined by 22
per cent. There is a decline in the employment market due to the
recession in the West. There has been a significant drop in the
new hiring which is a cause of great concern for us. Some
companies have laid off their employees and there have been cut
in promotions, compensation and perks of the employees.
Companies in the private sector and government sector are
hesitant to take up new projects. And they are working on
existing projects only. Projections indicate that up to one crore
persons could lose their jobs in the correct fiscal ending March.
The one crore figure has been compiled by Federation of Indian
Export Organizations (FIEO), which says that it has carried out
an intensive survey. The textile, garment and handicraft industry
are worse affected. Together, they are going to lose four million
jobs by April 2009, according to the FIEO survey. There has also
been a decline in the tourist inflow lately. The real estate has also
a problem of tight liquidity situations, where the developers are
finding it hard to raise finances.
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IT industries, financial sectors, real estate owners, car industry,
investment banking and other industries as well are
confronting heavy loss due to the fall down of global economy.
Federation of Indian chambers of Commerce and Industry
(FICCI) found that faced with the global recession, inventories
industries like garment, gems, textiles, chemicals and jewellery
had cut production by 10 per cent to 50 per cent.



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Meaning of recession

Recession is not to be confused with depression. Recession
means a slow down or slump or temporary collapse of a
business activity. In its early stage it can be controlled in a
methodical manner. Experience helps to avert total collapse.
Unchecked, it leads to severe depression. Depression is a dead
end. It is time to close shop completely. It is a total state of
irrevocable economic failure. When a country is doing well all
round its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is on the rise.

Overall economy is bullish; it is not only the stock exchanges
that tell riches to rags stories but even small businesses. It all
adds to the national exchequer. An economist is likely to give a
detailed, comprehensive definition of recession. But for the
layman who has been affected knows it only one way-when he
loses his job and has no money to pay his credit and loans.
Recession is when the consumer faces foreclosure and the
banker comes knocking for his pound (or dollar) of flesh. Many
companies and whole countries go bankrupt for want of liquid
funds and cash flow for even daily requirements.

If you look at it from the point of view of a businessman,
recession is a transitory phase. The Business Cycle Dating
Committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research has
another definition. It profiles the businesses that have peaked
with their activity in one season and it falls naturally in the
next season. It regains its original position with new products
or sales and continues to expand. This revival makes the
recession a mild phase that large companies tolerate. As the
fiscal position rises, there is no reason to worry. Recession can
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last up to a year. When it happens year after year then it is
serious.
Are we facing a recession or not? Yes, for the simple reason
that not only our neighbors but our friends are unemployed.
There is less of business talk and more billing worries.
Transitory recessions are good for the economy, as it tends to
stabilize the prices. It allows run away bullish companies to
slow down and take stock. There is a saying, when its tough
the tough get going. The weaker companies will not survive
the brief recession also. Stronger companies will pull through
its resources. So when is it time to worry? When you are facing
a foreclosure, when the chips are down and out and creditors
file cases for recovery.

Firms face closures when they go through recession and are
not able to recover from losses. If, at this time, they are not able
to sustain their prices and stocks then there is more trouble.
Even when the recession period gets over, they will not be able
to do well. If a business survives a recession period they should
be able to survive a depression. But how many recession proof
businesses are there? Who will eventually survive the
recession?

1. Those that have been able to save their funds.
2. Those who have not invested in fly-by-night companies.
3. Those who remain clam till the storm passes.
4. Those that take stock immediately and decide to reinvest in
a recession proof business.
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DEFINITION OF RECESSION
In a 1975 New York Times article, economic statistician Julius Shiskin
suggested several rules of thumb for defining a recession, one of which
was "two down quarters of GDP".
[3]
In time, the other rules of thumb
were forgotten,
[4]
and a recession is now often defined simply as a
period when GDP falls (negative real economic growth) for at least two
quarters.
[5][6]
Some economists prefer a definition of a 1.5% rise in
unemployment within 12 months.
[7]

In the United States, the Business Cycle Dating Committee of the
National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is generally seen as the
authority for dating US recessions. The NBER defines an economic
recession as: "a significant decline in [the] economic activity spread
across the country, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in
real GDP growth, real personal income, employment (non-farm
payrolls), industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales."
[8]
Almost
universally, academics, economists, policy makers, and businesses defer
to the determination by the NBER for the precise dating of a recession's
onset and end.
Recession Analysis

The recession curve is the specific part of the flood hydrograph after the
crest (and the rainfall event) where streamflow diminishes, refer
Baseflow.
The slope of the recession curve flattens over time from its initial
steepness as the quickflow component passes and baseflow becomes
dominant. A recession period lasts until stream flow begins to increase
again due to subsequent rainfall. Hence, recession curves are the parts
of the hydrograph that are dominated by the release of water from
natural storages, typically assumed to be groundwater discharge.
Recession segments are selected from the hydrograph and can be
individually or collectively analysed to gain an understanding of these
discharge processes that make up baseflow. Graphical approaches have
traditionally been taken but more recently analysis has focussed on
defining an analytical solution or mathematical model that can
adequately fit the recession segments.
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Each recession segment is often considered as a classic exponential
decay function as applied in other fields such as heat flow, diffusion or
radioactivity, and expressed as:
t
t
e Q Q
o
=
0
or
c
T
t
t
e Q Q

=
0


The recession-curve-displacement method is based on the upward
displacement of the recession curve during the rainfall event
(Rorabaugh 1964; Rutledge and Daniel, 1994; Rutledge, 1998)). The
method assumes that baseflow is entirely groundwater discharge from
an unconfined aquifer of uniform thickness and hydraulic properties,
with the stream fully penetrating the aquifer. On the basis of the
algorithms developed, the total recharge to the groundwater system
during the rainfall event has been shown to be about twice the total
potential discharge to the stream at a critical time (Tc) after the
hydrographic peak. Hence, the total volume of groundwater recharge
due to the rainfall event (R) can be estimated from the stream
hydrograph by:
3026 . 2
) ( 2
1 2
K Q Q
R

=

(1) where Q1 is the baseflow at the critical time (Tc)
extrapolated from the pre-event recession curve, Q2 is the
baseflow at the critical time (Tc) extrapolated from the
post-event recession curve, and K is the recession index
(Figure 1).
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Table 1: Different storage-outflow models used in recession analysis
(Moore, 1997; Griffiths and Clausen, 1997; Dewandel et al, 2003)
[Table saved as Framework_recessionanalysis_table1]

Conce
ptual
Model
Storage-
Outflow
Relation
Recession Function Storage
Types
Source Comments
Linear
reserv
oir
kS Q=
kt
e Q Q

=
0
General
storage
Boussin
esq
(1877)
Maillet
(1905)
Linearised
Depuit-
Boussinesq
equation.
Approxima
tion for
short time
periods
Horton
double
expone
ntial

m
t
e Q Q
2
0
o
=
General
storage
Horton
(1933)
Transforma
tion of
linear
reservoir
model

) 1 (
0 0
) ) 1 ( 1 (
n n
t n Q Q

+ = o Coutag
ne
(1948)

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c
n n
c
Q t n Q Q Q + + =
) 1 (
0 0
) ) 1 ( 1 ( o

Karstic
aquifers
Padilla
et al.
(1994)
Qc is
discharge
from low-
transmissiv
ity
component
s of karst
Chann
el Bank
Storag
e

kt
e Q

=o Channel
banks
Cooper
and
Roraba
ugh,
(1963)
Variant of
linear
reservoir.
Also used
to model
evapotrans
pirative
losses
Expon
ential
reserv
oir
SD
B
e Q Q
|
= ) 1 /(
0 0
t Q Q Q | + =
Through
flow in
soil
hydraulic
conductivit
y assumed
to
exponential
ly decrease
with depth
Power-
law
reserv
oir
|
oS Q =
p
t Q Q ) 1 (
0
+ =
) 1 /( | | = p
| | |
| o
) 1 (
0
/ 1
) 1 (

= Q
Springs
and
unconfin
ed
aquifers
(p = -2)
Soil
moistur
e
Hall
(1968)
Brutsae
rt and
Nieber
(1977)
Recessions
modelled
using p ~
1.67
(Wittenber
g 1994)
Depuit
-
Boussi
nesq
aquifer
storag
e

2
3 0
) 1 (

+ = t a Q Q Shallow
unconfin
ed
aquifer
Boussin
esq
(1904)
Special
case of
power-law
reservoir
for Depuit-
Boussinesq
aquifer
model
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Depres
sion
Storag
e
Detenti
on
Storag
e

3
2 1
) 1 /( t Q o o + = Surface
depressi
ons such
as lakes
and
wetland
s,
Overlan
d flow
Griffith
s and
Clausen
(1997)
variant of
power-law
reservoir
Two
paralle
l linear
reserv
oirs
2 2 1 1
S k S k Q + =
t k t k
e Q e Q Q
2 1
2 1

+ = Indepen
dent
aquifers
Barnes
(1939)

Two
serial
linear
reserv
oirs
2 2
S k Q=
2 2 1
2 1
S k e Q
dt
dS
t k
=


) (
2 1 2
1 2
1 2
0
t k t k t k
e e
k k
Q k
e Q Q

+ =


Cavern
Storag
e

t Q
2 1
o o =
Undergr
ound
caverns
in karst
terraine
Griffith
s and
Clausen
(1997)

Hyper
bola
reserv
oir
b t Q
r
+ =

1
o Ice melt,
lakes
Toebes
and
Strang
(1964)

Consta
nt
reserv
oir

o = Q
Perman
ent
snow
and ice
pack,
large
ground
water
storages
Constant
stream
flow over a
finite time
period

Q - discharge
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S,S1,S2 reservoir storages
SD catchment storage deficit
t time since beginning of recession
Q0 discharge for t = 0
QB, Q1, Q2, k, k1, k2, o,|, - parameters to be determined by calibration




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IDENTIFYING


In a 1975 New York Times article, economic statistician Julius
Shiskin suggested several rules of thumb to identify a
recession; these included the rule of 'two successive quarterly
declines in GDP. Over time, the other rules have been largely
forgotten, and a recession is now often identified as the
reduction of a country's GDP (or negative real economic
growth) for at least two quarters. Some economists prefer a
more robust definition of a 1.5% rise in unemployment within
12 months.
In the United States the Business Cycle Dating Committee of
the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is generally
seen as the authority for dating US recessions. The NBER
defines an economic recession as: "a significant decline in [the]
economic activity spread across the country, lasting more than
a few months, normally visible in real GDP growth, real
personal income, employment (non-farm payrolls), industrial
production, and wholesale-retail sales." Almost universally,
academic economists, policy makers, and businesses defer to
the determination by the NBER for the precise dating of a
recession's onset and end.








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ATTRIBUTES
A recession has many attributes that can occur simultaneously
and can include declines in coincident measures of activity
such as employment, investment, and corporate profits.
A severe (GDP down by 10%) or prolonged (three or four
years) recession is referred to as an economic depression,
although some argue that their causes and cures can be
different.



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Causes of recessions


- Currency crisis
- Energy crisis
- War
- Under consumption
- Overproduction
- Financial crisis
- Price of Fuels

Effects of recessions


- Bankruptcies
- Credit crunches
- Deflation (or disinflation)
- Foreclosures
- Unemployment
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STOCK MARKET AND RECESSIONS


Some recessions have been anticipated by stock market
declines. In Stocks for the Long Run, Siegel mentions that since
1948, ten recessions were preceded by a stock market decline,
by a lead time of 0 to 13 months (average 5.7 months), while
ten stock market declines of greater than 10% in the DJIA were
not followed by a recession.
The real-estate market also usually weakens before a
recession. However real-estate declines can last much longer
than recessions.
Since the business cycle is very hard to predict, Siegel argues
that it is not possible to take advantage of economic cycles for
timing investments. Even the National Bureau of Economic
Research (NBER) takes a few months to determine if a peak or
trough has occurred in the US.
During an economic decline, high yield stocks such as fast
moving consumer goods, pharmaceuticals, and tobacco tend to
hold up better. However when the economy starts to recover
and the bottom of the market has passed (sometimes identified
on charts as a MACD), growth stocks tend to recover faster.
There is significant disagreement about how health care and
utilities tend to recover. Diversifying one's portfolio into
international stocks may provide some safety; however,
economies that are closely correlated with that of the U.S. may
also be affected by a recession in the U.S.
There is a view termed the halfway rule according to which
investors start discounting an economic recovery about
halfway through a recession. In the 16 U.S. recessions since
1919, the average length has been 13 months, although the
recent recessions have been shorter. Thus if the 2008
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recession followed the average, the downturn in the stock
market would have bottomed around November 2008.

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RECESSION AND POLITICS


Generally an administration gets credit or blame for the state
of economy during its time.

This has caused disagreements
about when a recession actually started. In an economic cycle,
a downturn can be considered a consequence of an expansion
reaching an unsustainable state, and is corrected by a brief
decline. Thus it is not easy to isolate the causes of specific
phases of the cycle.
The 1981 recession is thought to have been caused by the
tight-money policy adopted by Paul Volcker, chairman of the
Federal Reserve Board, before Ronald Reagan took office.
Reagan supported that policy. Economist Walter Heller,
chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers in the 1960s,
said that "I call it a Reagan-Volcker-Carter recession. The
resulting taming of inflation did, however, set the stage for a
robust growth period during Reagan's administration.
It is generally assumed that government activity has some
influence over the presence or degree of a recession.
Economists usually teach that to some degree recession is
unavoidable, and its causes are not well understood.
Consequently, modern government administrations attempt to
take steps, also not agreed upon, to soften a recession. They are
often unsuccessful, at least at preventing a recession, and it is
difficult to establish whether they actually made it less severe
or longer lasting.



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HISTORY OF RECESSIONS



Global recessions
There is no commonly accepted definition of a global recession,
IMF regards periods when global growth is less than 3% to be
global recessions. The IMF estimates that global recessions
seem to occur over a cycle lasting between 8 and 10 years.
During what the IMF terms the past three global recessions of
the last three decades, global per capita output growth was
zero or negative.
Economists at the International Monetary Fund (IMF) state
that a global recession would take a slowdown in global
growth to three percent or less. By this measure, three periods
since 1985 qualify: 1990-1993, 1998 and 2001-2002.
According to economists, since 1854, the U.S. has encountered
32 cycles of expansions and contractions, with an average of 17
months of contraction and 38 months of expansion. However,
since 1980 there have been only eight periods of negative
economic growth over one fiscal quarter or more, and four
periods considered recessions:
- January-July 1980 and July 1981-November 1982: 2 years
total
- July 1990-March 1991: 8 months
- March 2001-November 2001: 8 months
- December 2007-current: 15 months as of March 2009
From 1991 to 2000, the U.S. experienced 37 quarters of
economic expansion, the longest period of expansion on
record.
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For the past three recessions, the NBER decision has
approximately conformed to the definition involving two
consecutive quarters of decline. However the 2001 recession
did not involve two consecutive quarters of decline, it was
preceded by two quarters of alternating decline and weak
growth.
Since history seems to repeat itself, maybe we could learn something
about the current possible recession by studying the world recession
history.
The markets moves in approximately 15 year cycles. The market
goes up for 15 years then seems to go sideways for the next 15 years.
This growth & then consolidation pattern happens frequently
through out history.
Let's first consider the Dow Industrials index from 1930 through
1945.
This period started with the great depression. We all know the effect
the depression had on stock values. The Dow lost over 88% of its
value between 1929 and 1933. It made a nice rebound following the
depression. It increased 345% over the next 4 years. We will see
there is a theme in the recession / expansion cycle. Recessions are
relatively short and can be very violent to investors in the stock
market. The expansion period following recessions are much longer
and historically quite good.
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One thing you need to be extremely aware of. Numbers and
percentages can be deceiving. We just mentioned that the index lost
88 percent, but then gained 345%. Sounds like you made up all your
losses and then some. Not quite.
The dirty little secret to investment losses is this: if anybody loses
50% of his portfolio, then it needs to make 100% just to break even.
This is an ugly little fact, but lets looks at it in real life. If someone had
$100,000 and lost 50%, he would be left with only $50,000. How
much do you have to earn on your $50,000 to get back to even? You
need to earn another $50,000. This is 100% of what you currently
have. You lost 50% and must gain 100% just to break even.
Now that some of the back ground work is complete lets look at the
next 15 years, from 1945 through 1960. In 1955 the Dow finally got
back to where it was before the great depression. This was a very
long 25 year wait. Imagine the poor retirees that retired before the
depression and never again regained their original portfolio value!
The last 15 years were mostly down then sideways (1930 through
1945). The next 15 year time period (1945 thru 1960) had very mild
recessions with the worst only causing a 15% drop in the Dow.
Overall, the Dow gained 267% over these 15 years. This is very good
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reward for a minimum amount of risk. This leads us to the next 15
years, 1960 to 1975.
The 15 year cycle is definitely in effect. The last 15 years were very
tame yet had a nice return. These 15 years were not for the feint of
heart. Gain was very little over the period, but volatility was killer.
The period started out with a wonderful 75% gain, but gave it all back
by the end. The recessionary periods were very violent. The reward
available in this market was much smaller than the risk. It would have
been nearly impossible to be a buy and hold investor and have stayed
with the market.
Thus far, we had a 15 year period that was horrible (1930-1945), one
that was very nice (1945-1960), then another horrible one (1960-
1975). Without looking ahead, we might guess that the next 15 year
time period would be another nice one. The market consolidated over
the last 15 years and should be ready to move ahead again.
This period began with a 6 years of continued consolidation (going
sideways), but when it was done consolidating, it moved up very
nicely. It moved from around 800 in 1982 to 2800 by 1990. This
represents a 250% increase for the period. The volatility for the
period was pretty tame, at least if you look at the volatility caused by
recession. The largest pullback in value was the 1981 to 1982
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recession which was about 18%. There was a large pullback in August
of 1987 of about 30%, but wasn't caused by recession and didn't take
that long to be regained; all in all a very fruitful 15 years.
This would lead to believe that the next 15 years (1990 thru 2005)
would be tumultuous again as the market needs to digest its gains.
The roll the market had going continued for the first half of this
period. It gained 300% in just 8 years. This was more in the first half
than the others gained in their entire 15 year period. This didn't go
un-noticed however, and the market promptly took back a healthy
35% through the next recessionary period. It took until mid way
through 2006 to finally get back to even from the highs seen in 1999.
Once this was achieved, however, the Dow just kept going. It
extended its gains through the expansion period, hitting new highs
once again.
This brings us to today. There is much talk about the beginning of
another recession. We're at the end of a period that should have
shown consolidation, but instead had another large run up. This run
up wasn't without sizeable volatility. We've just broken a long term
support line. I've drawn support lines through the years following
recessions and had you sold when the support line was broken, you
would have been saved a lot of grief during the next recession.
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In summary, It would be said that the recession history points
to our next recession causing havoc on the Dow and the global
stock markets. When will the next recession be or are we
already in it?





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CURRENT RECESSION IN SOME COUNTRIES

Official economic data shows that a substantial number of
nations are in recession as of early 2009. The US entered a
recession at the end of 2007, and 2008 saw many other nations
follow suit. United States
The United States housing market correction (a consequence of
United States housing bubbles) and sub prime mortgage crisis
has significantly contributed to a recession.
The 2008/2009 recession is seeing private consumption fall
for the first time in nearly 20 years. This indicates the depth
and severity of the current recession. With consumer
confidence so low, recovery will take a long time. Consumers in
the U.S. have been hard hit by the current recession, with the
value of their houses dropping and their pension savings
decimated on the stock market. Not only have consumers
watched their wealth being eroded they are now fearing for
their jobs as unemployment rises.
U.S. employers shed 63,000 jobs in February 2008, the most in
five years. Former Federal Reserve chairman Alan Greenspan
said on April 6, 2008 that "There is more than a 50 percent
chance the United States could go into recession.". On October
1, the Bureau of Economic Analysis reported that an additional
156,000 jobs had been lost in September. On April 29, 2008,
nine US states were declared by Moody's to be in a recession.
In November 2008 Employers eliminated 533,000 jobs, the
largest single month loss in 34 years. For 2008, an estimated
2.6 million U.S. jobs were eliminated.
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Although the US Economy grew in the first quarter by 1%, by
June 2008 some analysts stated that due to a protracted credit
crisis and "rampant inflation in commodities such as oil, food
and steel", the country was nonetheless in a recession. The
third quarter of 2008 brought on a GDP retraction of 0.5% the
biggest decline since 2001. The 6.4% decline in spending
during Q3 on non-durable goods, like clothing and food, was
the largest since 1950. A Nov 17, 2008 report from the Federal
Reserve Bank of Philadelphia based on the survey of 51
forecasters suggested that the recession started in April 2008
and will last 14 months. They project real GDP declining at an
annual rate of 2.9% in the fourth quarter and 1.1% in the first
quarter of 2009. These forecasts represent significant
downward revisions from the forecasts of three months ago.
A December 1, 2008, report from the National Bureau of
Economic Research stated that the U.S. has been in a recession
since December 2007 (when economic activity peaked), based
on a number of measures including job losses, declines in
personal income, and declines in real GDP.

Other countries

A few other countries have seen the rate of growth of GDP
decrease, generally attributed to reduced liquidity, sector price
inflation in food and energy, and the U.S. slowdown. These
include the United Kingdom, Canada, Japan, Australia, China,
India, New Zealand and the Euro zone. In some, the recession
has already been confirmed by experts, while others are still
waiting for the fourth quarter GDP growth data to show two
consecutive quarters of negative growth. India along with
China is experiencing an economic slowdown but not a
recession.

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10 Indian industries to do well during recession

In the current global economic slowdown, every sector of
business is being affected and is witnessing a hard time. But
IKON Marketing Consultants reports that in India there are few
sectors which will grow in this adverse situation.
AS EVERY business sector is affected by present global crisis
and everybody is talking of slow down in business, still in India
there are few sectors which will grow in this adverse situation.
Lets have a look.

1. Food
No one can survive without basic food material like milk,
vegetables and drinking water. Food processing companies
will not be affected much and rather will earn profits by
increasing the prices. These are the basic needs which we as a
common man can not produce by our self.
According to Ministry of Food Processing Industry (MFPI), the
food processing industry in India was seeing growth even as
the world was facing economic recession. According to the
minister, the industry is presently growing at 14 per cent
against six to seven per cent growth in 200304.The Indian
food market is estimated at over US$ 182 billion and accounts
for about two thirds of the total Indian retail market. Further,
the retail food sector in India is likely to grow from around US$
70 billion in 2008 to US$ 150 billion by 2025.
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2. Railway
As the aviation sector has been affect much badly and resulting
in sharp rise in the air ticket rates the frequent travelers will
prefer railways to cut the cost of traveling and this will result
in increased traffic in railways and long queues at railway
booking counters. The freight traffic of Indian Railways has
continued to grow in the last few months, albeit at slow pace,
indicating only marginal impact of the global recession on the
Indian economy.
The railways registered 13.87 per cent growth in revenue to Rs
57,863.90 crore in the first nine months ended December 31,
2008. While total earnings from freight increased by 14.53 per
cent at Rs 39,085.22 crore during the period, passenger
revenue earnings were up 11.81 per cent at Rs 16,242.44
crore. The railways have enhanced freight revenue by
increasing its axle loading, improving customer services and
adopting an innovative pricing strategy.

3. PSU Banks
As seen in the private sector much of the job cuts due to global
slowdown, its the public sector undertaking (PSU) banks
which gained much confidence due to job safety and security.
More and more people are likely to turn towards government
institutions, particularly banks in the quest for safety and
security.
A report "Opportunities in Indian Banking Sector", by market
research company, RNCOS, forecasts that the Indian banking
sector will grow at a healthy compound annual growth rate
(CAGR) of around 23.3 per cent till 2011.
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4. Education
As education is considered as the basic necessity and in India it
is seen as a long term investment by parents and with respect
to the demand still there is a huge supply gap. The craze to
study in foreign university among the Indian youth still alive
which will prompt foreign education institute to target India
provided vast young population willing to join. We will see
more and more foreign educational institutions coming up in
India in recent coming years.
Huge government as well as private investment is likely to flow
into the Indian educational system. D E Shaw, a US$ 36 billion,
global private equity firm is planning to invest around US$ 200
million in the Indian education sector.

5. Telecom
People will not stop to communicate with each other due to
global crises rather it has been seen that it will increase much
particularly with mobile communication. With cheap cell
phones available in the Indian market and cheaper call rates,
the sector has become the necessity and primary need of
everyday life.
Telecom sector, according to industry estimates, year 2008
started with a subscriber base of 228 million and will likely to
end with a subscriber base of 332 million a full century. The
telecom industry expects to add at least another 90 million
subscribers in 2009 despite of recession. The Indian
telecommunications industry is one of the fastest growing in
the world and India is projected to become the second largest
telecom market globally by 2010.
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6. IT
Recent news shown that Indian IT sector will grow 30 to 40
per cent next year. And on the other side to survive in current
slowdown, industries have to decrease the cost and for that
they will resort to customised IT solutions which will further
boost up the software solution demand.
India is fast becoming a hot destination for outsourced e-
publishing work. As per a Confederation of Indian Industry
(CII) report, the industry is growing at an annual rate of 35 per
cent and Indias outsourcing opportunities in the value-added
and core services such as copy editing, project management,
indexing, media services and content deployment will help
make the publishing BPO industry worth US$ 1.46 billion by
2010.

7. Health care
India in case of health care facilities still lakes the adequate
supply. In health care sector also there is huge gap between
demand and supply at all the levels of society. Still there are so
many urban areas were you could hardly find any multi
specialty hospital. And in case of metros the market sentiments
itself created a need of psychological consultation.
Healthcare, which is a US$ 35 billion industry in India, is
expected to reach over US$ 75 billion by 2012 and US$ 150
billion by 2017. The healthcare industry is interestingly poised
as it strives to emerge as a global hub due to the distinct
advantages it enjoys in clinical excellence and low costs.

8. Luxury products
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The high and affluent class of society will not be affected much
by this global crises even if their worth is reduced significantly.
They will not change their lifestyle and will not stop spending
on luxurious goods. So luxurious product market will not be
affected and in fact to maintain the lifestyle those affluent will
spend more for it. Luxury car makers are pouring in to woo the
nouveau riche (Audi, BMW are the most recent entrants).

9. M&A & Marketing Consultants
As in the current business slow down survival will be the main
focus, the marketing and management consultants will be
called for to reduce the costs and to show the ways to survive
and stay in market. Others may join hands to fight with this
situation together will call for the Marketing & M&A
consultants. In a booming market there are growth strategies
and M&A opportunities to advise on. When businesses are
cutting back, consultancies will be right there to help clients
decide where to wield the axe.
According to Ministry of Commerce and Industrys estimation,
the current size of consulting industry in India is about Rs
10000 crores including exports and is expected to grow further
at a CAGR of aproximately 25 per cent in next few years.

10. Media and Entertainment
In current bad times, where people are losing jobs and getting
enough time to watch TV, they will seek entertainment at home
and hence advertising revenues will increase for the
commercial channels. Also businesses like production of
religious texts and religious materials, religious channels will
do well. The TRP of religious channels will increase compare to
the other entertaining/commercial channels.
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According to a report published by the Federation of Indian
Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), the Indian M&E
industry is expected to grow at a compound annual growth
rate (CAGR) of 18 per cent to reach US$ 23.81 billion by 2012.
According to the PWC report, the television industry was
worth US$ 5. 48 billion in 2007, recording a growth of 18 per
cent over 2006. It is further likely to grow by 22 per cent over
the next five years and be worth US$ 12. 34 billion by 2012.

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Effects of Recession

An economic recession can usually be spotted before it happens.
There is a tendency to see the economic landscape changing in
quarters preceding the actual onset. While the growth in GDP will still
be present, it will show signs of sputtering and you will see higher
levels of unemployment, decline in housing prices, decline in the
stock market, and business expansion plans being put on hold. When
the economy sees extended periods of economic recession, the
economy can be referred to as being.in.an.economic.depression.
About the only good thing about a recession is that it will cure
inflation. The balancing act the Federal Reserve must pursue is to
slow economic growth enough to prevent inflation without triggering
a recession. Currently, it must do this without the help of fiscal policy,
which is generally trying to stimulate the economy as much as
possible through lowering taxes, spending on social programs and
ignoring current account deficits. The Major Effects of Recession are:
- Slump in the market Goods and services are difficult to be
sold as the purchasing power of the people comes down.
- Stock prices come down Investment suffers. The industrial
production is badly affected as investors avoid investing in
companies that might suffer losses during recession. Bigger
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companies are able to withstand the setbacks but smaller companies
have a tough time and some may end up closing down.
- Increase in unemployment People are thrown out of jobs.
They are left in the lurch. They are unable to meet both ends. Many
goods and services are not within their reach.
- Depression Recession causes depression if it persists for a
long time. Negative trends are visible in the stock market and rapid
unemployment is there. Companies need to be bailed out by the
government. Public spending suffers a set back.
- National debts on the rise Increase in national debts means
less money can be spent by the government on development. Money
gets diverted in bailing out companies. The recent recession in the
U.S. indicates how banks have to depend upon federal aid for their
survival. Taxpayers money is being spent in giving these banks a
boost.
- Halted Imports and exports As the developing economies
exports depends upon the functioning and purchases from the
developed economies. In recession both the economies get affected
badly as the developed economies dont have much liquidity so as to
purchase or depend on the Import as there is not enough money
circulating in the markets to purchase the resources available thus it
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ultimately affects the exporting economies in terms of their export
revenues.

US Recession can it affect India?

Indo-US bilateral trade has been upbeat, except for the nuclear deal
that is facing a stormy period. According to the Indian Finance
Minister, USA will not go through the impending recession. Even if it
does, it is not likely to impact India. Having said that, in the last week
of January 2008, the actually story seems to be different. But trade
and commerce, is affected. Investors are aggrieved at the trading
activity coming to a grinding halt frequently in the last three months.
Indian exports to the US are less than earlier and dependence is less
as it is also exporting to rich European nations, China and Japan.
Asian markets have also felt the slump when Dow Jones hit the low
notes. How much can India withstand the impact?
In the first place, is the 2008 recession coming at all? If the rest of the
world recession impacts other nations, how can India remain
insulated? The crisis of US recession is looming on its policies in the
Middle East and home turf. There is no immediate concern for
Indians. The jobs are not being threatened as yet. BPOs are still
working 24 X 7 and jobs are being generated in other sectors. Real
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estate has more or less stabilized in many cities and small towns.
Infrastructure activity has not slowed down either. The software
professionals are returning home and Indian students prefer to study
in Australia, New Zealand and Britain.

Since US is one of the major super powers, a recessionmild or
deeper will have eventual global consequences? USA may cut their
capital investments into the country if they have to control recession
at their end. The year 2008 has not started on a good note for the US
economy. Till the stocks dont climb upwards chances are that
investors will loose more money. Despite world recession and Indias
optimistic outlook, the results will not show at least in the next two
years. Is a recession coming to Indian shores? Highly unlikely. The
rupee may have appreciated against the shrinking dollar. But Indians
are enjoying the new found material wealth and flaunting it. The
reigns have to be tighter at the US end till the economy becomes
buoyant.

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Impact of a possible US Recession on India

- Though no one likes or wants a recession, almost everyone
appears (looking at WEF, Davos) reconciled to one in the United
States. Meanwhile, politicians continue to downplay any fears of
global repercussions, citing decoupling of the United States and other
economies as a buffering factor. But what is the reality for countries
like India?
- It would be nave to imagine that a recession in the United States
would have no impact on India. The United States accounts for one-
fourth of the world GDP and any significant slowdown is bound to
have reverberations elsewhere. On the other hand, interdependencies
between the US economy and emerging economies like India and
China has reduced considerably over the last two decades. Thus, the
effect may not be as drastic as would have been the case in the 1980s.
- Even so, fears of a US recession led to panic in the Indian stock
market. January 21 and 22 saw a meltdown with a mind-boggling
US$450 billion in market capitalization being vaporized. An
unprecedented interest cut by the Fed led to a bounce-back on
January 23 and at the time of this writing, the benchmark index (BSE)
has gained 2.5%, almost in line with Hang-Sang, Nikkei, and Kospi.
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- History might hold a clue here. The last time the bubble burst
(2001-2002), the DJIA went down by 23%, while the Indian Index fell
by 15%.
- Much has happened between then and now. The Indian
economy has shown a robust and consistent growth trajectory and
the projection for 2008 is 9%. Indian exports to the United States
account for just over 3% of GDP. India has a healthy trade surplus
with the United States.
- Many companies like ICICI and TATA AIG holding saw an large
shredding of their consumers shares as people panicked in fear of
companies losing large sum of money in the nearby future as they
were having partnerships with the off-shores Financial Institution,
- During the Recessional periods the Inflation rate was seen
touching its life-time high of 13.68% in Indian Economy.
- Recession created a situation of High Interest rated followed by
Liquidity crunching situations in the economy and this resulted in the
less of credit for the capital formation of the various sectors and
major sectors affected was the Automobiles, Metals and the Business
Outsourcing sectors.


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The effects of this Recession on India may be different
from those of the past ?

- A credit crisis in the United States might lead to a restructuring
of asset allocation at pension funds. It has been suggested that
CalPERS is likely to shift an additional US$24 billion to its
international portfolio. A large portion of this is likely to flow into
India and China. If other funds follow suit, a cascading effect can be
expected. Along with the already significant dollar funds available, the
additional funds could be deployed to create infrastructure--roads,
airports, and seaports--and be ready for a rapid takeoff when
normalcy is restored.
- In terms of specific sectors, the IT Enabled Services sector may
be hit since a majority of Indian IT firms derive 75% or more of their
revenues from the United States--a classic case of having put all eggs
in one basket. If Fortune 500 companies slash their IT budgets, Indian
firms could be adversely affected. Instead of looking at the scenario as
a threat, the sector would do well to focus on product innovation (as
opposed to merely providing services). If this is done, India can
emerge as a major player in the IT products category as well.
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- The manufacturing sector has to ramp up scale economies, and
improve productivity and operational efficiency, thus lowering prices,
if it wishes to offset the loss of revenue from a possible US recession.
The demand for appliances, consumer electronics, apparel, and a host
of products is huge and can be exploited to advantage by adopting
appropriate pricing strategies. Although unlikely, a prolonged
recession might see the emergence of new regional groupings--India,
China, and Korea?
- The tourism sector could be affected. Now is the time to
aggressively promote health tourism. Given the availability of
talented professionals, and with a distinct cost advantage, India can
be the destination of choice for health tourism.
- The Indian Rupee has appreciated in relation to the US dollar.
Exporters are pushing for government intervention and rate cuts.
What is conveniently forgotten in this debate is that a stronger Rupee
would reduce the import bill, and narrow the overall trade deficit.
The Indian central bank (Reserve Bank of India) can intervene
anytime and cut interest rates, increasing liquidity in the economy,
and catalyzing domestic demand. A strong domestic demand would
also help in competing globally when the recession is over.
United States Recession History

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The United States has encountered 32 cycles of expansions and
contractions, with an average of 17 months of contraction and 38
months of expansion. Below you will find a detail history of economic
recession in the United States

Late 2000's Recession
Early 2000's Recession
1990's Recession
1980's Recession
1970's Oil Crisis
Late 1960's Recession
Early 1960's Recession
Late 1950's Recession
Early 1950's Recession
Late 1940's Recession
Recession of 1945
The Great Depression
Recession 1926
Post World War I
Recession
Panic of 1907
1870's Recession
1890's Recession
Panic of 1857
Panic of 1837
Depression of 1807
Panic of 1819
Panic of 1797

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Industrial Production World-wide


January 2007-November 2008 (Worldwide) During Recession
Tendencies:
















100
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Sub-prime Crisis
- Involves financial institutions providing credit to borrowers who
do not meet prime underwriting guidelines. Sub-prime borrowers
have a heightened perceived risk of default, such as those who have a
history of loan delinquency or default, those with a recorded
bankruptcy, or those with limited debt experience.
- In case of 2008 recession case the sub-prime mortgage resulted
in huge losses because the financial institutions where in the
situation of excess creditor to defaulters already known as Ninjas
and are low on credit-worthiness.
- It started with the lending of the money to the various less credit
worthy people in order to face the intense competitions in the
markets of lending.
After the Housing bubble busted out it resulted in the low of
these Mortgages packaging and thus resulted into the filing of
the Bankruptcies of the Biggest 5s of New-York Wall-Street
such as the BEAR-STERN,LEHMAN BROS. and other such as
AIG and MORGAN STANLEY being acquired up by the various
other competitors and helped by the Federal Reserve.


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COMPANY PROFILE













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COMPANY PROFILE



Nokia has played a pioneering role in the growth of cellular technology in India,
starting with the first-ever cellular call a decade ago, made on a Nokia mobile phone
over a Nokia-deployed network.
Nokia started its India operations in 1995, and presently operates out of offices in
New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata,Jaipur,Lucknow,Chennai, Bangalore, Pune and
Ahmedabad. The Indian operations comprise of the handsets business; R&D
facilities in Bangalore and Mumbai; a manufacturing plant in Chennai and a Design
Studio in Bangalore.
Over the years, the company has grown manifold with its manpower strength
increasing from 450 people in the year 2004 to over 15000 employees in March
2008 (including Nokia Siemens Networks). Today, India holds the distinction of
being the second largest market for the company globally.








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VISION & MISSION



Many organizations have attempted to redefine the business they are in,
or even streamline their growth in a specific direction. The merger of
Brooke Bond with Lipton India, the Glaxo Health Food Division being
sold off to Heinz, the takeover of Times bank by HDFC or the take over
of Kelvinator by Whirlpool are some recent examples of organizations
which have perhaps done some serious "soul-searching" and taken bold
strategic decisions. An interesting trend in recent times is that
companies have begun to define their "Vision/Mission Statement". A
mission statement articulates the philosophy of the company with
respect to the business in specific and society in general. Once the
mission statement of the company is finalized and adapted, it provides a
readymade guideline to employees of the organization about its
principles, policies and practices.

It is important here to distinguish between "vision" and "mission" for
the nokia e- series. Vision is often referred to as "skyhooks for the soul".
In fact, vision is that igniting spark that can inspire and energise people
to do better. The focus of vision is to reach out hungrily for the future
and drag it into the present. To quote Tom Peters, "Developing a vision
and living it vigorously are essential elements of leadership". The latest
trend in many nokia e- seriess is to apply the "VIP" approach i.e. "Vision
Integrated Performance


Devices business
Nokia has established itself as the market and brand leader in the
mobile devices market in India. The company has built a diverse
product portfolio to meet the needs of different consumer segments and
therefore offers devices across five categories ie. Entry, Live, Connect,
Explore and Achieve. These include products that cater to first time
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subscribers to advanced business devices and high performance
multimedia devices for imaging, music and gaming.
Nokia has been working closely with operators in India to increase the
geographical coverage and lower the total cost of ownership for
consumers. Today, Nokia has one of the largest distribution network
with presence across 1,30,000 outlets. In addition, the company also has
Nokia Priority Dealers across the country and Nokia Concept stores in
Bangalore, Delhi, Jaipur, Hyderabad, Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Chennai,
Indore and Mumbai to provide customers a complete mobile
experience.
Services business
With the global launch of Ovi, the company's Internet services brand
name, Nokia is renewing itself to be at the forefront of the convergence
of internet and mobility. From being a product centric company, Nokia
is now focusing to become solutions centric. The strategic shift is built
on Nokias bid to retain consumers and empower Nokia device owners
to realise the full potential of the Internet. Nokia will build a suite of
Internet based services like Nokia Maps, the Nokia Music Store and
Nokia N-Gage around its Ovi brand.
Infrastructure business
Nokia Siemens Networks is a leading global enabler of communications
services. The company provides a complete, well-balanced product
portfolio of mobile and fixed network infrastructure solutions and
addresses the growing demand for services with 20,000 service
professionals worldwide. Its operations in India include Sales &
Marketing, Research & Development, Manufacturing and Global
Networks Solutions Centre. Headquartered in Gurgaon, Nokia Siemens
Networks has 47 offices and presence in over 170 locations across the
country.
R & D centers
Nokia has three Research & Development centers in India, based in
Bangalore and Mumbai. These R&D hubs are staffed by engineers who
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are working on next-generation packet-switched mobile technologies
and communications solutions to enhance corporate productivity.
The Center in Bangalore, the biggest R&D site in the country comprises
S60 Software Organization, Common Technologies, Next Generation
now called Maemo Software, Productization and Software & Services.
Design Studio
Nokia has set up its first Design Studio in Bangalore in partnership with
Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology. The first of its kind, the
design studio will give Nokia designers and Indias talented youth the
opportunity to work together on new design ideas for India and the
global markets.
Manufacturing in India
Nokia has set up its mobile device manufacturing facility in Chennai,
India to meet the burgeoning demand for mobile devices in the country.
The manufacturing facility is operational with an investment of USD 210
million and currently employs 8000 people. Nokia has recently
announced fresh investments to the tune of US $ 75 million towards its
manufacturing plant in Sriperumbudur, Chennai for the year 2008.
Some Achievements for Nokia
- Ranked No 1 Most Trusted Brand Survey by Brand Equity, 2008
- Ranked the No 1. MNC in India by Businessworld, Indias leading
business weekly, 2006
- Ranked as the No. 1 telecommunications equipment vendor in the
country by Voice & Data for five consecutive years 2008, 2007,
2006,2005 and 2004
- Ranked as the 9th most powerful brand by Millward Browns
BrandZ 2008
- Ranked worlds 4th most valuable brand by Interbrand, 2007
- Ranked Asias most trusted brand by the Media-Synovate, 2006

Nokia is a Finland-based company, established in 1865. The company is
a leader in mobile communications. It has an employee base of around
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58,874. It has 14 manufacturing facilities located in China, UK, Finland,
Hungary, Germany, Mexico, Brazil, and the Republic of Korea. Its
Research & Development centers are located in Japan and China.






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Nokia products








INTRODUCTION NOKIA E-SERIES













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Financial Performance
2006
EUR m
2005
EUR m
Change % Revised*
2004
EUR m
Net sales 41 121 34 191 20 29 371
Operating profit 5 488 4 639 18 4 326
Profit before taxes 5 723 4 971 15 4 705
Net profit 4 306 3 616 19 3 192
Research and
development
3 897 3 825 2 3 776



The Nokia Eseries SDK Plug-ins [1] enable developers to take full
advantage of the additional features present in such Nokia Eseries
enterprise-grade devices as the Nokia E55 messaging device and Nokia
E75 business smartphone. Each Nokia Eseries SDK Plug-in enhances
and extends a specific S60 3rd Edition SDK.
With the plug-ins, C++ applications can be developed and tested in an
SDK emulator. Each SDK plug-in includes the APIs for using the features
that have been added to Nokia Eseries devices, such as printing and the
e-mail LED, along with device skins for the SDK emulators. Use of the
APIs is supported by comprehensive documentation and example
applications.
A Nokia Eseries SDK plug-in, used in combination with the appropriate
S60 3rd Edition SDK, provides all the tools required to build and test
enterprise applications for Nokia Eseries devices.


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NOKIA ESERIES SDK PLUG-IN FOR THE S60 3RD EDITION,
FEATURE PACK 2 SDK FOR SYMBIAN OS
Features
Printing framework
The printing framework enables developers to create new or update
existing applications with the capability to produce hard copy via an
external printer. The emulator supports the testing and debugging of
applications that need printing capabilities. In S60 3rd Edition, Feature
Pack 2 Eseries devices, the printing framework has been updated with a
new AIW interface, which simplifies the addition of printing features to
S60 applications for Nokia Eseries devices.
E-mail LED API
The E-mail LED API allows applications to initiate blinking of the e-mail
LED that is present on certain Eseries devices via the Central Repository
using the Symbian Publish and Subscribe API. When initiated, the e-mail
LED blinks in accordance with the devices preference settings
Products

Nokia E65 - Specifications - Nokia India
Get detailed information about the Nokia E65 specifications. Nokia E65
incorporates a long battery life, 3G, quad-band calling, and multiple
messaging options into a slim, stylish design with dedicated One Touch
keys.

Nokia 6151 - Specifications - Nokia India
Get detailed information about the Nokia 6151 specifications. No matter
how fancy, a phone is still, above all, a phone: a trustworthy,
convenientway for you to stay in touch with the people who matter to
you at home, at the office, and abroad.

Nokia E5 - Products
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Nokia E5: connect to colleagues and friends through IM, email and your
favourite online social networks.

Nokia 6270 - Nokia India
Discover the Nokia 6270: a reliable, intuitive phone that keeps you close
to the people that matter. Classic design meets proven technology. The
luxurious Nokia 6270 phone boasts an impressive 2 megapixel camera
and excellent features, all packed in a stylish metal casing.

1209 - Specifications - 65,000 Color Vibrant Display Screen Phone with
Prepaid Tracker Applications
Get detailed information about the Nokia 1209 specifications. Highly
affordable with a premium exterior, the Nokia 1209 is the ultimate
choice of many first time users. The convenient One Touch shortcut key
takes you to message, calendar or phonebook features and even a handy
flash light.

PRODUCT NAME
The following table shows the skins and features supported by the plug-
in for S60 3rd Edition, Feature Pack 2 Eseries devices:
Device Skins
Printing
Framework
API
E-
mail
LED
API
Nokia Eseries
Device
Identification
API
Nokia E55 epoc_240x320.ini X X
Nokia E75 epoc_240x320.ini with
keypad and 320x240.ini
with QWERTY keyboard
X X



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Nokia E65 - Specifications - Nokia India
Get detailed information about the Nokia E65 specifications. Nokia E65
incorporates a long battery life, 3G, quad-band calling, and multiple
messaging options into a slim, stylish design with dedicated One Touch
keys.

Nokia 6151 - Specifications - Nokia India
Get detailed information about the Nokia 6151 specifications. No matter
how fancy, a phone is still, above all, a phone: a trustworthy,
convenientway for you to stay in touch with the people who matter to
you at home, at the office, and abroad.

Nokia E5 - Products
Nokia E5: connect to colleagues and friends through IM, email and your
favourite online social networks.

Nokia 6270 - Nokia India
Discover the Nokia 6270: a reliable, intuitive phone that keeps you close
to the people that matter. Classic design meets proven technology. The
luxurious Nokia 6270 phone boasts an impressive 2 megapixel camera
and excellent features, all packed in a stylish metal casing.

1209 - Specifications - 65,000 Color Vibrant Display Screen Phone with
Prepaid Tracker Applications
Get detailed information about the Nokia 1209 specifications. Highly
affordable with a premium exterior, the Nokia 1209 is the ultimate
choice of many first time users. The convenient One Touch shortcut key
takes you to message, calendar or phonebook features and even a handy
flash light.

Nokia E52 - Specifications
Nokia E52 is ideal for working on the move. It offers 3G, HSDPA/HSUPA
and WLAN internet connectivity, excellent battery life and noise
cancellation.

Nokia 1800 - Products
The Nokia 1800 comes with a built-in FM radio, preloaded Nokia Life
Tools, and a range of other practical features.

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Nokia 6500 slide - Specifications - Nokia India
Get detailed information about the Nokia 6500 slide specifications.

Nokia C5-00 - Features
The Nokia C5 mobile phone features social networking, email, IM,
imaging, video, music, web browsing and pre-loaded maps in a
beautiful, compact form.

Nokia 9300i - Applications - Nokia India
Mobile Sales Online provides scenarios tailored to the needs of sales
representatives, sales managers, key account managers, and top
management. Fujitsu mProcess Business Process Mobilizer Fujitsu
mProcess Solution is a business process automation toolset for
corporations wanting to more effectively and efficiently mobilize their
operational mobile staff; be it field force service engineers, sales people,
logistics or health care professionals










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Original series

Phone
model

Screen
type
Rele
ased

S Technology Generation
Form
factor
Nokia
100
Monochrom
e
1987 D NMT-900 1G
Candyba
r
Nokia
101
Monochrom
e
1992 D NMT-900 2G
Candyba
r
Nokia
252
Monochrom
e
1998 D AMPS/N-AMPS Unknown
Candyba
r
Nokia
282
Monochrom
e
1998 D AMPS/N-AMPS Unknown
Clamshel
l
Nokia
636
Monochrom
e
1995 D AMPS Unknown
Candyba
r
Nokia
638
Monochrom
e
1996 D AMPS Unknown
Candyba
r
Nokia
640
Monochrom
e
1999 D NMT-900 Unknown
Candyba
r
Nokia
650
Monochrom
e
1999 D NMT-900 Unknown
Candyba
r
Nokia
810
(car
phone)
Monochrom
e
2003 D GSM Unknown
Candyba
r
Nokia
918
Monochrom
e
Unkn
own
D AMPS Unknown
Candyba
r
Nokia
1000
Monochrom
e
1992 D AMPS DCT1
Candyba
r
Nokia
1011
Monochrom
e
1992 D GSM DCT1
Candyba
r - First
GSM
phone

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OBJECTIVES


OBJECTIVES

To analysis how we can increase the sales of nokia e-series
product.
To know about customer satisfaction level toward recession.
To analysis customer perception about nokia e- series
To analysis of effect on recession on nokia e series product.
To study about recession








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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


Research methods may be understood as those methods/techniques
that are used for conduction of research. All those methods which are
used by the researcher during the course of studying his research
problem, are termed as research methods . Keeping in view, the
research methods can be put into following three groups:
In the first group we include those methods which are
concerned with the collection of data. These methods will
be used where the data already available are sufficient to
arrive at the required solution.
The second group consists of those statistical techniques
which are used to establish relationships between the data
and the unknown.
The third group consists of those methods which are used to evaluate
the accuracy of the obtained resultsThis type of analysis helps the
management of the company to plan its future polices according to the
external environment. Any sound research must have a proper design to
achieve the required result, this study id constructed on the basis of
descriptive design.
The methodology, I have adopted for my study is the various tools,
which basically analyze critically economical position of to the nokia
series




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Research Design

Exploratory
Conclusion
Casual Descriptive
Observation
Survey Experiment

RESEARCH DESIGN
To conduct the market research first of all it is necessary to create a
research design. A research design is basically a blue print of how a
research is to be conducted, it may include;
1. CHOOSING THE APPROACH
2. DETERMINING THE TYPES OF DATA NEEDED.
3. LOCATING THE SOURCE OF DATA.
4. CHOOSING A METHOD OF DATA.
















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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Following limitations were encountered while preparing this project:

- Lack of experience

- Short time duration

- Lack of proper supervision

- Small sample size

- Lack of resources
















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DATA COLLECTION













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Types of data collection

There are two types of data collection methods available.
1. Primary data collection
2. Secondary data collection

1) Primary data collection method

The primary data is that data which is collected fresh or first hand, and
for first time which is original in nature. Primary data can collect
through personal interview, questionnaire etc. to support the secondary
data.

2) Secondary data collection method

The secondary data are those which have already collected and stored.
Secondary data easily get those secondary data from records, journals,
annual reports of the company etc. It will save the time, money and
efforts to collect the data. Secondary data also made available through
trade magazines, balance sheets, books etc.
This project is based on primary data collected through personal
interview of
head of account department, head of SQC department and other
concerned staff member of finance department. But primary data
collection had limitations such as matter confidential information thus
project is based on secondary information collected through five years
annual report of the company, supported by various books and internet
sides. The data collection was aimed at study of working capital
management of the company


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TOOLS USED
To know the response. I have used the questionnaire method in sample
survey.
Statistical tools used are:
- Pie Charts
- Bar Graphs
- Percentage method


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Data analysis
&
Interpretation








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0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Percentage of Respondents
LG
SPICE
Tata Indicom
NOKIA


Q1. Which Companies Mobile handset are using ?

Options Percentage of Respondents
LG 46
Nokia 48
Tata Indicom 2
Spice 4
















Interpretation:

48% of the respondents are using LG 46% of the respondents are using
SPICE This shows that Market share of NOKIA e series is 48% which is
the result of aggressive sales promotional strategy of the company.


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0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Percentage of respondents
Low
Average
high



(2)What was the sale of nokia e-series during pre-recession?


option Percentage of respondents
Low 25
Average 35
high 40











Interpretation:
25% of the respondents of say that the of the nokia was low because
other companies are providing better schemes, 35% of the respondents
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0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Percentage of respondents
Increase
Decrease
moderate
are saying that other telecom companies are offering attractive
promotional offers and 40% say it was on high position.

(3)What was the sale of nokia e- series during recession?

Option Percentage of respondents
Increase 40
Decrease 35
moderate 25











Interpretation:
40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of
the respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the
respondent says it was on moderate stage.
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0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Percentage of respondents
Increase
Decrease
moderate



(4) What is the change percentage of nokia e-series during recession?

Option Percentage of respondents
Increase 50
Decrease 35
moderate 15

















Interpretation:
50% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of
the respondent says that was on decrease stage and 15% of the
respondent says it was on moderate stage.



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0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Percentage of respondents
High
Low
average






(5) What is the sale of nokia e-series during the post recession?

Option Percentage of respondents
High 40
Low 35
average 25


















Interpretation:
40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of
the respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the
respondent says it was on moderate stage.


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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Percentage of respondents
yes
no







(6) Did nokia provide any schemes?

Option Percentage of respondents
Yes 65
No 35























Interpretation:
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Percentage of respondents
Yes
No
40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of
the respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the
respondent says it was on moderate stage




(7) Did you take any advantages to nokia e-series in recession.

Option Percentage of respondents
Yes 65
No 35


















Interpretation:
40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of
the respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the
respondent says it was on moderate stage



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0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Percentage of respondents
Discount
Free gift
Coupons
others








(8) Which kind of schemes provided by the company?

Option Percentage of respondents
Discount 35
Free gift 30
Coupons 25
others 15

















Interpretation:
40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage and 35% of
the respondent says that was on decrease stage and 25% of the
respondent says it was on moderate stage.
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr
East
West
North









(9) Now are you satisfied with the nokia e -series handset?

Option Percentage of respondents
Yes 65
no 35









Interpretation:
65% of the respondent says that it we are satisfied with nokia brand
and 35% of the respondent says no.

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10) How nokia is different from other products?

Options No of respondents
Price 41
Quality 29
Services 22
others 18

















0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
No of respondents
Price
Quality
Services
others
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Interpretation

41% of the respondents say that price factor make different nokia to
other and 29% of the respondent say that quality make different and 22
% of the respondent say that nokia services make different.


11) Did recession decrease the sale of nokia e-series?

Options No of respondent
Yes 55
No 45




















Interpretation

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
No of respondent
Yes
No
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55% of respondent say yes and 45% the respondents say that there
were no effect of recession on sale of nokia.



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OBSERVATIONS
&
FINDINGS


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Observation & findings


48% of the respondents are using LG 46% of the respondents
are using SPICE This shows that Market share of NOKIA e series is 48%
which is the result of aggressive sales promotional strategy of the
company.

25% of the respondents of say that the of the nokia was low
because other companies are providing better schemes, 35% of
the respondents are saying that other telecom companies are
offering attractive promotional offers and 40% say it was on high
position.

40% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage
and 35% of the respondent says that was on decrease stage and
25% of the respondent says it was on moderate stage.

65% of the respondent says that it we are satisfied with
nokia brand and 35% of the respondent says no.

50% of the respondent says that it was on increased stage
and 35% of the respondent says that was on decrease stage and
15% of the respondent says it was on moderate stage
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Conclusion
&
Suggestions

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Conclusion
In the present project I have analyzed the effect of recession on nokia e-
series brand used by nokia. I found that nokia e-series is having
aggressive sales promotion strategy to attract customers.

The best part of this brand is the schemes which nokia provide to their
customer. nokia is offering unlimited option at a very low cost as
compared to other companies.

The promotional offers launched by Airtel are also very good. nokia is
No.1 mobile provider brand.
Over the past couple of months, fears of a slowdown in the United States
of America have increased. The impact of the sub prime crisis along with
a slowdown in mortgages has led to a significant lowering of growth
estimates. Since the United States dominates the global economy, any
slowdown there would have an impact on most of the global economic
variables.

For India, it could mean a further appreciation in the rupee Vis--Vis the
US dollar and a darkening of business outlook for sectors dependent on
US companies. No sector has a dominant influence on earnings growth
and risks to our estimate are limited. Corporate India is also learning to
master the art of efficient capital management, reduction in costs and
delivery of value-added services to sustain profit margins. Further,
interest rates are expected to be stable primarily due to control over
inflation and proactive measures undertaken by the RBI.


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SUGGESTIONS

Aggressive Sales Promotional activities must be done.
The company should introduce some new type of advertisements
which can capture attention of people always and they may retain
the advertisement during recession.
Customers must be made aware about the Schemes of nokia e-
series mobile.
Tariff plan should have consistent base. It should not fluctuate
frequently.
Customer retention programs should be more frequent in order to
assess the feedback of the customers about the company.
Efforts should be made to minimize the billing related problems.
Value Added Services need to be streamlined.
Customers should be properly educated about the latest launching
of the services.




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BIBLIOGRAPHY










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Bibliography

www.nokia.com
www.economist.about.com
www.economisttime.com
www.sharemarket.com
BOOKS
Laurence Shatkin, Ph.D. , Editors at JIST
Jerry Ryan , Roberta Ryan











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ANNEXURE
&
QUESTIONNAIRE







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QUESTIONNAIRE

Name : _______________________________
Address : _______________________________
Occupation : _______________________________
Office Address : _______________________________

Q1. Which Companies Telephone services you are using ?
a. LG b. NOKIA
c. Tata Indicom d. SPICE

(2) What was the sale of nokia e-series during pre-recession?

(a) Low (b) average (c) high


(3) what was the sales of nokia e- series during recession?

(a) Increase (b) decrease c) moderate


(4) What is the change percentage of nokia e-series during recession?

(a) increase (b) increase moderate


(5) Did nokia provide any schemes?

(a) Yes (b) no


(6) There were any advantages to nokia e-series in recession.

(a) yes (b) no

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(7) Which kind of schemes provided by the company?

(a) discount on MRP (b) free gift

(c) coupons (d) other


(9) now are you satisfied with the nokia e -series handset?

(a) yes (b) no


10) How nokia is deferent from other products?

a) Price
b) Quality
c) Services
D) Others

11) Does recession decrease the sale of nokia e-series?

A) YES
b) No
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