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with that of the Middle East. on the 5 . This correlation proved the great importance of the data appearing in the work of Vakhushti Bagrationi. which was never executed and an epistle of the year 1330 from the Catholic bishop of Sukhumi. This was a very crucial time in Georgian history. on the one hand. covers a period of Georgian history which has few written sources or other contemporary documentary materials. first brought to light for scolarly analysis and interpretation by the author and using all existing primary sources together with materials of different types. among other documents. i] The monograph by Professor Vazha Kiknadze. Dr.Commendatory Foreword by Giorgi L. A comprehensive consideration and a new interpretation of the well-known European historical data. correlate the foreign sources such as that of Hafizi Abru and Abu Bakr al-Qutbi al-Ahri. Dr. In addition to the surviving Georgian and well-known foreign written sources. and puts forward a quite new vision of the events of historic character of this period. [p. to the Archbishop of Canterbury – both in Latin. "The Eurasian State of Georgia in the Fourteenth Century". Kiknadze detected and added to scholarly circulation. prepared recently for publication in the United States of America by the Edwin Mellen Publisher. Remarkable is the fact that in the monograph the data concerning the events of the 14th century from the “Geography of the Georgian kingdom” by Vakhushti Bagrationi. Kavtaradze [p. the author makes use of previously unknown manuscripts examined by him (Georgian synaxarions of the 13th and 14th centuries from the libraries of St Petersburg and the unpublished manuscripts of the most famous Georgian historian of the end of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. the days of king George V the Brilliant. Peter Gerald. who released Georgia from Mongolian domination and reunited the country. ii] a crusade in 1332. a letter of the year 1332 or 1333 of George V the Brilliant to the Valois king of France Philip VI (1328-1350) who planned together with Edward III of England. Kiknadze restores the complex internal and external political processes that occurred in Georgia from the 1390s until 1490s – the time of the invasions of Tamerlane. Ivane Javakhishvili). which are based on the now lost Georgian written sources of the 13th-14th century. On the basis of these materials.

son-in-law of the Byzantine emperor.other. it gives us an opportunity to reconsider not only the time length. but as well the character of Mongolian dominance in Georgia. iii] Mongols in Caucasia at the time. and of the Holy Spirit. Such a pragmatic use of coinage for commercial or political intentions was not rare in Transcaucasia of the Ilkhan period. In the monograph. and of the Son. the unknown king of the 14th century. George V the Brilliant (1318-1346) and his successor and descendant David IX (1346-1360). whose power in reality had diminished by that time to a mere formality. permitted Dr. in the name of the the Great Khan Khubilai. While the obverse side of the coin has a legend and design in Uyghur. Kiknadze proofs that the Georgian king. among them the years of the reign of various Georgian kings and political figures: George V the Brilliant. taking this step. near Borjomi. Abaqa. This conclusion is a substantial contribution to Medieval history. We can recall the silver dirham struck in Tbilisi under the Mongol Ilkhans by Abaqa (1265-1282). The fact that Mongol coins were still struck in 14th century Georgia is generally explained in literature by the dominance of the [p. only with the aim to strengthen their economic interests and to gain more influence in the commercial world of the contemporary Middle East. Kiknadze based his research on the data of Anonymous Chronicler of the 14th century and of Vakhushti Bagrationi (1696-1757) and correlating them with the inscription in the church of Daba. Dr. but of the much wider Middle Eastern area. one God”. George VI the Small. special focus is concentrated on the complicated numismatic situation of 14th century Georgia. the reverse bears a Christian cross and an Arabic inscription: “in the name of the Father. in the period of undoubted and strong Mongol dominance. not only of Georgia or Transcaucasia. Michael VIII Palaeologus. iv] 6 . hoped to form a coalition with Christian powers against the Muslims. struck coins with the names of the puppet Ilkhanian khans. The author has succeeded in correcting a whole range of historical dates. Vakhtang III and Demetre. Dr. but Dr. etc. Kiknadze to adopt a thoroughly well-reasoned opinion that the unification of eastern and western Georgia took place in 1330 AD and that the final liberation of Georgia from the Mongolian domination was brought about between 1327 and 1335. he [p. Kiknadze’s study sheds light on the nature of relations between the Georgians and the Mongols. son of Hulagu.

Dr. Moreover. The author suggests that in the information about George V the Brilliant’s struggle with the Mongol noyans of Azerbaijan in the 1330s. 7 . all measures taken by George V the Brilliant. Dr. v] regain its sovereignty in the background of GeorgianIlhanian relations and to free the country from the Mongolian yoke. which helped Georgia to [p. in the person mentioned in the same Chronicle and referred to as Hieromonk (Priestmonk) Moses. Kiknadze believes that the Chronicler himself must be meant. the various aspects of the political development of Georgia are discussed constantly as a background to the main stages of the state development of Ilhanian Iran itself. ought to be considered as a favourable precondition for his future successful fight against his country’s conquerors – the Mongols. A separate chapter is devoted in the book to the problem of identifying the Anonymous Chronicler of the 14th century. Lang. and that the years of his reign shoud be therefore recorded as from 1318 to 1346. Moreover. as in the Middle Ages a strong royal power was a helpful circumstance for the creation of a powerful state. Kiknadze critically analyses the objective causes which helped Georgia to regain its independence: George V the Brilliant’s successful energetic activities. David M. From the author's view-point. A close examination of the Chronicle allows the author to consider the Chronicler as a contemporary of the events described and even as an eyewitness. as was traditionally thought. 1289. Lang. who accompanied the Georgian king Demetre II the Martyr (1270-1289) to the Mughan Valley and who was present at the time of his execution there on March 12. Kiknadze makes it obvious that the main conclusions reached by the British scholar are not entirely accurate. The author gives a detailed analysis of the article dedicated to George V the Brilliant by the well-known British scholar. Through a detailed study of documentary material and by discussing nearly all arguments put forth by Dr. including the bloody oppression of his opponents.came to the conclusion that the year of the accession of George V the Brilliant to the throne was 1318 and not 1314. in reality was meant the invasion of Chobanid Hasan Küçük. The author pays especial attention to the specifying of the reasons contributing to the country's political integrity. as well as to the understanding of the causes. Dr.

which were considered as forever lost. Giorgi Leon Kavtaradze (Dr. but also to a wide circle of readers. the period of the history of Georgia most shrouded in mist. Ph. earthquakes and devastating epidemcs. It is also very interesting which model of rule the Mongols were using in Georgia and whether it was or was not unique. Georgia Founder of the Kavtaradze Centre of Caucasian & Anatolian Studies 8 . the author has succeeded in running back the pages of history. i. based on extensive evidence which is partially unknown in scholarly literature and which was subjected to a thorough and scrupulous analysis. foreign rule. This monograph provides in this regard a new and well substantiated viewpoint. showing the continuity of the local cultural traditions and the high level of cultural development of Georgia. the substrata of the system of feudal state organization. despite all the cataclysms characterizing this epoch: invasions. Professor Vazha Kiknadze has actually managed to restore our past. – it determines the subsequent development of the Georgian state. The monograph includes a separate chapter dedicated to the material and spiritual heritage dating from 14th century Georgia.. and what factors determined the country's liberation from their oppressors. Special attention is given to the great importance of what remained from the period of pre-Mongolian Georgia.D.e. not only to history. This past has a special value for us. we hope that the Englishspeaking reader will be interested in becoming acquainted with the topic of Mongol rule in Georgia. when and how the Mongols ran out of power in Georgia.both within the country.) Chief Researcher in the Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History & Ethnology Tbilisi. vi] Indochina to Poland and the significant role they played in the history of the whole of Eurasia. habil. as well as abroad and the decline and powerlessness of the Ilkhanian state. Taking into consideration the vastness of the territory conquered by the Mongols from Japan to Egypt and from [p.

Ivane Javakhishvili). Now I would like to recall an episode from my childhood.e. when I became a historian. “The Eurasian State of Georgia in the Fourteenth Century (the Mongol Era and Its End)”. bringing my grandmother and mother to fury. I received a very honorable to me offer from Professor Vazha Kiknadze to write the Commendatory Foreword to his monograph. The monograph by Professor Kiknadze namely covers a very crucial time in Georgian history. held on 21th of March. To do everything possible to end the foreign domination was for the Georgians always the most desirable type of activity. 2013 at the Ilya Chavchavadze National Parlamentary National Library of Georgia in Tbilisi: Ladies & Gentlemen.” He demanded of me to try to fill this gap. He spent much time with me. and even the memory about it. who released Georgia from Mongolian domination and reunited the country. Georgian synaxarions of the 13th and 14th centuries from the libraries of St Petersburg and the unpublished manuscripts of the most famous Georgian historian of last century. Dr. so I finally got a chance to go a little closer to the time of king Giorgi the Brilliant. My grandfather (Giorgi Leonidze). I think now that he had in his mind the words of Niccolo Machiavelli:”Everyone who wants to know what will happen ought to examine what has happened: everything in this world in any epoch has their replicas in antiquity. if I would become a historian. too. etc. Kavtaradze speech delivered at the presentation of the book launch of Vazha Kiknadze. so my grandfather’s request. the days of king Giorgi V the Brilliant.Giorgi L. Professor Kiknadze makes use of previously unknown manuscripts examined by him (i.. strongly eJncouraged my passion. I belong to people who believe that some events in our life are predetermined by our fate. Kiknadze’s book was published this January in the United States of America by Edwin Mellen Publishers and I’m very glad that I now have the opportunity to say a few words about it. In addition to the surviving Georgian and well-known foreign written sources. instead of doing my homework. choosing me the books which I needed according to his opinion. On the basis of these materials. explaining their meaning and discussed various aspects of the Georgian and not only of the Georgian history. But from your fate there is no escape! Last summer. He used to say. Kiknadze restores the complex internal and external political processes that occurred in Georgia since the late 13th century to the late 14th century – the time of the invasions of Tamerlane. But at that time. The fourteenth century AD is a period of Georgian history which has few written sources or other contemporary documentary materials. 9 . was completely erased from my mind. first brought to light for scholarly analysis and interpretation by the author and using all existing primary sources together with materials of different types. I was very impressed by the problems of ethnogenesis. and puts forward a quite new vision of the events of historic character of this period. among them were books of the so-called anti-Soviet character. “The Eurasian State of Georgia in the Fourteenth Century (the Mongol Era and Its End)”. Dr. I was about 10-12 years old when the greatest pleasure for me was reading books on the history. that there is a lack of evidence about the time of king Giorgi the Brilliant and therefore the circumstances of the end of Mongol rule in Georgia are the least known.

com/kavta or http://kavtaradze. Read by Dr. will have again and again new opportunities to present a long and rich history of Georgia to the interested readers around the world. It should be noted that Kiknadze’s book came at the most right time. Nino Lazrishvili Back: http://www.geocities. By the way. mentioned that the Caucasian Gates (i.com 10 . not only to history.The author has actually managed to restore our past. which were considered as forever lost. XII. I would like to express as well the hope that in the future as Professor Kiknadze. it became obvious that new approaches. The significance of this fact is difficult to overestimate. rethinking and interpreting of national narratives were needed” (Eka Avaliani) – Vazha Kiknadze’s work fully meet these requirements. – it explaines not only our history. in the first century. but also to a wide circle of readers. the monograph of Professor Kiknadze is the first book published in the United States by a professional Georgian historian. also referred to as the Inner Crescent – already Pliny the Elder (Plinius Magnus). Professor Kiknadze’s monograph has been awarded by The Adèle Mellen Prize for its distinguished contribution to scholarship.html or http://www. Taking into consideration the vastness of the territory conquered by the Mongols from Japan to Egypt and from Indochina to Poland and the significant role they played in the history of the whole of Eurasia. 30). Darial Gorge) divides the world in two distinct parts (NH. I think that the English-speaking reader will be interested in becoming acquainted with the topic of Mongol rule in Georgia. By the opinion of our colleagues: “as the collapse of the Soviet system and the historical methodologies it had promoted and enforced left a vacuum in the successor states.e. This past has a special value for us. an often neglected period in history”. the period of the history of Georgia most shrouded in mist. This book is rated as “the first and only detailed study of Fourteenth Century Eurasia. but determines the subsequent development of our state.ws/komblege/index. he has succeeded in running back the pages of history.scribd.wetpaint. so other his Georgian colleagues. VI. Quite recently. which is once again on the verge of two very different worlds – Central Eurasia and its periphery.

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