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- Aerodynamics and the Stability of Aircaraft
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You are on page 1of 2

Formula Overview

Equation of state

p = RT (1)

Relationship between gravity with geomet-

ric height

g = g

0

_

r

r +h

G

_

2

(2)

Hydrostatic equation

Geometric altitude:

dp = gdh

G

(3)

Geopotential altitude:

dp = g

0

dh (4)

Relationship geopotential and geometric al-

titudes

dh =

r

2

(r +h

G

)

2

dh

G

h =

r

r +h

G

h

G

(5)

Standard atmosphere

Isothermal layer

p

p

1

=

1

= e

g

0

(hh

1

)

RT

(6)

Gradient layer

p

p

1

=

_

T

T

1

_

g

0

aR

(7)

1

=

_

T

T

1

_

(

g

0

aR

+1)

(8)

T = T

1

+a (h h

1

) (9)

Euler equation

dp = V dV (10)

Steady frictionless incompressible ow

Simplied continuity equation:

A

1

V

1

= A

2

V

2

(11)

Bernoulli equation:

p

1

+

1

2

V

2

1

= p

2

+

1

2

V

2

2

(12)

Curved ow

dp

dr

=

V

2

r

(13)

Thermodynamics

Enthalpy:

h = e +pv = e +RT (14)

First law of thermodynamics:

q +w = de (15)

At constant pressure:

q = de +pdv (16)

At constant volume:

q = dh vdp (17)

Specic heat at constant volume:

c

v

=

q

dT

(18)

Specic heat at constant pressure:

c

p

=

q

dT

(19)

de = c

v

dT e = c

v

T (20)

dh = c

p

dT h = c

p

T (21)

R = c

p

c

v

(22)

=

c

p

c

v

(23)

Mach number

M =

V

a

(24)

a =

_

RT (25)

Isentropic ow

Continuity equation:

1

A

1

V

1

=

2

A

2

V

2

(26)

p

2

p

1

=

_

1

_

=

_

T

2

T

1

_

1

(27)

T

0

T

1

= 1 +

1

2

M

2

1

(28)

p

0

p

1

=

_

1 +

1

2

M

2

1

_

1

(29)

1

=

_

1 +

1

2

M

2

1

_ 1

1

(30)

c

p

T

1

+

1

2

V

2

1

= c

p

T

2

+

1

2

V

2

2

(31)

1

Measurement of airspeed

Incompresible ow (M < 0.3):

V

true

=

_

2 (p

0

p)

(32)

V

e

=

_

2 (p

0

p)

s

(33)

Subsonic compressible ow (0.3 < M < 1):

V

2

1

=

2a

2

1

1

_

_

p

0

p

1

p

1

+ 1

_

1

1

_

(34)

V

2

cal

=

2a

2

1

1

_

_

p

0

p

1

p

s

+ 1

_

1

1

_

(35)

Relationship true airspeed and equivalent airspeed:

V

e

= V

_

s

(36)

Area velocity relation

dA

A

=

_

M

2

1

_

dV

V

(37)

Conclusions:

M < 1: For the velocity to increase, the area must

decrease

M > 1: For the velocity to increase, the area must

increase

M = 1: The velocity will be sonic always at the

throat

Reynolds number

Re

x

=

(38)

Viscous ow

w

=

_

dV

dy

_

y=0

(39)

c

f

x

=

w

1

2

V

2

=

w

q

(40)

Laminar boundary layer:

=

5.2x

Re

x

(41)

c

f

x

=

0.664

Re

L

(42)

C

f

=

D

f

q

S

=

1.328

Re

L

(43)

Turbulent boundary layer

=

0.37x

Re

0.2

x

(44)

c

f

x

=

0.0592

Re

0.2

L

(45)

C

f

=

D

f

q

S

=

0.074

Re

0.2

L

(46)

Drag due to viscous eects:

D

profile

= D

friction

+D

pressure

(47)

Airfoil nomenclature

Relation lift and drag force with normal and axial

force:

L = N cos Asin (48)

D = N sin +Acos (49)

AC, CP and the pitching moment

C

m,CP

= 0 (50)

dC

m,AC

d

= 0 (51)

C

mQ

2

= C

mQ

1

+C

n

_

x

Q

2

x

Q

1

c

_

(52)

Lift, drag and moment for 2-dimensional

wings

L = q

S c

l

(53)

D = q

S c

d

(54)

M = q

S c c

m

(55)

Pressure coecient:

C

p

=

p p

=

p p

1

2

V

2

(56)

Prandt-glauert rule:

C

p

=

C

p,0

1 M

2

(57)

c

n

=

1

c

_

c

0

(C

p,l

C

p,u

) dx (58)

Induced drag for 3-dimensional wings:

D

i

= L

i

= L

C

L

A

(59)

C

D,i

=

C

2

L

eA

(60)

(e = 1 for elliptical shapes)

A =

b

c

=

b

2

S

(61)

dC

L

d

= a =

a

0

1 +

57.3a

0

e

1

A

(62)

D

total

= D

profile

+D

induced

(63)

Mach waves

= arcsin

1

M

(64)

M

cr,swept

=

M

cr,airfoil

cos

(65)

2

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