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[CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IV]

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1.0 ACKNOWLEDGMENT

In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful We are really thankful to Almighty Allah S.W.T that we already finish our report. During completing this report many parties involved and contribute either support or sharing valuable knowledge. First of all, we heartily thankful to our construction technology lecturer PN. Hazwani Binti Ramli whose encourage, guide and support from the early to the final level not only in completing. The supervision and support that she gave truly help the progression and smoothness while completing this report. The co-operation is much indeed appreciated. Our grateful thanks also go to Unit facilities UITM Shah Alam staff for giving us the information related to these topics. A big help from you are very great indeed. Last but not least, special thanks to all group members whose really help and give a very great co-operation from the beginning. Lastly, we offer our regards and blessings to all of those who supported us in any respect while completing this project.

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2.0 INTRODUCTION Finishes is very important in make the surface of floor, wall and ceiling look more attractive and can be act as a weather resistant and increase the aesthetic value of a building. There are three types of finishes that is wall, floor and ceiling finishes. For this task, we will be focused on one type of finishes that is the wall finishes and will only be about the wall cladding. above show the simple breakdown of wall finishes

WALL FINISHES

Paint

Brick s

Cladding

Tile

Glass

Sheet Metal

Brick

Precast concrete

Alucomat

Stone Facing

What is wall cladding? Wall cladding is a type of decorative covering used on building exteriors. Wall cladding function is mainly for decorative purpose, however we also can include e a degree of waterproofing, a barrier against the wind, or other protections as it additional function. Cladding can take a number of different forms and can be made from many different materials. Some of the popular materials for cladding include various metals, stone, and composite sidings. As shown above there are five basic types of wall cladding and every type have different properties, texture, color and suitability to use.

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Claddings to buildings are considered in two classifications: 1. Claddings fixed to a structural backing; 2. Claddings to framed structures.

Claddings Fixed to a Structural Backing Materials used in this form of cladding are generally considered to be small-unit claddings, and are applied for one of two reasons (Greeno, 2005). If the structural wall is unable to provide an adequate barrier to the elements, a layer of small-unit claddings will generally raise the walls resistance to a satisfactory level. Otherwise, small-unit claddings can be used solely as an ornamental feature, possibly to break up the monotony of a large plain area composed of a single material. For this type of claddings the materials used are tiles, slates, shingles, timber boarding, plastic boards and stone facings. The general method of fixing these small units is to secure them to timber battens fixed to the structure backing. Stone and similar facings, however, are usually secured by special mechanical fixings.

Claddings to Framed Structures The techniques available to clad a frame structure are wide and include panels of masonry constructed between the columns and beams, light infill panels of metal or timber, precast concrete panels, and curtain walling that completely circles the structure.

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3.0 TYPES OF WALL CLADDING The construction designs are shifting to the new level of design. Designer always come with the new idea and development of material and method for construction project. They are many types of wall finishes that can be found in the market. Each finishes have their own use and suitability according to the function of the building, effect from surrounding and other. For example, for external wall, the painting use must be able to withstand extreme weather. Besides paint, tile, brick, and glass, cladding is the choices that are available in market. Below are the types of wall finishes available:-

Building Finishes

Internal

External

Floor

Wall

Ceiling

Roof

Paint

Bricks

Tile

Cladding

Glass

Sheet Metal

Bricks

Precast Concrete

Glass

Alucomat

Like other wall finishes, wall cladding main function is as a decorative covering which are normally use at the external wall. Unlike other element, wall claddings are not function as structural element as it is not support the load imposed by the structure. The are many types of wall cladding available in the market such as sheet metal, bricks, precast concrete, stone facing and alucomat. Each type of wall cladding have their own characteristic and suitability which depends on the use and function of the building itself. Some of the wall cladding can act as thermal insulation, as an internal acoustic wall, as a fire safety system, and it also weather proof and at the same time give a big impact towards the appearance of the building. Nowadays, design teams have a wide selection of wall cladding in order to fulfilling the demand of the client and in the same time maintain the functionality.

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Sheet metal wall cladding Sheet metal wall cladding is categorized on the method of manufacturer and this type of wall cladding had been used for many years. Sheet metal wall cladding normally being use for external wall as the material are weather proof and can resist rain, wind and extreme weather. The material of this cladding is normally made from non- toxic material to ensure it is save for the user. Sheet metal cladding is mostly use for industrial building due to their speed of

installation, effectiveness of cost and the ability to withstand the deflection without damage. The cladding is coated with super peeling material strength and there are many colour available in the market. The lightweight sheet steel product is being applied with metallic coated .Besides that, the characteristic of sheet metal cladding which is light and good in thermal performance is one of the factor it is being adopted in the construction especially in the industrial sector. There are 3 common type of sheet metal wall cladding systems which are:a) Built Up systems Insulation materials are place between the 2 layers of liner sheet. This type of system is suitable to absorb sound and minimize the sound reverberation. The spacer is needed in order to support the hold the liner sheet on place.

Insulation

Liner sheet

(http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/DOUBLE-SKIN-INSULATED-BUILT-UP-ROOFINGSYSTEM-/190629274208)

b) Insulated panels Insulated panel are suitable where air tightness is essential. The insulation is sandwiches between two metal sheets. The different between insulated panel and built up system is, insulated panel does not required space as the rigid insulation are able to maintain the and hold the panel.

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(http://www.ultra.com.ph/upw200.htm) c) Standing seam systems The adjacent sheets are joint by using standing seam clip in order to ensure water tightness.

Standing Seam Clip

http://www.archclad.com.au/products/standing_seam_roofing.htm Advantages Sheet Metal, Composite Metal Panels, and Rain Screens cladding panels have distinctive advantages as cladding panels used nowadays as they are: 1. Available in variety of shape and design 2. Flexible in design to accommodate the designer requirements 3. Cost saving; 4. Large surface area can be cladded up to 30sqm; 5. Superior bond strength over other bonding methods; and 6. Better forming characteristics, excellent electrical characteristics and long term stability.

Disadvantages

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Sheet Metal, Composite Metal Panels, and Rain Screens cladding panels are known to have the followings demerits: 1. High corrosion rate as it is expose to the weather condition; 2. The material to construct this type of cladding is lowly available in the market; 3. As the materials itself are rare, the price of the system is costly to be compared to other system. Suitability: Sheet metal wall cladding is suitable to be used on the industrial, commercial, residential and institutional building.

Bricks are normally use as an external wall for one building; it can comes from clay brick or concrete bricks. However, bricks can also be one of the wall cladding. This type of cladding does not bear their weight and not contribute towards the stability of the structure. The bricks are bond together by using mortar and adhesive on top of the other material. Normally, the bricks are tied on top of plasterboard or other type of material in order to show the solidlook of the wall. Bricks Wall Cladding http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photosroyalty-free-stock-photos-light-coloured-stone-brickwall-cladding-image11604938

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Wall claddings are popular choice in major and minor renovation works. It is suitable to apply to any structural sound surface. They come to site in panel and can be easily handle by the labour. Thus, uses of plant and machineries can be minimizing. Bricks wall claddings are available in many design and textures and easily to be maintaining as it comes in panel. Thus, if there any repair work is needed, we just need to replace the panel individually. Usually, this type of wall cladding are being use in residential sector as the faade. Advantages 1. Good thermal insulator as the cladding are fixed on top of the finish surface which providing a highly thermal barrier. 2. Easy to be handle 3. Easy to maintain 4. Aesthetical value

Disadvantages

1. High cost as the cost need to be include the cost use to bond the cladding.

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Glass Cladding Glass cladding are very popular in the construction industries nowadays. It gives a modern look and suitable for both residential and commercial project. Glass cladding or also known as curtain walling are normally a non load bearing wall as glass are suspended in front of a structural frame. The load of the glass and the load imposed such as wind load are being shifted to the structural frame through anchorage points. The uses of glass panel also can save the energy, as the glass can reflect the light into the building, thus, the dependence on the light as the main source can be reduce. Toughened glasses are necessary to ensure the glass Can withstand the pressure impose during the The Gherkin http://www.bestbuildings.co.uk/wpinstallation of the cladding. Besides that the glass use content/uploads/2009/07/gherkin01.jp g must be able to withstand extreme weather. Normally, the glass will go through the process which is known as cold rolled in order to strengthen the glass. The glass will be heated until the point where the glass will be soft and it will rapidly cooling. The glass is also available in several of colour such as green, red, purple and many more. This type of coloured glass are normally use as partition which is also known as curtain wall. Advantages 1. It is easy to assemble, fix and maintain 2. Available in shapes and colour Disadvantages

1. Poor ventilation, as the most glass cladding are fixed which cannot be open, thus it will require a special attention 2. Poor heat preservation, thus it will leading to higher cost in the operation of air conditioners. Suitability: It is suitable where the light is extremely required. Wall Cladding (Case Study DATC) Page 9

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Pre cast concrete wall cladding The uses of pre cast concrete in construction are increasing day by day. This is suitable to fulfill the fast development and demand from the client which are become more complex than before. The precast

concrete elements are cast off site and normally required special labour for installation. Like other precast concrete element such as beam, column or slab, precast concrete wall cladding also need a full supervision to ensure a great quality of finish. There are two type of pre cast concrete cladding which are act as enclosure to one space or cladding which act as one of the element of building framework. Cladding which act as an enclosure to one space, normally act as backing to other faade material such as brickwork. While cladding which act as one of the element of the building framework will carry the load imposed to it the same principle carry by the other framework.
http://www.specifile.co.za/specifier/cement-aconcrete/620-design-flexibility-with-precastconcrete-cladding

Precast concrete wall cladding can be found in various design, shape and size. It is manufactured at factory and transferred to site. The characteristic of concrete make this type of cladding are fire resistance, acoustic insulation and long life. Besides that the pre cast concrete cladding finishes can be varies which depends on the method of production such as :a) Surfaces cast direct from the mould; e.g. smooth concrete, board marked concrete, grooved or serrated including reconstructed stone finishes,, b) Applied finishes, such as mosaics, tiles, stone facings and bricks, and c) Surfaces textured by tamping or shaping.

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Board marked concrete

http://static.wix.com/media/54cf09984c9df6d729a7afc5f9c7543d.wix_mp_256

Advantages The main merits of precast concrete over other cladding materials are its good strength-toweight ratio, its mobility and, because it is a non-combustible material, its fire performance. Next, the three main advantages of using precast as against in-situ concrete are: 1. Speed of erection; 2. Freedom from shuttering support on site; Better quality and variety of surface finish, because panels are manufactures in controlled factory situations Disadvantages 1. Very heavy members, thus it will required the uses of plant and machineries during the installation 2. The connection between each components might be difficult

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Alucomat wall cladding Alucomat is the type of cladding which stand for Aluminium Composite Material or also known as aluminium composite panel. It is a combination of two material which is aluminium alloy sheet and thermoplastic polyethene under a continuous high heat and high pressure. The rear side of the cladding are protected with service coated and mill finish . Like other type of aluminium, the ability of alucomat in resist the fire is very high. Besides that, this lightweight wall cladding also easy to be handle and easy to be form to any shape according to design required. Alucomat wall cladding is suitable for new or renovation works. Compare to metal cladding, alucomat is much lighter and easy to be handle and this will reduce the load imposed on the building.

http://www.alucomat.com/advantage.html

DATC or Dewan Agong Tuanku Naib Canselor are using one of the alucomat type which is known as alucobond

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Advantages Alucomat wall cladding are suitable to be apply as finishes for one building as the characteristic of alucomat are rigid, flexible and also lightweight. Besides that, the merits of using alucomat are :1. Good thermal insulation 2. Corrosion resistance 3. Outstanding sound insulation 4. Weather durability Disadvantages 1. Requires excessively large number of machineries 2. Labaour experts for installation

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4.0 WALL CLADDING INSTALLATION In the construction industry there are a various types of wall cladding has been used, which is from metal, aluminum, timber, stone, pvc and other. The different types will be bringing the different method of installation for each. Generally, in the Malaysian industry the current cladding systems are classified into four types dependent on their method attached to the structural system. The three types are the attached, infill, curtain wall system and system which contribute to the structural frame The attached system is directly attached to the main structural frame in large panel span stories or bays. They are constructed on the frame with back-up material anchored to the slab, and exterior finish covering the structural frame. An advantage to use of the attached system is the capability of the components to be fully insulated and protected from deteriorating effects of weather. The infill system is a method of wall installation to an exterior building with applies the rain screen principle. Interlocking component is used to attach aluminum or other wall panel. The method includes fastening a bracket assembly to the exterior building wall, fastening an attaching clip to the bracket. Provide a panel strip along the side surface of the wall panel. Curtain wall systems are attached to the structural frame with angels or sub-framing. The most prevalent curtain wall systems are metal and glass walls. These systems are used on many of the skyscrapers. Curtain wall systems may also be constructed of natural stone, precast concrete, or other combinations of materials. Today, the curtain wall option is selected most often in enclosure systems. System which contribute to the structural frame is where precast concrete panels, masonry walls or even exposed cast-in-place exterior walls can be used to assist the structural system in resisting the effects of the wind and seismic loads and in some cases to carry the live and dead loads of the building. When the cladding contributes to the structure, its joints and attachments must be designed to perform their structural function as well as accommodate the effects of differential movement.

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4.1 CURTAIN WALL SYSTEM Exterior wall of curtain wall system are generally suspended from the main structural frame. Ideally, the wall systems dead weight and wind loads are transferred to the main structural Panelized curtain wall Curtain wall may be constructed as large panels. Each the width of a structural bay and one storey high, they can weigh up to 15 tonnes. They may be precast concrete panels or steel trusses to which are attached outer and inner surfaces, insulation, and windows. Components are fitted onto the panels in much the same way that they are fitted into other facades. Panels of this size require very large fixings and anchors to hold them on the building. Special attention should be given to the large panel-to-panel seals that are required. Frame through anchorage and fasteners between the kin and the mainframe.

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Semi-Unitized/panelized curtain wall

4.1 (a) Semi-unitized System (Hybrid system) After a period of time, semi-unitized design was occur in curtain wall technology. In this system, the mullion members are separately installed first, and then pre-assembled framing units are placed between them. These units may be full story height, or they may be divided into a spandrel unit and a vision glass unit.

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Unitized/panelized curtain wall

4.1 (b) Unitized curtain wall system For modern technology, unitized curtain wall system was invented. This system is composed entirely of large frame units pre-assembled at the factory. The mullion member join to the top and bottom transom member, and with a vision glazed glass panel.

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Stick system curtain wall

4.1 (c) Stick wall system. This is the earlier design of curtain wall technology. The wall is installed piece by piece. Usually, the mullion members (which is vertical member) are installed first, followed in turn by the transom members (which is horizontal rail member), and finally the glazing or window units. However, in designs accenting the horizontal lines the process may be altered to first install the larger transoms. In either case, the transom and mullion members are often long sections designed to either be interrupted or extended through at their intersections. The stick wall system was used extensively in the early years of metal curtain wall development, and is still widely used in greatly improved versions. Some contractors consider it to be superior to other systems.

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4.2 RAIN SCREEN PRINCIPLE/ INFILL SYSTEM A common feature in curtain wall technology, the rainscreen principle theorizes that equilibrium of air pressure between the outside and inside of the "rainscreen" prevents water penetration into the building itself. For example the glass is captured between an inner and an outer gasket in a space called the glazing rebate. The glazing rebate is ventilated to the exterior so that the pressure on the inner and outer sides of the exterior gasket is the same. When the pressure is equal across this gasket water cannot be drawn through joints or defects in the gasket.

Example of in fill system

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4.3 ATTACH SYSTEM

Wall cladding consisting of stone slabs attached to a stable support by ties; these ties are coated in a plug of mortar, in the ventilated air space created between the cladding and the support system. The system can only be used in the system will absences of exterior insulation. The anchored will attach to the surface of slab and fixed to the wall cladding.

Example attach system

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4.5 INSTALLATION FIXINGS The selection of fixings for supporting cladding should be determined from consideration of the proven performance of the fixing and the risks associated with the particular applications.

Example of a mechanical bracket

Example of a slab installation with fixing brackets in the Vertical joint

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4.6 TYPES OF FIXING 4.6 (a) Primary fixing Primary fixing attaching metal cladding to steel rails are commonly self-tapping screws. Direct fixing of sheets by stud welding or by self-tapping screws to metal framing should not be used for asbestos cement cladding because it tends to restrain sheeting movement unduly and causes it to cracks. Cartridge-assisted fasteners used to secure metal roof decks units but are not used where water tightness relies upon careful tightening against washer seal such as is required when fixing roof and wall cladding sheets.

Example types of fixing

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Example of self-tapping screws

Cranked hook bolts for use with asbestos cements sheets and cold-rolled steel rails

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4.6 (b) Secondary fixing Secondary fixing are not required with asbestos cement sheeting for fastening side laps and end laps. Their use in vertical cladding is generally for fixing accessory sheets when it is possible with primary fixing and for double cladding. Sheet cladding may fail at the fixings either by pull through or by failure itself. Fixing should therefore be specified to include nuts, washers and weather-seal devices. Joints between sheets Side laps may sometimes need to be increased locally to avoid cutting sheets at corners and openings. Such laps are easy to increase with regular profiles but are difficult with irregular profiles and sheets with bonded insulation.

Side laps between sheets: a) maximum flexibility in side laps is provided by sheet with uniform troughs and half-corrugations, b) standard sheets with factory-bonded backings do not permit variations in side lap, c) sheets in which corrugations are not uniform do not allow variation in side lap

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Sealing of lap joints with mastic is not generally used in vertical sheeting for weather protection. Corner details are an important design consideration. Over-sheet corner flashings usually need to be wide in relation to the profile of the main cladding and tend to flit with it in scale. Appearance and weathering are improved by inverting the edges of angle, but this allows little flexibility in positioning the sheets and curved-over-sheet corner flashings can also be used. Using over and under-sheet corner flashings, these can be shaped to match the profile of the main cladding and the upturned lip of the main cladding is also covered, offering a better water check. With under-sheet flashings, in order to avoid the exposure of an upturned lip one of the cladding sheets has been reversed. The length of the under leg of the flashing offers some tolerance in the assembly and in some cases the sheets are butted against the steel frame and the frame exposed at the corner. Profiled sheeting is best used in well-proportioned large areas, to enclose the main structure with the minimum of joints with other materials. If opening lights or transparent areas are required, stretches of patent glazing are better than small isolated windows because they relate more naturally to the scale of the main cladding and reduce the problem of jointing around windows openings.

Over-sheet corner flashing

Under-sheet corner flashing

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4.7 GLASS FIBER REINFORCED CEMENT Fixing method Fixing methods using angle cleats and dowels fixing are similar to those used for precast concrete. Glass fibre reinforced cement panels are best supported at the base and restrained at the top, intermediate fixings should be avoided.

typical fixings using GRC, a) sandwich construction fixings b) single-skin fixings It is most important that allowances be made for thermal, moisture and any structural movements of the glass reinforced cement which are approximately double those of precast concrete. In cladding panels these provisions for movement are usually accommodated in the top restraint fixings in the form of slotted or oversize holes.

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Slotted fixings to allow movement at top of panel Frictionless washers or bearing pads of neoprene or polytetraflourethylene (PTFE) and spacer tubes or the use of a resilient rubber bush or spring must be incorporated to allow the component parts to slide or move.

Resilient rubber bush fixing to allow movement Only cast-in fixings should be used for structural connections. Site-drilled holes are adequate for secondary fixings.

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Jointing There are essentially four main ways of dealing with joints, which is: i) Gaskets Gaskets are only effective where positive pressure is available to deform or compress them. Problems using gaskets are that the molded GRC nibs to receive the gasket have only one mould face and however well the back face is compacted, minor variations in thickness will occur which can cause points of weakness for an effective weatherproof seal. Second problems are that they expend upon extremely tight tolerances in joint size and may only really work in conjunction with a system of adjustable fixing devices.

ii) Open-drained joints One of the requirements of open-drained joints is the baffle groove deep enough to accommodate the baffle at the maximum and minimum joint ranges. Typical baffle groove depths are 30mm and such deep grooves are difficult to form. It is not always easy to fix the baffle strip at the head of the joint.

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iii) Mastic sealants Various mastic sealants have been used but their success depends on good surface preparation and that used of corrects primers. Sealants design to bond to smooth surfaces should be specified and care taken to ensure that any silicone face sealer to the panel is not carried round the edges of the panel as this inhibits adhesion of the sealant.

iv) Cover strips Cover strips are not often used because they are not normally visually acceptable and partly because of the design of the intersection between vertical and horizontal cover strips it is almost impossible to maintain water tightness.

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4.8 PRECAST CONCRETE CLADDING Panel fixings Panels can be either top-hung from the structure or supported from their base and its can be restrained by either dowel bars or angle cleats, both of which must be fixed so as to permit vertical movements arising from the deformation of the structure or movement of the panels. Tolerance must be allowed in the method of fixing and allowable clearance between the panels and the structure. Allowance must be made in the design of the fixings for thermal movement of the panel. Angle cleats Even it is usually use for top restraint, it also can employed at the base support position and there should be at least two cleats per panel, irrespective of panel size. They should be designed to give three-dimensional adjustments by the use of slotted holes or by packing pieces. Care is needed in the accurate location of such channels during the casting of the slab and reliable placing is more easily achieved when this channel is cast into soffit of the slab rather than in the top surface. Bolts fixing the angle cleats are normally fixed to cast-in sockets or expanding sleeves and cast-in sockets used with precast concrete as they can be accurately cast in place in factory. The precise location cannot be guaranteed for in situ concrete and channels are used to allow adjustment. Where channels are not suitable the structure is drilled to receive bolts with expanding sleeves, taking care to avoid the reinforcement.

Cleat top dowel bottom Wall Cladding (Case Study DATC)

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c) Dowels top and bottom

d) detail at A

Various combinations of dowel and cleat fixings

Allowance in the design of fixings for thermal movement and inaccuracy

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Dowel fixings Dowel bar fixings are common and simple method of locating and restraining the panel at its bottom support nibs. The main reason for use is that they are considerably cheaper than nonferrous angle cleats and can more easily accommodate dimensional inaccuracies in the structure. Where dowels are used in conjunction with panels supported at their head, some provision for vertical movement may be required.

Jointing Sealants Sealants joints are designed to provide a complete watertight barrier in the form of a singlestage joint positioned towards the panel face. Main types of sealant joints for use with concrete cladding are polysulphide (one and two-part) and acrylic and often used for highly profiled units such as spandrel or parapet panels. Two-part polysulphide sealants are most used because they have better movement capability and thus can offer greater joint size ranges and on the other hand for large jobs, normally use one-part polysulphide with which the color is more constant. Rectangular or circular-section sealant backing strips of closed cell polyethylene foam are used to ensure the correct depth of sealant and to separate it from incompatible materials which would cause its breakdown.

Polyethylene backing strip to ensure correct depth of sealant

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Sealant joints will need to be repainted during the life of building as the proven life of the best sealants is as yet only twenty years but however, sealants in locations protected from the effects of ultraviolet light and extremes of weather may have greater life expectancy than those in more exposed positions.

Open-drained joints The principle of the open-drained joints is to used the geometry of the joint to trap the majority of the rain in an outer zone and to provide barrier (air seal) at the back of the joint to avoid air and water penetrating into the building. Although baffle strip acts as primary barrier to wind driven rain, the real effectiveness of the joint depends on maintaining the performance of the air seal. The theory is that being positioned at the back of the joint the seal is sheltered by the baffle from the ultraviolet light and direct rain and is subject to less thermal and moisture movement than if it were positioned nearer the face of the panel. The main elements of the open-drained joint are: Baffle strip Baffle groove Air seal An effective up stand at the base of the panel The horizontal flashing at cross-over joints

Cross-over open-drained joint Wall Cladding (Case Study DATC) Page 33

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4.9 STONE WALL CLADDING

Manufactured stone wall

Stone wall cladding can be installing with a limited knowledge of masonry work method and procedures. This wall cladding can be apply over brick or painted concrete or concrete block. It can be applied at any structurally sound surface. Fix using mortar to attach between wall surface and the stone wall. Below is the step for stone wall installation;

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Step one (1): Prepare the wall for stone cladding As we already know this type can applied at any wall structural. To provide a good bonding between stone and wall the surface galvanized metal lath should be first applied to the wall surface using galvanized concrete fastener. Step two (2): Applying the scratch coat In the most cases the metal lath is covered with a thin scratch coat of mortar to provide a good rough surface. This is allows easy adhesion of stone to the wall. The mortar is use in order to make the scratch coat should be workable means not to wet or to dry in consistency. This is allowed ensuring that the bonding can be more strength and not give the bad effect to the surface at the end. Step (3): Applying the stone Before apply the stone to the wall the first step is make sure clean the back of the stone with brush and set out close to the job site. Keep the mortar joints between the stone as tight as possible as this will improve the appearance. The best way to start applying the stone is from top to down. This assists alignment for the whole job. Step (4): Trimming and grouting the stones The stone may be cut and shaped to fit if necessary, for example at the corner. After finished applying the stone fill a grout bay with mortar, which may be coloured if required and partially fill the joints between each of the stones the grout may used to cover any irregularities in work such as cut edges. The caution is to avoid the grout on the stone surface. Step (5): Cleaning The final step is cleaning the surface of the stone cladding using broom to clean up any mortar that may have fall on the face of the stone, and generally compact and seal edges around the stone by using stick or joining. Make sure the mortar is ready hard before make a clean.

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5.0 CASE STUDY

Name : Dewan Agung Tuanku Canselor (DATC) Location: UiTM Shah Alam, Selangor. Architect: AMC Architect Quantity Surveyor: Perunding BE Sdn. Bhd.

Background Dewan Agong Tuanku Canselor, DATC is located in UiTM Shah Alam, Selangor. It was complete at 27 Julai 2010. The contractor for this first phase project is MARL JAYA (M) SDN. BHD (Class A). The total tender sum is RM 122,000,000. DATC was primarily designed and built for Uitms large convocation ceremonies which are held at the end of every semester. DATC which also as the new halls to replace Dewan Seri Budiman also will be use for such Wall Cladding (Case Study DATC) Page 36

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events and also use for platform for sharing of knowledge. The chancellor of UiTM, the King declared open the Dewan Agong Tuanku Canselor, here which was being used for the convocation for the first time, involving 15,701 graduands. Types of wall cladding DATC or Dewan Agong Tuanku Naib Canselor are using one of the alucomat type which is known as alucobond. The specifications are as follows: Types and materials: Alucobond Plus, aluminimum composite panel , non-combustible core in PVDF finish , sub frame, fittings, weather strip , bracket, mastic Size : 1500 X 1500 mm Thick :4mm Colour : Natural & gold metallic

The Alucobond Plus is a composite panel consisting of two aluminum cover sheets. The composite structure of Alucobond Plus is results in an impressive strength-to-weight ratio, even when comparing large panel sizes. It is easy in handling, and transport in the factory and on site, has low weight. It can be exposed to extreme temperature changes. Wall cladding for this building covers about 266 M2.

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Method of fixing Method of fixing that use for DATC is the curtain wall system. As mention before curtain wall systems are attached to the structural frame with angles or sub-framing. These building uses stick wall system where the wall cladding is installed piece by piece. The design of wall for DATC makes the installation of wall cladding quite complex.

Cost The cost of wall cladding: RM 500.00/m2 Total cost for wall cladding: RM 133,000.00

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6.0 CONCLUSION

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7.0 REFERENCES

Book 1. 2011. Builders Symposium, UiTM, Building Department. Webpage 1. GEEK, W. What is wall cladding [Online]. Available: www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cladding.htm [Accessed 20 April 2012]. 2. DIRECTORY, A. B. Wall Cladding [Online]. Australia. Available: infolink.com.au [Accessed 26 April 2011]. http://www.transport-industry.com/ti-plus-properties.html

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