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CONTENTS

CONTENTS: Chapter 1 Chapter 2 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. ABSTRACT

ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 THE DESIGN STUDIO ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 THE DESIGN PROCESS ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6
Starting a design project ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6 Developing a design project ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

2.3.1. 2.3.2.

Chapter 3 3.1. 3.2.

0-14 TOWER

LOCATION .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8 DESCRIPTION OF THE TOWER ................................................................................................................................................................. 9


Main data ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9 Plan views of the structure ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 10 Elevation view of the structure ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 12

3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3.

3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7. 3.8.

CONCEPT ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 REVOLUTIONARY .................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 SIMILAR PROJECTS ................................................................................................................................................................................. 15 SPACE DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................................................................................................................. 16 THE CONCRETE SHELL ........................................................................................................................................................................... 17 DESIGNERS OF THE TOWER .................................................................................................................................................................. 20

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1
Abstract
This work aims to analyze 0-14 Tower, reinforced concrete building placed in United Arab Emirates in Dubai city. This building has strange exoskeleton facade made of reinforced concrete with huge openings to allow light to flow through building. Load bearing system consists of external wall exoskeleton and internal core composed by several inner walls. Thickness of outer wall is 40cm and building has 22 stories. Architects Jesse Reiser and Nanako Umemoto have designed this building which looks like sculpture.

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2
Architectural design
2.1. INTRODUCTION

The architectural design process


is as diverse as the people who practice it. The variety and richness of approaches to the subject can be seen in the radical differences between architects work. In any architectural competition, no two entries will be the same. What inspired the architect? Why is there no one correct answer to a given architectural problem? Talk to any architect or study their work and you will begin to notice that there is both method and inspiration behind their approach. This book sets out to explain the process of design by tying together the experiences of those involved in the practice and learning of architecture. Architectural projects are generally discussed by the public and the profession after they have been built and handed over to the client. At this point a degree of hindsight and post-rationalization makes the complicated story of a projects development intelligible. However, the process of architectural design itself is still shrouded in mystery, little discussed and rarely represented in publications or interviews with architects.

Fig. 2-1: Initial sketch design for a hiltop house showing the relationship between the plan, section, site and details. Considering both large-and small-scale elements; landscape and architecture, fragments and the whole picture 4 / 21

Architectural design of 0-14 tower, UAE

Chapter 2

Architectural design

What value do we place on the wastepaper basket of crumpled preliminary sketches or rough concept models? The way that an architect designs the process that they follow is constructed by the individual; it is entirely built around their own values, skills and preoccupations. It is important that architects are conscious of, and reflect upon, their own design process; not only because this is what they bring to a design project as creative individuals, but also to enable them to take ownership of the process in order to avoid carelessly repeating outdated or obsolete actions.

2.2.

THE DESIGN STUDIO


This chapter places architectural design in its familiar context:

the

design studio.

This is where the creative work happens; it is an environment common to both architectural education and the profession. It is a place of practical things; a place of production containing equipment for making models, for drawing digitally and by hand. It is often supported by specialized workshops and printing facilities. Resources for research, such as architectural books and journals, will also be on hand. The studio has its own culture: it is a place where research, experimentation, discussion and the testing of ideas can take place before they are put into action on site. the gathering together of likeminded colleagues capable of collaboration and constructive criticism assists the development of architectural proposals and the Postering of mutual preoccupations.
I think we believe very strongly in the discussion forum culture of the studio compared to what you might call an office. So everyone has the same chair and everyone has the same desk. Everything is open and everyone has access to everything. Everyones opinion is aired. I like that and I like to be able to talk to and reach everybody. I wouldnt like to be in a separate place at all. If I want a separate place I just go for a walk. John Tuomey, ODonnell+Tuomey Architects

Fig. 2-2: This figure shows a scene common to both professional and student design studios, with flexible shared working space wquipped for drawing, making and collaboration 5 / 21

Architectural design of 0-14 tower, UAE

Chapter 2

Architectural design

2.3.

THE DESIGN PROCESS

This chapter describes the cerebral process of design and the skills needed to implement design ideas and develop as an architectural designer. Architectural design problems are complex and require creative solutions. Although architects often make provocative, didactic or stylistic judgments about different forms of Architecture that they either value or deride, there is not one correct way to design. Architectural experiences, influences and inspirational tutors or colleagues contribute towards the making of an architect but each person responds differently to these stimuli and must make their own value judgments. Ultimately, the moment of design springs from the individual imagination, no matter how collaborative the circumstances that provoked it. This chapter attempts to define experiences and skills that are common to all architects engaged in the design process and to give substance to some of the more cerebral and intangible qualities of architectural design. The better the architect understands their actions, the greater their freedom to develop and explore the different possibilities inherent in their own design process.

2.3.1. Starting a design project


A typical design project begins with a research, experimentation and analysis phase to understand the problems set by the brief: surveying the site, sketching, interviewing clients and users, mapping and analyzing the site. The project may be real, based on reality or entirely imagined. The brief may even be open, requiring the student to complete it, to identify a site, client or building type(s). The brief is normally designed to allow students to develop their own interests and build upon those of the tutor. There will often be elements of group work and cooperation at this point to accelerate the groups knowledge and understanding at a time when much research is needed. While absorbing all of this information, it is possible to explore multiple ideas and potential solutions to the design problem through preliminary sketches, diagrams and sketch models. Different ideas need to be explored and tested out.
Fig. 2-3: Site location for future building

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Chapter 2 2.3.2. Developing a design project

Architectural design

Once the design problem has been understood and restated, the designer will begin to make decisions on the focus and direction of the project. Experimentation and testing through drawings and models continue but these should become more defined. This definition often arises from a decision by the designer to focus on a few particular issues each time; for example, entrance to the site, relevant local social issues, how to build with a particular material. During the design development phase ideas are refined, decisions made and complexity increased. Drawings and models explore the proposal in part and as a whole, moving back and forth between the general and the particular. This may lead to a questioning of decisions made in the earlier phases and often requires a return to an earlier stage to make changes before moving on again. At various stages along the way judgments need to be made about how to represent and communicate the work. Learning new skills and how to use new tools will help support and develop the design work. No two architects follow exactly the same path. It is quite usual to jump between stages and to deliberately return to others. It is very normal, necessary even, to get stuck and make mistakes that can be learned from. It is important for you to breathe life into the project and contribute to its direction by participating in the debate
Fig. 2-: Site location for future building

going on in the design studio.

Fig. 2-5: Organization of the location

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3
0-14 Tower
3.1. LOCATION

Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Fig. 3-1: Location of the tower

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Chapter 3

0-14 Tower

3.2.

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOWER

3.2.1. Main data


Architect Reiser + Umemoto Client Creekside Development Corporation Plot Area 3.195 m2 Building Footprint 557 m2 (typical office floor) Gross Floor Area 15.979 m2 Height 117 m Building costs Unknown Elevators 3 + 1 Servicelift Status Completed 2009
Fig. 3-2: 014 Tower, Dubai, UAE

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Chapter 3 3.2.2. Plan views of the structure

0-14 Tower

Fig. 3-3: Ground floor

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Chapter 3

0-14 Tower

Fig. 3-4: Third floor

Fig. 3-5: Typical floor

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Chapter 3 3.2.3. Elevation view of the structure

0-14 Tower

Fig. 3-6: Elevation view (section A-A ; section B-B)

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Chapter 3

0-14 Tower

3.3.

CONCEPT

The O-14 tower is located on the Business Bay in Dubai, an extension of the Dubai Creek. The bay comprehends a diverse collection of postmodern towers on a tabula rasa, an artificially created landscape. Almost all towers are situated on the waterfront. The urban plan prescribes a plinth of four floors and a superimposed tower. At the side of the main access road the plinth is set back, at this point the tower is completely visible.

Fig. 3-7: Business Bay, Dubai

One could state that every tower in Dubai is supposed to be unique, and as a result that all towers are generic. On the one hand O-14 confirms all clichs. The tower is built as a generic office tower with a free floorplan and no users yet in mind. The tower seems unreasonable expensive and as a result of the crisis, the tower is at the moment empty and for sale. On the other hand the design comprehends distinguishing elements like the concrete shell, the free form facade and the high quality standard Fig. 3-8: Interior (after construction ; under construction) of the end result. The tower is composed of a four floor parking basement, a four story plinth with a tower superimposed on it. On top of the tower is a mechanical space. The floorplan of the tower is a squeezed square, with an elevator core in the center. The facade comprehends a casted shell with over 1.300 openings, creating a mesh-like effect. The shell functions as a structural exoskeleton and filters the light entering the building. A meter behind the shell is a floor to ceiling glass facade. The space between the concrete shell and the glass facade works according to the chimney-effect: the heated up mass of the concrete shell and the glazed windows are ventilated away instead of passed on to the interior.

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0-14 Tower

3.4.

REVOLUTIONARY

Outer appearance and structure are two of the most important elements of a skyscraper. The O-14 tower is clearly rooted in the history of both elements. Whereas the first skyscrapers just expressed a structural story of brick and steel, a language to express the new typology was developed soon. Over time the language of the tower has slowly evolved. Milestones are the towers of Sullivan in Chicago, the developments in Manhattan in the 20s and 30s, the modernistic developments in the first decades after WWII, the high-tech towers from Rogers and others, up to the post-modernistic experiments and the pluralistic language of today. In the last decade a few buildings were developed in Japan which had a concrete freeform facade. This type of facade integrated structure with a more or less random pattern of openings. The O-14 tower could be seen as a next step within this development. The form of the openings is namely very difficult to accomplish. Different from its Japanese ancestors the O-14 tower does not integrate the structure and the facade.
Fig. 3-9: Double facade with chimney-effect

The O-14 tower has an exoskeleton, with a facade a meter behind it. Exoskeletons do already exist for decades, but are seldomly useful due to high maintenance costs. The idea of an exoskeleton which protects the building from the sun is innovative and interesting. The density of the openings in the shell is very high. This turns the perforated shell almost into a concrete diagrid. Diagrids are nowadays state of the art in skyscraper design. However, concrete diagrids are almost impossible to realise due to the difficult joints. The O-14 tower is an interesting alternative; the structure is freeform and effective. As a conclusion one could state that the difficult form and the density of the voids in the shell, combined with the idea of an exoskeleton filtering light, makes this tower stand out from the mass of generic towers in Dubai.

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Chapter 3

0-14 Tower

3.5.

SIMILAR PROJECTS
Fig. 3-11: Hotel de las Artes

Fig. 3-10: COR building

Fig. 3-12: Mikimoto

Fig. 3-14: Stratatower

Fig. 3-13: Sinosteel Plaza

Fig. 3-15: TOD's 15 / 21

Architectural design of 0-14 tower, UAE

Chapter 3

0-14 Tower

3.6.

SPACE DISTRIBUTION

The master plan for Business Bay calls for towers on a podium that contain parking, with street-level arcades linking to retail shops and building lobbies. Reiser + Umemoto convinced the developer to place parking underground on this 34,000-square-foot site and have a two-story elevated podium wrap the tower on three sides to accommodate more office space and a restaurant. The revision mean the front facade could still be read as monolithic and scale less, while elevating the podium allows pedestrians access to a plaza at the back overlooking the bay. A truss spans the rear of the podium to keep the ground less cluttered by columns, and bridges on two levels link the podium to the tower. Since the exoskeleton would offer lateral resistance to wind, the architects and engineers found that the elevator core and the concrete shell could be lighter than normal. The shell, which Reiser refers to as atectonic, lacks any break in its surface, including expansion joints. But the hole-ridden, contoured slipcover of concrete required a dense basket weave of rebar its underlying structural tectonic, in Reiser's words. The team tied the rebar at intersections with stirrups in the zones of high stress, creating a diagrid with 40 percent openness. Inside the 398,655-square-foot tower, occupants are protected from the high heat and gusts of sandy wind, while they still have expansive views out. In some respects the design could provide an influential prototype for other desert buildings. It comes as no surprise that the sculptural solution was expensive to build.

Fig. 3-16: Longitudinal section of the tower

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Chapter 3

0-14 Tower

3.7.

THE CONCRETE SHELL

The concrete shell is forty centimeters thick. The shell is not only the structure of the building, it acts as a sunscreen open to light, air, and views. The 1300 openings on the shell modulate depending on structural requirements, views, sun exposure, and luminosity. The pattern is not based upon the program of the interior, since the program is not fixed. The openings are achieved by introducing computer numerically cut polystyrene void forms into the rebar matrix, and sided with modular steel slip forms prior to the concrete pour. Super-liquid concrete is then cast around this fine meshwork of reinforcement and void forms. The procedure is relatively labour intensive. However, the result is quite satisfying. The holes are sharp and the edges good. The concrete pour offered its own challenges since the subcontractors ignored the architects' 3-D modeling of the formwork for the holes. Their own methods turned out to be OK, says Reiser, but some deformation of the foam forms in the holes at the bottom required wrapping them with melamine laminate.

Fig. 3-17: Formwork for concrete shell

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Chapter 3

0-14 Tower

The concrete shell of O14 provides an efficient structural exoskeleton that frees the core from the burden of lateral forces and creates highly efficient, column-free open spaces in the buildings interior. The future tenants can arrange the flexible floor space according to their individual needs.

Fig. 3-18: Facade pattern

Fig. 3-19: South facade

Fig. 3-20: West facade

The shell is not only the structure of the building, it acts as a sunscreen open to light, air, and views. The openings on the shell modulate depending on structural requirements, views, sun exposure, and luminosity.

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Chapter 3

0-14 Tower

The overall pattern is not in response to a fixed program, (which in the tower typology is inherently variable), rather the pattern in its modulation of solid and void will affect the arrangement of whatever program comes to occupy the floor plates. A space nearly one meter deep between the shell and the main enclosure creates a so-called chimney effect, a phenomenon whereby hot air has room to rise and effectively cools the surface of the glass windows behind the perforated shell. This passive solar technique essentially contributes to a natural component to the cooling system for O14, thus reducing energy consumption and costs, just one of many innovative aspects of the buildings design. The holes are achieved by introducing computer numerically cut polystyrene void forms into the rebar matrix, and sided with modular steel slip forms prior to the concrete pour. Super-liquid concrete is then cast around this fine meshwork of reinforcement and void forms resulting in an elegant perforated exterior shell.

Fig. 3-21: Facade layers

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Chapter 3

0-14 Tower

3.8.

DESIGNERS OF THE TOWER


Jesse Reiser Nanako Umemoto Jesse Reiser and Nanako Umemoto have practiced in New York City as Reiser + Umemoto, RUR Architecture P.C. since 1986. Jesse Reiser is currently an Associate Professor of Architecture at Princeton University. Nanako Umemoto is currently a Visiting Professor at the University of Pennsylvania and leads a yearly design workshop at Hong Kong University. Reiser + Umemoto, RUR Architecture P.C., an internationally recognized architectural firm, has built projects at a wide range of scales: from furniture design, to residential and commercial structures, up to the scale of landscape design and infrastructure. The firm approaches each project as the continuation of an ongoing inquiry, delving into relationships among architecture, territory and systems of distribution. By working on projects of varying scales, from the architectural to the regional, the firm has developed flexible strategies and techniques that seek to open structures that are now ossified and to integrate domains.

Jesse Reiser received his Bachelor of Architecture degree from the Cooper Union in New York and completed his Masters of Architecture at the Cranbrook Academy of Art, and in 1985, was appointed as a fellow of the American Academy in Rome. Architect and Landscape Architect Nanako Umemoto graduated from Cooper Union following her studies at the School of Urban Design at the Osaka University of Art. In addition to teaching together at Columbia University, they have individually taught and lectured at various educational and cultural institutions throughout the United States, Europe and Asia, and their work has been widely published and exhibited for over 20 years. The firm was awarded the Chrysler Award for Excellence in Design in 1999, the Academy Award in Architecture by the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 2000, and in May 2008, Jesse Reiser and Nanako Umemoto were awarded the Presidential Citation from President George Campbell of the Cooper Union for outstanding practical and theoretical contributions to the field of Architecture.

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Sources
http://www.archrecord.construction.com

http://www.desmena.com

http://www.archdaily.com

http://www.skyscrapercity.com

http://www.bengalsfan1220.wordpress.com

http://www.wikimapia.org

http://www.building.co.uk

http://www.bahrainidiva.blogspot.com

http://www.pinterest.com

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