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599

The control of isolated power systems with wind generation


Cristian Cristea, IEEE Student Member, Joo Peas Lopes, IEEE Senior Member, Mircea Eremia, IEEE Senior Member, Lucian Toma, IEEE Student Member

Abstract The present work investigates the dynamic behaviour of a mixed system consisting of a wind farm and a diesel group supplying a load, under different disturbances. In this regard, dynamic models and control systems that enable the generation part to support the grid are needed. The objective of this work has been also the implementation of the diesel group model and its afferent control system into Matlab-Simulink and to demonstrate their use by evaluating the response in time of the electric parameters.
Index Terms wind generators, diesel engine, system

reactive support. Power fluctuation problems are experienced when the wind generator system uses an induction generator for energy conversion. This problem could be due also to the reactive power drawn by these induction generators from the power system, when appropriate reactive sources are not incorporated within the wind system. Power quality and reliability are also some of the major concerns in a winddiesel hybrid system. II. MODEL DESCRIPTION The dynamic analysis of a wind-diesel hybrid system has been performed in this paper to study the effect of some disturbances such as random wind variation and network disturbances such as short-circuits. Voltage and power fluctuations resulting from random wind velocity and shortcircuits can be a problem for the power system. Remote area power supplies are characterized by low inertia, low damping and poor reactive power support. McGowan [8] developed a dynamic model for a no-storage wind-diesel system and validated its components by comparing the simulation results with experimental data. Uhlen et al. [9, 10] implemented and compared two robust controllers of a Norwegian wind-diesel prototype system. Papathanassiou and Papadopoulos [11] studied the dynamics of a small autonomous wind-diesel system using simplified models and classic control theory techniques.

stability

ustainable development and environment conservation is the reasonability of every human being and therefore common actions should be taken to limit the greenhouse effect gases exhausted by the fossil fuelled power plants. In this support the engineers have to develop technologies to exploit, as efficiently as possible, clean energy sources. The technology with the greatest impact in this area is the wind power production. However, their operation is a great challenge for the responsible operators of the power systems since they could introduce several frequency and voltage perturbations into the system due to the random variation of the wind, which lead to variations of the output power. The wind-diesel system is one of the most appropriate hybrid systems utilized in weak or isolated power systems. A wind-diesel system is very reliable because the diesel group acts to correct the power imbalances due to variations in wind speed, by always providing appropriate amount of active power equal to load power minus the output power of the wind farm. The control of the voltage and frequency of a weak autonomous wind-diesel system is more challenging than in large grids [7]. Wind-diesel hybrid systems are generally used for remote power supply. These systems are often classed as weak grid systems as they have limited
Cristian Cristea, Mircea Eremia and Lucian Toma are with University Politehnica of Bucharest, Power Engineering Faculty, 313 Spl. Independenei, 060042 Bucharest, Romania (phone: +40720008956; fax: +40214029446; e-mail: cristea_virgil@yahoo.com). Joo Peas Lopes is with University of Porto, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering; (e-mail: jpl@feup.pt).

I. INTRODUCTION

Wind Farm
Wind Turbine Induction Generator Bus bar 20 kV
Transformer 2.4kV/20kV

Diesel Group
Diesel Engine

IG
Transformer 690V/20kV

SG
Synchronous Generator

IG

IG

Load
Fig. 1. Wind -diesel power system.

To simulate an isolated power system we consider a wind farm consisting of three wind generators and a diesel group to

599 maintain the frequency at constant value, which supply a consumption area (Fig. 1). Normal operation and response to a short-circuit are analyzed. A. Diesel Group The diesel engine model gives a description of the fuel consumption rate as a function of speed and mechanical power at the output of the engine. The diesel engine is usually modelled by a simple first order model relating the fuel consumption (fuel rack position) to the engine mechanical power. Notice that the transfer function of a reciprocating engine involves a small but significant time delay associated with the mean time between firing [5]. The efficiency of the combustion is the ratio of the effective horsepower developed by the engine and available on its crankshaft to the heat consumed during the same time, that is [4]:
= zWi v &' mB H u
TDm = PDm V = H pk = C2 pk mTb KTb

(6)

The combustion efficiency of the engine depends on the combustion quality as it has been mentioned before. Since detailed representation of the fuel combustion model is not the scope of this paper, the combustion efficiency is represented m as a function of the air-fuel ratio L as follows: mB

= f L m

(7)

(1)

Incomplete combustion is the main reason for which the indicated efficiency is lower than the ideal efficiency. The mean effective pressure pi of the engine is defined as [4]:
pi = Wi Vh

m Analytic expressions of f L for a specific engine can m B be found in [12]. At normal operation of the engine will be considered constant during simulations. The block diagram of the diesel engine derived using the above considerations is presented in Figure 2. Typical values for the parameters of the model can be found in [12]. Figure 2 illustrates the block diagram of the diesel engine together with its governor. This model was implemented in Simulink and was attached to an existing model of a synchrounous machine (6).
max TDm

(2)
& mB

TDe

By solving (1) with respect to Wi and substituting into (2) we get:


H &' &' pi = u mB = C1m B zVh v

s 1

C1

C2
min TDm

TDm

1 2sH + D

(3)

Engine
1 R

C3

where C is the appropriate proportionality constant. Note that for normal or stable power system operation v is almost constant and its value is imposed in order to keep the system frequency constant at 50 Hz. The mean pressure of mechanical losses is taken in a first approximation proportional to the mean piston speed U d , p f U d , where U d = 2Sf m since the piston travels a distance of twice the stroke per revolution. Thus, p f can be generally written as p f = C3 ( = 2 pf m ) valid for any engine with appropriate constant C. The real mean effective pressure pk of the engine must be:
p k = pi p f

K2 1 + s 2

Pc

K1 s

+ ref 0

Governor
Fig. 2. Diesel group control system.

(4)

B. Wind turbine The wind turbine model is based on the steady-state power characteristics of the turbine. The stiffness of the drive train is infinite and the friction factor and the inertia of the turbine must be combined with those of the generator coupled to the turbine. The output power of the turbine is given by the following equation:
Pm = c p ( , )

The real mechanical power PDm of the diesel engine is given by the equation:
PDm = zVh vpk = VH vpk = VH m pk K

A
2

3 v wind

(8)

(5)

The mechanical torque of the engine is given by the following relation, in the p.u.:

The mechanical power Pm as a function of generator speed, for different wind speeds and for blade pitch angle = 0 , is illustrated in figure 3. This figure is obtained with the default parameters (base wind speed = 12 m/s, maximum power at base wind speed = 0.73 p.u. ( k p = 0.73) and base rotational speed = 1.2 p.u.).

599 III. MODELING IN SIMULINK

The diesel group has an important role in this work since its responsibility is to regulate the frequency in the system. The components of the block diagram of the diesel group implemented in Simulink are shown in Figure 6. The diesel group consists of three major components: the synchronous generator, the diesel engine together with the governor and the automatic voltage regulator (AVR). The models of the synchronous machine and the automatic voltage regulator (exciter) used in this work has been chosen from the preset models available in SimPowerSystems library. These models are in accordance with IEEE recommendations.

Fig. 3 Turbine power characteristics.

Figure 4 presents the structure of the wind turbine and the induction generator. The stator winding of the wind generator is connected directly to the grid and the rotor is driven by the wind turbine. The wind energy is converted by the wind turbine into electrical power with the help of the induction generator and is transmitted to the grid through the stator winding. The pitch angle is controlled in order to limit the generator output power to its nominal value for high wind speeds. The reactive power absorbed by the induction generator is provided by the grid or by some devices like capacitor banks.

Fig. 6. The Simulink model of the diesel group.

Asynchronous generators are frequently used to convert the mechanical force into electrical energy. The implementation in Simulink/Matlab of the induction generator and wind turbine with the pitch control can be seen in Figure 7.

Fig. 4. Structure of wind turbine with induction generator.

The electrical part of the machine is represented by a fourth-order state-space model and the mechanical part by a second-order system. All electrical variables and parameters are referred to the stator. All stator and rotor quantities are in the arbitrary two-axis reference frame (dq frame). A Proportional-Integral (PI) controller (Fig. 5) is used to control the blade pitch angle in order to limit the electric output power to the nominal mechanical power. The pitch angle is kept constant at zero degree when the measured electric output power is under its nominal value. When it increases above its nominal value the PI controller increases the pitch angle to bring back the measured power to its nominal value.
Pitch angle max.

Fig. 7. Implementation of the induction generator and wind turbine.

Pel +
-

Pitch angle Controller (PI)

Pitch angle

Pmec

0
Fig. 8. Representation in Simulink of the power system.

Fig. 5 Pitch angle controller

599 The input of the wind turbine and controller block are the wind speed (m/s) and the speed (p.u.), while the outputs are the mechanical power (p.u.) and the pitch angle (degrees). IV. RESULTS As mentioned before, the isolated system consists of a wind farm, a diesel generator and a load. The wind farm consists of three wind generators. They are connected to a common 20 kV busbar via a step-up transformer boosting the voltage from 690 V. A diesel generator is connected to same 20 kV busbar, through a 2.4kV/20kV, to correct the variations in wind power generation. The diesel generator is provided with speed and voltage control capabilities. The diesel group has an installed power of 15 MW, the load is 7 MW and the wind generators are of 1.5 MW each. Two disturbances are considered is our first scenario. After 30 seconds from the starting of simulations, the connection of a new wind turbine is considered, then after another 40 seconds, time in which all parameters stabilizes, a symmetrical three-phase-to-ground fault occurs at one of the three wind turbine.
1.25

4 Figure 9 shows the active power produced by the wind farm, the mechanical power of the diesel group and the system frequency, and Figure 10 presents the bus voltage on the 20 kV busbar, the reactive power drawn by the wind farm and the field voltage of diesel group, al in the case of the above mentioned disturbances.
1.4 1.2

Bus voltage [p.u.]

0.8

0.6

a.

0.4

0.2

10

20

30

40 50 Time (s)

60

70

80

90

2.1 1.8

Reactive power [p.u.]

1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 0.3 0

b.

Active power [p.u.]

0.75

0.5

0.25

a.
6

10

20

30

40

50 Time (s)

60

70

80

90

-0.25

5
-0.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (s) 60 70 80 90

Field voltage [p.u.]

0.8 0.7

c.

Mechanical Power [p.u.]

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

b.

10

20

30

40 50 Time (s)

60

70

80

90

Fig. 10. Voltage related parameters.


0.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Time (s) 60 70 80 90

1.04 1.03 1.02

Frequency [p.u.]

1.01 1 0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95

c.

10

20

30

40 50 Time (s)

60

70

80

90

Fig. 9. Frequency related parameters.

As it can be seen, when some disturbances occurs into the system such as connection of additional wind generator or occurrence of a short circuit, the wind generator satisfy the load voltage ride through capability requirements. High currents are flowing during a voltage drop. Due to the high thermal capacity of the induction machine it can be expected that these currents will cause no problem. More problematic might be the high amount of reactive power required by the turbine during voltage disturbances. When the dip lasts to long this may lead to voltage collapse for the wind generator and therefore it will be disconnected from the network. In the second scenario a short-circuit on the 20 kV busbar occurring after 60 seconds from the start of simulation is considered. The simulation lasts for 120 seconds. The active and reactive power is considered for entire wind farm.

599
1.6 1.4 1.2

5 V. CONCLUSIONS A diesel group dynamic model and a wind farm have been implemented based on individual mathematical models. The models used to simulate the wind farm include aerodynamic aspects and mechanical details of the turbines, the electrical system of the turbine, the cable connections inside the farm and the connection to the transformer. These models present a powerful tool for the investigation of wind farm dynamics and for the development of wind farm controllers. These models developed in Simulink are flexible since they can be easily connected one to another forming an equivalent electrical network including electrical machines and other components, allowing the steady-state and dynamic analysis of the power system, which is the purpose of the presented methodology. The wind farm models can be used to develop wind farm control, investigate dynamic interaction within the farm and between the wind farm and the diesel group as well as to study the wind farm in response to wind speed increase/decrease and systems faults. Dynamic models of wind farms based on individual turbines are large and complicated. The number of state variables is high and some of the time constants are small, leading to a relatively long simulation time. When incorporating the dynamic models of wind farms in large electric grids, the complexity of the wind farm models has to be reduced. Aggregated wind farm models, in which all turbines are represented by equivalent models, are more suitable for this purpose. However, aggregated models of the wind farms based on individual turbines are less accurate and therefore less applicable. MATLAB/Simulink appears to be less suitable for very large models with many (thousand or more) state variables. Computation of the steady state becomes high time consuming and the simulation time for normal runs increases more than proportional. The malleability of the developed platform was confirmed though the analysis of sudden loss of power generated by renewable sources (wind power) as well as in scenarios where the diesel group is no longer alone in the task of maintaining the system frequency control. VI. NOMENCLATURE

Active power [p.u.]

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (s) 80 90 100 110 120

a.

1.02 1.01 1

Frequency [p.u.]

0.99 0.98 0.97 0.96 0.95 0.94

b.

20

40

60 Time (s)

80

100

120

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

Mechanical Power [p.u.]

c.

20

40

60 Time (s)

80

100

120

1.1 1

Bus voltage [p.u.]

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

d.

20

40

60 Time (s)

80

100

120

2.5

Hu z v
e.
Wi

diesel engine efficiency of the combustion; diesel engine heat value of the fuel (kJ / kg); number of cylinders of the Diesel engine (operating during a combustion cycle); diesel engine stroke cycles per second [ = m /( K ) ] where: K=2 for two-stroke engine or K=4 for a fourstroke engine; diesel engine means effective work (developed by one piston during a combustion cycle) (kWh); diesel engine consumption rate (kg/sec); diesel engine one stroke volume [ = D 2 S / 4 where D: cylinder diameter, S: stroke] (m3);

Reactive power [p.u.]

1.5

0.5

20

30

40

50

60 70 Time (s)

80

90

100

110

120

& mB Vh -

Fig. 11. Response in the case of the second scenario.

599
m VH

Tb Pm cp -

diesel engine speed (rad/sec); diesel engine total stroke volume [ = zV h ] (m3); base toque for the per-unit transformation; mechanical output power of the turbine (W); performance coefficient of the turbine; air density (kg/m3); turbine swept area (m2); tip speed ratio of the rotor blade tip speed to wind speed; blade pitch angle (deg);

Mircea Eremia (M98, SM02) received the B.S. and Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the Polytechnic Institute of Bucharest in 1968 and 1977 respectively. He is currently Professor at the Electric Power Engineering Department from University Politehnica of Bucharest. His area of research includes transmission and distribution of electrical energy, power system stability and FACTS applications in power systems. Lucian Toma (MS04) was born in Romania in 1977. He received the engineer degree and M.S. in power systems from University Politehnica of Bucharest in 2002 and 2003, respectively. He is currently pursuing his Ph.D. degree in power systems. Mr. Toma is employed as assistant professor Electric Power Engineering Department from University Politehnica of Bucharest. Since 2002 he has been with the where he is now. His main fields of interests are electricity markets, transmission and distribution of electrical energy and FACTS applications in power systems.

v wind - wind speed (m/s);

VII. REFERENCES
J. Peas Lopes, Integration of Dispersed Generation on Distribution NetworksImpact Studies, Proc. of the IEEE Winter Meeting, N.Y., February 2002. [2] P. Ledesma, Dynamic Analysis of Power Systems with Wind Generation, Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, 2001. [3] J. G. Slootweg, S. W. H. de Haan, H. Polinder and W. L. Kling, Modelling Wind Turbine in Power System Dynamics Simulations, 2001 IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, July 15-19, 2001. [4] G.S. Stavrakakis and G.N. Kariniotakis, A General Simulation Algorithm for the Accurate Assessment of Isolated Diesel Wind Turbine Systems Interaction. Part I: A General Multimachine Power System Model, IEEE Transaction on Energy Conversion, vol. 10, pp. 577-583, 1995 [5] S. Roy, O.P. Malik. G.S. Hope. "An adaptive control scheme for speed control of Diesel driven power plants". IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, vol. 6. no. 4. December 1991. [6] V. Akhmatov, Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Electric Power System with Large Amount of Wind Power, PhD Thesis, April 2003. [7] F. Jurado, J. Saez, Neuro-fuzzy control in biomass-based wind-diesel power system, 14th PSCC Sevilla, 24 28 June 2002. [8] J. G. McGowan, W.Q. Jeffries and J. F. Manwell, Development of Dynamic Models for no Storage Wind-Diesel Systems, Proceedings of the 17th British Wind Energy Association Conference, UK, pp 111-116, July 1995 [9] K. Uhlen, B. A. Foss and O. B. Gjosaerter, Robust Control and Analysis of a Wind-Diesel Hybrid Power Plant, IEEE Trans. Energy Conversion, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1994, pp 701-708 [10] K. Uhlen, Modeling and robust control of autonomous hybrid power systems, Ph.D. thesis, The University of Trondheim, 1994. [11] S. A. Papathanassiou and M.P. Papadopoulos, dynamic characteristics of autonomous wind diesel systems, Renewable Energy, vol. 23, no. 2, 2001, pp 293-311. [12] V. L Maleev, Internal Combustion Engines, McGraw Hill (19th edition), 1985. Cristian Cristea (MS06) was born in Videle, Romania, in 1982. He received the B.Sc (Hons.) degree in electrical engineering from the University Politehnicaof Bucharest in 2006. He is currently pursuing his Ph.D. degree in power systems. His research interests include renewable energy, with particular focus on wind energy, and application of FACTS devices in power systems. J. A. Peas Lopes (M80SM94) received the Electrical Engineering degree (five-year course), the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering, and the Aggregation degree from the University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, in 1981, 1988, and 1996, respectively. He is an Associate Professor of aggregation with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto. In 1989, he joined the staff of Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto (INESC) as a Senior Researcher, and he is presently Co-coordinator of the Power Systems Unit of INESC. [1]