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Ucp;ir~menioi Sirrre Puhlicaticn 9661 OHicc o rhc Scsrclrrr! o f S ~ a i c f Amba\:~dor.al-l.;irgefor C o u n ~ c r - T c r r o ; ~ > n ~

Patterns of:Glob81 Terrorism:il987

Introduction'
Over the past:/decabe,,thepro131&m'of teirori'sm tias becoine truly gfobai. No reglon. no country; no peo;lle are'unkff&tCd or 'ccjrnp!elely rinniijne has fro&terror ist.jvlol&n'ce..As public'ou$ag6 +e[ ter;brrsm ha.5 giow": the politjCal w;ll.to fight.it.-The ~ ~ . ~ o v e r i i mhas tplayed a key role in. en prowdmg a vigo;ous mtehationat response to madern' terrorism.

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US Counterterrorism Policy

The US Government has deve!oped acom6rehensive strategy to respond to the problem of international ierrorisrn; The-f~rst element of our counteiteirofism strategy is firmhe& to$aid:terrorrsls, hlakrng concespa'jjng !ansp.m jieleasing~convrcted teriorrsts silns'of any qaiu&wh$+r frbm prison: 6r cganging o w p 6 ! ~ ~ 1 e ~ t ' o a ~ c d m m o d a t ~ . de teryo!rst o n ~ ~ ~ e n & u r ~ e S ~ , im o r $ i s m ~ . d we >igorbusly.e<co"ra.ge ~ndr an countrres to b$ firm with ter!orists, for a solrd i6rernatronal front to overall sucdess..
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The second element of our strategy IS to make state sponscrs of terrorism pay a @ice for the~r actions. This policy was most graphlcslly demobi strated by the April 1986 bombrng raids on te:rorrst support facll~hes r ~ Lrbya. Bur there !s also a range of peaceful measures that can be crafted l o discoura~6states from p'erslsting in their support of ierrorisrn. These Incluae polltical, diplomatic. and economrc measures. pLb~rc diplama'cy. and sanctrons. on. Thrrd, the US Government has.developed a proGam of act~on,based bractlch m'e&res. rh&e,are designed to biing t'eir?~ists j u s ~ c e r i o !o qlsrupt their operatioris, and to de~t'ioy the~r.'netwo;ksj Ttiey ~"clude. , aggressive me,asufes, working &1h Our friends' and allies. to identrfy. rack. apprehend. p!osecute, and punrsh terrorjsts. ~ h & also lnclude measures designed to fiotect our citizensabroad tjy strengthening securq, and re. . search.to deve1op;equprnent to prevent leirorist incidents. .. . .

The final element of our counterteirorrsm polcy 1 the Department y! s Staie's A'nti-Terrorrsm Training Ass~stance Program (ATA) which gives training rn'antiteyorism techniques10 la~enforcement ofticials'arouqd t3e co,rnmrtm&t to humdn rights, ATA , world; G'i'"en o& country's'srron~ b:omotes,a t~~rqugh.und,ersiandingdf importancq of human rlghrs in ttje

all aspects of law enforcement. More than 6.000 pollce and security have participated in l h ~ s program personnel Irom more than 50 countr~es since its incept~on. This strategy has made possible a number of successes. Indiv~duaily they are modest. but collectively they do suggest that in some areas weare gaining ground. The margins between success and failure are thin: they depend greatly on the diligence and persistence of the individuals here and in friendly governments charged with responsibility for intelligence collection, law enforcement, and diplomatic efforts directed against terrorism.

Legislative Requirements
This report is subm~tled complrance wrth Sect~on in 140 of the Foreign Relations Authorizatfon Act. F~scal Years 1988- 1989 [ P L. 100-2041. which requires the Deparrrnent of State to provide Congress a full and complete anr~ual report on terror~sm those countries and groups meeting the crifor teria of Section (a) (1) and (2) o! the Act. As required by legislation. the report lncludes detaded assessments of forelgn countries where sign~licanl terrorisr acts occurred. and countries about whrch Congress was notified during the preceding five years pursuant to Section 6 [ j ] of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (the so-called "!errorrsm list" countries that have repeatedly prov:ded support for in1erna:ional terrorr-rn) . In add~t~on. report includes all relevant the ~nforniation about the prevrous year', act~vities terrorist groups. or of umbrella groups under which such terrorist groups fall, known to be responsible for the kidnaping or death of any Amencan citizen dur~ng the precedmg five years. and groups known to be financed by "terrorism list" countries, plus any olher international terrorisr groups that the Secretary of State determines should be Included in thfs report. No one definit~on terror~sm gamed universal acceptance. For the of has purposes of this report, however. we have chosen the definition comrno!;ly used by the US Government for the past 20 years. wnich also is w~de!y accepted and one whrch we have used in previous reports.

Accordingly, "terrorism" is premeditated, pol~tically motivated vtolence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine state agents, usually intended to influence an audience. "International terrorism" is terrorism involving the citizens or territory of more than one country. Adverse mention in this report of individual members of any political. social, ethnic, religious, or national grcup is not meant to imply that all members of that group are terrorists. Indeed, lerrorists represent a small minority of dedcated, often fanatical. individuals in most such groups. It is thal small group-and their actions-that IS the subject of this report.

L . Paul Sremer Ill Ambassador-at-Large for Coun!er-Terrorism

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Contents

inlroduct~on
The Year In Review

Ill

Reglonal Assessmenls The M~ddle Easl I.attn Amerca Europe and North Amerlca Asra Sub-Saharan Afrtca State-Sponsored Terrorism

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6

12
16

27
30

33
41

Worldwide Overv~ew Organizat~ons ol Thal Engage rn Tertorts~n

Appendixes
A

Chronology of Major Tecror~sr Events. 1987 In1e:nalronai Terror~stIncidenrs. 1987

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71

vii

By Region

I1

.-

By Type of Facility

Olher 51 3

By Type of Event
Perccn!

07
Olher

0 1

viii

Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1987

The Year in Review


The level oflnternatlonal terrorlst ectlvlty worldwlde i n 7987 rose by more than ?percent over 1986, or 832 lncldents compared with 774. Thls increase resulted lrom a wave of h~gh-casualty bombmgs In Pak~stan carrted u! by agents of the Sowel-trained and -organt?edAfghan ~nlell~gence servlce krtown as WAD The campalgn 1 s des~gned deter the Government ol Pak~stan to from atdtng reslslance f~ghters Alghantsian When the Paiclslant In numbers are sublractec. the number of tnc~dents Ihe fesl 1 1 of the world decltned bf almost 13 percenl from the 1986 stal~stlcs

Events In Leban~n-such as the camp wars and lhe Syr~an m~lttary move ~ n ! o Belrul early ,n the yeardtuertea the attention and resources of tnternar~onal 1e:rortst groups operal.ig tn and out ol Lebanon. !hus :~mtttng thelr abllily l o carry oul attacks overseas Nevertheless, the potenllal for terrorlst actlvlty remslns hlgh. Several po'tltcal develoomenls are capable of generating new outbreaks of terror vtolence ~r Gaza :he Slr~p and the Wesl Bank. Ihe Iran-Iraqwar. :he US rnllltary presence o the Pe!sran Gull: Iran's amb~l~onsexporl 11s n to Islamic revnlutton. Ihe groundswell o f lslarntc fundamenlalIsm lhroughoul the M~ddle East. an uncer:dir luture for Afghan~stan loilow!flg the Sovtel withdra.wal. Ihe acparerit :esurgence of the Jzoanese Red Army. and corlllnutny tnsurgenc:es In couo1r:es such as Peru. Colomb~a. and !he Fh*lqppmes,whe~e urban lerrornrn IS tncreasrngly u s ~ as a d rerolutlonary mstrument

Tho absence of terrorlst "spociaculsrs" perpetrated by Mlddle Eestern groups was elso noteworthy In 1987. Several faclors contr~buted.
Phys~cal securtly a! polenr~al oflic~al and nonclltctal targets around the world, especlaliy In Euru(x and It,e Middle East. helped frusfrale 1e:rorisr plann~ng

The 832 Internelionel lerroilst lncldents we recorded In 1967 resulted In 633 persons killed and 2.272 wounded, lncludlng casualties to terrorlsts themEnhanced coun!erlerror~st cooperalton beiween LYesier? selves. Terrcrlsrn Irr !he Middle E i m d 11ssp~!lover inlo natlotis and others kept terror~sts balance Many more V4estern Europe accoun!ed !or a major part ol ;ne :oral oll casualt~es295 krllec!anc 7 7 3 wcundeo lhnse numbers tnternai~onal terror~sis from the M!ddle Easl are In prtscn are oo:m suDslanrtally from !he 450 kilied and 1.125 In the West than In previous years wounL:ed :n 1986 Because ol evenls In Paktstan. the casuaily hgures lor Asia tncreased slgnthcantly, .rr~th 240 Well-publicdzedrevelallons ol I!; complic,!y in sponsomg corqparec .v,tn 104 and 450. terrorism, combmed with a badly belertorartny econon~y. kdled ana 1.720 r~oundec. respecrwely. 4 :986 n compelled Syr~a dtmmsh 11ssupporl for tnternai~otlal to lerrorlst groups to reslore 11sInlernartonal Image and The Unlted States ramslned a malor target for attract new financtal cred~t. .June. for Inslance. Syr~a In 0ubted Ihe Abu Nidal organtza1:on headquarters from lnternatlonal terrorlsts, desplte the decllne In the Damascus, temporardy dtsrupttng tls actlvi!tes Reflect~ng number of en!/-USIncldenls from 204 In 7966 lo 149 In ~nlernal~onal pressure, only one Instance o! Syr~an1987. U S c a s ~ a l l y l~gures also orcppea lrom 12 k11li.farid supporled inlernahonal wrorlsm occufred ~n1987 '00v:ounded tn 1986 !o seven x~!leband 47 .t,cr;nceo In 1987 Some d7 percent ol antr-US mc~cen!s[oak place In L~bya mamlalned the caulloo '1 exercised In 1986 Lalin Arrm~ca(55 percent rn 1986). 24 pe:cent lo Wesiern following US atr raids and other US and European pressure

1980-87 by Region

1980-87 by Type of Facility

International Terrorist Incidents Over Tima (Continued)


II

1980-87 by Type of Event

Europe (23 percent tn 1986). 16 percent in Asia (7 percent in 1986) , 9 percent rn the Middle East ( 10 percent In 1986). and 4 percent in Africa (5 percent in 1986). These numbers do not represenl any dramatic fluctuation geographically. The United States undoubtedly will remain a prlme target, and we tear that the incidence of anti-US attacks may increase a terrorist groups adjust to newly : lnstrtuted counterlerrorisl measures. .
Regional statistics show that the Mlddle East agein had the hlghest Incidence, Incurring 371 attacks, or 45percent of the total worldwide. When Middle Eastern sp~llovetattacks in Western Euro-e are added. Middle Eastern-inspired terrorist events rise lo 50 percent, down only slightly from the '985 aad 1986 !otals. Asia took second plece. with 170 incidents. or 20 percent; Western Europe slayed in third. with 152 incidents, or 18 percent: and Latin America, w ~ i h incidents, or 13 percenl, was 108 relegated to the fourth position. Africa, as in the pasi. remained a di:!d~l fifth, with 30 incidents, or 4 percent. Also recorded s one incident in Eastern Europe. The citlzens and property ot 84 natlons were sttacked by Internetlona) terrorists In a total ot 75 countries. As in previous years, terrorists carried out most of their attacks-75 percent of the tctal worldwideagainst businesses. touristc., and other nonofticial, and frequently unprotecled, targets. Attacks against government. diploma;ic, and military targets decreased slghtly from 27 perce8lt of the total in 1986 to 25 percent in 1987. The number ol attacks by type r e r l ~ d llltle In compcrlson wIth the previous year. Bombing attacks remalned the prfferred means (57 percent of the total). Arson came nex; (18 percent). followed by armed attacks ( 16 percent) . Ktdnapings remained at 6 percent; over halt of them (30 01 53 ~ncidents)occurred in the Middle East. as they did In 1986 (29 0151 incrdents) . We detected no signs that terrorists were using new technology In their operattons. State support for internatlonel terrorlsm persisted. Counfrles that sponsor terrorism try to hido their involvement through use of proxles and other means. Incidents that we are able :o attrtbute to state sponsors hi^ rose from 70 attacks in 1986 to 189 in 1987. an upsurge of more than 170 percent As In other

The U N General Assembly (UNGA J debates a resolufton on terrorism evely alternare year The United States strongly sunported !he last such resolulron i n 1985, whrch ctearly condemned terrorist methods and d ~ not d create excep1;ons for pol~ticat other motives. For thrs or reason, we opposed a Syrian proposal that the terrorism resolution at the 42nd UNGA in the fall of 7 987 should include a UN conference on the cause of terrorism and the circumstances under which rt m~ght justified. be The US goal was lo obtain a reaffirmation o f lhe UN's 1935 decision to focus on reachrng agreements in the specral!zed agenoes on air and maritme security m which specif~c terrorist actions wou!d b e made criminal. rather than debating motives. Resolulion 42/159 was .eventually adopted on 7 December 1987. without the Syrian proposal. Neverfheless. although much of 11met US appfoval, the Uniled Slates voted against the proposal because it contained language that could b e construed as juslrfying certarn ac:s of tarrorisr,. committed m the name of self-determmat!on. Efforts to combat specific lerronsf actions through the specielized UN agencies resulled in two maior new agreements. As a result 01 work by the lnlernationat Maritime Organizalron (IMO) after ihe Achille Lauro incident in October 1985, an internal~onal convention was signed I- Rome m M a c h 1988 making lerrorist alracks on ships at sea an extrad~table crime. Similarly. eftorts b y the Internatronal Civil Aviation Orgar~izalion (ICAO) following the attacks on Rome and Vienna airports in December 1985 led to the expansion of the Montreal Convention (in February 7988) lo ~ n c l u d e attacks on passengers at airports as well as on b ~ a r r t aircraft.

categories we recorded. the most significant changn occurred in Pakistan, where the level of international lerrorist atlacks sponsored by Afghanistan rose from 23 in 1986 to 127 in 1987-an increase01338 percent. Another important increase was in Irantan-sponsoredterrorism: 44 incidents, representinga 30-percent jump over 1986.

1987 by Type of Victim

I0

20

10

40

50

60

70

10

20

30

40

50

Numher 01 ~ n o d e n l s

Number 01 ~nctdents

1987 by Type of Event

1983-87, Casualties

300 Number of casualt~es

Armed atlack

10

20 30

40

50 60

70 80 90

Number 01 !nc~den!s

Convarsely, we believe that lnlernatlonel terrorism sponsored by the two countrles most subjected lo lnternetlonal pressure, Libya and Syrla, declined slgniflcen tly: Llbyen-sponsored lerrorlsrn dropped from 19 attacks In 1986 to only seven In 1987, and we recorded only one for Syrla In 1987.01 (he 14 recorded stale-sponsored attacks In Western Europe 111 1987. 10 were agalnsl L ~ b y a n Iranian dissidenls, whereas In 1986 or only one 01 11 stale-sponsored attacks was agalnsr a M~ddle Eastern diss~denl-a change i n largels perhaps necessitated by Ihe slronger securily measures ~ m p o s e d by West European governments The venue lor lnternatlona! terrorist attacks ren a l n e d m u c h the same. In both 1986 and 1987 the same 10 counlries were the siles o l 77 percenl 01 the lolal number o l incidents. In order of nurnercal precedeme fo: 1907. f l w y are Israel. Ihe Gaza Str~p, and Ihe West Bank ( 2 4 percenl comb~ned); Pakician (17 percenl). Lebanon (13 percent) : S p a ~ n(6 percenl) : Peru ( 5 percent). France (3 percenl) : Wesl Germany ( 3 percen!) . and Ihe Phtltppines. Colonib's, arid Ch~leleach at 2 percent,!

:n May. an Ilalian appeals courl up'ield t h e sentences o f Ihe Palestme L ~ b e r a t ~ o n Frcnt (PLF) terror~sls convcted In the October I985 Ach~lle Lauro h ~ l a c k ~ n g senand tenced PCF leader Abu Abbas in absenlra to ltfe lmDrsonrnent Also In May, a V~enna o u ~sentenced two Abu N ~ d a l c l organtzalion (ANO) terrorists t o hie trnprlsonmenl lor Ihe Vienna alrporl altack ot December 1985 In July. an llahan covrt senlenced an A N 0 rerrorlst l o a 17year lad term for the Seplemt;er 1985 grenade altack on Ihe Cale de Pans i n Rot r!

In 3cloSer. a Spantsh courl senlenced a self~procla~rned Abu Musa lerrorisl-a radical P~lestin!an group rhal 1s anli-A:a!at and pro-Syr~an-to 67 years' lmprlsonment !cr Ihe a!tempred bombmy o f an El Al a~rhner L l a d r ~ d at atrporl In June 1986 The l r ~ ao! A N 0 lerfor~sls l resporwble for the Seplernoer 1986 hqacking o f ihe Fan A m alrimer In Karachl srarred In November The !r:al o! !he sole w r v w n g terrorcsl lrcm ;he A N 0 allack on the Rome airporl In December I985 slarled In December 1997 In Italy (The accvaed recetued a 30year prison sentence In Febrdary :088 J The case aya.nsl the survwing A N 0 lerrorjsl resporsble lo: Ihe htlacktng of the gyplair a~i!me!in November 1985 may s o m come ro ;:la1 :n Malla. The lull In lerroltsn? by krmentari grcups of both Ihe exl:eme kll and extreme r~ghl. !IW :loled ln 1984. conl~nued 1587 T l ~ e in Marrtst-L ertnlsl Aunen:an Secret Arrny lor the L~beralron Arrnen~a {ASALA). however. of may have been responsole !or a maciwegun attack In Easl B e ~ r on lhree Frencn sold~ers. ~r two of whom were kdled and the other wounded. A telcp3one cailer in Beirut c!amed Cred~l beharl c l ASALA. bu! another aljegec) on spokesman subsequenlly denied :!mi 1% group ivas involved The r g h l w ~ n g Armentan lerror;sl proi;?. :?e Jusi~ce Commandos o! the Armeman Genccde: Armertar. Revclirl~onaryArmy. s:aged nc arlacks in i 9 8 7 We a1rr:Sule Ihs continums qutescence in A!men:an !errcrtsm

Regional Asaeasments The Middle Eaal


The lolal number o l ~ncldenls the M ~ d d l e in Easi has remamed la~rry consranl Over the past lhrec y e a s In 1087 we cfelected a drop In ~nternal~onal terror~sm overspas by radical Paleslrnian groups but lhts decrease was countered by a rtse In atlacks againsl targels In Israei and the occupied Ierr~lOr~es ~ I does no1 mean lhat the 1397 T S i~gures e k c l a permanent trend Indeed lnforrnal~on r sugg?sts lhal rad~cal Paleslinian groups opposed to a n e o ~ t l a t e d o r u : ~o Ihe Arab-Ispaehdlspule may be s l planning renewed lerrorlbt campata7s agalnsl lsraci~moderale Arab, and US '. ,gels worldwde Con:inued legal pressure on lerrorlsrs In Europe during 1987 probably contr~buted !he decl:w 18 to r Mbddle Easr terrortsrn spillover there In February. the head 01 Ihe Lebanese Armed Fievoluticna:y Faclion. Georyes lbrah~m Abdalloh. ivas sentenced tc II~P lrnprtsonmenl In France lo- h ~ Involvement In the s Crplomat In 1982 assawnations of a US and an lsraei~

-4

200

400

600

RG0

1,005

200

Number of c a s u a : ~ r r ~

II

-- _-

I,

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....
4G0

__
"0
864 loo') I 7 0 I~ doc)

209

Nuo,c,,- c, r;tr,,.,,:

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to a Iesgening of Syrian supporl l ~ASALA. eflective r counlefmeasures taken by Turkey and other governments. and perhaps reduced support in the Armenian community lor terrorisl violence. Iran's lnvolvemenl In Middle Eastern larroflsm. tnctuding its support lor the Lebanese Hizballah group. was subslantial in 1987. Its role, logether wkth those of Libya and Syrla. is discussed In the sectton that addresses the problem of state-sponsored lerrorisrn.

a1 year's end. Ahrnad IS wanted lr1 Israel on charges ol murder associated with :hi. 6c.d 1386 firebombtng of a bus en route to Jerusalem.
In March. lite sentences were reduced for lhree Jewlsh settlers conv!cted of murdermg Arabs in the Wesl Bank. In October, a bill was defealed in Parhamen1that would have pardoned seven members of a group called Jewish Underground who had previously been convicted o! terrorIS! crimes against Arabs.

lsrael Israel remained Ihe primary target ol Palestinian terrorists in 1987. Effective lsraelt securily Itmiled terrorist abMy l o conduct a consislent campaign of attacks against lsrael and the occup~ed terr~tories.but several cross-border atlacks were attempted:

Lebenon

Lebanon once zgaiti 5xperienced well over 100tnc~dents ol tnlernationat terrorism. The known perpetrators ranged lrom Iranian-backed Hizballah Shia exlremists-who regularly use kidnaping l o contest the Western presence-to Paleslmian organizalions. The majority ( 6 1 percent) of the atlacks were unclaimed. making tt dilficult l o assess lrends In mtd-April. on the eve of the Palestine Naltonat Cocrnc~l and patterns. The targets included Vtesterners. members ot Lebanese confess~<r groups. Paleslln~ans. meeting In Algters, lerrorists Inked to Fatah staged an : and attack into northern Israel. The group apparently planned Syr~ans. to take Israeli hostages l o be exchanged lor Arab prisoners held in Israel. In a brief fircltght just tnside Ihe The large number of incidents and the tndiscrim~nate nature lsraelt border, three terrorisls and two lsraelt soldiers were of !he 50 bombir,g altacks resulted in 48 persons k~lled ana k~lled 2 18 wounded. For the Wesl. hostage laking rema~ned Ihe most serlous problem: In July, Israeli forces ~nlercepted three terroiisls irt the securtly zone across the northern border. Two 01 the TwoYJesl Germans were abducted In Betruf In January In respoqse to Ihe arresl by the Federal Republic of Ihree were members 01 Saiqa, a Palesllnian group Germany 01 Mohammed Hamadel. an tndcled Htzbaltah controlled by Syrta. lerrorlsr who IS accused of try~ng smuggle ltqutd 1-1 In tale December in an altempt probably designed lo explosives through the Franklurt airport and 01 partcipalmg tn the htlackmg of TWA Fhght a47 in B e w t n June exploil tnlernationat sympalhy created by the Gaza Str~p 1985 and the murder of a US Navy dtver West German and West Bank protests. lhree terrorlsls frorn Abu ofl~c~als belteve Mohammed Hamadel's iamrly. 1nclu01ng Abbas's Paleslme L~beralion Fron' pecefrated lsrael a brother who was also arreslec! In Wesl Germany a n from Jordan The three were captured shorlly after lhe~r incursion. January. viere responsible lor Ihf: kidnapings A French ~ournatlst. Roger Auque. was abducled tn Beirut on 13 January. Terry Watle. the Church ol England envoy who had been closely tnvoi'ed m negottatlng w~rh holders ol the Ihe on Western hostages. was himself k~dnaped 20 January

In response to Palesttn~an acts ol rerrorcsmas well as crossborder ratds, lsrael has developed a highly sophtsttcated countermeasure capabdtty. It also has one oi the most efftc~enl organ~zaltons \he world l o deal volh bombs tn found in popvlaled areas Its secur~ty etlorts al atrports and on atrhnes are extenswe Mahmoud El The extradillon case of naturaltzecl US c~ltzen Abed Ahmad (Atta) remamed pend~ng before US courts

probably were circulated to pressure the governmerlts concerned in Ihe hope of arranging political or economic deals. Olher motives for holding the hostages include to force the release o l Shia terrorists imprisoned outside Lebanon. to exact high ranscjm payments. to inhibit Syrian or other forces from attacking Shia strongholds, or to be used as bargaining chips in Iran's confrontalion with the West. Preoccupied as it is with quesltons o l internal d~sorder, and because of internal weaknesses such as a cabinet boycolt of its President. Lebanon's Government has been unable to undertake any major cwnterterrorism act~ons many lor years. including 1987. From IeH to right: Rev. Jenco. Terry Waile. Davrd Jacobsen. and Rev. Werr. Taken aflcr Jenco. Jacobsen, and Weir had been release@ Terry Warle. !he specla1 envby 01Ihe ArchD ; o 01 Canlerbury. was hrmsell laken hos 1h p rage taler The Lebanese Governmenl IS alsc unable to curb Ihe actions o l a large number of terrorist groups that operate m Lebanon. T a Lebanese people themselves often suffer t greatly f r m terrorcsm and hostage taking. Yizballah, the Abu N~dal organization. ASALA. and many smaller terrorist groups are known to operate more or less freely in the Al Biqa Valley. ~nBelrul's southern suburbs. and in the various Palestinian refugee camps scattered throughout the country

lour professors-three of On 24 January terrorists se~zed whom are US cit~zens-from the Beirut Unwersity College. Amencan journal~st Charles Glass was laken hostage on 17 June tn an operation belfeved ~nst~gated the by Government of lran Glass's k~dnap~ngan area under ~n Syr~an control apparently motwaled Syr~a put pressure to on lran and H~zballahGlass ma:laged to escape although we do not know whether Syr~an efforts played any rote In t h ~ sSyr~an attempts to free other hostages have ev~dently had no effect Terror~sts contmued to hold h e other Americans as well as hostages ol other nat~onal~t~es In 1987 Arnong the Amerrcans are Terry Anderson and Thomas Sutherland. who have been held lor more than three years Although responstbrl~ty some of these krdnaplngs was for etlher unclaimed or concealed. we belleve that all of the extremists assoclatec! hostages are held by Lebanese Sh~a w11hthe H~zballahLater ~nthe year. one South Korean. one West German, and two French hostages were released reported ~nthe press to be as a consequence of p o l ~ t ~ c a l or ftnanc~al concessions False rumors c~rcutaled December In thal other hostages were to be released The srofles

fg m In i987. Egypt w~tnessed terrorlst atlacks lrom rrghtwmg rehg~ous extrem~sts and from a leftwmg Nasserlte group Istamtc fundamental~sts were respons~ble three terrorlst lor attacks ln 1987 against Egypt~an !argets In add~t~on. an unsuccesslul attack was made by three gunmen from a self-procla~med Nasser~te group. Egypt's Revolut~on. agatnst three US Embassy ofllc~als May The gunmen ~n sltghtly wounded two ol the US olf~c~als September. In Egyptran authortt~es carrted out a serles ot arrests thal devastated the organrzatlon Twenty members o l Ihe group have been lndcted so lar
Egypt has a Slrong anttlerrorlsm p o k y and has called tor greater ~nternattonal cooperatloo ~nllghtlng tertorlsm Fgypt~an authorities support the creatlon of a spec~al ~nternalronal frlbunal to handle exlradltron requezts

- Foreign Political Hostages Believed Held in Lebanon in 9987

DatelPlace Kidnaped

Kidnaping Claimad by
Islamc Ahad

Status
Stdl held

1 err y Anderson. :Jri~leCSlales. loulnallst AP Maddle East Bureau C h d


Marcel Fonlamrt. France. d~ploniat M%cel Carton. f rance. d~ptomal Alec Collelt. Uluied Kmgdom. lournaltsl wC>lktny w4h UN Rel~el and 'Works Agency Jean-Paul Kaultnian, France. lot1rnal6t

16 March 1985 L'Jesl Beorur 22 March 1985 West Be~rul

lslam~c J~had Khaybaf Drlgades Is:amz Jghaa Khaybar Brtgades Revoluhonary Organlral!on of Soc,aJ~s! hluslrm Reieased May 1986 Repaled to have been krl!ed I n !986 but lnlorrnal~on is mcwcl~~slve Released May 1988 Sld held

22 March 1985 Wesl Be~rut


26 March I985 Khaldah

27 May I985 West Rearu!


9 June 1965 Wesl Bellul

Tttomas Sulherland UWed Slalcs. educalor. Amrrlcan Unwers~ly Belrul 01 I.4UB)


Alberlo Mol~narl. Itrily. busmessman

11 Seplemtxr 1'365 Wes, Befrul 31 January 1966 VJesr Eelrut 11 Aprrl 1986 West Re~ru!
17 Aprd 1986 West Berrut

Fresurned dead. but evldence no1 conclus~ve Ftghling Revolul+~nary Cells Releawd 31 October 1987

Do Chae-sung. Republtc ot Korea, d~plomal


f311anKeenan. 1:eimd. educalo~. AUB
Johri McCa~lhy. UnsleU Krngdom. TV lournal~sl

Arab Cornmardo Cells Revolul~onaryJustice Organ~rallon(RJO) Ba ~h Cells O(ganeal!or, ar.6 Arab Revclut~onary Ceils

Reoorted hrlleG ou! may be alwe Receased nn i 7 November 1987 Slol held

Jc-an-LOUIS Normandm France. T V lournalrsl Frank Reed. Urr:leo Slates. r.ducator. at!eclor, Lebanese !rilerrial~onal School Joseph C c c ~ p ~ o . Un~:edSlales. Complroller A LIB Fdward Tracy. U~vled Slales. wtller
Rocjar Auque. f rarice. pholo:ournal~sl

8 March 1986 Wesl Be~rut 9 Seplen~ber1986 Wesr Becut

12 September 7966 Wesl Beuul 2 1 October 1986 Wesl Betrul 13 January I987 West Berrul
17 January I987 Wesl Be~rur

RJO Released 5.127 No-ernbe: 1987 Strugglers lor Freedom'Organ~ix~on [he of Oppesseb on Earth St.)! held

Rudoll Cordes. Wesl Gwnany bustm55man Terry Walte. Un~Iea Kmgdom. Cnurch o! Errgland envoy Alfred Schmrai Wesl G e r m a ~ yengmeer ,

20 January 1987
Wesl B e w i

21 January 1987 Wesr Beau1

Strug@ers131 FreedomlOrgan~zatto~ lhe ol Oppressed on Earlh

Foreign PoliticalHostage# Believed Held in Lebanon in 1987 (continued)

- .- - - - - NsmrlNslionalitylProfession
.........

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................. 24 January 1987

--

~ i d n & n ~ ~ l s i r n .by d

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West Beirut
24 January 1987 WE! ......... 24 January 1987

Beirur

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......................
....

West Beirut 24 January 1987 West Beirut 17 June 1987 Wesl Be~rut

Sl~ll held
................................

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Organizalion lor the Defense of Free People

Escaped August 1987

In the aftermath of the 1985 Achille Lauro hijacking. Egypt cosponsored with Italy and Austria a resolution before the International Maritlme Organization caning for a convention dealing wilh terrorist crimes on the high seas. (The treaty was signed in Rome in March 1988. It is the first international convention against acts of terrorism a l sea.) The Egyptians have worked with the United States and other countries to improve their counterterrorism and hostage-rescue capabilities. Kuwait International terrorism in Kuwait rose sharply from only three incidents in 1986 to 17 in 1987. We believe most of these incidents were instigated by Iran as part of its continuing campaign to destabilize moderate Arab regimes in the Persian Gulf region and intimidate them because of their support of Iraq and US naval activities in the Gulf. In January 1987. Shia terrorists claiming to be members of a previously unknown group, the Prophet Mohammed's Forces in Kuwait-Revolutionary Organization. carried out a f series of bombings at Kuwaiti o ~installalions. Their immediate objective appeared to be to force postponement of the Organization of Islamic States summit conference. Additional bombings occurred in April and May. coinciding with the US policy to teflag and escort Kuwaiti oil tankers. In July, two Kuwaiti Shia brothers. apparently trained in sabotage in Iran, blew themselves u p while

atlempting l o bomb the Air France ticket onice. In September. arsonists set a fire at the science facility at Kuwait University. and in the following two months lerrorist bombs exploded at the Pan Am ticket office, the Ministry of the Interior, and an American insurance company. Two major terrorism trials took place before the State Security Court in 1987. In the January trial. one Jordanian defendant was sentenced to death for the July 1985 cafe bombings that had left 10 dead and 80 wounded. Three other defendants tried in absentia were also convicted. In a June trial of 16 Kuwaiti Shias (four in absentia) charged wilh oilfield bomhings in 1986 and early 1987, all but two were convicted. The sentences ranged from two years in prison to the death penalty. The death sentences stemming from the two trials have not been carried out. Despite continuing threats from exlremist lslamic Jihad and Hizballah groups, the Kuwaiti aulhorities remained steadfast in their refusal to release 17 Dawa party members convicted of the 1983 bombings of the US and French Embassies and other silesin which many were killed and injured. In its continuing efforts to upgrade the capabilities of security and law anforcement personnel. the Kuwaiti Government sent police representatives to the United States for antiterrorism training in 1987.

Bahrain In December. Bahraini authorities arrested a pro-Iranian Bahraini Shia who allegedly was planning to bomb a petroleum facility. An antiregime Shia organization, the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain. tried to recru~t and mobilize Bahraini Shias for terrorist4ype activities throughout 1987. but with only limited success.
The regime has countered the growing terrorist threat by improving the quality of training and equipment of its security forces, which has been largely responsible lor the development of an effective counterterrorism apparatus in Bahrain. The relatively small size of the Bahraini population has also contributed to the overall effectiveness of the government's counterterrorism measures.

Tunisians been implicated in that network, but the Iranian Embassy in Tunis, rccording to government authorities, had also recruited and trained Tunisian fundamentalists to engage in terrorist activities. The Tunisian Government has also tightened passport proceduresafter discovering that stolen Tunisian passports had been used in terrorist incidents. The PLO has had its headquarters in Tunis lollowing its USnegotiateddeparlure from Beirut in 1982. Force 17. whose mission is to protect PLO officials. is also reportedly in Tunis and has been linked to anti-Israeli terrorist operations.

Latin America Saudi Arabia The Saudi Arabian Government has worked diligently to prevent terrorism on its territory. In addition lo rigorous border conlrols, it has trained and equipped special security forces.
There were several oilfield fires and explosions in Saudi Arabia during 1987. Although the Iranian-backedHizballah in Lebanon claimed responsibility tor these incidents citing political motlves. Saudi authorities attributed the incidents to electrical and other technical faults. The incideace of international terrorism in Latin America dropped by 32 percent in 1987, down from 159 incidents in 1986 to 108 in 1987. The United States remained a major target. Out of the 108 incidents. 71 were directed against US interests. a figure that represented48 percent of all anti-US attacks throughout the world. Bombings accounled for 70 percent ol lhese attacks: the remainder consisted ol arson, armed attacks. sabotage, and other typesof low-levelviolence. Allhough the atlacks resulted in substantial property damage, they caused no deaths of US citizens and injured only seven. The attacks against foreigners generally were carried out by indiganous insurgent groups seeking to overthrow established regimes. The United States has become a major target because of its substantial economic presence and political influence in Latin America and its symbolic posilion as the engine of capitalism. The United States attracted terrorist attacks even in the religious field. Twenty Mormon churches in the Dominican Republic and Chile were firebombed because of their alleged role in spreading US political and economic influence. As in the past two years, Peru. Colombia, and Chile incurred the greatesl number of internationalterrorist attacks. with 70 of the 108 altacks in Latin America. The year also saw a sharp, if numerically small. increase in atlacks resulting in minor damage in the Dominican Republic. Two minor attacks occurred in El Salvador and four in Honduras: none occurred in Guatemala.

Tunisia Although Tunisia is not normally a venue for incidents of internationalterrorism, three bombing attacks staged there in 1987 were deliberately aimed at foreign tourists. The atlacks, which injured 33 persons including an American. were directed at a tourist bus in July and at four tourist hotels in Sousse and Monastir in August. A number of members of the Islamic Tendency Movement, which has strong fundamenlalist leanings, were arresled and sentecced to prison for the attack. We believe that the bombings were specifically related to fundamentalist unhappiness with some of the policies pursued by President Bourguiba. No incidents have taken place since the November change of government, and the fundamenralist resentment that had fueled the terrorist attacks seems to have abated.
Tunisia broke diplomatic relations with Iran in March. following the dismantling of an Iranian-backedterrorist network by French authorities in Paris. Not only had several

In general, we believe that the decrease in the number of attacks in Latin America against US and other foreign targets may only be temporary and most likely reflects improved security measures by governments and private companies, as well as changes in the tactics of some insurgent groups involved in terrorism.

Chile Like other countries in Latin America. Chile experienced a sharp decline in internationalterrorist attacks during the year. from 28 attacks in 1986 to 15 in 1987. Ten of the attacks were directed at US targets, compared with 23 such incidents in 1986. We believe that the extreme leftisl Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front (FPMR) was the chief instigator of the attacks. The group's actrvitles were mhibited by intensified police and security service pressure that continued throughout 1987. The FPMR remained a potent organization, however. as it demonstratedin September by holdlng a Chilean p o k e colonel hostage for three months before releasinghim in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The FPMR was especially active In the second half of the year, perpetratinga wave of domestic terrorist attacks against polce and military targets.
The attacks against US interests were minor and did not cause serious casualties. They includedone molotov cocktail thrown at the US Consulate in Santiago and eight firebombings of Mormon churches. During 1987, a special military prosecu:or continued investigations into several terrorisl actions that took place the previous year, including the August 1986 discovery of large caches of military arms apparently smuggled from Cuba in support of the FPMR. and the September 1986 assassination attempt on President Pinochet. Although these investigations resulted in the arrests of significanl numbers of people. the investigalions have also been marred by questionable legal procedures on the part of the military prosecutor. Rightwing terrorist groups. such as the Chilean AnliCornmunisl Action Group (AGHA) the Seplember 11 Command. and the Nationalist Combat Front (FNC) operate with apparent impunily. The failure to apprehend any of the members of lhese groups involved in terrorist actions has led to speculation that the actions may be unofficially sanctioned by some officials in the security forces.
In a lypical aftack against USowned inleresls. a branch of Citibank in Lima was bombed by Peruvran lerrorisls In August 1987. No group claimed responsibil~ly /he arlack for

During 1987 the US Government. In a series of diplomalic notes, tlrged the Chilean Government to bring to justice two former high-rankingChrlean Army officers indicted by a US federal grand jury in connection with the Letelier-Moflitt murders committed in Washington. D.C.. in 1976. The Chilean Government refused and the Iwo indicted men remain tree and at large in Chile.

Peru
The decline in international terrorism in Peru-down from 59 attacks in 1986 10 41 in 1987-does not reflect the true level of considerablevidenze there. Certainly the danger to US interests remained high: 23 of the internationalincidents were directed against US diplomatic or business

personnel or facilities. Allhough the number of domestic terrorist incidents in Peru rose only slightly over the 1986 figure. more than 600 people were killed in the violence. Although many internationalterrorist attacks in 1987 went unclaimed. two groups in particular remain of major concern. Sendero Luminoso (SL) expanded its activities into new operaflonalareas during 1987 and, of particular concern to the international community, continued l o build a dedicated infrastructure in Lima to support terrorism While primarily focused on Peruvian targets. SL continued to altack foreign interests. especially transnational corporations, as part of its campaign to attract more publicity to its cause. drive away tourists. discourage foreign investment, and otherwise disrupt the economy. The largely urban-based Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) altnough much smaller than the SL. concentrates its attacks on foreign targets, especially the United States. It generally conducts its attacks on holidays or at night to minimize casualties. This group has received training in Cuba.

Despite considerable domestic terrorism. insurgency, and narcotics-relatedviolence. Colombia saw a major decline in the number of internationalterrorist attacks in 1987- 19 as compared wilh 50 in 1986. Nearly all these attacks were commitled against multinational oil company facililiesmost with US affiliation-by the National Liberation Army (ELN) , one of Colombia's four main insurgent groups. ELN's aim. like that of the Sendero Luminoso in Peru. is to undermine foreign investment and otherwise erode the country's economy. In October. Colombia's main insurgent groups formed a new alliance, the Simon Bolivar Guerrilla Coordinator. under the leadershipof the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. The coalition was established to provide a unified political and guerrilla front and we are concerned that i t might be used to coordinate terrsist attacks against foreign interests. Although in early 1988 the government moved to implement a new antiterrorist law under stateof-siege powers, in 1987 its response was largely reactive and piecemeal. In certain areas, the government had ceded freedom to the guerrillas and for the most part failed to deliver any significant blow against guerrilla or terrorist groups. In June. the Colombian Supreme Court struck down the implementing legislation for the 1979 bilateral extradition treaty wilh the United States. Colombia has received US military as well as antilerrorism training and equipment.

The government has responded to these terrorist threats primarily through enforcement measures. Several importan1 arrests were made, including those ol high-ranking members of MRTA. The authorities were unable l o weaken the SL, however. and it appears to have expanded its area of influence into coca-producingregions as well as other areas. Judicial efforts against terrorism moved slowly. among other reasons because of a large backlog 01 cases pending before the courts. In 1987. fewer than 50 persons were convicted of terrorism. Fifteenpersons accused ol the June 1986 bombing of the CUZCO train station, in which two Americans were killed and several wounded. were being tried at the end of 1987.

Ecuedor The Ecuadorian Government has taken a strong public stand against terrorism and, with US and other foreign assislance. has successfully contained a small urban terrorist group. "Alfaro Vive, Carajo" (AVC) which lirst surfaced in 1983. AVC has received support from Colombia's M-19 and lrom Cuba.

Cdombie The institutionsof the democratic government of Colombia are under altack by four major guerrilla groups, all of which use terrorism and have received training and arms lrom Cuba and aid from Nicaragua and reportedly from Libya. Narcotics traftickers also employ terrorist tactics against anyone who threatens their interests.

Although weakened. the AVC is still capable of violent and coordinated action. The government's counterterrorist capabilities have been strengthened through increasingly sophisticatedpolice techniques and training. During 1987, the government took advantage 01 several US antiterrorism training opportunities.

Panama
Panama's geographical position has made ~ta crossroads for travel and a site for transactions for various terrorist and insurgent groups Much of this activity is lacilitated by the Cuban and Nicaraguan Embassies and the Libyan ?eopleseBureau in Panama. It is mainly transient and is not supported or condoned by the Panamanian Government. Congressional testimony, however, implicated some Panamanian officials, including General Noriega. the chief of the Oanamanian Defense Forces. in the shipment of arms l o such groups as Colombia's M- 19 guerrillas and El Salvador's Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) . The leader of the FMLN's political arm has resided in Panama for a number of years and has carricd oul activities there in support 01 the FMLN. apparently with the acquiescence o l the Panamanian Government.

El Salvador

T ~ Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) L comprised of !we predominantly Marxist-Leninist insurgent groups, continues to employ terror taclics against Salvadorans as part of its overall strategy. The government's response has primarily been through military and police measures.

In October 1987. the goverment enacted a law designed to promote national reconciliation. which provided amnesty to those convicted or charged with "political crlrnes." Because of the broad definition given to such crimes. however. the taw resulted in the courts' releasing individuals convicted of death squad crimes as well as several hundred suspected members of the FMLN who were either convicted of or pending prosecution tor terrorisl crrmesincluding the thr-a accused gunmen responsible tor the June 1985 hillir~g four members of the US Embassy's of Marine Guard contingent at a sidewalk cafe in San Salvador. At year's end. the Salvadoran Governmeat planned to appeal several of the amnesty rulings made by the courts.'

Honduras
Various armed guerrilla groups. most trained and a ~ m e d by tha Sandinista regime in Nicaragua. carried out violent subversive and terrorist actions in Honduras In 1987. Four international terrorist attacks took place in Honduras-one of them an attack against US intcrestsas opposed to none in 1986. The most serious inc~dent was the bombing o l a restaurant in Comayagua that was known to be frequented by US servicemen stationed at Honduras's Palrnero!a Airbase. Five US servicemen, a US civilian contraclor. and six Hondurans were Injured. No group claimed responsibility for the attack. but Honduran leftists are suspected. Honduran aulhorities arrested five suspects shortly after the restaurant bombing. The tive retracted lheir conlessions In court, however, and were released due to lack o l evidence. A sixth suspect found asylum in the Mexican Embassy In Tegucigalpa and. despite repeated US objections. eventually departed for Mexico. In order t o upgrade its counterterrorism capabttit~es. the Honduran armed lorces have participated In the US antiterrorism assistance program.

Moxico
Some neighboring countries have criticized Mex~co for giving asyhirn or sanctuary to lnsurgenls and alleged terrorists. Mexico insists, however. that individuals given political asylum must abide by international norms. Mexico has allowed the Salvadoran Farabundo Marti National L~beration Front (FMLN) and the Revolut~onary Democratic Frorlt (FDR) to establish an inlzrnation oflce in Mexico City. The El Salvador Government has charged that Ihess groups are using Mexico as an operational base. Mexico responded that it follows a p o k y o f noninlervention in the affairsof other countries and that the FMLN-FDR members remain in Mexico as political asylees. The appea:s were neard t f l 1988. but were unsuccessful In rhe case of!he htarlnes. however. 11,was Celermcned lhal as Embassy employees lhey had been covered under an ~nlernal~onal treary regardlogcrimes agamsl internattonally protected persons. whch : superceded dornesr~c Tnat decislort however. I bemg taw appealed b y the Celendanls

I ~ I Mexico granted asylum to epproximalely 10 1987. Hondurans. most of them members of the Popular Revolutionary Forces-Lurenzo Zelaya. One was allegedly involved in a restaurant bombing in Honduras in which several U S servtcernen were injured. Although the United S!a!es objected. the Mexicans argued that he had not been charged in Honduras a r ~ d there was insutticient that evidence l o deny him asylum.

Middle East Terrorism Spillover


Only 43 terrorist incidents o t Mlddle East origin occurred tn Western Europe i n 1987. M~ssing 1987 were the in spectacular attacks that drove u p the statistics in 1984. 1995, and 7986. Nonetheless. the pol&il~zlfor terrorism of Middle East d i g i n remains hiph because ot lhe region's large populations o f Middle Eastern students. immigrants, and guest workers who .may be recruited as terrorist operalivas; easy access from lhe M ~ d d l e East; lax securlly a1 borders; and an abundance of vgets. Moreover. the increase in imprisoned terror! -jay resull i n an upsurge in retaliatory attacks.
'

Mexico justifies this granting of asylum by citing the Central American-wide amnesty decree that is a part of the Guatemalan peace accord. In December 1987. Mexico signed and its Congress ratified a Mulual Legal Assistance Treaty with the United States. Following US Senate ratification and entry into force o i the Treaty. Mexico and the United States will be obligated to cooperate In !he proseculion of transborder criminals. including terrorists, through information sharing, tanmg of testfmony of witnesses, and other measures.

The Dominican Republic In April 1987. an unknown group. the Maximilio Gomez Revolutionary Brigade, claimed responstbiiily for several crude bomb attacks againsl Mormon church buildings. This group also claimed responsibility lor throwing a crude bomb at the Peace Corps office on 30 April. resulting in superficial damage. The group said the attacks were to commemorate the anniversary of the US military inlervenlion in the Dominican Republic in 1965.
Haiti The Haitian Liberation Organization (OLH) a group that believes in the use of terrorism, first surfaced in February. OLH did not comrnil any interc~ational terrorist attacks In 1987, but is believed to be associated with a leftist political party. the Parti National Oemocratique Progressisle D'Haili. Both have Ices to Cuba and the OLH may recetve other outside supporr.

Attacks were fa~rly evenly c'istributed throughout Weslern Europe. Ot the 16 covnlries where Middle East terrorism spillover occurred, seven allacks :ook place m France and SIX in Spa~n. Cyprus and llaly incurred tour altacks each, and the United Kmgdom. Auslrra, and West Germany each had three arlacks. US inleresls sutfered l~llle, and no US ci:izens were killed. in stark conlrast l o previous years.

attack rerna~ned roughly the sane: 63 percent were bombings. 22 percerd were armec! attacks. and 10 percent were arson attacks Thrty-SIXattacks, or 24 percent, were staged against US interests. and. of these. 24 were bombings US casualty figures in Western Europe were low: one person killed and 36 wounded. A breakdown o l the 152 international terrorisl incidenls shows that 44 went unclaimed. 43 resulted lrom Middle East spillover. and the rest were committed by a var~ety European-based of ideological or separatist groups. Separatisl terrorrsm remained by far the most perststent and dangerous. Given the intensity of emotions and at least some community support from the ethntc communlttes from which the terrorists come. separatist terror~sm undoubtedly will continue and may well increase. The leveling off In the number of lnc~dents Western in Europe can be attribured to a combination ot lactofs: Caution exerctsed by state sponsors of terrorsm. leading to a major decrease in Middle Eastern s~~llover tecrorism:

Europe and North America


In Western Europe. domestic and Middle Eastern groups staged 152 internalional terrorist attacks in 1987-a slight drop lrom the 1986 figure ol 156attacks. Eighteen percent ol ali attacks worldwide took place in Western Europe. compared with 20 percent in 1986. The prelerred means of

SuccesrrfulTerroriet Prosecutions in 1987

Date
Austrta Canada France May January February

Action Two Abul Neal terror~sts convtcted and sentenced l o Me ~rnpr~scmrnen Ihe or December 1985 Viennaalrport massacre

Two Monlreal-tesrdentSikhs gwen kfe sentences lor dolling l o blow up an


airplane at an unnamed U_S anpo!t--

Lebanese Armed Revolut~onaty Facf~on (LARF) !eader Georges Abdallah glven life sentence for hts ~nvolvemenl Ihe 1982 assassmallon01 a US and an lsraelr m dlplomal Acllon Dlrecte (AD) terror~sr Regs Schlmcher sentenced to l ~ f for the 1983 e Parts stoolmg spree #nwhich two dred . Neo4Jaz1 lefrortsl Odfried Hepp sentenced l o 10 and a half yedls lor a 1982 car bombing tha: Serlcusly wounded a US sold~er A Lebanese terrorat. arresled at M~lan abrport allempltng to smuggle olasnc explOS~veS Ilaly. senlenced to a 13-year p r t m term Inlo
A Jordanban terror~sl wnlenced l o 15 years ~nla11 the 1985 allempled rockel lor attack on the Jordan~an Embassy n Rome

June West Germany Ita!, Oclober February May June December

An Arablwrorm! senlenced to a 17-year prrson term lor me 1985 grenade atlack on a Rome restaurant Tr~al began for Ine sole survwng Abu Nldal terrorat mvo:ved tn the December sentence m early 1985 Rome avport massacre (He recaved a 30 year pr~son 1988 while :<to acconpbces ~ncludmg Abu Mdal were sentenced ,n abwrnt~a :o Me ) Three Basque separntlslsconv~cted le:*or~sl vltles v,~rhsmteru-es ranglng 191 acl l o 25 {ears 1986 a!!e!npr :o b:orr up an An Abu Muca lerronst sentenced l o 4 7 years lor h ~ s El At ,el a1 Madrrd arrpor! An Afrnen~an lartaal trrvohied rn the 1986 a:templed oomtmg o' the Turktsh Consulate General In Meibourne cmlefsed tc Islemprsonmeol Onecf Iwodelendanls. wspecled of ~nmtvemenr the 1985 Wrnb~ng several m ol IOca! cafes Ihat left 10 dead convlcled and senrenced lo dealh

June Cctober Auslral~b Kuwait November January June

0 16 defendants s u s m l e d of motvement In the !985 87 o~rf~eld 1 bombmgs 1 4 convoted Sentences ranged lrom two years ro rlle morlsonrnenl 8 aad~lron n to srr senlenced l o dealh (two ~nabzenlw!
Prosecul~ons begart loc me l~ve A& F:tdaI letroosts trvdved in (he artempled hlyck1r.g of a Pan Am fi~gh!In Karacha In whach many passengers and crew aed !F!re senlenced to dealh !n I988 )

Paklslan

July

enhanced physical security; successes b y law enforcement and security agencies: a n d increased cooUerat!on among counterterrorism officials i n Western Europe.

mid- 1980s involvin? Sikhs and Armenians. The B r ~ t ~ s h


Colombia Provincial Supfeme Court tn February 1987. tor example. found guilty the lour Sikhs accused o l rhe 1986 assassinallon allempt of a visiting b d i a n officlal Canada cooperated actively with the US and other countries during 1987 t o prevent terrorism at the Wlnter Olympics in Calgary. The US and Canada s ~ g n e d n a

Canada
Although n o major inctdents of international terrorism occurred in 1987. Canada has taken steps to combat domestic terrorism, particularly following incidents i n the

Switzerland, Sweden. Norway. Malta. Dj~bcuti,

' '

agreement in January 1988 to formalize bilateral counterterrorism efforts. Canada decided not to open an embassy in Libya and declined to accept a Libyan diplomatic presence in Ottawa. It also applied strict limitations on Libyan trade.

lrish National Liberation Army resulted in 10 deaths. Twenty-seven members of the security forces were killed. and 283 civilians and security personnel were wounded. The image of PlRA as a deadly terrorist group unconcerned about innocent bystanders was reinforced In November when one of its units detonated a bomb during a British veteran's day ceremony in Enniskillen. killing 11 persons and wounding 70. The bombing received wide international condemnation. but a PlRA spokesman told the press later that the incident vrwld not hinder PIRA's plans to increase its atlacka against British targets during 1988. As part of the effort to control the sectarian violence and terrorism in Northern Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Republic of lreland continued to improve security cooperation. which had been augmented by the 1985 Anglo-Irish agreement UK authoritie, also concluded new arrangements with the Republic of lreland for extradition.

The United Kingdom Four international terrorist attacks took place in the United Kingdom in 1987. the same as in 1986. None was directed against US interests, and three of the four involved attacks against Middle Eastern exiles.
Domestic terrorism by Northern lreland organizations remaned the most lethal. Sectarian violence in Northern lreland claimed 93 lives in 1987. ~p from 62 in 1986, but deaths among the terrorists themselves accounted for most of the increase. The Provisional lrish Republic Army (PIRA) lost 22 operatives, includmg eight killed in a failed attack on a police station and two killed when the bomb they were carrying exploded. An internecine feud in the

S~gnif~can? quant~ties illegal arms destined for Northern of Ireland terrorists were seized during the year. In October, French authorities seized a ship carrying 150 tons of Libyan-supplied arms destined for the IRA, although four earlier shipments had apparently slipped through during the previous two years. UK police and rn~litary also seized quantities of arms destined for Protestant paramilitary organizations in Northem Ireland. Some members of the large immigrant communities of Palestinians, Iranians. Sikhs, Iraqis, Tamils, and others have been involved in, or have been targets of, acts of terrorism. UK authorities have handled these probiems through both normal police and judicial efforts, as well as through programs of cooperation with other countries to identify and apprehend terrorlsts and their supporters. In 1987, legal proceedings continued against an American citizen extradited by the United States to the United Kingdom on charges stemming from involvement in IRA terrorist attacks. He was subsequently convicted of

The United Kingdom grants no concessions to terrorists, and has been critical of other nations that have bargained with hostage takers and other terrorists. It works actively to enhance international counterterrorist cooperation through the Trevi group of interior ministers, the economic Summit Seven nations, and various groups within the UN. The United Kingdom has a strong bilateral relationship wlth the United Stales on counterterrorism measures and it continued in 1987 to offer assistance to other countries to help improve their capabilities.

Spain. 17 May 1987. Three car bombs, placed by the ETA lerrorislgroup, exploded outside the Army. Navy, and Air Force Minisfries in Madrid. One person was killedand seven were miured. French-ownedbuinesses in Spain, especially car dealerships. The attacks reflected ETA'Sanger at French avthorities for denying ETA sanctuary and for cooperating with the Spanish Government. Severrof the bombings caused casualties in addition to property damage. Three persons were killed, including two Spanish policemen. In the past, most ETA attacks took place in small Basque cities and towns. but in 1987 the group expanded its activilies into Catalonia, including Barcelona. ETA'S domestic terrorist attacks showed a new propensity for causing indiscriminate casualties. A hardline MarxistLeninist faction took control of ETA following the death of the former leader in February. Since then. ETA has demonstrated a disregard for the safety of innocent civilians. For example, in June ETA staged its most lethal bombing attack, killing 21 shoppers in a crowded Barcelona supermarket, and in December it bombed the residences of several civil guard families, killing 11 persons. including women and children. An ETA bombing in June at

Spain The 47 international terrorist attacks In Spaln In 1987. two less than in 1986, represented the highest total in Western Europe and the fourth highest in the world. The extent of terrorism in Spain reflects the abiding strength of radical separatist sentiment among Basques and Catalans. The First of October Antifascist Resistance Movement (GRAPO) , an extreme leftist terrorist group implicated in past attacks on US and NATO facilities, remained inactive for the third straight year.
The Basque Fatherland and Liberty group (ETA) staged 21 of the 1987 attacks. 15 fewer than in 1986. As in 1986, most of ETA'S international attacks consisted of bombing

a large petrochemical plant in Catalonia caused $10 million in damage and forced the evacuation of local citizens. We believe that Basque support for ETA dropped appreciably because of fhis campaign of indiscrlminale violence. Catalonian separatist groups turned increasingly l o violence in 1987. One group of particular concern, Ihe Catalan Red Liberalion Army (ERCA) .emerged in May with an ideology based on separatism and Marxist-Leninism. Its origins remam obscure: it may bea radical offshoot of Terra Lliure, another Catalonian terrorist group that has been active since 1981. Unlike other Catalonian groups. ERCA has deliberately atracked US interests and was probably responsible for bombings of the General Zleclric and Hewlett-Packard offices in Barcelona in May and June. respectively. In Oclober, it claimed credit lor bombing the US Consulate in Barcelona, which injured eight Spanish nationals. including two Consulate employees. Finally. ERCA was responsible lor the only kill in^ of a US citizen-a serv!ceman-by terrorists in Edcope in 1987; the death occurred in a grenade attack on a US0 facility in Barcelona over Christmas. Terra Lliure increased its international terrorisl attacks from three in 1986 tosix in 1987. Most were low-grade bombings of foreign banks and travel agencies thal caused only light property damage. Iraultza, a small anti-NATO group composed of elements from the Basque Communist movement in Spain, carried cr six international terrorist altacks in 1986, bu! staged 'r only one in 1987-a bombing at the oflices of the USowned National Cash Register Company, which caused only minor damage. On 15 April four crude and ineflective rockets were Wed a1 US Embassy facilities in Madrid. All either malfunclioned or fell short of the intended target. causing only Slight damage and no injuries. A caller claimed responsibility in the name of the International Front Againsl Imperialismin retaliation for the US air raids on Libya exactly one year earlier. The rockets used in the attacks were similar to those used in the Rome tncidents in June and to those lired a1 the US Embassy in Madrid in February. We assume thal the same group, the Japanese Red Army-linked Anti-Imperialist lnlernational Brigade. was responsible in each case.

Spain has developed a counterterrorism policy !hat includes efficient police enforcement. rehabilitation of terrorists not wanted lor "blood cnmes" who voluntarily turn themselves in, and increased mullilateral and bilaterai cooperation to fight terrorism. Since the 19705, many ETA militants have sought refuge and a base of operations in France lor attacks in Spain. Following greater cooperaiion between the two countries within the past few years. however. France has expelled many of these individuals. who were subsequentlyprosecuted in Spain. In 1987 alone. ovei 150 suspected Basque terrorists were expelled from France. including several reputed top leaders. In December 1987. the two governments announced the formation of a permanent police lialson office to further strengthen antiterrorist cooperation. Spanish police action in 1987 put out of action 12 of ETA'S major operational units (commandos). Police scored a turther success in the April arrests in Barcelona of five members of the Italian Red Brigades. In addition, the government sponsored a domestic antiterrorism pact that was signed by all major Spanish political parties in November. During 1987. Spaln's tough antiterrorism law was challensed in the courts on constitutional grounds. TheSpanish Governmenl has announcedit will repeal the law. but will incorporate most of its provisions into the ordinary criminal code. Also in 1987. Spanish authoritiesexpelled two Libyans foc their involvement in the Movement for the Liberation of the Canary Islands and two Syrian nationals believed to have been involved with the Abu Musa terrorist organization.

France Nowhere in Europe was the contrast between 1987 and the previous year sharper than in France. Inlernational terrorist attacks dropped from 28 to 11, and anli-US midents declrned from three to one. 60th domestic and Middle

Eastern terrorist groups experienced major selbacks. Twice during the year, French authorities achieved major successes against the counlry's bloodiest domestic lerrorist group. Action Directe (AD). which had been responsible for a series of international and domestic attacks from 1983 through 1986 and which has ties to West Germany's Red Army Faction. In February. police arrested the lour leaders of AD's international wing in a larmhouse near Orleans and charged them with the 1986 murder of Renault President Georges Besse. In November. the police arrested AD's bomb expert Max Frerol. the last rnaj3r xspect known l o have been at large and a member ol AD's socalled ne!imalisl wing. Frerot allegedly was the instigatorof at leest two attacks in 1986. for which he is expected to be tried in 1988. AD. which was crippled by lhese arrests, committed no international terrorist attacks during 1087. In the Middle East terrorisl arena. French authorilies in March seized several Tunisians with lranian links who had been lasked with transporting and storing weapons and explosives for use by Lebanese Shia terrorists. As reported in Ihe press. French police claimed that the group had bsen responsible for a terrorist bombing campaign in Paris in 1986. In Nwember. Ihe group's ringleader was charged .'wilh seven of the 1 1 at!acks in the campaign: other members may be tried in 1988. Corsican National L~beralion Front terrorists-who we believe have adopled a more radical political program and a more lethal terrorist strategy-carried out five smallscale bombings against foreign-owned vacation homes on Corsica. The group also was responsible for more than 70 domestic attacks against French business and government largets on Corsica and in Paris and Marseilles. Over 150 suspected Basque terrorists. most of them members of the Spanish terrorist group ETA. were expelled or extradited to Spanish aulhorilies during 1987. The expulsions ot suspected lerrorists, which also included fugitive Italian. German. and lrish terrorisls. was accomptished b y reactivating a 1945 emergency procedure perrnlttcng expulsions withoul hearings when lhe public order is threatened. France's determinatron l o prevenl terrorists from using its terrilory to ship arms was demonstrated by the Oclober 1987 seizure of a cargo vessel carrying over 150 tons ot Libyan-supplied weapons to the Provisionallrish Republican Army.

The French courts in 1987 dealt slernly with terrorisls. partially because of new legislation centralizing all terrorism cases in the Paris state prosecutor's officeand creating a special court for terrorist trials. In an important case in February. the head o l the Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Faction (LARF) Georges lbrahim Abdallah. was sentenced l o life imprisonment for his involvement in the assassination of two US and Israeli diplomats in 1982. and the attempted assassination of a US Consulate official in 1084. The United States participated in the case as a "partie civile."

France's successful counterterrorism record in 19-397was blemished. however, at the conclusion cf the so-called "Embassy War" in which an lranian Embassy employes was suspected of aiding the terrorists responsible lor the

1986 Paris bombing campaign. The suspect took refuge in the lranian Embassy in Paris and the lranian Government retaliated by blockading the French Embassy in Tehran. A fivemonth standoff ended when France and lran arranged for the departure of Ihe lranian employee and the French diplomals. Before the departure. a French Emb~ssy officiat despite his diplomatic immunity, appeared before a revolutionary tribunal in Tehran while the Iranian. who did not have immunity, appeared before a judge in Paris. Shortly thereatfer, in November-although French otficials have denied any link-pro-Iranian terrorists in Lebanon released two French hostages. The French Government also scheduled for repayment a portion of a multimillicndollar debt owed to prerevolulionary lran that had been disputed by the two countries for several years. It expelled lranian dissidents living in France. although lhey were allowed to return following domestic pressure. In addilion. persistent rumors o l arms sales to lran led l o criticism ol France lr having made concessions to lerrorisls. o

Belgium
Following a mid-1980s' bombing campaign by the indigenous Euroterrorist group, the Communist Combatant Cells (CCC) Belgian law enforcement and antiierrorism procedures were restructured to meet the ihreat. Smce Ihe lale 1985 arrests of the major CCC leaders, terrorism nas markedly declined.

the Kurdish Worker's Parly (PKK) the chief culprit. Three were aimed at lranian dissidents. presumably by lranian Government agents or proxies, and one involved an attack by lranian dissidents against an lranian Government facility. Six attacks were staged against US targets. compared with 16for 1986. Although several of the antiUS attacks went unclaimed, we believe that mosl were :he work of leftwing terrorist groups; one attack may have been carried out by a newNazi group.

West Germany. on 2'3 March 1987. woundmg 27 West German rnr tary offrcers and Iherr

wives The PlRA lafir claimed respons,blrly

No US casualties resulted from the attacks, although there were several near misses. In August. for instance, a bomb was detonated underneath a German freight train near the t o m of Hademlenden. causing damage but no injuries. The bomb was probably intended lor a US troop train that was scheduled to pass over the irack at the time of the explosion. Similarly, in December a local Bremen commuter train wasslightly damaged when it collided with a barrier on the track. This crude attempt at derailment was probably directed at a US military train that had stopped on a parallbl track at the same time.
Another illustration of the wide range of international terrorit: attacks in West Germany occurred in March with the explosion of a large car bomb outside the oflicers' club a1 a Brilish Army base at Rheindahlen. Although they were not the intendcd vctims. 27 West German military otficers and their wives were wounded in the altack. The Provisional Irish Republican Army claimed re-sponsibilityfor the bombing, which demonstrated the group's ability to operate outside the United Kingdom and Ireland and its willjngness to risk incidental victims.

International attacks by domestic terrorist groups declined significantly in 1987. The Red Army Faction (RAF) was inactive in 1987. We believe that RAF operational plans were disrupted by the arrest of the leaders of the Action Directe (AD) group In France in February. Documents seized by French authorities during the arrest revealed that \he AD and the RAF had been planning coordinated attacks for 1987. possibly similar in scope to the so-called anti-imperialist campaign of 1984-85. Despite its recent inactivity. the RAF remains dangerous. The slher important domestic group is the Revolutionary Cells (RZ) . Together with an affiliated feminist group called Rote Zora. RZ staged a series 01 terrorist attacks during 1987. most of which were low-grade bombing and arson attacks against official and nonofficial tafgets. In January 1987. German authorities at Frankfirrt alrport apprehended Mohammed Hamadei. one of the alleged participants in the 1985 TWA hijacking in which a US Navy diver was murdered. As the United States was requesting Hamadei's extradition. terrorists in Lebanon kidnaped two German citizens in an attempt to extort West Germany to release Harnadei or. at a minimum. not to extradite him to the United States.

West Germany in June decided not to extradite but to Iry Hamadei, as permitted under the terms of our extradition treaty The German authorities have given assurances Hamadei will be prosecuted t o the full extent of German law. The court case is expected to begin in mid-1988. In September, one of the two German hostages field in Belrut was released, reportedly after a German company had paid ransom lor him. The second German kidnap victim remained a hostage in Lebanon at the end of the year. In late 1987. German authorities began the prosecution of Abbas Harnadei. the brother of Mohammed. who was arrested in a separate incldent in January 1987. Abbas was charged with bringing explosives into the country and seeking to coerce the federal government into releasing his brother Mohammed by participating in the hostage taking in Beirut. Abbas was subsequently convicted in 1988 and sentenced to 13 years in prison. In 1987. West Sermany granted agrement to Mehdi Ahari Mostafavi, then lranian Ambassador 10 Austria, as Tehran's new Ambassador to Bonn. The United States. which did not learn of the pending appointment until after West Germany's formal acceptance of Mostavi. then expressed strong concerns about the decision. providing West Germany with information pointing to Mostalavi's involvemont in the holding of American diplomats hostage in Tehran during 1979-80. West Germany. however. did not reverse its decision to accept Mostafavi as lranian Ambassador.
A Frankfurt court in late 1987 sentenced a neo-Nazi terrorist. accused of conspiracy in the 1982 car bombing that seriously injured a US soldier, to a ten-and-a-half-year prison term.

Switzerland Although the Swiss Government generally supports increased international counterterrorism cooperation. Switzerland's situation as an loternational diplomatic. financial. business, and transportatim center with relatively relaxed entry controls. makes it easy for terrorists to transit the country. Major terrorist groups n a y also use Swiss banks and medical facilities. In July. the Swiss released a suspected Lebanese terrorist wanted by France in connection with a 1986 Paris bombing. The extradition request had been rejected because the French offense of belonging to a crlminal group does not exist under Swiss law. The Lebanese hijacker of a July 1987 Air Alrique flight that had made an unscheduled landing in Geneva remained in detention. The hijacker, who killed a French citizen before being overpowered by the crew and arrested by Swiss authorities. will be tried by a special federal court for air piracy and murder. The head of the lranian Embassy in Bern. Seyed Mohammad Hossein Malaek, has been identified as a leader of the participants in the 1979-81 occupation of the US Embassy in Tehran. The Swiss Government in early 1988 accepted Malaek's accreditation as Ambassador even though the United States had expressed deep concern about the accreditation. In November 1987. Swiss authorities expelled three Libyans believed l o be plotting the assassinationof antiQadhafi dissidents. Despite an extensive manhunt in August, police were unable to apprehend the assassins of a former lranian pilot who had been living in exile in Geneva. Italy llaly experiencedsix international terrorist incidents in 1987. compared with four such attacks in 1986. During 1987 Italy achieved substantial success against its major domestic terrorist group, the Red Brigades (BR) . Once the largest and most dangerous group in continental Europe. the BR has not attacked a foreign target since the assassination in 1984 o l Leamon R. Hunt. the US chief of the Sinai Multinational Force and Observer Gmup. Nevertheless, the BR-now split into two groups-remains capable of carrying out terrorist attacks. In Fzbruary. the

In 1987 the United States. the United Kingdom. and France-the Western Allied Powers in Berlin-actively exercised the public security responsibilities they have maintained in that city since the end of World War I .The alI lies issued expulsion orders against a totat of 19 individuals associated with either the lranian Consulate General in the US sector of Berlin or the lranian Embassy in the Soviet sector. This move effectively closed down the lranian Consulate General in Berlin (West). Berlin prosecutors have continued their investigations into the April 1986 La Belle disco bombing in which two people died, including one US serviceman.

BR's Fiyhtmg Cornn~unistParty (IIR-PCC) faction killed three p o l c i m e n wh~le robbing a poslal van of alrnost $ 1 mtllrorl. i other faclion, the Union of Comniunis: he Ccrmba!ants (RR-UCC) assassinated Ita!lan Gen. Licio C3orglert. who was involved in delense procurernenr.

The murder of General Giorgieri heightened cooperation among West European police and securily services. By Jl~ne murderers and almost 60 other members Of the the BR-UCC had been arrested in Italy. Spain, and France. severely demaging the group's operating capabilities. We belleve lhat the BR's total membership IS at its lowest since the group was formed in the lale 1960s. Three almost simultaneous attacks in Rome in June were the rnos! significant international terrorist incidents. although they caused only superficial damage. They consisled of a car bombing and two crude rocket attacks aga~nst the US and British Embassies The attacks were probably designed to galn publlc~ty belore the Summit Seven ~nternat~onal conference in Venice A group calling itself the Anti-Imperialist International Brigade (AIIB) claimed respons~bility.The All0 first surfaced in two attacks against the US and Canad~an Embassies in Jakarta In 1986. and we believe !hat it is a front lor. or hasclose links lo, the Japanese Red Army. US investigators, working under the terms of a b~lateral mulual legal assistance treaty. were able l o collecl ev~dence the US Embassy on attack ASa counterterrorism measure, Italy successfully tigl.lened the securbry ct its borders In January. Lebanese national Bashrr Khodr was arresled at Milan's a~rport while attempl~ r $to smuggle plastc explosives and detonators into the g country One month later. he 7/25 !lied and sentenced to 2 13-year prtson lerm In December. the survlvlng Abu N~oal organlzat~on terrortst who had partupated in the December 1985 alrport massacre In Rome was brought before thecourts The trral. whch was not completed untrl early 1988. ended w ~ t h the sentenced to 30 years In prlson Abu N~dat terrorist be~ng ISabrl al-Banna) and a thvd accomplice also rece~ved llfe sentexes ln absentla agalnst 1.1bya Throughout 1987. ltaly wslamed sanct~or~s agreed upon by the European Commun~!y prevtous the year I! also joined In cooperative measures agalns: Syr~a lor lhat natron's connection to terrorism

Damage caused by a terrorist bcmb attack on !he US Embassy in Roneon 9 June 1987 The Anli-lmperralrs1InlernatronalDflgade, whlc'~ rs lmked lo rhe Japanese ReC Army leriorrsf group. clarmed responsflbr:*ty the aflRCk for

Mot~vated part by the 1985 Ach~lle ~n Lauro h~jack~ng. the Itahan Government pressed for the clraltmg of a new "Convention for the Suppression 01 Unlawful Acts Aga~nst the Safety of Mar~t~me Nav~gat~on" under Ihe auspices ol the lnternat~onal Mar~tlme Organ~zat~on agrcement Thls was signed In February 1988

Austria
May 1987. Austria responded through the coarls to the December 1985 Abu Nodal organization atlack on V~enna airport In whlch lhree died and 39 were injured The two surviv~ng terrorists were conv~cted and sentenced to hfe imprisonment. the maxlmum senlence
111

The would-be assassln rn a May 1987 attack on a lormrr L~byan Ambassador and Qadhaft critlc was lac~ng trlat a l the end of the year Although the assassm apparently had been supported by the L~byari People's Bureau in Vlenna. the Austr~ao Government took no actlon ~nI~rn~!lng or closmg that olfice after 11slnvolvemenl became known In eatly 1988, however !he assallant was conv cted and sentenced to a 10-year prlson lerrn In :987. the 4ustrran Governrr.ent negot~ated art ant~terrcrism pact wrlh the Saudi Arabian Government It albo established an antlterror~sm unlt dtreclly subord~naled to the Mln~stry Interlor. of

Malta
The trlal of the survlvmg terrorst In the November 1985 Egypta~r 648 hljacklng Ah Rezak. IS expected to begm oy late summer 1986 The Maltese Goverument rernalns publtc!y comrnttted to the trial A US c~tlzen was kllled and two w o m d e d In Ihe htjackmg The police are responsible for border control, but imm~gration procedures are limited. CWens o l several countries. w l u d i n g Libya, do no1 need visas to enter Malta. Moreover. In a recent agreement. Libyans can enter Malta b y show~ng Libyan identification card in I!eu o f a passport. A a large number of Libyans visited in 1987. Malta has an active commercial relationship with Libya. lncludlng several resident joint Libyan-Maltese commercial and other ventures that could be exploited for terrorist purposes. As an example. the Eksund 11, a freighter caplured by French authorities in October 1987 with over 150 tons of arms destmed lor the Provisional Irish Repl~blican Army (PIRA) , underwent extensive refurbishing in Malta before sailing to Libya. Although Maltese authorit~es they h a d n o prior knowledge of Libyan say tntent~ons the Eksund. and Ihe shrp lelt empty, no for complaint appeared to have been made about Libyan misuse GI Maltese terrllory. The pro-Western government, elected in May 1987. on the heels o l 16 years o f rule by overtly pro-Libyan Labor governments. has said that it strongly opposes terrorism and will not make its foreign policy "congruent" with that of any other government.

A bus carrylog US servicemen was OarnaSed

by a remotely controIied bomb on a road w a r Hellemkon A~rbase 10 P x p s r 1987 T e - (IS on se:vrcemen were ~ n ~ v r eThe fievo!vf,oirarv o Orgaiirrarion 17 Novernae: clarmeo respons~b~lity

cause substanl~al casualties and represenl a change In US tactics. which had cons~sred largely o l selectwe assassmallons of US o f f ~ c ~ a l s prominent Greek ott~ctals and and businessmen. Leflist lerrorist groups also stepped up the~r attacks against Greek Governme?! targets. One bombing atlack against the G:eek Chamber of Commerce bulld~cg In Athens, lor instance, clearly was des~gned cause large to numbers o f officialcasuallies. Greek police. as d ~ thelr d colleagues in France and Ila!y. had some successes against domestic lerrorlst groups. killlng one and capturmg two sllspected Greek lerrorlsts In Oclober The p o k e lhen selzed several salehouses and weapons caches and unearthed evidence showmg p o w b i e ties between ELA. 17 November. and other extreme leltwmg groups Greek aulhor~ttes have Ccntmued efforts to improve securlly a1 airports and seaports. Improve surveillance o f suspected 1errOrlSlS. and enhance capab~lirtes the antlterror&f of police The Greek Government condemns stale-sponsored teirorIsm generally, b u l is atone among the 12 members of the European Cornmun~ty relustng to condemn by name In Specific stales that sponsor lerror;srn. In publrciy spnlltng

Greece Eleven tnternat~onat Ierrorst allacks were staged in Greece In 1987. the same number as in 1986 SIX were d~recled a1 US Interests. one less than 1986. Mos! anti.US attacks were undertaken by extreme lell~st organcations protesting the presence in Greece o f US mtlttary bases. The Revolut~onary People's Struggle (ELA) slaged two bomblngs of US interests In Athens, causrng only property darnage: one against a Union Carbide offlceIn Aprd and !he other agatnsl a US mil~tary conmlssary in September. staged two The 17 November Revolutionary Organizill~on bomb~ng arracks agamsl buses transportrng US mttifary personnel In Aprll and August. respectively. q u r l n g a total of 27 persons The t*O allacks obv~ol~sly Intended to were

out 11sunifled approach l o such terrorism issues, the Greek Government spokesman dated that Greece will insisl on langrble and convincing evidence of a country's "guilt." not partrc~pate maklng up a list of "terrorlst countries" as in long as such a l ~ swould constitute a prelude to actions that t ~vould undermine Greece's relations with those countr~es. and not give up its sovereign right to decide for itself what specif~c measures it should take whenever measures against a "terrorist country" are decided. Throughout 1987, the United Slates and Greece naintamed an active official dialogue on all aspects of terrorisrnrelated issues. includmg a well-publicized exchange concerning Abu Nidal organization activit~es. part of the As continuing dialogue, the United States seeks to assist. where approprlate. the Greek Government in its technical countzrterror~sm efforts. A Greek Government delegation vls~ted United States in October for consultations on the anf~lerrorism ass~stance. its dialogue wrth Greece the US In Governmenl has conveyed the deptll ol 11sconcern on terror~sm Issues. whereas the United States has been made aware of Greek sens~tiv~ties

Although Syrian and Turk~sh leaders signed a new border control agreement in July In which Syrian support for antiTurkish Kurdish terrorism was to be stopped. Turktsh authorities subsequently intercepled several terrorists trying tc enter Turkey from Syria In 1987. the courts actlvely pursued terror~st cases A naturaltzed Turk ol lranlan orlgtn was conv~cled treason ol for workmg wlth the Abu N~dal terrorst group A Jordan~an Embassy employee was irnplcated rn the case but later released because of d~plomat~c ~mmunltyA Syrlan d~plomat was ~mpl~catedanother case Involving Abu Ntdat In terrorists. but left the country before the trral began The Turk has been charged w ~ t h attemplmg to set up a Shia 11berated zone In southeastern Turkey An Irantan consular offoal was asked to leave the counlry In connection w ~ t h th~s case Turkish authorit~es have instituted procedures-protested by some governments-for examin~ng unclassdied diplomatic pouches in order lo stop sh~pment weapons and of other terrorist mater~als into the country.

Turkey
Eghteen ~nternat~onal terrorlst attacks were staged in Turkey In 1987 an Inc,?ase of 13 over 1986 Three were agalnst US targets Al l e ~ sthree were comm~tted the t by Kurd~sh Worker's Party (PKK) as part of 11scont~nu~ng campalgn to establrsh an autonomous Kurd~sh state In Southeastern Turkey In 1987 the PKK expanded the range of rts attacks, normally d~rected the Turklsh at securfty forces, to Include civlhans and economrc targets A t t a ~ k s several Turklsh vdtages In southeastern Turkey on some probably slaged from PKK stror~gholds ne~ghbor16 my Iraq and Syrra were des~gned both to d~scourage Ihe Turkish v~llagers from pdrtlc~patlng government securlty In prograrps and to encourage Kurdish commun~ty supporl lor the group The arrest o l a group of PKK members In Istanbul In November suggests that the PKK may have to an been plann~ng establ~sh urban terrorst ~nfrastructure Turkey has rnstltuted strong p o k e countermeasures and has scored successes agalnst the PKK, as well as agalnst varlous other terrorlst groups In March. several lslamlc Jhad acllvlsts ,were arrested for atternptlng to brmg ove! 200 pounds of explosives lnlo the country to use agalnsl US and other mleres!s.

Cyprus
Its location between Europe and the M~ddle East makes Cyprus a regular transii point for lerror~slsCypr~ot aulhorlt~es have a consistent record of investigat~ny terror~st crinles and prosecullng lhose ~nvolved. swift invest~gnA t~on. example, followed the attempted ambush In April for ol a British Army jeep in which a serviceman and a dependent were injured. Three Arab suspecls were arra~gned May. Two were csnvicted In January 1988 and in were senlenced lo seven- and nine-year prlson lerms. respect~vely, whde the third was ordered depotled. The Cypr~ol Government has responded favorably to offers of antiterrorism framing and rechnrcal assistance

Yugoslavia
Yugoslav~a's locallon between the Mtddle East and Western Europe. open frontrers. heavy cross-border Iratflc. larcje Arab studenl populat~on, and relat~vely open soclety have made 11 an attractwe safehaven and transtl polnt for terror~sts. Yugoslas.adnas reciprocal arrangements with 55 countries. allow~ng vsa-lree entry Some of these counlr~es, ~ncludmy Iran. have been 1dent4edas supporters of terrorism

The large foreign student populal~on Yugoslavra includes in 15.000 from Middle Eastern countries. Some ol these are belleved to be members of terrorist groups, including the Abu Fiidal organization. They reportedly use the~r student status as a cover to maintain safehouses and provide operational support for transiting rerrorists. The Yugoslav Government is aware of the misuse of Yugoslav territory bv some terrorist groups and a currently cons~der~ng measures to tighten control over the entry and stay of toreigners. These measures include the possible reintrodilction of visa requirements lor some countries. 1:ghtening of entry procedures, addittonal training for security officers, and stricter control over the acttvities of lore~gn students The most serious misuse of Yugoslavian territory occurred Irl November, when the Norlh Korean terrortsts responsible for the destruction of Korean Air Lines Flight 858 recetvod the bomb used to destroy the aircraft from areotherN m h Korean agent ln Belgrade. Reports In the press ~n1987 clalmed that Khaltd Abdel C!asser, whom Egyptlan authorrtles have charged w ~ t h terrorrst actlvrhes, and M~ddle Eastern terrorrst leader Colonel" Hawart, as well as members of 01sorgan~zat~on were ltvtng ~nYugoslavra Later reports suggesred that the government was no longer prepared lo tolerate the presence ol the latter group YuyOslavla has a rn~lltary sales relat~onsh~p~ t h w sornc countries that are ldenthed as s~pporters terrorism. of such as Ltoya and Iran There IS no evidence however, that fugoslav~a knows tP.dt such weapons are l o be used lor lerror~st purposes

Two car bombs. probably placed by agenrs of Ihe Alghan Min~slry Stale Securrty IW A D ) . of explodednear a croiuded shopprng ca::rer :c Karach:. Pekrstan, on 14 July 198i. killmg n ! O w rhar 70 pecple and eovndmg i:l@rerhar! 200
others

Pakistan
Mosl ol the I38 ~nternai~onal terrorist attacks recorded In I987 in Pakistan were bombmgs d~recled agalnst Alghan relugees and Paklstant clvil~aiis. The canipatyrl was hayed by the Afghan lntell~gence servlce, WAD wh!ch is organeed and advised by the Soviet Uwon The 127 attacks conducted by WAD In 1987 represen1 Ihe highest iolai atrroutabre to a stngje state sponsor or lerrorls! grst~p In any single year Pakrstarl sulferei: the second.h~ghestlolal ol atracks In 1987 after the Israel-tiaza Slrip-West Bank area. Although casualltes In other regions n: the world were down substant~ally from 1% prewoils year. W A D atlacks ktlled 235 persons and wourided 1.200---abcut hall ol all deaths and ~nluries from terrorist ?!:tackswo~~dwtdc The campagn started In 1985 w ~ l h allacks d~recled against klyhan resistance and refugee camp.. In !he border area In 1986 the campalgn expanded to lnclude attacks on Paklstant c~wliansand, In 1087 Spread beyorid the border area to LaOore Rawalp~nd~ Islamabad and Kdracl I The mosl brutal attack tooh place in Jurf &hen two car bcrnbs tn a crowaed market in Karach~ k~llc,: 10 persons a r d wounded more Ihan 200 3thers Tnree of the WAD allacks ,were apparently a,med a1 US targets. bul no US c~lirer: was hurt and no properly nas damaged The carnpatgn aeni.rally tsasrot beer, awed at

Asia
The number of tnternat~onal ~ncidents Asta tn 1987 In ( 170) grew by 121 percent over that of 1986 ( 7 7 ) VtrtJally all ol the Increase occurred In Pakistan Dekelooments elsewhere In Asta pose concerr for 1988 such as the msupgencmin the Phhppmes Ind~a. and Srl Lanka the apparent reemergence of the Japanese Re3 Army the terrorist act~vt:~es Norlh Korean Governmen1 agents and of the f e r n p l q large: represen:ec by the 1988 Olyrnpc Games In Seoul

lore~gn mterests. but the intensity and indiscrimmate nature rJf Ihe bombings, should they cor:tinue, represent a yrowlng risk.
A handful of international terrorist attacks were also conducted by Iranian agents cr local supporters of !he Kholnailii regime. Exiled Iran~an dissidents and anti-Kho. memi Pakistani relqious and political figures were the target of several assassmation attempts. In July. lor instance, Iranian agents usmg automatic weapons and rocket launchers attacked Iranian dissidents in four separate houses ~nKarachi and one in Ouetta. Some of the attackers were arrested; their disclosure of Iran's inlentions probably deterred Tehran from carrymg out further attacks in 1987.

Sikh domest~c violence, as in previous years, contiwed to pose the greatest terrorist threat, In 1987. the Sikhs carrled o l ~ numerous armed attacks against government officials. t H~ndu civ~lians. and moderate Sikhs, but none against foreign largets. The Sikhs did not Stage any attacks overseas dilr~ng the year. confining the11 activit~es attempts to seize political to control of temple complexes in Canada, the United Kingdom. and the United States. Where they were successful. Sikh militants used the temple organizations to raise money lor and otherwise support their corel~gionlsts the In Punjab Whether their terrorst activities overseas become intensified w~lt depend largely on the way the Indian Government is able to reconcile Sikh political demands w ~ t h overall need to maintam national stability. the The Indian Government's response to domestic ~nc~denls of terror has focused on maintaining law and order. In the Punjab. extremists have been deta~ned the p o k e using by the extraordinary powers allowed by special legislation passed in 1987. The wh ,e of the Punjab wasabo put under "President's Rule" in 1987, placing all state enfurcemen1 authority under the central government. In bilateral relations. lnd~an Pakistani officials have met and to discuss problems of controlling lerrorlsm and smuygling along their long common border. Two S ~ k h separatists charged w ~ t h murder ~nlnd~a were being held in a US jail at the end of the year pending hearings on an Indian Government request tor extraoition. Sri Lanke Although RO inlernational terrorist attacks !ook place ~n Sri Lanka during 1987. the level of v~olence remained h~gh. Insurgent attacks, ~ncluding lerrc sf operallons. by the Liberation Tigers 01 Tam11Eelan. , .TTZ) continued lhroughout the year. even after the s~gning the India-Srl ot Lanka peace accord in July. Under this agreement, at least 50.000 lnd~an troops were deployed to Sri Lanka. The LTTE guerr~l!as battled the lnd~an Peacekeeping Force as well as the Srl Lankan Government and Sinhalese c~vilians.

Pakistani authorities have initiated tough police enforcement measures against terrorism. According to Pakistani statistics, over 300 individuals were arresled in 1987 for subversive activil~es, including bombings and possession of exolosives. In m~d-1987, t~ghtly a guarded special court began the trial ol f ~ v e suspected Abu Nidal organization lerror~sts involved ~nthe September 1986 hijacking attempt in Karachi of Pan Am Flight 73. More than 20 people died in this terrorist ~nc~dent. tr~al The contcnued through the remainder of the year and into '988. The five were subsequently convtcled and sertenced to dealh in July 1988. The Pak~stani Government partmpates In the US ant~lerror~srn assistance program. In 1967, nearly 100 students recewed Iralnlng. India Only two relatively nmdr mlernat~onal terror61 mc~dents look place In Indla dur~ng 1987 The first was a crude bomb attack on the Un~ted Slates tntorrnat~o.\Service (USIS) center In Calcutts by demonst!atmc rad~cal members ol the Congress (11 Parfy ~nAugust. m d Ihe other was an attempted bombmg ~nSeptember of the Uepalese Consulate General In Calcutta by :he Bengal LlDe m o n Army. In which the bomber was k~lled when :he dev~ce exploded pvematurely

Accordmg to press reports, the Tam11 separat~sts Sr, In Lanka had prevlous!y recewed support-poht~sal. ftnaroat, and log~st~c-from elements w ~ l h ~ n Indian state of the Tam11 Nadu Under the July accord. I-"Aa committed ~tselt l o ensure that lnd~an territury IS not used for anti-Srl Lankan a c t ~ v ~ t ~ e s During 1987. another group. the previously proscr~bed Marxist Janatha Vinlukhti Peramuna (JVP. or the People'cL~beral~on Front). added to Ihe violence. Relatively nonviolent srnce its insurrection attempt in 197 1, the JVP reemerged and started assassinatmg and kidnaping Sri Lankan Gove:nment ollicials. attacking police and milttary posts. and ~nsl~galing stildent demonstralions. We believe that the JVP may have been responstble for the attempted assassination of Pres~dent Jayewardene at a Cabmet rneet~ng August. an incident in which a junior min~ster in was killed and severai other senlor offtcials were ~njured. The JVP has not staged any ~nternatlonal terrorist incidents slnce i t lried l o bomb the US Embassy In 197 1.

Japan
No international terrortst attacks were staged tr. Japan In 1987. We are greatly c c n ~ e r ~ i ehowev~r, d. over indlcat~ons of a resurgence of the Japanese Red Army (JRA) as an active terrorist group. In May 1986. a group callmg itself the Brigade (AIIB) . which we Anti-lmperiahst lnternat~onal belteve is closely linked to, if not part of. the JRA. staged crude rocket and car bomb attacks against the US. Canadian. and Japanese Embassies In Jakarta. In 1967, as described in the section on W ~ s t e r n Europe, the same group cla~rned responsrbtlity for similar attacks against Western embassies in Madrid and Rome None of the perpetrators of the?e attacks was captured. but in November 1987 Japanese police arrested Osantu Maruoka, a top JRA leader, at the Toky.0 airporl. According to his travrl documents. Maruoka had been in and out 01 Japan several t~mes 1987 and had also visited H0r.g dri Xong and the Philippines. He was carrylng a suSstantial amount ol money. whicn suggests that he rn~ght h,lve been establ~shing servcing JRA cells tn Asra Accordirlg lo or Japanese press reports, whde in the Ph~hppmes Maruora met with other JHA members and w ~ l h members of the Communist New People's Army. Even more worrisome. Maruoka possessed an atrline t~cket a fl~ghl Seovi on lor to 7 December. He may have mended to set up a new ceil there or to work with one already In existence to stage terrorlst attacks In South Korea In conjunct!on with the Olympic Games in 1988. JRA terrorists mght also mount attacks such as aircraft h~jacktrigs the semng of or hostages lo galn the release o f Maruoka and other imprisoned JRA members. The Chukaku-Ha (Mlddle Core Facl~on;and other radlc:]' lelt~st groups w~thin Japan comni~lted srnall.scale, pol~tl cally mot-rated acts of sabotage, arson, and rucket-lmng dur~ng year but caused few casuatt~es the and '~ttlc damage The author~t~es responded wtlh eff~c~ent have p o k e enforcment measures stand The Japanese Government has taren a strong pubt~c agatnsl terrorlsm It IS a signatory or the Bonn dnclaratm a:) actwe parllcrpant Ir. \he annual detlberat~ons trle at

South Korea
In past years, the Republlc of Korea has been the vrcfm o f several terrorist incidents instigated by North Korea. The November 1987 destruclion of the South Korean alrlmer by d confessed North Korean agent c which 115 people were n killed has heightened the concern 01 the South Korean Government aboul terrorism. especially In view of the coming 1988 Surnmer Olympics. Btlaterai consultat~or~s counterrerror~sm on t.eld In Washtnyton In September between the South Korean Government and the Un~ted States rernforced the arrangements sharrng tralnrng, and mhlary preparedness for ~nlormat~on The Untted States has publ~cly stated 11ssupport lor a safe and secure Olymp~csThe South Korean Government has also eslabl$iheda jolnl bln~onthly commtttee wllh Japan ro coordmate antlterror~sm cooperat~on related to the Olymprcs FoNowmg the downmg of the Korean a~rlmer. South Korea sttmulated a debate on North Korean terrorlsm In the UN Secur~ty Council and successfully moved a coNemnatory resolu!:on In the Internattonal Clv~l v ~ a l ~ o n A Organ~rat~on flCAO) In early 1988

f,w~v paid asauedey ayi pue do~:ez!14e6~o nay a41 IeplN AlJadoJdJlaql 10 SuaZlll3 Sn 6u,la51ej anmw ili61wI(WM 10 auos . S ~ I I I A I I ~J~S I ~ O J I ~a(qlSScd I r~oddm swllsnbv lesol butlln13a~ uollenlrs aq: jloldxa 01 Aq o t r(liun\~Oddo u e ~pue eAq-1q l o q ah16pino:, spuewap ue i le311qod wt1snyJ o ~ d 1 1laaw 01 amllel p a ~ ~ a a ~ a d IGJUJ 1j raho -uJamDepueu aql q 1 1u o t l ~ e l s ~ ~ e sl s ~ p Jaqjoue u g ~ uo~l
JO S J ~ C U 3 U JAlleulj

committed t q local tnsurgents Fcre~gners, although some- The cnly two terrors1 lnctdcnts In 1987 had little success. (!anyage(! I:) a tines del~oerately selected as targets, were usually ~ c a l v e r - however A bridge in N'Djameva was sl~ghtiy bombing (the bomber h~msell was killed) and a b~l~ldrny ten1 victims or largets ol opportunity. l owned Sy a US reliei agency In a p r o v m ~ ac~:ywas FIV?terror~st altacks allacted US lnteresls in 1987, but only damaged tn a bomblng believed lo be connecled to L~bya bombtrtg In Chad In one ol them-a L~byan-sponsored October-appeared to be deliberalely largefed agalnst US Chad's success agatnsl Libyan terror6m has prlrnartxy resulted from the efforts of 1 securl!y servtces. which hme : s Inlerests. In other attacks mvolving Americans. tw:, mlslolled several atlernpts to srcuggle arms anc' exploslves sior~aries were killed In a massacre in Ztmbabwe. a tourlsl In &he country was wounded in a landmino explos~on along the South Afrcan border. and four persons were kidnaped in two The Central African Republic separale incidents in Mozambique a l d Sudan. although they were released unharmed w~thin few months. a The o.%y a~rcrafl hijacking durmg 1997 occurred on n fl~ght that had originated in the Central Alr~can Republle I' July. a lone Lebanese Shla hijacker. who demanded freedom for Overal!. Ihe preferred types o f . - emat~onal terrorlst dllack a number of imprtsoned H~zballan members and who may cons~sted bombmgs, armed al'acks, alrd k~dnaptngs. ol In himself have belonged to the Hizballah. boarded an Air rOt~ghly equal proportions The oercentagc of k~dnapings was unusually htgh rn cornparicor. wtlh other reglors Seve? A:rique flighl In Bangu~ armed w ~ t h pistol Aiter takecrlf a insurgent groups k~dnaped Ir3.~.~gners gatn to d~llerent from Rome. the h~jacker d~verted plane ro Germa and the po~bllc~ty exlracl ransom rnost re, or demanded that 11 be relueled and Ilovm to Be~rulWhtle Ihe .were released a~rcratt was grounded In Geneva. the h:jacker shot and Stale-sponsored tnternattona! terrorlst attacks accountea killed a French passenger before berng overpowered The lor approx~mdtely one-third of all ~ n c ~ d e r Terrorst ~ls hijacker may have received some support Iron1 Lebanese sponsors In Ihe reglon lncluded L~bya, whlch was respnnst- Shla living In the Cenlral Afrcan Republ~c before he ble for lhree atlacks F O J ~ attacks. marnly borr.bn_5 , were 0 boarded the plane. The incldent demonstrate^ that courltries In wes!ern a i d central Alr~ca. wtth lhe~r substanha1 dlrected at suspected members or supporters 01 the African Nat~onal Congress Strong ev~dence o l ~ t to a p s Lebanese populations, lay. securlty precautions. and an South Afrlcan Governmenl role In some 2: these tnctdenls abundance01 Western targels. may represent an allraclive environment tar terrorlst grnup'l- st!ch as Hlzballah--~n Djibouti search of new locales tn which to carry oui attacks aga~nsl The March bomblng ol a restaurant frequented by French the West ctvll~ans and mllitary was the rnost spectacular a m Westein Paleslmian attack of the year. The bumbmg. Cenlra! Afrtcan Republtc aulnorltles *wtthF r e r i ~ h help have ,wh:ch was probably perpetrated by terrorlsls lrom the attempted lo Improve alrpoft secur~ty lollowmy the July Popular Struggle Front (PSF) w ~ l h L~byan backtng. ktlled I987 hljacklng The government a k o has sent ?'I partlcl 1 1 persons, mciudmg fwe .French sold~ers. The choce o l a panls to a terrorism analys~s course lunded by the US ar IItarget In easlerrl Alrtca lnvolvmg Weslerners suggesls that terrortsw assstance prograrn Palestln~an lerrortsls may look lor new operalmg venues outside the Mtddle Eas! and Weslern Europe. One terrorlsl. Two Suspects were delatned In 1987 durlng an alternpt lo a Tunwan. was apprehended by Dl~boutian aulhor~t~es and b r q explosive devces mlo lbe counlry Governrneni awalts prosecution. au!horltleS Suspect that Ihe IWJ rece~ved devtces Igoro :he :he Libyan People's Bvrea:: irl Cotono,~ Benw Chad Chad has long been ;he larget of te:ror~s; actw!~es carr~ei! out or sponsored by L~bjja

Zimbabwe
There were three distincl forms of violence with an ~nlernatronal dimension In Zmbabwe in 1987 Bombing attacks against Soulh African exiles Included a car bombing in a Harare shoppmg center apparently amed at a South African couple. Some of 'hese arlacks were apparently staged by groups or individuals associated with South Africa. ostensibly act~ng retallation lor In attacks launches against South Afr~ca from Zimbabwean territory. which took place despile genuine efforts by Ihe Z~mbabwe Governmenl to conlrol such actwity.

RFNAMO insurgents k~dnaped Western misslonares and

a13workers on h e separate occasions One group of s?ven


m wonarles taken In May and released In August ~ n c l ~ d e d !\lumerous murders. mut~lat~ons. kidnapings of and

a US cmzen AI least lour of the captlves taken durmg 1987 ,erna~ved RrNAMO hands as of May 1988 ~n
s as hlozamb~que vsponge l o RENAMO has been pol~l~cal u d 2s m ~ l ~ t a r y government has allowed Ihe InlernaIts Ilona1 Conrmt.ee oi the Red Cross to make arrangements

Zimbabwean citizens were carried oul by RENAMO near the Mozambican border. In response to which Zimbabwe increxed 11smilitary presence there. Local armed dissidents occasionally turned on foreign victims, including a massacre of 16 m~ssionaries(two of whom were US citizens) and their family members In November, and the murder of two West German tourlsts in June. The merger o l the two largest po1:tcat parties in December and an arnnesty announced in April 1988 may reduce v~olsfice from this source.

for the release ol persons k~dnaped RENAMO ZmSaby bwe Tanzarita and Malaw1 have asssled by stationing troops In Mozamt que Soulh Alrlca remarns the pr~nc~pal supporter of RENAMO. lhat the South Afr~can altP3ugh there IS no ev~dence Governmen' was a wttlng accomplice In Ihe perpetiaf~on of massacres and the targelmg of crvhans South Alrca has also altacked suspected Afr~can Nat~onal Congress (ANC) targets In Mozamb~queIn a South Afr~can commando r a ~ d Maputo tn May. three Mozamb~cars on unconnected wllh the ANC were k~l'ed

Botswana Despile elforts by the B9lswaria Gov~rnment oefiy to access to its territory. South African dissident groups occasionally p a s through Botswana to carry out anti-Sol~th Alr~can operations. South Africa has at times used these activities as the rationale tor raids agalnst the ostensible perpetrators.
In January. an attack on a house near the Soulh Alrican border killed an elderly woman. A soldier investigat~ng the incident was killed and four others were wounded when a grer..de left at the scene exploded. In April, a car bomb exploded in Gaborone. killing three Botswana citizens: the Boiswana Government, alter a two-monlh investigation. to blamed South Atr~ca.In May. a UK cltlzen claim~ng work lor South African intelhgence tr~ed fail. 1 to assassmate but a prominent South African athlete and antiapartheld

Zambia
During 1987. Zambra experienced several incursions by RENAMO insurgents. South Airlcan commandos carned out atlacks In April against alleged ANC facilities In the border town ot Lwingstone. killing lour people. IIleven bomb~ng inc~dents occulred In Lusaka in 1987. rncludrng a parcel bomb explosion in September In which two postal workers were k~lled. Although r o claim of respor~sibility was made. Zamb~an ofhcials blamed II on agenls of S o l ~ l h Alrca Two olher bomb~ngs were drected against Ihe ANC. whlch has its exterrd headquarters In Lusaka

activtsi. he was tried and sentmced to ftve years imprisonniem on weapons-possessioncharges. One person was trr ~ n p r e d grenade attacks. apparently of South Alr~can otlgln. at four houses and a bookstore in December.

South Afrtca has provlded log~st~c Gther support to and RENAMO ~nsuraents Mozambique who cont~nue In to target clv~l~ans

Namibia Oesp~te South Afr!can and Namibian attempts to curtall ~nfiltrat~on. SoutbWest Alrtcan People's Organizat~on the (SVJAPO) conlinued I n operate sporadicaily in northern Nam~bia during the year Five bomb incidents occurred. lhree i ; W~ndhoek ~ and two in Walvls Bay. Property damage was extenswe. but personal injuries were slight. South Africa Although the struggle against .^.partheid has bcen largely nonvtolent, especially zince i m p o ~ ~ l i ofna State of o Emergency in 1986, it has also generated a cycle of violent repression by the government and violent resistance by the black opposition, which have resulted in some terrorist acttons
The leadership of the Atrican National Congress. the leadmg externally based liberation group, disavows a strategy that dehberateiy targets civilians. Neverlheless. civilians have been vict~ms incidents claimed by or of sttr~buted the ANC In two such incidents-bombings to near a magistrate's court in Johannesburg in May and near the Arrny headquarter; in centrsl Johannesburg in Julyscores of civdians were injured. A cumber of other bombing attacks caused property Camage only. The South African Government has responded to efforts by domestic groups to oppose apartheid by viri ally banning all such groups and rep:essing their activities. While black? continue to be kiiled by the p o k e and military. the number has gone down sharply since imposition of the State of Emorgency. The South Atrican Government's response to externally originated violence has been to attack suspected sources of the acts ir, neighboring counlries. ~ I t a c k S alleged on ANC Ir stallations and operatives in Mczambique and Zambia were car:ied out in 1987, killing three and four people. respectively. At least four incidents of bornbirg and murder in Bolswana were attributed to South Alrican agents. In Zimbabwe 2 bomb also attributed to South Afr~can agen!s was set off in 8 Haraie shopping cenler. gravely ~njurmg exiled South Afr~can an couple

State-Sponsored Terrorism
In its various lorms-provision of sanctuary. training. financial support, weapons and explosives, and dlplomat~c encouragement and assistance-state sponsorship contributes significantly to the capabilities of internalional terrorist groups, espe~ially those of Middle East origin. and enables :hem to operate over a wide geographical range. Some states. although not direct sponsors of terrorist organizations conlribute to the groups' capabil~ties by giving them unimpeded transit facilities or by permitting them to engage in trading enterprises. Assigning responsibility for incidents of state-sponsored terrorism is difficult because the countrtes concerned mask their involvement Of those countries to which we were able to attribute respons~bilitylor supporting international terrorlsm. Afghanistan. Iran. and Libya were the most lrequent sponsors during ;987. Out of a total of 189 worldwide-sponsored incidents. Afghanistan. Iran. and Libya were respoosible for 94 percent- 127, 44, and 7 incidents, respectively. North Korea, which acts directly againsr South Korean targets rather than through s?lrr3gates. is ano!her country of great concern. Other governments, including several Warsaw Pact members, conrinued to provide weepons, training, refuge. and other support for a variety of.terrorisl groups.

Afghanistan The Afghanistan-sponsored teriorist campaign in 1987 spread beyond the North-West Frontier Province to major cities in Pakistan. The campaign is being waged by the Afghan Minist:y ot State Security. WAO. In addition to assassinations and bombing of civilians, the campaign included attacks against public utilities in rrajor cities. particularly in the North-West Frontier Province. Pakistan's Presidenl Zia asssr:ed in November In.?! the bombings were staged "at the behes, of the So.,,er Urion." but Moscow has vehemently denied any c,)rni,lt; y.

--

Table 3 Countries Providing Diplomatic or Quasi-Diplomatic Status to the PLO

Ou?vD~p:ornabc liecogvlion

Near Ear;lSou'h Asia Alghantstan Alger~a Bahram Bangladesh


Egypt lnd~a

Iran Iraq
JC

dan

KLWJI!

L~bya Mald~ves Morocco Paklstan Oalar Saud~ Arab~a

South Yemen
Sn Lanka
Tunlwa Un~ted Arab Em~rales Yemen Arab Repubhc

Europe Austr~a Bulgaria Cyprus Czechaslovak~a East Gemany Greece Hungary llaly Malta Netherlands
Pgiand Rcmanm Turkey USSR v~~goslavu

In view of Ihe close relationship .VAD has ,ui:h Ihe KGB. however. we consider :t hkely lhat the Soviet Union has been cognizant of Afghan intelligence's ovora!l operadons in Pak~stsn Most ot the explosive devices recovered In Pakistan durlny lhe terror~stcampaign have been o: Soviet manufacture. Sorne of this materiel can be purchased on the international black markel. but the time-delay devices used in many o f the bombings can be obtamed only through Soviel sources. A Pakcsrani Government report states !hat approximately 1.500 Soviel advisers work with the WAD. We expect most Soviet advcsers t o leave Afghanistan as their troops withdraw. Afghan agents have also carried out terrorlsl operations in Irart, although details of these aclivit~es not well k ~ o w n . are WAD agenls are widely credited with assassmating a major Mulahedin leader in Iran last ycar. In Iheir Insurgency agacnst Ihe Kabul reglme. Mulahedm g'lerrillas generally eschew acts of v~olence that put clv~llans jeopardy Some bombs were detonated In In Kabul. however In afsas where Ihe l~kelihood causlng of c~vrl~an casualties was h ~ g h The Mulahedm clalmed responsibrlily for a car bomb blast In Jalalabad 117 1987 in which there were signif~cant crv~lcan casualhes The U n ~ t e d States has reg~stered slrong concerns to the Afghan Government as well as w ~ t h Sovier Union over the :he WAD campa~grl and will conlmue l o monitor Ihe s~tuat~nn closely
Iran 0 the 4 4 terrorlsl ~ n c ~ d e ninsw h ~ c h 1 l Iran was idenlitled as

SyrnDolrc of Iran's w,l'~~gncss speriscv !erlo ror#sr artacks agilmsl Saud! Alab8an rarqers. a crowd ot lranrans burn an e::qy cf K , n g Fahd ou!side Ihe S x d Ernoassy .n Te.+rav c c i ~ 8 Augbsr 1987

the sponsor. we recorded 25 In the Middle East. 10 In Weslerri Europe. and nine in Asla. The preferred means were bombings (27) and armed attacks (13). Tehran uses lerrorlsn sk~llfully and selectwely to supporl 11slongterm objectwes of ridding the Middle East of a!l W ~ s l e r n influence. mlimidatlng Iranian d~ssidenrs overseas. forclng Arab countrtes to end thetr support for Iraq. and exportmg Khornecnl's v~sion a radlcal lsiam~c of revolul~on all parls to leaders of the Mushrn world We belleve Ihal most lran~an agree :ha1 terrorism is ao acceplable p o k y opt!on. although some may disaaree on spec~fic opcrarlons

B e g l m n g In early January 1987. Ira11 slepped lip 11s support for inlernat~onal terrorism *?hen 11sstate agents or surrogate groups. Allempled l o pul pressure on Saud~ Arabla. Kuwait. and other moderale Arab states both in thz P e c 7n Gulf area an3 In Europe by ter:or~sl acls. Allegedly ordered f t ~ e ~ d n a p ~ n gILebancn of IJS k In lournallst Charles Glass. Assasslna!ed lraruan delectors and dljsidenls I the n ~ni:&d Kingdom. S~wttzerlancf, VJest Germany. Turkey. and Pak~sran Began a ,worldw~de search to ~denl!fy polenoel ILJS targets ior ferrorrst attacks

lran cont~ni~ed poltcy ot recrui: .ijcor$ltg~ontsts 11s from Pers~an Gull slates for training in Iran, where 11provtded !hem w ~ t h training in subversion ar!d terrorism. Although some of the terrorist acts in the Persian Gulf Stales d ~ r i n g the year may have been conducted w~thoutIran's explicit authorizat~on knowledge. Tehran most likely approved or such acts In principle. ees~des Lebanese-based the Hizhallah. Iranian-backed factions that may h w e been used to conduct or support terrorism tnclude the Supreme Assembly lor the Wamic Republic of Iraq: the Organizat~on of the Islamic Revolut~on the Arabian Peninsula: the In Wamtc Front for the Libwarion of Bahrain: and the Islamic Call Party (Dawa) which has branches in Bahrain. Kuwait. andLebanon

lran has made the el~mtnation regtme oppcrlents 31 home of and abroad a malor goal of ~ t s terrorist actlvtl~es. the In past. Iranian agents have hunted down and kdled d6S1dents In Europe. the Un~ted States ihe M~ddle Eas:, and Asla In Jawary 1387. for tnstance. a defector who had been chrel prlot for Ralsanpv. Speaker of the lrantan Assembly, was shot dead in West Germany All told. seven d~ss~dents murdered In Europe and two others were threatened Terrorcst attacks against anti-Khornetn~ dlsstdents In South Asia are menlloncd In the sectlon on Pakistan lran undoubtedly views terrorism as a potentla1major weapon in its conirontat~on with the Ulvted States in the Persian Gulf. Many Iranian leaders have claimed publicly that Shia terroiism against the US Marmes in Beirut compelled the United States to w~thdraw m~l~iary its forces. thus dealing the Un~led States a humhating defeat. In 1987. as the United States mcreased its mihtary involvement ivr the Gulf. Iranian leaders drew parallels between events in Lebanon in 1983-94 and current developments. Although no Iranian-backed terrorist attacks were staged against specific US targets during the year. we believe that during the summer o f 1987 lran began to formulate conlingency plans lor anti-US lerrorisl operations.

lran has maintained its campaign against the Persian Gult states In Juns 1986. Kuwatti Shia terrorists bombed several ott tnstallal~ons Kuwait Iran's act~ons Kuwa~t In in in 1987 are descrtbed ~n the Kuwait secllon. Bahrai too. was the target of an iranian-inspired terrorist plot. According to press reports, lran trained a Bahraini oil engineer to sshotage Bahrain's o?ly oil refinery and to czrry out other anti-Bahra~nt attacks. Bahrain authorities were able to arrest htm in late December. however. shortly before the attacks were to take place

..

Followtng the bloody Iran~an-tnsl~gated clashes durmg the Hall p~lgrimaye Mecca In July 1987, wh~ch to resulted In hundreds of lran~ans betng k~lled. Iranian leaders publicly urged the overthrow of the Saud~ rultng lam~ly, revenge lor the deaths of the lrantan plgrrms and an ertd to Saudr control ober lslarn~c Holy Places In Saud~ Arabla We terrorists were respons~ble the tor suspect that pro-lran~an Oornbmg of a Saudi bank In Parts In September. The tprrorist threat to Saud~ Arab~a remalns h~gh Lebanon remams the malor locus of Iran's support for terrorism As in previous years. In 1987 lran prov~ded major assistance tc Huballah, the extremtst Lebanese Sh~a group that regularly engages ~ r terrorism. ~nclud~ng kidnaptng , the ol fore~gn hostages (see sect~on Lebanon) and other on attacks 01 Western targets lran does not compblely control Hzballah but retams mlluerce over the group's acilv ttes-rnosl notably Cn hostage questtons-through 11sproctslon of ftnanc~al support, weapons and tra~ning Several Iraniart Revolutionary Guard r ~ - t ~ t s In Lebanon are colocated w ~ t h Hizballah detachmenrs Furthermore lor extrernisl Sh~a ieaapon Khomeim remains the exemplar tn of Islamic revolut onary #deal,

Libya
Although detectable Ltbyan involvement in terrorlst actl'vity dropped signdicantly in 1986and :987 after the US alr raids in April 1986. Oadhafi shows no signs of forsakmg terrorism. His desire to establsh himsel! as an !slam~c and Third World revolutionary leader causes htn~ es'abllsh to links to or provide aid to almost any group that opposes h ~ s enemies. Qadhafi's contacts with dissident groups around Ihe world follow no geographic patlern but simply seek alllances ol opportunity The rec~pients his assistance of incluae several interftational terrorlst groups as well as a range ol insurgent and other dlssldent movements. Lhyan interest in a:lacking French targets Increased s~gnificantly 1387, probably because of France's support in lor the Government of Chad in rts frght againsf ! ,byan invaaers.

Ltbya had already started to conduct surveit~ance agatnst a range of potenttal French targets in 1986. and we suspect that Oadhafl may have been behind an attack agalnst a government bcilding in F-ench Guyana in January !987. Furt!ier attacks were staged against French Interests followiny .>adhall's defeats in Chad In March: A Ltbyan-supported rad~cal Palesttnian terrorist group.the Popular Struggle Front, was niosl likely responsible for the anti-Western bombing in Djtbouti in March that ktlled 11 persons. Qadhafi may have had a hand In the assassination of two French gendarmes in Beirut In October The terror~st group ASALA. whtch may have been responsible, has a long htstory of ttes to Oadhafi. We have tittle doubt that the US air raids on Libya in 1986 conirlbuted heavily to Oadhaft's subsequent caution. At the same lime, however, we are equally sure that he cont~nued planntng lor anti-US attacks involving the use of surrogate groups to disgutse Libyan responsibiltty We belteve lhat Libya also tncreased its sl~rveillance US of facil~ties and personnel during the year, part~cularly Subin Saharan A h a . On at least two occasions, there may have been a Libyan hand In terrorist incidents. First. the attempted murder of the three IJS Embassy employees ~nEgypl in May was carried out by the Egypt's Revolution. a group alleged to have connections tc Libya (the three sons of the late Egyptian President Nasser have close lies to Oadhafi) : and. second, a bomb was set off tn October at the offices of the prtvate volunteer organlzatlon World Vls~on Moundou in in Chad. Oadhal~ also trted to retallate lor the United Kingdom's role the 1986 US atrstr~kesIn Aprll, shortly after the fvsl anniversary of the US alr raids two men wounded a Brtt~sh Army warraqt offlcer and h ~ compamon traveltng tn a car s near L~massol Cyprus Two Arabs later arrested for the In attacks were rdent~fned L~byan-svpported as terrorists who had prev~ously part~ctpated a 1986 attack on the Brlt~sh In a~rbase Akrotlrl al
1 .

includtng surface-to-a~r missiles Several known PlRA members were on board the vessel. which had been loaded in Libya. The sue of Ihe sh~pment has led some observers to speculate lhat some ol the weapons may have been intended for distribut~on other terrorit. groups. UK to authoriltes suspec! thal the Eksund I shloment may have 1 been preceded by four others from Ltbya. Libya contmued to hunt down its dissidents overseas Libyan agents murdered two ex~les 1987 and a third in attempt tailed: In January, a Libyan businessman and known antiOadhafi activist was assassinated In a tavern in an Athens suburb. The gunmen escaped. In May, an attacker trted but faded to k ~ l l promdent antla Oathati acttvlst in V~ennaHe dropped h ~ L~byan s passport at the scene whde fleelng Into the nearby Llbyan People's Bureau The attempt was the second on the diss~dent's In just over two years hfe

In June. two assassms In Rome killed the Cairo office chief of the National Front for the Salvat~on Libya, who of was a well-known opponenf of Oadhafi The two nien were captured and ~dent~lied themselves as agents of the Libyan Revolutionary Committees.

Oadhali has consistently offered support for radical Palestiniangroups involved In terrorism. Libya has had close operat~onal to the Abu Ntdal organcatlon lor at ties least three years, and we believe that Tripoli offered sanctuary and other lacilities to many A N 0 leaders in 1987, after the group was expelled lrom tts headquarters 1 1 1 Damascus. Oadhal~ also sought w~th ttltle success to establish lmks to antt-Westernor antlregime dtssldents In the Cartbbean and Paclftc regtons L~bya suffered a setback tn the Cartbbean when one of 11soffictals-a key terror~srn coord~nator lor the area-was excluded lrom Suriname, Trndad. and Venezuela Before hts exclus~ondocuments had been found In h ~ s possession glvlng deta~ls Ltbyan terror~srn of plans lor t3e Cartbbean In the Pactfic. plans were thwarted

A spectacular Frer , counlerterror~st h success In 1987 revealed Ltbya's deep cornpllc~ty supportmg PIRA In the In Un~ted Klngdorn In Oclober. French authortlies Intercepted a coastal freighter. the Eksund II. off the coast of France and selzed 150 tons of weapons and explosves.

vrher~ Libya was refused permission to open a L~byan Peoole's Bureau ifoVanuatu and its Bureau in Canberra was closed by Australtan authortiies

Syria
in a radlcal change from Syria's prevlolx close lnvolvemenl lri supporliny internallonat terrorism, we detected only one terrors! operation In 1987-a Kurdish Worker's Party (PKK) cross-border attack-in which, accordtng to several sources, Syria was implicated, compared w ~ t h In six 1986 and 34 in 1985. As part of an atlempt to end Syria's dtplomatic and economic isolation. Pres~dent Assad, in a highly publtcized move in June 1987, ousted Ihe A ~ I Nidal J organization lrom Damascus. Syria also put pressure on Iran atid Hizballah to release US journalist Charles Glass in August and claims to have tried to secure the release of other foretgn hostages held i r ~ Lebanon. Nevertheless, the Abu Y~dal organ~zation and other terrorists malntain camps In Syrian-control!ed areas of Lebanon, and, despite Syria's atlernpls to improve security, known terrorists continue to pass easily through tne Syrian-conlrol\ed Betrut airport Furthermore. Falesttnians who have promoted terrorism In the past are st111 present in Damascus. We belleve that Syria was lnvolved in supporting attempts by Palestmian groups to cross the border and carry out armed attacks against Israeli targetsin 1987. Most of these attempts failed. Syria malntains lhat this support is part of its asststance for the Palestinian nat~onal libetalion rnovemefit. but, unlike previous years. Syr~a Itmiled such support to groups atiacking only lsraeh targets In the Mtddle Easl. Syrla may also bear at least parltal responstb~ltty several lor attacks by the PKK. ~ncludmg on one cross-border terror~st a Turk~sh vdlage In March during whch elght persons were ktlled According l o press reports, Syr~a provtdes refuge and tratntng to the PKK In tls vlolenl antl-Turklsh ~rredentlsr cartlpaign The press also reported that Syr~an support lor t k PKK was on Ihe agenda durmg the Turktsh Pr~me M~n~ster's to Damascus c July YISI~ n Other Mlddle Eastern terror~st groups that. we belleve. svpport include Abu MUM. conllnue lo receive some Syr~an the Popu!ar Struggle Front, the Popular Front for lhe Llberat~on Patesttne the Armenfan Secret Army for the of Liberation ol Armenta. !he Jordan~an People's Ravoluttonary Party, the Syrian Soc~al Nat~onaltst Party Satqa, and the Japanese Red Army

We expect tha: Syr~a contlnile its sponsorship of wtll terror~sm. that it will act circumspectly because of tls but keen interest in preventing the imp3stlion of further Western political and economic sanctrons, or the reinposi1ton of those already lilted. We believe. therefore. that 11s ~nvolvemenl be confmed lo the M~di-lle w~ll Eas! agslnsl targets not identified w ~ l h West European or US interests.

South Yemen
We have detected I N e evldence of d~rect South Yernent tnvolvement In sponsoring lnternattonal lerrorlsm slnce the early 1980s and believe that the new rerjlme, whlch came Into power followmg a bloody internectrx confl~ct In January 1986, may have dectded to contlnue 11s predecessor's p o k y of reduclng close tles to terrorist groups The regtme appears preoccupredw ~ t h serlous domest~c poitt~cal and economtc problems and may have been respons~ble a car bomb and letter bomb explolor snns n Sanaa (North Yemen) In 1987, dlrected asitnst supporters of the prevtous regime In 1987. South Yemen persisted In Its longstandtng policy of allow~ng Palest~n~an groups lncludtng elements 01 the Abu N~dal organ~zation, Democrat~c the Front for the L~beral~onPalestme, and Ihe Popular Struggle Front to of malotam olftces ~ rAden The Popular Front tor the t L~beratton Paleslme-Specla1Command has 11sheadof quarters there As long as these lacll~t~es contlnue l o be offered. South Yemen rlsks bemg Itnked to oberseas attacks staged by any of these groups

lraq
Iraq, which prev~ousty had been on the US Government's terror~sm 'until removed In 1982, denies any relalionlist shtp l o terror~st organizations The Abu Nidal organtzatton was expelled in 1983: since then. lraq has slrlven lo 'The "ter~orism6 1 " IS a llsr of counltjes lormally des~gnated y 1 b Ihe Secrelary ol Staleundet me US Export Adrriin~stratron ol Act 1979 as navlng ~epealedty provide6 suppori Ic~r acls ol InrerneI m a l lerrorlsm Congress musl be mlormed beforegoods over s certain value ere exported ro these countries Iraq IS mcludet!in !he secllon Of !he 1987 Parlerns 01 G!obal Terwrtsm Reporl dw!~r;g with Slate SupC'OrI 01 terrorism because 11 appearerl or1 the "tefrorlsm Its!" wilhm !he prevlous five years lraq .MIInor oe IncludedI lulu~e n reDorrs unless c~icunstances ivarrani isciustotl

estabhsh a new international image as a state abliorr~ng terrorism. Th~s effort is no doub! designed to engender ~nterna:!onal support as the Iran-Iraq war continues. Certain Palestmiar~ terrorst groups. however, such as the Patestman L~berat~on Front and remnants of the May 15 Or~anizaiion, known to have received sanctuary and are asslstance from Iraq since 1983 Some groups may have cont~nuad receive aid in 1987 to

safehaven, weapons, and pot~t~cal fmancial support lo and a wtde range of leftist and ~nsurgent organ~zat~ons llse thar terror~sm Latrn Amer~ca.~ncluding ~n groups lrom El Salvador. Guatemala Ecuador Ch~le. and Colomb~aTINS support pers~sted 1967 We are also aware of longstandin Ing contacts between Cuba and Puerto Rican ferrorlst groups

Nicaragua
Like Cuba, in 1987 Nicaragua corrtinued tosupply materiel and training to a numSer of terrorist and o!her dissident groups in Central and South America and the Car~bbean. The regime maintains close t~es the M- 19 insurgency in to Colombia, the Atfredo Vive Carajo group in Ecuador. and the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement in Peru. Nicaragua continues to provide support for the Fai.,bundo Marti Liberation Front (FMLN) in El Salvador despite its commilment under the terms of Ihe August 1987 Gua;emala Agreement to end such asslstance. In years past. Ntcaragua has also provided safehaven to terrorlsts trom Western Europe, including Italy's Red Br~gades and the Basque ETA group, but we have not detected any evidence that Nicaragua has directly sponsored specil~c terrorist attacks by lhese groups.

North Korea The ar\gie most lethal international terror~st attack In 1987 occurred in Asla and heralded the return 01 North Korea as an active agent of state terrorism for the first time since i t bombed the Martyr's Memorial in Rangoon lour years earlier. On 29 Noverrber. Korean Air Flight 858 disappeared en route from Abu Dhabi to Bangkok, probably over the Andaman Sea. All 115 aboard were killed. A couple who boarded the flight in Baghdad and left it in Abu Dhab~ were arrested in Bahram on 1 December for Iravelrng on false Japanese passputs as father and daughter. As they were bemg interrogated. they bit into cyanide capsules concealed In cigarettes. The rnan died, but the woman surv~ved and was later deported to Seoul. She has since publicly confirmed thar the pair were North Korean mtell~gence agents who had placed the bomb on the aircraft in therr carry-on luggage
According to Ihe surv~ving terrorist, the KA 858 bombing was the slart of a campaign to disrupt the Olympic Games In 1988. We believe it possible that the bombmg was the f~rst a planncd series of terroris'pvenls intended to tn nortray South Korea as unsafe. North Korea will probably not host any Olymprc events in P'yongyang or participate in the Games-a situation that might encourage 11 to stage further d~sruptive acts. On the other hand. with only a few exceptions. most Communist and Third World countries will take part In the Olympics, this participation. coupled with widespread inlerfiational belief In Norlh Korean complicity in Ihe bombing 01 the airbner. might act to deter F'yolgyang.

The Soviet Union and Eastern Eurape


As in years past. some Sovie: Bloc countr~es contmued In 1987 lo provide some d~rect and indirect assistance lo terrorist groups. Such support usually was given under the sidlng "nat~onal liberation movements" and pretext GI ranged from permitting transit for known terrorlsts to providing arms. explos~ves. trainmg. funding. and pol~t~cal encouragement. Soviet Bloc countries also provided state sponsorsof terrorism. such as L~bya and Syrla, wlth large amounts of arms and explosives, some of which were then distributed to terrorist groups. A prlme example ol this indirect support came to light in the French mterception ol the PIRA-boundLtbyan arms shipment. almost all of which. we believe, was supplied by the Soviet Bloc. Finally, according to press reports. Poland and East Germany had permitted Ihe Abu Nidal organzallon to operate tradmg oflices lrom the~r territory for several years unl~l. the lace ot internal~onal In concern, they closed them

Cuba
We were unable to trace d~rect sponsorshrp ol an interna. t~ondl terror~st attack to Cuba In 1987 S~nce 19%. however. Cuba has tralned and sunported guerr~ilas throughout the world. ~nctudmg Palest~n~ans Such tralnlng has become ~rlcreas~nyly spec~at~zed Cuba has provided

down rn 1997 Cornmercral agents trorn the Abv N~dal organcallon IP the off~ces acted as brokers rn several arms sales ~nvolvmg Poland and East Germany Some of the weapons sold In the transactions were made In the Soviet B!oc and may have ended up wlth Mrddle East lerrorrst groups The Abu N~dal organcallon used the prof~ts from these venlures to l~nance own actrvltles 11s The Unlted States regufarly raised its cmcerns regardmg terrorism with the Sov~ets and ths East Europeans, and I r l domg so may have persuaded Eastern Bloc countries to d~stance themselves somewhal from terrorism.

Worldwide Overview ot Organizations That Engage in Terrorism

Middle East

Abu Nidal Organization (ANO)

AKA. Fatah Revoluttonay C s u n i.A:XI i ? e , .:~l.c,:ar, ~ Counc~l. Arab Revol~!~ona.y Brqades. Black Sec.tnnoe1 Revolut~orary 0rgantza;:on c l Soc~alistMuslurs

Description Internat~onal terror~s!orpntia!1on leG by S a m A: 6anr.a Split from PC0 In 1974 M a l e up of various !wc;tona! cornrn~llees. lncludlng pol111cal. nv!~lary. d fixanc~al a Activitier Hascarrled our 90 terrorist attacks since 1974 In 20 countrtes killmy or lnjurlng almost 900 people Targe!s !he Un~ted States. I t e Untted Kingdom. France Israel n o d e i ate Pales! -!an% and. at times. !he PLO ~lselt. aqd vatlocis Afab counlr~es. depending on w h c h slate IS sponsoring 11 at the t ~ m eMajor attacks loclude Rome and V~enrla a~rports December 1985. the Neve Shalom synagogue tn In Istanbul. and the Pan Am Fltyhl 73 h~lacktng Karacht In in September 1966

Strength
Several hundred. plus "rn~litia" tn Lebanon and overseas Suppofi struciure

LocationlArea of Operatione Headquartered in lraq (1974-83) and Syrta (1383-87). currently based In L ~ b y a and Lebanon, major presence In AI B ~ q a (Bekaa) Valley and several Palesllnlan refugee camps tn Lebanon Also has presence In Alger~a Has demonstrated abhty l o oper?le over w ~ d e ares including Mlddle Easl. Asla, and Curope External Aid Has recelvea cons~derable support. ~ n c t u d ~ n g safehaven. tralnlng, loglst~c assistance. and f ~ n a n c ~ a l from lraq a~d (until 1983) and Syr~a(unltl 1987) Conl~nues recewe to ald from L~bya. addthon to close support for selected In operations, such as Ihe use of Ltbyan dlplornattc pouches to transport weapons, exptoswes, and false passports
' GTOUDS hued mclude lhose we detlne as :errowl because of 1t.e type G attacks they regulatly roount insurrjenl giodps Ihal I

frzquenlljj engage Ir letror,srn. anc urnbre:la organmmos comn groups posed b part of rerror~s:

Unt~i recently, the Governments of East Germany and Poland permtted the AN0 to operate businesses In Warsaw and East Berlrr. AKA. A!-'Asila (stcrm)

Description l-!eaded by Yasir Arafat. Fatah joined !he PLO i~1968 and won the leadersh~p role in 1969. Its commanders were expelled from Jordan following vlolent confrur~tation with Jordaniari forces in 1970-71, beginning with "Black September" In 1970, Israeli invasion of Lebanon In 1982 led to group's dispersal to several Middle Eastern counIrles. including Tunisia. Soulh Yemen. North Yemen. Algeria. and others. Has been reinfdtrating southern Lebanon for several yea;s. Ma~ctains several military and ~ntell~gence wmgs. including Force 17 and the HawariiSpeciat Operations Group. Activities In 1960s and 1370s. Fatah olfered training to wide range of European. Middle Eastern. Asian, and African terrorist and insurgent groups. Carr~ed numerous acts of internaout tional terrorism in Western Europe and Middlr: East in earlyto-mid- 1970s. Strength
6.000 to 8.000.

LocationJArea of Operations
Turlis~a.Lebanon. and other M~ddle Eastern countr~es

External Aid Has had close, longstanding ties to Saud~ Arabia. Kuwalt. and other moderate Persian Gulf states. from which lt contrnues to receive major funding Also has had links to Jordan Receives weapons, explosives. and training from the USSR and other East Eufopean slates. Chiva and North Korea have replrtedly provided some weapons Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA)
AKA. The Orly Group. 3rd October Organiza\ion

Description Marxist-Lenlnist Armenian lerror~st group formed in 1975 w~th stated mtention to compel Turk~sh Government to acknowledge publlcly its alleged responsibil~ly the lor deaths of 1 5 m~llioc Arrnen~ans 1915. pay reparations. ~n

and cede :err~tory an AimenIan horieland Led !?} for Hagop Hagoplan ( r ~ p o r l e to have been A?snscmnn!erl d 11 Athens m May 1938)

Activities lnltial borl~blng assasslnatlofi attacks :l~:ected ayalnsl and Turkish targets Later at!acKed French and Swiss targets io lorce release o! ~mprlsoned comrades. Made several rnlnnr bombmy attacks agalnsl i!S a~:!ineoff~ces Western in Europe in early 1980s. Bombing of Turkrsh a!rline cs::nler at Orly arrport tn Pans in 1983-eight killed and 55 woundeg-led to spl~l group over rationale for causlng In rnd~scrlminate casualt~es. Suffermg from Internal sch~sms. group has beer1relatively inactive over pas1 three years but according to press reports. assassinated several Armenlan r~vals Lebanon in 1985 and 1986 ~n Strength Several hundred LocationIArea of Operations LebanonlWestern Europe. Un~ted Stales. Canada, and M~ddle East External Aid Has rece~ved aid. lncludmg tralning and satehaven, lrom Syr~aMay also receive some aid from Libya. Has extenstve tles ro Palestlnran ter:orist groups, inc~ud~ng PFLP and the PFLP-GC
15 May Organization

Description Formed In 1979 from remnants of Wad1 Haddad's P o p ~ ~ l a t Front for the Liberal~on Palesl~ne/Special ol Operallons Group (PFLP-SOG) Led by Muhammad Al-Umar~, who 15 known tt~roughout Palesllnran clrcles as the bomb tnan ' Group was never part ol PLO Reportedly d~sblrlded the In rnld- ~ e o s Activities Clalmed cred~t several bombings In the early-!omidfor 1980s. lncludlng holel bombmy In London (Januar/ 1980). El Al's Rome and Istanbul otfces ( 198 1 ) . arid lsraeh Embassies rn Athens and V~enna(1981) Anh-US attacks lncluds a bomDlng on board Pan Am fligh: from TOKYO Honolulu In August 1982 and attempred oombmy to O! a Pan Am alrllner In RIOde Janwo in Augus! 158 I Strength 50 to rj0 In early 79805 Curreni slrengtfi t~r~known

LocationlArea of Operations Eaghdad until 198.i Externel Aid Probably recelved IOglStiC an5 !lnanclal suppcrl from IrX] untll 1984 Force 17 Description Formed in early 1970s as a personal secur~ty force lor Arafat and other PLO leaders Activities According t o press sources. In 1985 expanoed operalions t o include terrors! allacks against Israeli targets In Seplember 1905, cla~med :esponsib~l~ty killing three for Israelis In Cyprus. an ~ n c ~ d e lhat was followed by Israeli nt alr raids on PLO bases in Tunisia. Strength Unknown LocationlArea of Operations B e ~ r ubefore 1932. Since then. dispersed In several Arab l countrfes External Aid PLO IS maln source of support Hizballah (Party of God)
AKA. lslam~c J~had. Revolut~onary Justce Organ~zat~on

Description Rad~cal h ~ a S group fo-med In Lebanon ded~catedo l creal~or, Iran~an-style of lslam~c e p u b k In Lebanon and r mtluences from area Strongly removal o l all non-lslam~c and large~y antt-Western and anti-Israel Closely allled w ~ t h d~rected Iran In 11sactivltles by Activities Known or suspecled 10 have been ~nvolved numerous tn anll-US terror~sl atlacks. lncludmg the sulcldal car bombIngs i n B e ~ r uIn October 1983 and the US Embassy annex l In September 1994 The group IS respons~ble the for kldnaplng and conhnumg delent~on most. t f no1 all, ct lCle of US and other Western hoslages In Lebanon Slrength Several thousand

Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG)

A K A Armenla? Revoluttcriarv 4:my ( A R A I

Strength

Unknown
Location1Area 01 Operetiona U o k w u r Operates In Wes;e:ft Eurcpe 5n1:t.C 5:ari.s. Canada arrd Mlddle Edst
8

Lebanese Armed Revolu. tionary Faction (LARF)

Activities Selec!eC assa~s1na110r1 Somu;ng alraclrs q ? l r t S : Y i X ' an0

( 1982). suspected ~nvotvement murder of IJS b a d of in Stnai Multinational Force and Observers in Rome (1984). and attempled murder of U S Cnnsu! :kneral In Sfrasbourg (1984) Georges Abdaliah was arrested In France in I984 and IS currently servlng a I!!e senlence there

Strength 20 tu 30 Locstionfarea of Operstions Northern Lebanonloperate; in Lebanon m d ullesletn Europe. External Aid Press source claims that LARF has rece~ved both ftrndtng and dlrect~on from Syrla and has lmks to several terrorst Acton Ine groups in Western Europe. ~nclc~d~rig D~recle. Red Brigades, and the Red Army Fachon No evidence 01 Syr~an support irt 1987 Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) Description Terrorist group that brrke away tram \he PFLP-GC,in m~d1970s Laler split again into pro-PLO, pro-Syrian, and proLibyan factrons. Pro-PtO faction led by Muhammad Abbas (Abu Abbas), who became member ot PLO Executive In 1984.
Activities Pro-PLOrespOnsiblefor October 1585 attack on the cruise ship Achille Lauro and the murder cf US citizen Leon Klingholfer. Also attacks Israeli targets.

Slrenglh

SO.
LocetionlArea of Operations PLO taction based in Tun~s~a Achitle Lauro altack until Press sources claim group now based In Iraq. External Aid Receives lpgislic and mtlitary support manly from PLG Given sarictuary In Iraq Palestine Liberation Organizelion (PLO) Description Founded rn 1964 as a Palestln~an n~tronailsturnbrelte organratlon. inc:ddlng same radtcal terrorist components dedrcated to Ihe establ~shment an rndependent Pa1eslr.l01 ian state Afler the 1967 Arab-Israel1war control devolved

to the leadership of the varloils fedayeen mrlrlia group?, Ihr most dcminant 01 which wasvas~r Arafat. In 1969. Arala! became chairman of the PLO's Executrve Cammttee. a posrtlon he stiil Folds In ea::y 1980s. became flagmenled into several contending groups but remeins the preernlnent Paleslin~an organizat~on. The Untted States constdois ;he PLO to be an umbrella organization that includes several consttt~lenl groups and indtviduals hcldtng dilferlrlg vrews on ter!ortsm. A1 Ihe same time. US policy acceots lhat elements of the PLO have advocated. carrred out, or accepted responsibility !or acls of lerrorism.

Activities In the early 1970s. several groups afhltated wtth the PLO carr~ed numerous mlernatronal terrorist attacks By the out mtd- 1970s under mternalionalpressure :he PLO claimed 11 would restrict attacks to Israel and the occupred terr~tor~es Elonelheless. several terrortst attacks have been cawed out slnze then by groups at least affrltated wrth the PLOIFatah, lncludtng Ihe Hawar1Group the Palesttoe L~berat~on Front and Force 17 Accurate publrc Informat ~ o n ftnancral support for the PLO by Arab governments on IS dtfflcult to obtarn The November 1978 Arab Leasue summrt meettng In Baghdad agreed on allo~at1or1 of f:rancral contrtbut~ons the Frontlrna Slates In the Arab to Israetr drspule end to the PLO Under thrs ag:eement, the PLO was l o recelve $300 mrll~on annually. with Saudt Arab~a. Kuwa~t, Un~ted the Arab tm~rates. Qatar Ira2 Ltbya, and Alger~a conlr~butorsThe Saudls publicly as announce ttiar annual contc~hutlon $65 m!!hoi\ the Of extent lo whlch other parties have fulltlled theu comnirlments has not been made publlc Payments made under the agreement wtll lapse in 1988 Strength See numbers for aflrlrated groups LocationlArea of Operations Tunis. other bases in vartous courlt~les Ihe M~ddle In East External Aid See atttl~ated groups Popular Front for +heLiberation of Palastine (PFLP) Description Marxist-Lenrnal grsup founded #n1967 by George Habbash After PLO, mc ; ~mportant I m~l~tary pol~t~cal 2nd Patestlntan organtrallon Pronoles revulutlon among Palesllnian group and Arab world gerterally Leadmg force In

rhe Reje:hon Frcnt Opposed ro Arafat's PLO and rep~dtates compromtse w ~ t h any Israel although now accepts 3 two-stale soldlton (Israel and an mdependenl Palestme) Has spawned Soveial dangerolls spllnter groups Activities Csrnrnllled numerous inle. iatlonal terrorist attacks between 1970 and 1977 agatnst a w~de range of Western targets. Smce death In 1978 of Wad1 Haddad. its terrorlsl s l planner. PFLP has carr~ed ~nurrierous attacks, sorne cla~med, some attributed to it, all against Israel1or moderate Arab targets. Has achteved rapprochement w ~ t h several moderale Arab reglmes to dispel 11simage as a lerror1st organizalicn Strength 800. LocationlArea of Operations Syrla and Lebanbi Exlernal Aid Rece~ves mosl of 11sllnanc~al and rnhtary assistance irom Syrta and Llbya Popular Front for the L~beration of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC) Description Spllt from Ihe PFLP In 1968. cla~mmg Ihal 11 wanted lo focus more on l~ghtlng and less on pollt~csMember of Rejection Front snd v~olently opposed to Aratat's PLO Led by Ahmad Jabrtl, a former captatn tn the Syrlarl Army Closely aked w~th, supported by, and probably recetves dtroc!~on from. Syrla Activities Cla~ms have specialized In sulclde operallons Has I? carr:ed out numerous cross-border lerrortst attacks Inlo Israel, u s q unusual means. such as hot alr balloons and rnotorlzed hang g!vers Strength Several hundred members LocstionlArea of Operations Headquarters In Damascds wtth bases In Lebanori External Aid Recetves loglstlc and rnhlary s ~ p p o rfrom Syr~aIt5 ch~e! l sponsor Sa!ehaven ~ rSjr.a t

Popular Froat tor t h UbMatlon of pds.tbrs-gpeci8l ComRlmd (PFLP-SC)

Doscriplion Marxist-Leninist group formed by Salim Abu Sallm in 1979 after breakingaway from the nowdefunct PFLP-Special Operations Group. Reportedto have ties to the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberationof Armenia (ASALA) , the Abu Nidal organization, and the Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Faction.
Activltisr Has claimed responsibility for several notorlousinternational terrorlst attacks in Western Europe, includingthe Aprli 1985 bombing of a restaurant in TorreJon.Spain, frequented by US servicemen. !3ghleen Spanlsh dGtl&rs were killed In the attack.

LocationlArea of Operations Operates out of southern Lebanon in various areas of the Middle East and Western Europe.

Extsrnal AM
Receives financial and military support from Syria 3rd Libya.

Popular Struggle Front


(p*)

Description Radical Palestinianterrorist group closely involved in !he Syrian-dominated PalestinianNational Salvation Fir 71 Led by Dr. Samir Ghosheh.
ACtiiltbS

Terrorist attacks against Israeli, moderate Arap, a r , f~;, t targets.

LoeatlonfAmaof Operatione Lebanon.

External AM
Syria is chief sponsor and supplier. Receives some aid from Libya.

Latin America Central American Revolutionary Worker's Party (PRTC) Description The Marx~st-Len~n~st wns formed ir 1976 as a PRTC reg~onal insurgency organmtion of whch We El Salvadc I group 1 the largest and mos: important PRTC joined the E : s Salvador guerrilla u m ~ r e l l a group Faiabmdo Marti Nat~onal L~beration Front in 1980 and although the smallest. has been respons~ble some of the most wolent acts for committed by the coalition An urban group, called the Mardoqueo Cruz Urban Commando Detachment was created ~n 1984 Activities An urban group carr~ec! several terrorist attacks against out US Marines aod businessmen in San Salvador ~nJune 1985. Since 1985. the group has been badly damaged by government countermeasures Strength Several hundred Location/Area of Operations El Salvador, branches ~nCosta Rca. Honduras, Guatemala. and Ncaragua. External Aid Receives training in Cuba. Eastern Bloc countr~es. Vietnam. and Nicaragua. May have rece~ved arms from Libya Clara Elizabeth Ramirez Front (CERF) Description San Salvador-based urban terrortst group that shares revolut~onary ~deology other leftist groups In El Salvador of but operates mdependenlly Activities Most active in 1983-85 and was probab!y responsible for May 1983 assassination of the deputy commander of US Military Advisory Group in San Salvador. Has been quiet of since then because of arrests and def~ctloris leaders Strength Unknown LocationlArea of Operat,. El Salvador External Aid None known

Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front (FPMR)

Descrincion a 19th century Chilean revolut~onary. lhe is Name. largest mdean Marxist-Leninist terrorisl group Splinlered in 1987. the smaller of the Iwo factions aff~l~ated~ t h w the Ch~lean Communist Party Activities Responsible for numerous bombing attar' c against domestic and foreign targets and assassinat~on altacka against domeslic largets. Anti-US attacks include the bombing of the US Ambassador's residence In 1986 and the US Consulate in 1985. both in Santiago. Also was responsible tor several lire bombings of Mormon churches In 1986-87 and attempted assassination 01 Prcstdent P~nochet 1986. in Strength 1.000 to 1.500 LocationlArea of Operation Chile. External Aid Receives extensive lrain~ny and weapons supporl Iron1 Cuba [see Pallerns o l Global Terromm: 1986)

Movement of the Revoluh n a r y Left (MIR)

Description Formed about 1965; represents a range of Chilean leftist groups that seek to found a Marx~st-Leninist regtme led by workers and peasants Cuban-trained leadership remliltrated Chile, having fled after ouster of Allende regime. Led by Andres Pascal Allende. a nephew of Allende. Activities Relatively mactive in tenorlsl arena because of elfectwe government countermeasuresIn early 1980s and also because it has split Into at least two cornpetlng factions Strength 300 l o 400 (eslimated) LocaliontAtea 01 Operation Chde External Aid Over Ihe years, has rece~ved tralnlng and olher support from several countries. especially Cuba but also frorn N~caragua. Llbya. and Ihe Eas~ern Bloc

People's Liberation Army WL)

Descriplion Formed In 1967 as m4tary wtng of pro-BetitngColor~b'?n Comrnuwt P a r t y l M a r x ~ t -en~r;.si 1 Activities Exlor!lori. robber~eskldnaptngs lor rafisom. and assassmallon K~dnaped two US ctttzens-one later released. one dled-ln Dec yber 1985

LocetionlArea of Operation Colombta External Aid May have recewed atd l r c n Cuba and Ntcaragua. Popular Revolulionary Forces-Lorenzo Zeleya (FRP-LZ) Description Once effective revoiullonary lerrorls! group Activities Cla~med responslblllty for nurnerous bornbrngs In Teguctgalpa In the early 1980s. tncluding altacks on US mtlltary and bustness targets Acllvtrtec were substarit~aliy reduced followtng arrest 01 leader In 1983 and ol Iwo olher leaders In 1987 Strength Unknown, probably !ewer than 3 0 Location/Area of Operation Honduras. Externnl Aid Rece~ves tralnlng and other supporl Irorr: Cuba and. more recently. from Ntcaragua Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) Description EsraDl~shed 1966 as mtlttary wlng of Colonibtan Comrnc, tri nlsl Parly IS largest guerrtlla group there Goal ISl o overthrow governmenl and rul~ng class an!t-US Organized along mllllary bties. ~ncludes ieasl one urban tronl a1 Activities Armed attacks agatnst Colombian targets. bombtngs 01 US busmesses. ktdnapmgs of Colombzaw anb torelgners for ransom and assessmrtons Has well-documentedtles lo Orug !raflckers

Strmgth Approxtmately 9.GG0 com::alarlts and armed supporters LocaIionlArea of Operation Colomba External Aid FARC has ttes to Cuba. amount of aid unltnocvn Sondero Luminoso (Shining Path, St.) Description The most dangerous and unpredlclable terrorist and Insurgency g o d p tn Latm A m e x a SL was formed In late 1960s by Ablmael Guzman Reynoso as an Ind~an-based rural Insurgent organlzallon Name taken from a statenlent by an early 20th century Peruvtan radtcal that Marxlsm #/as "shmng path to the luture Declared atm IS to deslroy exlstlng Peruv~an tnslllut~ons and replace them wtth an Indtan-based peasant refolut~onary regtme Xenophobtc In the extreme. SC crlltchzes USSR and Chna as well as the Un~led Slates
"

Activities Operatec ~wtlally rural areas as guerrilla force. and In coottnues to do so lnt~ni~dales populdce by executtng ctvtllans w t h governmenl ltes Starttng I? 1986. however. turned rncreaslngly to urban tetrormn.part~cularly L~rna. ~n where 11has bu~lt extensive leriorlsl apparatus Attacks an dtplomat~c mlsstons (US USSR and Chtna Embass~es) and fore~gn buslnesses. In addltton to Peruvian Government and prlrate-sector targets Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) Description Marxlst-Len nist terrorrst group lormed IQ 1983, chiefly d urban based: led by Nestor Serpa ObjectW? IS to r ~ Peru of "trnper~alrst"tnfluence and to establish Marx~st replrne Activities Attacks often d~rected agalnst US and other fore~gn targets Bombed US Embassy.Martne Guard residence In 1983 and set of1 car bomb ou!s~deUS Ambassador's residence ~n1985 Focuses on domestlc and fore~gn economlc targets Strength Several hundred LocationlArea of Operation Peru

External Aid Has Imks to M-19 IP Colombia and !he "Alfaro Vive. Cara]oi" group in Ecuador. through which it rnay have received mater~el lrom N a r a g u a Has .ecetv?d rraining in Cuba

Western Europe Action Direcle (AD) Description Formed ~n 1979 as a Marxist group commltted to armed struggle agalnsl ' lnlelnational imperialisrrl In 1982 sclit -01 into two w~ngs--domest~c ~nternat~onal which the and tnternattonal wmg is the more dangerous and indiscrtminate Activities Bombmgs, arson. assassinallon. b a ~ robber~esTargzls k French Government and defense mdustry colnpanles symboltc assassinations to protest French inwlvement in NATO (lor example, assassinallon 01 General Audran tn 1985). IsraeltlJewtsh ~nterests, and US tnterests Claimed jotnt respons~txlity wtth the RAF lor bomblng of the RheinMam A I Force Base in West Germany in 1085. in w l l ~ c h ~ two US cttlzens were kllled Strength t o 10 20 LocationlArea of Operations Francelmay have operated in West Germany External Aid tias lmks to several domest#c lerrorisl groups In Weslerr' Europe. especially the Red Army Faclion and rr,ay shalt: log~sttc lachties w11hthem In January 1985. lor instance. Issued a joint anti-~mperialis~ cornmunlque with the RAF Also has ties to at least one Ivlddle Eastern group, the LARF Basque Falherland and Liberly (ETAIM) Description Founded IF the late 1950s with the airn ot creating a r ~ inoependenl tiomeland In Spain's Basque region Has muted comm~tment Marxtsm. In 1974 spl11mto two to lacttons-ETAIPol~ltcal-Military and ETA-Military: the lor. me! has been mactive smce I~rntted t,o!ne rule gran!ed In 1982

Activitkr
Chiefly bomblngs, kidnapings assasslnation~a~ Spanish n Government targets and recentiy French targets I Spain has not targeted US Interests. BomMng ettacks are sophisticated, lethal, and incre&ingly indiscriminate. Strength 100 to 200, plus supporters. LocatlonlArea of Operations Spain, and clandestinely In France. External Aid Has received training at va:ious times in kibya, Lebanon. and Nicaragua. Also has close ties to the PIRA. Comrnunirt Combatant Cells (CCC) Description Foundedin 1984, Is revolutionary, anti- and anll-NATO Has organizational ties to the AD and t h e k ~ ~ . Activities In 1984-85 carried out more than 30 bombing attacks against NATO and other defense-related targets; has also attacked domestic targets. such as banks. Leaders Pierrg Carette and three associates were arrested in December 1985; since then, group has been inactive.
'

Strength Fewer than 10 hardcore members. LocationlArea of Operation Belgium. External Aid Probably has received aid from other ter[o&f g;wm Western Europe, such as the AD and the RAF. Kurdish Worker's Party AKA: Kurdish Labor Party Description Marxist-Leninist Turkish terrorist group established in rnid1970s. Seeks to set up Marxis! state In Kurdish area of southemtern Turkey. Activities Primary targets are Turklsh Governmeni forces and civilians in souiheasternTurkey, but is becoming increasingly active in Western Europe against Turkish groups there. In 1986, attecked NATO target in Mardin, Turkey.,

r i

(PKK)

Strength Unknown LocstionlArea of Operations Syr~a and Iraqloperales rn Turkey and Western Eu:ope External Aid Probably still recetves sonic atd and safehaven from Sjrta October 1st Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) Dercriplion Small. Maonsturban terrorist group that recru~ted members from the Span~sh Cornmuntty Party-Reconst~tuted.Seeks
l o remove US bases from Spain and set up revoluttonary regme

Activities Catred oul small-scale bomhng attacks on US and NATO lacrltt~es early :980s Has been relatweiy tnaciwe s m e In 1 the arrest 01 rnost of 7 s members tn January i 9 8 5 Strength Unknown LocalionlArea of Operations Span. External Aid Reported ! o have ties to the French AD arid Ihe llaltan BR a ~ rece~ved d Irorn these yroups r l any, 1 not known s Popular Forces of 25 April (FP-25) Description A Marxlsf terrortst group !hat takes 11sname froni the A ~ I J 1974 coup that o u s W the rnll~!aryd~ctaforsh~p Proclarrned goal IS to create a revoluttonary workers' arrny !o overthrow the current 'eglme Activities In the early 1980s. carr~ed bombings. bank rc~bberles out and armed attacks aga~nst dorneslic Dustnessrneri arid Droperty In !984 began to atlack IIS Interests mcludiny fGcket end mortar attacks agalnst the US Embassy In usDon In 1984 and mortar altackc, against NATC) arid US mddar y targets I? 1985 and 1986 Strength Unknoicn LocationIAree 01 Operations For!uya!

External Aid
Has rece~ved lraintng arm Inanc~a! support Irorn Libya Also 15 believed to have cooperaled w11nit.rronSt groups Western Europe. rncluding the ETA and Ihc RAF

Provisional Irish Republi- Jescriplion An olfshool o l Ihe I r a d ~ l ~ o cIrish Republ~can ~al Army. is a can Army (PIRA, the radlcal separatisl terrorst group form?d ~r 1369 as the Provos)
clandeztine armed wmg 01 Sinn Fen. a legal yo11:ica; rnovemml designed to remove Er111sh lorces lroni Northern lreiana and lhen l o uni!y Ireland. Also has a Ma!xisl orantalion. Qrgan~zed small. 11shlly;tml cells unde: Ihe inlo leadership of the "Army Cour~c~I."

Ac!ivitiea Romb~ngs, assassmalions. kneecapprngs. kidnapings. extorlion, and robberies rarge:s gcvernmml and prrvateseclor irlleresls-mcludmg Br~itsh miMary Iargels in Weslern Europe-and Norlhern lrsh Proleslanls Has become ~ncreasingly indisc~:mmale its specracular bornbiny In allacks: for m!ance. in 1983. one US cllizen was killed. along wjlh louf olnars. tn b o m b ~ n g Harrods deparl~nenl ot store In London. In November 1987. ll c~vil~ans%%re killed when the PIRA bombed a v?!erans rnertiorlal scrvice In Enn~skillen. Norlhern lrelano Strength Several hundred, plus severa! thousand sympalhrzers LocationlArea of Operations Norlhem IrelandiNorlhern Ireland. Ic~sh Republrc. Grea: Brrraln, and Western EuropF External Aid Hzs recelved aid lrsina variety ol groups and courmtes and cowderab!e traintng anb arms lrom Libya arid. 13 a lesser and arrns ftorri exlenl, !he P L O Also recewes Iund~ny syparhtzers I:? the Un~led Slatrs. htainla~iis close hnks I c
ETA/M
I

Red Army Faction (RAF)

Description The lightly hnil an0 S1sc~plrned RAF IS the ruccessor lo Ihs 6aader-l.lernhol Gang. .fdhlch orlginaled ~nthe studenl protesl movemeril m me 1360s IdeOlOSy IS an obsc-ire n:cx sf Llarrtsm and Maown: comm~lted c lrw armer! strtlggle I OrcanceD lnlc ha+dCorecadres who Gperale clandesllneiy al;.l c a ? ycul lerrorast aliachs, acd a ne!worh of s$,;)c.orlwj

Activities Bocnb~ngs. k~anap~ngs. assassrrla!lons aria rotwcr~esTar. gets Wesr German Gov:rnrnenr and pr1vn12~ x t o i . ' m d I: 1 mleresls A m o r q Ihe lalter allenipled assasslrlalcxi III &eiglu:n of NATO Commar~der( 1979))). bornotng of NA:I> Arr Force headquarlers ;if Ramste~n( 198 1). rsckci allack or: USAREUR Commander in He~delSerg( :96 1 ) , and bornbrig, w ~ i h AD. o l R h e l n - M a ~ , ~ Force Y a w 1 1985) A-r Strength 10 l o 20. plus several h u p ~ d i esirpporlrrs d LocationlArea of Operations Mamly In Wesl Getr.lany

Red Army for the Liberat ~ o n Catalonia (ERCA) of

Description A small : r ~ r o r l sg r o ~ whose ( . : ~ g ~ c c,bscure t ~e J I ~ s, l p ,s a mlx of Catalonran sevaratrsrn ar:b Marx~sl c n , f ~ ~ $ r n : Mag be tadlcai ol:shool of the Terra I hure

Strength Ur,kftc.wn Locat~onlArea Operotions of

5ca.:
External Aid r J m e ..ncnn

Red Brigades (BR)

Deacription Forn:i~c!I 1969. the Marx~sl-Len~rvsl seek: ic c:edlr 2 n UF; revolut~onar)state lhrcugh aarnwd s!ruggi+ 3C !i'sec?ratF Italy Iron; ;he W ~ s r e f n Alllance In iSR4 split In!o two !act~ons the C c r m u w s t Cosi:t)a:arrl Party (BR-PCC: .2Cd the U n t m st Cornba!anl C o r n m u n ~ s !(En-bCCI ~ Activities Concenlrales on atlacklng Itahan Governmen: a r 4 privateSector largels t5:ough assasst!lat!on. ktjeecapping. and kidnapiqg Murdeted former Prlme M~rusterAld~: More !n 19!8 After early successes. the kidnaping of CIS Gwreral Dozer In 198 1 was turn~ng potnt. Following hls release. Itallan poltce arrested bundreds n l nernbers and supporters, leadmg to a precipitous decline II> tbe m~mber l o terror~sl aliacks. Rernam capable o f carrytng out selecled responstbtl assass~nat~ons. however. and. or1 1984. cla~med ~ t lor R o v e murder of Leamon Hunt. US chtef of the Slna y Multmational Force and Observer Groctg. Strength 100 to 200 (down Iron) 2.000 In lale 1970s!. plus several hundred supporters LocationlAres of Operation Based and operates in Italy. Some members may be llvlng clandestinely in olher European countr~es and openly In N~caragua External Aid Although basically self-susta~n~ng, prcbably recewed has weapcns from olher West European lerrorlst groups and. In early days. lrom the PLO.

9evolutionary Organizetion 17 November (November 17)

Description A smal! Marx~st group establ~shed 1975 and named 'or ~n Ihe November 1973 sludenl uprlslng proteslmg the rr.111tary :eglme. whtch lell In 1974 Anti-US, am-NATO. cornm~tted l o vlolent overthrow of regrme and ousler of US bases Organ~zal~onobscure probably art aflll~ale the ELA 1 s or Activities lntt~al allacks were selected assasstnattow. ~ncludtng I CS Embassy o f f ~ c ~Rlchard Welch tn 1075 and US Navy al Caytam Tsantes (n 1983. beam assasstnatmg Greek otftctals and publlc llgures In 1976, has addea b ~ n i b ~ n g s tncludmg altacks on Greek poltce to methods and In A p r ~ l and August 1987. carr~ed b o ~ n b ~ attacks on US out ng m ~ l ~ t abases ry

Strength Unknown. but presumed lo be small, plus supporters Locetion/Area of Operatlans Greece. External Aid May recelve stipporl from E L A Revo~utionary People's Stiuggle (LA) Description Formed ~n1971 to oppose the rnll tary iunla IS a selfdescr~bed leftwmg revolutionary, ant~cap~tal~st, anti-lrnperlallst group Organlzat~on unclear. but probably conslsts ts 01 a loose coal~t~onseveral very small and v~olerlt of grwps or aff~llates. posslbly lncludlng lvovembzr 17 Activities Before 1974, was nonv~olent: turned . 'wrorlsrn after y and business removal 31 junta. Has targeted US r facilities and. since 1986, stepped up attacks c n Greek Government and commercial interests, primary method has been bombings ol bu~!dings. apparently wlthout Intent l o endanger life. Strength Unknowrr. perhaps up to 20 to 30, plus supporters LocationlArea of Operations Greece. External Aid None known. Terra Lliure (Free Land) Description Leltwing Catalonian separatist terrorst group lorrned in the 1970s with the goal of establishing an mdependent Marx~st state in the Spanish Prov~nces Catalon~a of and Valencia. Activities Mainly small-scale bombing attacks agalnst property In northeastern Spain. Targets ~nc!ude lore~gn banks and travel agencies. Strength Unknown LocalionlArea of Operations Spain External Aid None known

Asia
Chukaku-Ha (Nucleus or Middle-Core Faction) Description An ultralelttsl: / r a @ ~ c grot)!) V~IIP ,>~:g,n?. ihc l r ; ? y ~ w r ~ l n al tr'l 11cq01 Ihe Japanese C o r ~ i r l ~ ~ ~ n l s l in 1357 largest Pally dornasl~c rnhlanl yroup: has p o l ~ r c aarm plus smd! rover1 ! a c t n n w n g called Kansa~ Revc?iut1on.3ry Ar~:v Fundlny der~ved lrom merr1De:shrp clues. sn!es o l 11sne\.spapers. 2r.d Iundra~slng carnpalgns Activities Parllctpates In mass protest demorlslra!!ons and snakedsncmg In slree!s. supports tarrvers' prates1 c l conslructlon of N a r ~ l a airport among other causes sabolaged major par1 ot Japanese ra~lroa:! system In :985 and 1986. sporad~c atlacks usually des~gnedo c a s e only l properly damage lhrough w e of crude rockets and tncend~arydewces. anl~.USat1nck.s ~nc!ude srnall.scalt~ !;i~gels. rocke! allernpts aga~nst rnllitary hn[j d~piornol~c IJS co US casuall~es far so Slrength 3.500 LocalionlArea of Operation Japan External Aid Norie kvowri Japanese Red Army (JRA) Description An ~nternat~onal terr,ror~sr group formed absul 1970 aller Sreakmg away lrom Japanese Cornrnuwsl League Red Army Facllorl Now if?< b j Fusako Shlyenobu Slnlrcl goals are l o overlhrow Japanese Governnienl 3 r d rnwarchy arir! l o relf, t o n w l l world r e v c l i ~ l ~ a r ~ Ory;lni,:al~orl uw3ear. but may conrrol or a1 leas1 hare lles l o An11-lrriper,al~s! lnlerr~a:~onal Br~gade(All!) . rrlay also have IhrlkS1~ Ar~t!War Oeniocralic Frcn; -- an overt lell1s1po111~1:. oryarwa f!or~ lnstde J a p a ~Dera~is -releasea l o l l o v i ~ Noverrrber r~~ I987 arrest of IoaCer Charnu Marukc ~r;d~cale JRk that 'ngy be oryan~z!lg cells I ~Aslan cllte;, such as Man~la I and S.i:qa:?.~:e Has had close relaliws w!h Pn!esllr:lar terror :s!group:,--basac anc operarlng ou's~de Javan -r;!rrce of 11sl n ~ e n l l c l l

Activities
wide geographical area. tncludmg 11:ing on pas:enge:s

Before 1977. JRA carried out series o l trula! altacks over a1 Lod atrpor' In Israel (1973) and tvvo Japanese a!r'iner hilackings ( I 9 7 3 and 19771 An11 US allacks lriclude atlenipred takeover of US Embassy ~nKuala Lurnpur ( 1975). Stnca mid- 1900s has carr~ed out several crude 11) r o i k e l and nlorlar altacks agalnsl US Embassy lacilil~es Jakarta ( 1986). Rome ( 1987). and Madrld ( 1987). probably I t m e l l o c o ~ n c ~ d eP Ihe annbal economtc wl sumnlt rneetmgs o l the sever lendmg ~ndusrr~al~zed naliors Strength 30 to 4 0 LocationIArea of Operatione Lebanon! worldwide External Aid Rece~ves aid. tnctuding Ira ning an0 base camp faciltltes :he PFLP lrom radtcal Palestmtan lerrorlsls espec~ally May also recetve aid from Lioya S,~specled(JI h ~ v t n g sympalhtzers a?d w p p o r l apparalus tn Japan

New People's Army

(NPA)

Description The guerrllia arrn of the Commu?~sl Parry o l !he Phtltppines/Marx~sl-Len~n~slavowedly Maors group an lormed aboul 1969 with th? a m of overlhrowlng Ihe regime through protracled guerrilla warlare Allhough pr~nartly a rural-based guerrtlla group IS bulldlng urban r ~ f r a s ~ r u c l u r e l o carry oul lerrorlsm. uses c~ry-based assassinal~on unils called sparrow squads Der~ves most ol 11slundlny lrom Of Conlr~tJul~OnS supporlers a*id l a w s erlorlecl Irotli local busmesses Activities In addillon to guerrilla acltvllies. IIJrning increas!ngiy I n urban lerrurlsm. includmy atlacks on governrnenl ott~ctais. p o k e , 2nd niil~lary ofltcers In Man~la and olher malor clljes Avoided atracklrlg tJS ihleresls unlil October 1987 *her soarrow squads muroered lrro US servlcemen and one w ~ r f near Clark Alrbase. na5 vowed l o k11:US cttizens e m c l u d q bussnessr:'en. who allegedly are irlvolved In Ihi: governniertl'i cnunlermsilrgercy ca,rpa,gn

L o c a t i ~ n l A r e a Operation ol The Ph,l~ppmes External Aid N o sla!e wpport. vrobably recetves lundmg lrorn overseas !undratsers ~nWestern Europe and elsewhere

Sikhs

Descript~on Stkh terrorism IS carried out by several aornestlc and 1nlerna:lonal groups S ~ k vloience surged In 1984 following h the lno~an Army altack on lhe Golden Temple In Arnr~tsar S~kh terrorsts seek to establtsh an Independent S ~ k h state called Khaltstan Groups that carry out ierrortsrn include the Dashmesh. or l01h Reg~menl (actwe In lndia West Germany and Canada) Dal Khalsa (hqacked an Irdtan alrl~nerto Pak~sfan 1981) Babbar Kha:sa (also opertn ates In Indra West Germmy and Canada) and the Alllndta Saktr Sludenls Federalton (rntlitanf student wlna 01 the m a l l S ~ k h party Aka11Dal) Aclivit~er Regular and bloody attacks aga~nst Htndus and ~ndlan o f f ~ c ~targets p a r t ~ c ~ l a rIn the Punlab, des?crat!or\ of al ly Hmdu holy places, assassmat~ons, bornbtngs and atrcrafl h~lack~ngs Although S~khs have dtsclatrned responstb~lhty d~rlrner were prooably respons~ble bombrng the Air l n d ~ a for downe@over the Allan:c In June 1985. In w h ~ c h 329 passengers and the crew were k~lted. and for an explosion at Tokyo a~rport the same day, when luggage from a on llighl from Vancouver blew up and k~lled Japanese two terror~sts overseas baggage handlers Sac then S I K ~ have been ~nacttve. posstbly because of the large tnlernaIlona1 outcry No US ~nteresls have been largeled Strength Unknowq LocationlArea of Operations Ind!a Weslern E~iropean6 Norlh Amer~ca External Aid UGknGwP

Sub-Saharan Africa African National Congress (ANC) Description O r ~ g ~ n s back l o 19 12. when 1 lorerunner. the South go : s Alncan Native Nal~onai Congress. was set up l o p o t e c l black rtghls The Soulh Afr~can Comriwrwl Party started to play a tole ~nItle pre-World War II peroa. In 1949 current leaders. Nelson Mar~deta and Oliver Tambo. were elecled lo execulwe posltlons: in the same year adcpled a rnl~lant "Acllon Prograrn." Banned In 1961. torrned a guerrilla w!ng called Umknonro We S a x e (Spear ol Ihe Nalnn) Remalns tn ex~le Activitias Ch~elly poltltcal and guerr!!la olgan~zahon. In recerl a bul yeais has l i m e d to uibar. lerrorism: has bombed energy government ol:~crals.security and lransporlcl!~onla~gels. largers anb, rxerilly cw!tans Has not atlackec US 1n:erests Strength 4.000 to 5.000. pius symozlhliers LocationlArea of Operations Z a r i ~ b ~ a~ d a r AngolaiSoulh A l w a Be:~eveb have cells t r t lo olner African Frr: Ihne scales. as well as 11) the Wesl External Aid Recewes n4rary svpplles trom Ihe Soviel Bloc. i:nanc~al si,pport 1 dlered by several African slates and t)y s governments and pllvate conlrtbulors m the Wesl In Ihe pasl. ANC members may have recewed lra~ntny D L 0 ~n cam;s in Lebanon Mozambican National Reeistsnce (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana, or RENAMO) Description Establ6hed In 1976 by Ihe Rhodestan sccuftl/ service; ustw~ ari:i-Marx~sr Moram!xans opposed !c !lie Marxi51 (Fr3rll for the itberamn ol reglme set up by FRELII. MozarnSq~e)In i 9 7 5 ChaigeU name from lhs Nd1v.w' Restsc~nce Movemerit :o RENAMO tn 1982 Aclivilies Gpe!ales as a gberrqlla lnsdrgency agarr~s! x a r n b ~ q u e M Goverwner~: a113 cwhan largers. frequently m d incressq y runs cross.border opararlons Icto Zimbabgre Malaw;. ar-3 Zdrnbta. :vhe:e il has rnurde:eC end k~dnaped numer~ b civittais and Cestrsyed prwale proper)y RENAMO has s ncl d~reclly allackeC US inlerests. bul Amer~canswho i,a.,e: I? IbczarnStque could cecorne ~nadverrenri:ct,rns

Strength 22.000 yuerrl!la.; p l ~ ; s supporl retwock Location/Area of Operations Nmlh cerfral Mozarnblque 'hlozarno~oue L~frttrnbw~? MJl a w anS Zambia External Aid R e c e w s logtsrtc an6 o!hef su?Poft. tncludmg safehavcr;. horn South Africa as well as from pflvatf !nctwdl:al~ and grcups In Europe and eisewhere

Appendix A

Chronology of Significant Terrorist-Related Events: 1987


21 F e t r u a r y

France French p o k e arresled the fcur top leaders of llle terrollst 9:oup A c l ~ o n D~recte[AD) In a larmhouse near Orlear-s The arrests drsmantled 1be leadershp 01 AD s tnternalional 11 wlng. ieav~ng wrth Irllle. rf any. ope:allanal cJpabrlily The Ihe group had conducled several allacks lr) 1986. ~ i c l u d ~ n g assassmalton o f Renaulr Presdenl Georges Besse
Djibouri A bomb exploded a l the "Cafe H~sloril."hrlown l o be frequenled by Europeens. k ~ l l ~ n g French crtrzens (to~!r fwe of whom were rnrlitary) . three Wes! Germans. and lhree Dliboul~ans rdty persocs were wounded. i n c l ~ ~ d ~ r i g 25 Frerlch naltonals. The bomb was a delayed a c l m devrct, and was 11medto g o olf when the c a l r was crowded The bomber was arreslfrj a stiorl I m e laler: he was a Palesl~n~ari believed 'o have been working for Llbya His !vottve {nay have been to averlye recerll Libyan aeleals In Chad. at~rrhuled French ~nterventlon ::-) ~raty Itallan Air Force Gen L ICIO G ~ o i y ~ was shol and k~lled er~ by two lerror~sls n a motorcycle wh~le was berny driven o he was home G~org~err director general 01 arrnanii?nts rr1 the aerospace seclor ol the Itallan defense n m s t r y The Red Br~gades-IJn~on Combalant Cornriiun~sls( B R - K C ) of clatmed respons~b~llly the attack The trn~rderspurred a for m a p counteiterror~slelforl by Ilal~an u t h o l ~ l ~ eand Ily a s Ihe end 01 June more than 60 members o l r t ~ group had e been arresled in llaly rrance a i d Spatrl
Wesl Germany A large car bomb exploded ouls~de otl~cerb' arl club a1 Ihe Brirtsh krrny base at Rheindahlen. tnlur~ng over 30 persons rnosl ul whom were Wesl German m ~ l ~ r aolf~cers ry arrd ttie~r SQCUS~S. allhough they were not the mlerrded largers The Plov~sronal r ~ s h l Republ~can Army (PIRA) clalrnecl r?spor:jtbil~ty

18 M a r c h

211 March

23 March

Greece 51xteerr Amercan servrcernerr were Injured when a bomb they r*.ploded alongside a Greek A r Force bus 111 w h ~ c h were r ~ d ~ n g bomb had been placed irt a welal The

conlarner on a :Oad near Piraeus an:! I t w .?eto~:aled hy remote con!rol Revolut~onary Organ~ratton 17 Novemoer cla~med respons~b~lily the attack AI!hcc;yh r e ~ ~ u f i ~ r b l e for lor several prev~ous assassmalions of US ctl!ze:ls. Itiis altack was Ihe flrst t ~ m e group had used ihcrrrb in an (hr atlernpt t o cause large numbers of casualties

5 June

Italy In a serles 31 lnc~denlsn Rome a car bomb exploced c ou!s~dethe US Embassy. two crude rocket devices were launched into Ihe US Embassy compound and a bornb of r-imtlar construction was launched rn:o the B r ~ l ~ Embassy sh compound Some 01 the dewces faller! l o explode In ad rnstances. damage was mmor The Anlr-lmper~al~st l e r n a I~ l ~ o n aBr~gade(AIIB) -bel~eved to De a group assocrated l w ~ t h11not part of the Japanese Red Army-~larrned responscb~llty the attacks w h ~ c h for sppear l o have been t ~ m e do cornclae w ~ t h Summ~t t lhe Seven economlc conference rn Venrce
Lebaiion US l o v r ~ a h sCharles S1asswas kidnaped In B e ~ r ualong f l wrth the son of the Lebanese Delense Mln~srerand thew Lebanese dr~ver Alter ~n!enseS p a n pressure. the two Lebanese were released on 24 June and Glass cla.rned tc have escaped on the night of 17- 18 August The Ofganlra t ~ o n the Defense of Free F'eople-probably a cover lor name lor H~zbal!ah-cia~med respons~bil~ly 1% lor k~dnaprng

I 7 June

14 July

Pakrstan Two car bombs exploded In a busy shopplng cente, In Karachi w~lhrn m~nutes each other k~lltng l leas1 70 an3 ot a wcundrng more than 200 persons The explosrons occurred at peak hours In a crowded uiban area No group clarriied r ~ s p o n s ~ b ~butl y . belleve lhal Ihe bomb~nys l ~ we were perpetrated by agents o l the Algharhslan Mln~stry Slate 01 3 Security (WAD) as part o f a rulhless campaign 1 oeler the Paklstrtm Government from svpportrng anti-Commun~st guerr~llas f~ghlmg Afytianlstan In

24 July

Central Alrican Republic/llaly/Switzerland


A lone gunman who boarded an AMAfr~que lirght In :5avyu1

Central Atrrcan Hepubl~c, hljacked the plane as 11left F1or:re Allei landmy Iri Geneva. the hijacker klllecl a French passenger and demanded the release trom prrson u l the Hammadl brothers In West Germany. :he H~zbailah-Sacked lerrorisls In France. and S%a geta~nees Israel The In incrdenr ended the same day. alter passengers aboard tne atrliner cverpowered the hqacker

Honduras
A prpe Somb exploded oursrde a Chmesc reslaurml In

Comayi~ga freauented b y US serv.cerr.w sl.lhmed a) rhe nearay Palrnero!a Arrbase Fwe US selvtcerrien one US contraclor. a r ~ d honodrarls were ~nlutedNo yroup stx clafrned responslb~ttlytor the altack %e celleve I* &as carrted oul by Honduran lell~sis

Greece
A remotely controlled but apparentlv p~emalurely detonated bomb Secreted In a parked ca- q u r e d 10 members of a US Air Force thghlctew as !hey traveled pas1 In a bus The bus. whch was unmarked. was used excluswety l o rranspurt US Srraleg~c Command crewmembers to and Air from Hellentkon A~rbase and lheir holel The Revolul~onary O l g a w a l ~ o n November cla~med 17 responslb~ltty the for altack Philippines Assassmallon unjls, krirjwn a? sparrow squads, froln Ihe CommurrG New Pecp\e's k f m y riw0e:ed !KO US si.:v~cc men. a lormer US serviceman. and a F~l~plno bustnessnlan In four separale tnciderlls near Ctork A~rbase Afler a watt o l several weeks. lne Cenlral Cornriirllee of Ihe Corr.niun~sl !or Party o l the Phtllpplnes clatrned respunsib~l~ly Ihe ~nc~denls

30 October

France French aulhorrt~es seized the vessel Eksurld I1 off the boast ot Br~llany wtlh over 150 tons of L byan-suppiled arms desltned for Ihe Prov~sonal lrrsh Republ~can Army c n board The weapons lncluded surface-lo alr rn,ssdes Fwe crewmen wrlh PiRA l ~ e s were arrested Northern Ireland The PIRA look respcrwbll~ly detcnattng 3 !Large bomb a! for k~lledI 1 Ennisklllen 65 rnrles southwest ol Bellas!. wh~ch cwl~ans and rnjured more :han 60 who were allendmg a mrrnot~ai ceremony lor Brtt~afl's war dead Zrmbabwe Z~mbabweari dlsstdents arlacked a larri operared by rrusslonarles near Bulviayo and murdered 16 p e r w w witti r d u d t n g Iwo US clilzens The v:crtms wera t ~ e d barbed wtre and then hacked 19 death wtrh rsacheles. alter , t f h c h the~r bodtes were burned

8 November

25 November

Burma/Andaman Sea Korean Air Lmes Fllyht 858 disappeared over the Alidar.~.in Sea oft Burma. Cllling ail I15 perscns on bcard Twc Nosth Korea? ~ntciltgerice ayenls --an elderly rrlari anc! a voun!) woman-were arrested in Bahrain on : December: Ihe man comnvtted suicide by laktng a cyan~de the woman pill, tried bur failed. The s u r v w : was expelled t o So1:rh Korea. where she subsec;uently conlessed on televiston thal she and her conipanion had planted a bomb on board Ihe alrl~ner when :hey boarded 11 In Baghdad The fwo later disembarked in Abu D h a b ~The woman also stated that the operation had been planned b y North Korean intelligence offlc~als part ot a plan t o desrabillze the South K x e a n as Governmen: and dtsrup\ the 1988 Olyrnpx Gamsc 10 be beid In Seoul In September and Ociober Spain Two grenades were Inrown Into a bar in Barceiona operated by Ihe US Uniled Servlces Organization (US01 One US sador was k:!led and rime olhers wounded Two Catalan separarist !evor~st groups, li\e pr?-C,ornrnt1rl6l Terra Lliure 2nd the C a t a i m Red Liberalioc Army. clamed responsrbtlity for the a:tack