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MICROFICHE REFERENCE LIBRARY

A project of Volunteers in Asia


Axis Wiu

Rotor Desian

for Horizontal

by: W.A.M. Jansen and P.T. Smulders Published by: Steering Committee for Wind Energy in Developing Countries P.O. Box 85 3800 AB Amersfoort The Np erlands Paper copies are $ 4.00; single available to research institutions countries. free copies ark in developing

Available from: for Wind Energy in Steering Committee Developing Countries P-0. Box 85 3800 AB Amersfoort The Netherlands Reproduced by permission of the Steering for Wind Energy in Developing Countries.
L;nmittee

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..

G ccmp@r~E;i~?R WINDENERGY IN DEVELOPING COUNT,RIES ur&&p Whde&r& Ohwiklcelingskmden) 85);AMERiFOOfiT /Tklc NETHERLANDS-

,. .;.-,

This publication was realised under the auspices of the Steering Committee for Windenergy in Develooing Countries, S.W.D. The S.W.D. is financed by :he Netherlands Ministry for Development Cooperation and is staffed by ;he State University Groningen, the Eindhoven Technical University, the Netherlands Organization for Applied DhV Consulting Engineers, Amersfoort, and collaborates

Scientific

Research, and

with other interested parties.

The S.W.D. tries to help governments, institutes and private parties in the Third World, with their efforts to use windenergy and in general to promote the interest for windenergy in Third World countries.

ROTORDESIGN FOR HORIZONTAL AXIS WINDMILLS

W.A.M.Janse& and P.T.Smulder&

MAY 1977 Publicntion SWD 77-I

This publication Committee for

is released Wind Energy

under the auspices

of the Steering for Develop-

in Developing by

Countries,S.W.D. Ministry

The S.W.D. is financed ment Cooperation the State

by the Netherlands' Groningen,

and is staffed University


University

the Eindhoven the Netherlands DHV Consulting The S.W.D. tries parties and in general World Countries. in the Third

of TechLlology, of Applied Research Scientific T.N.O. and

Organization

Engineers,Amersfoort. governments, their the interest institutes efforts for ant' ?rivate to use win? energy wind energy !n Third World with

to ?elp to promote

*)

Wind

Energy Group, Laboratory Department Eindhoven,

of Fluid

Dynamics and Heat University of

Transfer, Technology,

of Physics,

Eindhoven

The Netherlands.

Concents

page number

INTRODUCTION. LIST OF SYMBOLS.

2 3 4 5 6 7 and power characteristics. characteristics. 11 14 16 17 18 on maximum power on maximum power 19 20

UNITS CF MEASURE. 1 WIND ENERGY - WIND POWER. WINDMILL ROTOR. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4. Airfoils. Torque Basic 2.4.0 2.4.1 Dimensionless form Bets Effect Maximum power coefficients. of windmill coefficient. coefficient. of wake rotation - ratio 2. HORIZONTAL-AXIS

coefficient. 2.4.2 2.4.3 Effect Effect power of Cd/Cl

coefficient. of number of blades coefficient. 22 and blade chsrds angles. and angles. on Re-number. the blades of a 22 27 30 30 32 on maximum 21

3. DESIGN OF A WINDMILL ROTOR. 3.0 3.. I 4.0 4.1 Calculation Peviations Dependance Calculations windmill rotor. of blade from the chords calculated

4. EFFECT OF THE REYNOLDS NUMBER. of airfoil characteristics for of the lie-number

Appendix I II Literature
Cl-a

34 characteristics, 36

and Cl-Cd

NACA 4412.......24 III Collection for different of maximum attainable numbers of blades tip-speed assumptions power coefficients, 42

and Cd/Cl-ratios,as ratio A0 the 50

function IV

of the design theoretical is based

Note on the design method

on which

0'

fOr)

52

INTRODLCTIUN. This publication was written energy rotor. as to the it too like for those persons to know who are
how

interested

in

the

application shape from of

of wind a windmill inside uncertain find

and who want

to design

the blade issue booklet

We have received Netherlands. at which others is very level

many requests In writing it should

on this this

parties

and outsidethe

we were

be written.

So some might given

easy,

too difficult. that the design It a lot etc. familiar the first is understood, of attention with formulas procedure, however is given reader before as that to to prean attempt simple. are well quite important

We would in one of the of basic a number ideas

to emphasize

chapters,

and concepts Therefore

is made to design explaining be tolerant we urge sented lift,

a rotor. drag, rotor

characteristics of

So we ask the

and patient.

Those who are not to be afraid

the basic

concepts

to go on and not here. Although

and graphs

a good rotor should into loads

can be desigrled be noted. the account,

with

the

procedure

as

presented type, wind tors in

here, terms

a few things of design

In the selection load characteristics

of a rotor and good roit is

speed of

and radius,

availability coupled

must be taken to wrong the the types

We have per minute

seen various Although with

or to too high

loads.

possible this gures will

to change not solve

number

of revolutions that

a transmission, design fi-

problems

may arise remark given explode lead

when the is in if that this it

selected

are basically No strength

incorrect. calculations

A second are

rotors book, is not but

can be very remember that

dangerous. the centrifugal

forces during

can make a rotor operation will

strong

enough,

Touching

a rotor

to serious

injury. can be taken hope that, into with acthis with

The availability count book, in the the

of certain earliest will stages be able

materials

and technologies We therefore that available.

of the design. to design as are locally

reader

a rotor

can be manufactured

the means and technologies

LIST

OF SYMBOLS

n A
B
C

constant area number chord drag lift power torque diameter drag energy er,ergy plate lift mass rnnaber power torque rotor radius radius number B = Cl = r = Vm = 1 blade speed windspeed velocitv of attack value angle, for value for blade blade ratio for tip-speed at radius ratio r m2s-' ksm3 flow between velocity angular plane at the velocity of rotation rotor blades
S-

m of blades m coefficient coefficient coefficient coefficient

'd c1 cP

cQ
d D E
EV

m N J per volume bending of arched steel plate Jm m N kg -1


S

-3

f L m

of

revolutions

per

second

W Nm m m

r Re Ren
U

local

Reynolds Re for tangential velocity, undisturbed relative angle design blade factor tip-speed design local

speed

at radius

ms ms _I:

-1

V Vma w a

to rotor angle of

blade attack

ms-1

setting number effect on Cp

speed ratio viscosity

kinematic density volume angle flow rotor

m3s-' and relative

UNITS OF MEASURE.

The units

used

in

this familiar

publication d'Unit& with (SI).

belong these units

to,

or are based or who have we here

on the given

so-aailed in units list with of the

SystiZme International Those who are not other systems (for

data

example for

windspeed that

in mph),

give for

a short the

conversion rotors. length area volume speed

factors

the units

are most relevant

design

of windmill

lm
i ln

= 3.28 2 = 10.76

ft ft2 ft?264.2 mph ms lb lbf ft = 0.102 lbf = 0.2777* -1 = 0.738 ft -6 10 kWh=lNm Ibf s-'=lNms-' = 1 Js kW kW kgf -1 = 1.15 mph gallons

1 m3 = 35.31 -1 lms = 2.237 1 knot = 0.5144 = 2.205 = 0.225 = 0.738 = 0.239 = 1 watt = 0.7457 = 0.7355

mass force torque energy power

1 kg IN 1 Nm 1J 1w 1 hp 1 pk

calories

1. WIND ENERGY - WIND POWER.

Wind is

air

in motion, moving with

The air velocity

has mass, but V it

its

density energy

is

low.

When mass is by:

has kinetic

expressed

E = fmV2 If the density of that the flowing air

CJI is p , then the kinetic

('-I) energy per vo-

lume of air,

has a velocity

ViD, is: CJmB31 to the wind a volume direction through (l-2) (see fig. I.l), area.

E = fpV2 m '.' If we consider it then Vm is may be seen that the undisturbed wind per second

an area A perpendicular

Vm A flows

this

velocity.

fig.

1.1

Area A and volume

flow

per

second

Vm A.

So the

flow

per 0

second = Vm A flows flows

through

A is: lIm3s-' 1 (I-3) area A. A, is the kinetic energy

The power of the air

that that

with

the

air,

through through

per second

Pcwer Power

= Energy = Energy

per per

second. volume * Volume per second.

Equations(l-2) 2 =ipV m

and (1-3) *V m A

combined

give: [Js-' = watt] (l-4) be seen, only a part of this

air

IP,,joYlA]
This power is the power available in the wind; can actually be extracted relation for The above derived the power

CWI
as will

by a windmill. in the wind (l-4) shows clearly that:

- the power This factor

is

proportional

to the

density

o. slightly with the height

can not be influenced (For

and varies

and temperature - in

15'C at sea level axis windmills by the blades)

p = 1.225 the power and thus is

kgme3). proportional to R2. Radius windvelocity doubles. to the R is cho-

case of horizontal the design. varies power with increases

area A = TARP (area sen in

swept

- the power that the

the

cube of eightfold

the undisturbed if the windspeed

Vm. Note

2. HORIZONTAL AXIS WINDMILL ROTOR, To extract still This which rotor the power from the wind, several Examples devices of such have been used and are and

in use throughout book deals are rotors rotates only with with

the world. the design axis

devices

are sailboats

windmills. of rotors in for line horizontal with axis windmills, velocity. are The acting

the

of rotation are acting changes

the wind These

because because relations blade.

forces

on the blades. the air at velocity. the

forces

on the blades deals with the

the blade between

The next blade

paragraph and the for-

the velocity

rotor

ces acting

on the

2.0

Airfoils. The rotor


The

of a windmill sections 2.1


-A.

consists these blades

of one or more blades can have several sections airfoils.

attached

to a hub.

cross fig.

of

forms,

as illustrated

in

and we call

these

cross

airflow

W -,\. flat plate

airflow

_ ' arched T...,

(plate

A. symmetric w . airfoil ---. alrflnw 'W cambered airfoil airflow _ sail ..\ with pole sail with pole .&flow ", '.\

airflow

highly

cambered fig. 2.1

airfoil Types of airfoils.

An airfoil forces: airflow See fig. LIFT

is

a surface

over

which is the Drag

air force

flows.

This

flow

results to the

in flow.

two

and DRAG. Lift to the airfoil!

measured

perpendicular

to the

- not 2.2.

is measured

parallel

- airflow

----.I. 6
-. 2.2 Lift and drag.

__-.-.-.-

fig.

All lift,

airfoils,require The more lift line the of (fig.

some angle required, 2.3)

with the

the airflow the leading for the lift chord

in

order

to produce

larger the

angle. edge and the is called trailing angle of attack a.

The chord edge of The angle of the angle

connects

airfoil: attack

The angle is measured 2.3.

required between

line

and the

direction

airflow. of attack

See fig.

'

chord

line

fig.

2.3.

Chord

line

and angle

of attack.

We want airflow

to describe velocity. p = air V = flow A = blade

the performance Therefore we divide

of an airfoil lift z

independent

of

size

and

L and drag

D by ioV2A where Ckpm31 -1 Cms 1

density velocity area these (= chord divisions ? t blade 1 we call length) lift coeff
. 1

Cm21 cient Cl and drag coeffi-

The results cient C d

of

Cl =

L. hpV2 A

c-',

Cd = ? before, of attack.

D 4 ;oV2 A

C-l

As stated the anile

the amount This

of

lift

and drag is a given

that

is

produced,

depends of

on

dependence in Cl-o

characteristic See fig 2.4.

an airfoil

and is always 5 f

presented

and Cl-Cd

graphs.

For some airfoils

the

chord

line

is

defined

otherwise.

9 4

c1

.+I

C---t+---+--t.-

cl I

---/g

-----

I/-

\$ I I !

-a a 2.4.

-c

Ll

fig

Lift

and drag

characteristics. of of that way: Cd=C1=O. See fig curve, we find a. Cl-design and a-design (C /C ) d 1 min' airfoils. airfoil whether with velocity i: that is is it relative is moving velo2.4.b. From . a series it of NACA airfoils is with important a minimum to

In Appendix is find presented from

II

Cl-a

and Cl -C d characteristics For the design the Cl and CLvalues the is following drawn

as an example. such graphs

a windmill correspond

C /C -ratio?)This is done in dl In the Cl/Cd graph a tangent From the point fig. 2.4.a where

through the

the tangent the that corresponding are found

touches angle in this

Cd and Cl.

we find

of attack way we call

The Cl and a values and the division Table Note standing city "seen" W in

of Cd by Cl is these

2.1 on p. 10 gives that it still air is not in that airfoil.

the minimum C IC -ratio: d' 1 design values for several for the behaviour velocity matters is of the the W OK that

important an airflow is at rest; See fig.

with

what 2.5.

by the

fig

2.5

%lative

velocity.

A blade j from

element

of velocity

a windmill in

rotor

"sees" with

a relative the velocity

velocity witI:

that

rczults

the wind

combination 2.6.

y.*hsch bne '?iI.ade

element

moves itself.

See fig

---I_ z) We will ratio is see on p.11 as small that a maximum power is obtained when the drag

_- *se.. to 'lift

as possible.

10

- --

--Fig.2.6

- ---

air

velocity

Relative relative

velocity velocity

on rotor k and the

blade rotor plane.

3 is

the

angle

between

the

IABLE 2.1 name

sail flat

and pole steel plate

arched

steel

plate

arched steel plate with tube on concave side --__

arched steel plate with tube on convex side

sail

wing tube steel cable

0.05

1.0

sail

trouser f/c=O. 1 dtube=0.6f see appendix see Lit( I) in II appendix or

0.1

1.c

NACA 4412 --NACA 23015

.--. I

0.01 0.01

4 4

0.8 0.8

2.1 =ue

and power in in

characteristics. the plane tangentSa of rotat;on of the lift forces from result the in rotor in tana

The components force center. gential force in working This

direction

at some distance by the component of

force

is

diminished of

the drag is

direction. tangential

The result direction

these

two components from

a propelling rotor center. propelling center of the

at some distance

the

The product force I 1 I I I 1 I and its

of this to the rotor

corresponding

I L

= Lift

distance is the

contribution element under torque

blade tion rotor.

consideraQ of the at an

to the

The rotor

rotates

angular

speed n (= 21r* number per second).

of revolutions

n = 2vn The power tracts formed This drag in tangential direction component of lift in tangential direction relative velocity W product angular

[rad that

see-1 such a rotor is

(Z-3) ex-

from into power of

the wind mechanical is the equal torque

transpower.

to the and the

speed.

Cj = torque IQ = angular speed

CNml Crad s .:

[power-l

L-WI ,,,

A windmill

of

given amount

dimensions of power. (for design will

transforms Equation example only

kinetic (Z-4) clearly

energy

from

the wind

in-

to a certain
for a high for speed ; a high example We call

shows that have

a windmill angular (forangu-

torque

load

a piston produce of

pump) will a small

a low

speed that

amount of

torque

a centrifugal

pump or an electricity shows the dependance

generator). the windmill torque on the

a graph,

lar tics

speed, a windmill of two different speeds.

torque windmills

characteristic. designed torque


for

Fig. 2.7. a shows torque


the same power but for

characteris different

angular

T'he windmill

characteristic

depends on wind speed Vm,

so we have many curves

in one characteristic.

12

-1

$6

IVii

IO

(rads-)

fig.

2.7.a.

low speed windmill torque characteristic


P 80

high torque

speed windmill characteristic

60

50 5 kl

4 v

30

I\
fig. 2.7.b. power With the relation corresponding curves, (2-4) it power belonging is

10

low speed

windmill

high.speed power

windmill

characteristic

characteristic

very

simple

to derive See fig. of fig.

from

the

torque where

characteristics the power-angular

characteristics. to windmills

2.7.b,

speed

2.7.a,

are shown.

13

Note

1) The power of delivered

the

two windmills angular

is

the same, but R. angular Z.?.b.

is

at different

speeds

2) The maximum power speed than ry with the 3) The maximums of

is delivered curves

at a higher in fig. speed R:

the maximum torque. the power vacube of the angular (Z-5a) torque speed R: (Z-5b) values vary with the

P - i-i3 max while square the of corresponding the angular

Q(at

P = P max torque, is i.e. the

4) The starting per second, for Before compare of load the selecting the rotor. mat& of a load operate speed torque the

torque for

at zero high

revoluticns speed than

considerably

lower

low speed windmills. the rotor of the to be designed, load with rotor it the is their the designer torque important efficiencies must ic both are maxiis not

speed of

characteristic

characterist that

For a proper

to a windmill

and windmill

at angular the

speeds where rotor has its the It needed that is for

mum. The angular always equal

at which

maximum efficiency has its cases

to the

angular

speed

at which

load

maximum efficiennot difficult speeds the toron

CY* In that to determine of both que. the load

case we need a transmission. the transmission but this factor remember the

in most the

optimum also

angular changes

and rotor,

a transmission factor

In practice basis

means that speeds only.

transmission

cannot

be chosen

of angular

14

2.2

Dimensionless

coefficients.

In order different

to be sole windmill power

to compare designs under

the

properties wind in the air

and characteristics conditions we write by a factor (Z-6a) multiplied

of C P

different

the mechanical

as the power

-3 *P P air mech = bP C is called P in extracting power power coefficient from and is a measure relation for (l-4) the

success

we have

the wind.

With

we may write (Z-6b)

For the

same reasons

we divide 2.8

the

speed u of the

rotor

at radius

r by

the windspeed.

See fig.

fig.

2.8

Definition

of speed

ratio.

The result

(+ > we call OD

local

speed

ratio

and is

noted

I
The speed ratio tip-speed ratio: of

x =- If
r

=c

nr I of the rotor blade at radius

(Z-7) R we call

the element

Note: the ratio

Later power

it

will

62R i = -V m

(2-8) a windmill This ratio has one value called of X at which 'the tip-speed

be shown that is maximum. ' or 'the

coefficient

X is often

of a windmill

speed

of a windmill'.

15

There

is

of

course

a direct give

relation

between

X and Xr.

Relations

(2-7)

and (2-8)

together

From relation

(2-4)

we know that (2-10)

With

this

relation way:

we define

a dimensionless

torque

coefficient

in

the

following

P = cp fpV2 lrR2

(2-6b) 1

We define: (2-11)

Note

that

in form:

this

way relation

(2-4)

is

still

valid

but

now in

dimen-

sionless

[Cp

(2-12)

16

2.3

Basic

form

of

a windmill

characteristic.

The power coefficient

CR in

equation of

(2-6)

is

not that

an efficiency a windmill

but has in windon

may be interpreted
transforming mill less CR varies form this (2-6) Vm of wind with is

as a measure
energy the into tip-speed

the success energy. of ratio

mechanical

For one specific based

the windmill.

In dimension-

shown in a so-called

Cl, - A characteristic

formulas See fig. ferent

and (2-8). one curve 2.7.b. now represents all the curves for diffig.

2.9 where

cp';;;4k

0 fig

I 2.9

b 2 3 4 I CR - X characteristic.

This radius Using

characteristic R. relation (2-12)

is

independent we may derive

of air from

density fig 2.9

p, windspeed a dimensionless

Vm and form

of the fig

torque-speed Also here

characteristic one curve

of the windmill: represents all curves

2.10.

C -X curve; see 9 of fig 2.7.a.

fig Note

2.10

CG-X characteristic.

that

the power is zero if (2-4) and (2-12).

X = G but

that

the

torque

is

not.

See relations

2.4.

Maximum power The power the wind ted with power

coefficient. with with relation a windmill. into that (2-6) describes in

C as defined P how much power we get from the wind is given by relation (I-4). in how much wind a windmill. coefficient tip-speed will

coefficient

The power very mechanical is designed

We are of course

interespower for the This effects How to into

power we can transform words, for we want a given windmill first

In other CP is ratio.

to know what

the highest

a certain thecretically reslllt cause find account

Betz was the power in of in the next

one to show that is Three these 0.593. other effects

maximum attainable be clarified reduction be explained

coefficient

paragraph. that takes four

a further will

the maximum power the next

coefficient.

the maximum power

coefficient

paragraphs:

2,4;3 2.L.l 2-u '.2 2.4.3

Betz Effect Effect Effect

coefficient of wake rotation of Cd/Cl-ratio of number on maximum power on maximum power coefficient

coefficient coefficient

of blades

on maximum power

18

2.4.0

Betz It is

coefficient not possible to transform all the wind 1.1) in energy into from energy that flows energy. would mean vewould energy If to the in this equal the air

throughcross If that locity flow from we could we could behind through the wind

section21 transform extract the the will hand rotor rotor. stop the

area A (fig all all the would energy then kinetic

mechanical this the air;

the air

be zero

and no more air kinetic rotor is

The process air velocity energy

of extracting behind the

and no more power will

be transformed. and also

on the other wind velocity,

no kinetic

has been extracted In this the cases rotor way it is

case no power will that, to Between behind Betz coefficient if the these the found flow velocity values

be transformed. velocity there behind is VcD, in both

may be understood zero power or equal is zero. velocity

either of

the wind

the mechanical value

an optimum

the wind

rotor. this (Betz cp max value to be f Vm and calculated the maximum power coefficient). + 0.593 (2-13).

This

value

is ratio,

however with

only

valid

for

a theoretical

design

for

a high drag

tip-speed equal will

an infinite

to zero.

The effect by

number of blades --of deviations from these the next three

and a blade three

assumptions

be shown one

one in

paragraphs.

2.4.1

Effect

of wake rotation

on maximum power

coefficient.

The Betz ratio Relation for low A


0

coefficient (2-13) tip-speed in is: the is

suggests however ratios following in of only

that, valid

independent coefficient high for

of

the

design ratios This

tip-speed and can- be

we may expect

a maximum power considerable way: speed. rotor

Cp of 0.593. tip-speed exist.

deviations

explained The power ces acting corresponding sult

torque distances

* angular to the

The torque direction, center. in

is

produced

by forby their

on the blades changes

tangential the air

multiplied forces direction of time). are

These

the re=

of velocity force

tangential pel' unit is the opposed air

(action The direcdirection

reaction; tion the city the This tains wer is of

= mass * velocity change in the

change air

the velocity acting passing

to the

of velo-

forces before rotor

on the blades. the rotor,

Since

has no tangential to that the of the air

the velocity of energy 1-I).

change means that opposite because Since rotating

behind rotor. con-

the wake rotates

in a direction

wake rotation kinetic energy

means a loss (see relation

a certain (2-4) the that torque in the

amount

of po-

to be transformed, ratio High (= low angular torque is a loss ratio in

we know from speed fi), tangential

relation

a low tipQ must be the the

speed high.

means that velocities

means large of energy is fig.

the wake; more so if fig. 2.11.

consequence design

and a lower The result shows the windmills

power; is

tip-speed presented power

lower. 2.11

shown in

The graph tainable infinite

collection i.e. wir

of maximum ob'11s with an

coefficients

of ideal without

number of blades

drag. -

0 0 fig.

12 2.11

3 Collection windmills.

45

78

9 coefficients

---r/l of ideal

of maximum power

2.4.2

Effect

of Cd/Cl-ratio

on maximum power in par. 2.0,

coefficient. is a measure These losses for the resistance deterare calculated of fig.

The factor of mines 2.11. the

Cd, as defined against losses in

the blades

moving

through resistance. fig.

the air.

The Cd/Cl-ratio

due to this the collection

and included

of maximum power 2.12.

coefficients

The results

are shown in

Ill

11

12

13

14

15

fig.

2.12

Effect a rotor

of Cd/Cl-ratio with an infinite

on CP-max for number of blades.

Fig. with have for

2.12 airfoils

shows

that

a rotor, for

designed

for

a tip-speed

ratio

X = 2.5 will

having,

example,

a minimum Cd/Cl-ratio CP = 0.46. If the rotor

of 0.05,

a maximum power X = IO, at the

coefficient

is designed have a

same Cd/Cl

value,

the Cp value that have it is

at h = IO will useless to design

a maximum of 0.3. Note rotor that for from fig. 2.12 it is clear that

X = IO with

airfoils

(Cd/Cl)min

= 0.1.

2.lr.3

Effect

of number

of blades also

on maximum power coefficient. affects depend the maximum power tip-losses on the number that cozSficient. at the and the are included = 0.03 of tips of in fig. the tip-speed

The num!lsr This is

OF blades These

caused

by the so-called losses

occur

the blades. ratio. collection 2.12.

of blades

The losses

have been calculated coefficients

and as example for 2.13. (Cd/Cl)min

of maximum power

The results

are shown in fig.

.7

i I

i;

2 /

.I !

/ 8-1 I

fig.

2.13

Influence

of number

of blades

B on Cp-max for

Cd/Cl=

0.03.

In appendix ted power The first while the

III

graphs

like for

fig. X-design

2.13

are shown giving 1 and 15.

the maximum expec-

coefficient group

between

of graphs

Cd/Cl-ratio while If

for constant shows C Pmax is varied. The second group

number gives

of blades

B constant

Cd/Cl-ratio Conclusion;

B is varied. figures for tip-speed ratio power

for Cp max

design

A, number

of blades

the expected have been c!iosen, and C /C -ratio d 1 read from the graphs in appendix III.

coefficient

C, may be 2.

22

i)ESIG?I OF A WTNDMLL.LROTOR.

3.0 Calculation

of blade

chords

and blade

setting.

In chapter fects ratio neral, because second tip-speed manufacturing of the of

2 it power a certain the

was shown that coefficirklt. windmill, of

the Although for

selection

of

the number

of blades

B af-

B has no influence lower chosen design (see tip-speed table

on the 3.1). This

tip-speed in geis done A design in properties

the is

ratios,

a higher reasl'n ratio is

number of blades that will problems

influence

B on C is larger at lower tip-speed P choice of a high number of blades E for to very will small be dealt and thin influence w ith blades on the in which lift 4). and a negative

ratios. a high results and drag

lead

the blades

(th is problem

chapter

table

3.1

Selection

of number

of blades,

A second Drag

important the the size

factor expected and,

that power

affects coefficient the

the

power via

coefficient the Cd/Cl-ratio. of the types

is

the This

drag. will

affects

influence In paragraph responding this table

even more, is

speed several 2.1

ratio airfoil

design. :md their .airfoils corin

2.0 a list minimum Iiave

shown with (table

Cd/Cl-ratios

on p, 0.1

10).

Promising

a minimum

Cd/Cl-ratio

between

and 0.01.

23

A large ratios Appendix that power for

Cd/Cl-ratio the III. In this

restricts collection

the

design

tip-speed the power

ratio. loss

At lower

tip-speed See seen attainable

use of more blades

compensates

due to drag. it is

of maximum power

coefficients

a range

of design lie however, lie

speeds

11X0$10 the maximum theoretically 20.5. max ideal geometry and 0.4. effects the design require be chosen or steelplates. pump, then will a high This the

coefficients

between of

0.35<Cp the 0.3 hardly of a piston usually

Due to deviations, these maximums will

and hub losses result power output. ratio. starting this If the -i-sign allows laad is

for

example, the choice facchade-

between ratio

shows that

of the design tors, racter running sign however, of the load,

tip-speed limit load. that the airfoils If rotor the it

Two other One is torque, the the

choice is

tip-speed a hir,!; low;

pump, scoop wheel

or some other

slow the designer fast facpossiBut steel pla-

in most cases will will like sails

speed of

to use simple like lected tor bilities even in tes, is a generator

running

or a centrifugal with locally

speed will

be se-

and airfoils that the the

a low Cd/Cl-ratio available blades speed technologies wi.1.h airfoiis design,

be preferred. will having airfoils problems often

The second restrict the

of manufacturing case of a high very We will

low Cd/Cl-ratios. like related arched

simple the

can give

good results. pass over angular windspeed in silence of the to starting a windmill table 2.1 an of a design a number frequency load.

torque rotor airfoil tip-speed blades coefficient

and optimum for in a given terms ratio B is

Now we can design in 3.1 we can choose With table

Vm and a power expected

demand P. Selecting III. III

of a minimum X, with and,

Cd/Cl-ratio,

the help returning

of appendix to appendix

chosen

we can find

the maximum power

C tildt Pmax example: design Table

may be expected. rotor 2.1 with 7% arched steeZpZates.

(Cd/CIJmjn B= l<ho'8; 4 cP nlax

= 0.02 we choose = 0.48 ho= 4.

Appendix Appendix

III III

Page 48 Table 3.1Page 43

24

Wilh
For

reIatit)n consrrvativc

(Z-6)

we can

now c~l~ul.~te
Cl, 0.8

ttlc. desired
* Cp

radius

R of

the

rotor.

Jcsign

we take

mtx .

(Z-6)

-l 3 llli0 7 R =II 7 ,/?I* 1.25*83*0 u = 1.7 Iml . 8 *o . 4 6

Design We need

of

the blades. following data:

the

rotor number
design

radius of blades tip-speed data: lift coefi icie:lt angle ratio

R Li A
II

Iml c-1

c- 1
C-i

airfoil design

correspondi:tg of Airfoil (5)) One: blade the (6) Lhrse attack

c1O

a0

L-l Appendix and literature (I),

data

may be found

in table

2. I,

II

armd (12). data are known, i.e. the the it chord is norm very c of the and the plane simple blade of to calculate the angle 3. I. 8,

geometry;
angle

between

chord

and the -blade rotation, fig.

fig.

3.1

Hlade

setting

~3.

Only

three

simple

formulas

are needed

and one graph

A = X0 x r/R r c=gL(,1 B=r$-a cos $1 (3. I) (3.2) Xr - 4 is too in complicated references the design of to be explained appendix the rotor, I), (appendix here (see who V)

and graph The underlying appendix is primarily this theory. theory interested

IV and the

literature

The reader

can do without

the design procedure is Divide the blade with radius


KOW

as follows : R in a number of parts of the blade.

of equal

length.

In this

way we find

cross

sections center

Each cross

section A~, 3.1) with of for

has a distance

r to the rotor the

and has a local angle relative

speed ratio

according to (2.9). In appendix V we can find each cross-section. meets relation appendix with (3.2). the blade (3.1). V). (For The blade Q is section

corresponding of the r. the

$ (see fig. air velocity the chord the is

the angle at radius

W that

We now calculate

ease, angle

(1 - cos $I) has been added in at corresponding radius

graph found

example:

We continue R = 1.7 B--4 x0= 4

our

design

of a rotor

with

Cm1

airfoil table

= 7% arched 2. I gives for

s tee I plate this (i.e. (i.e. airfoil: the value for minimum angle (3-2) table: Cd/Cl) of attack). z3e can mm com-

Cl = 0.9 0 a = 4O
0

t.he corresponding (2-91, and (3-l),

ki th equations pute the values

of the foZlowing

26

Table

3.2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0.4250 0.6375 0.8500 1.0625 I .2750

1.4875
I .7000

3.5110.61

1 6.6

1 0.1771

The result

is

the blade

chord

c and *Ye blade

setting gives

B at various the blade

st.a:ions form and

along the blades. Plotting plotting B shows the desired

the chords (fig 3.2) twist of the blade.

rotor

center ./ cross sectioz number

10
I I ,

0.5R e 1:(m>

s.-4&q~J.JJ.;~;J.p
Fig. 3.2 Blade form, twist and cross sections of the blade.

27

3.1

Deviations

from

the calculated

chords

and blade

setting.

In the

last

paragraph as well

we showed how to calculate as the blade the is and lead it angles blade. as calculated

the

ideal in par.

blade 3.0

form. vary diffiIn order and the

The chords in cult

a non-linear these

manner along problems This results

Such blades to linearize loss only of power.

are usually the If chords the that

to manufacture

to an uneconomic possible

use of materials.

to reduce blade is of

angles.

in a small loss is it

linearization about is 75%

done in

a sensible that half the is square radii,

way the extracted of the where

a few percent. from the wind, the blade efficiency extracted area

In considering the power with by the outer varies is tip less

such linearizations
of the blades, the the 2.4.3. it

must be realized

by the rotor This radius;

is because also the

swept of

the blades

at small at the tip

speed ratio efficiency

hand,

of the blade in par.

X is small. On the other 1: is low, due the so-called

losses

discussed

For the

reasons

mentioned angles

above,

is

advised

to

linearize

the

chords

and the blade

B between

r = 0.5R and r = 0.9R.

exmnple:

we linearize culated in

the bZade chords table 3.2 of par.

c and oxgles 3.0.

B as cal-

The nearest r = 0.85 The nearest r = 1.4875 In lues table

value

of r to 0.5 R in tub le 3.2 is


of r to 0.9 R in R). values table 3.2 is

(= 0.5 R). value

(= 0.875 3.2 for

these

of r the following

VU-

of c and B were culculated: r Cm1


0.85 1.4875

c Cm1
0.281 0.159

f3O
13.7 6.6O

28

We can now linearize c and B in the following

the chords
way:

and blade

angles

by writing

c = air
6 = a3r With the vulues a

+ a

+ a4

of c and B at r = 0.85
a3 and a4 are found. r + 0.444 r + 23.17 the rotor

md r = 1.4875,

the

constants

1' a2'

c = -0.191 $ = -11.14 Suppose r = 0.17 at

we have a hub for and at the tip

and the hub has a radius the chords and blade angles

Cm1 then we can calculate

the foot Cfoot %p *foot 8 tip

of the blade:
+ 0.444 = 0.412 = 0.119 = = 21.f 4.3 [ml Cm]

= -0.191 = -0.191 = -21.14 = -11.14

* 0.17 *

1.7 + 0.444 + 23.17

* 0.17 *

1.7 f 23.17

The result twist in

of

the

linearizations

is

shown in

fig.

3.3 where the blade

blade of

form fig.

and 3.2.

the blade otor center ideal

are shown and compared with

form

blade \

form linearized blade form

ideal .

twist

-.-.-.

-+

___
.

hubc-l
u

0.5R f

fig.

3.3.

Linearized

chords

and twist.

P r(m)

29

As may be seen very also angles ter, small remain for this will effect the of at

from the

fig.

3.3 half

the of

changes the blades.

in chords At the change on the power at

and blade inner is first but half found

angles the in

are chords blade chapa consiIn be is is

outer

almost r < 0.5 not

unchanged. lead

A rather

large

the this

R. For reasons

as stated

page of

to any significant torque that will are very that

loss

may have speeds, the should torque

derable general capacities forgotten. the often

on the starting

is produced be less important,

low angular cases where effect starting size

torque

and in

starting not

the windmill

this

An example stroke

of a load

demands a high this load, the torque.

single

piston

pump. For

of the windmill

determined

by the demanded starting

30

4. 4.0

EFFXT

OF THE REYNOLDS-NUMBER. of airfoil characteristics depend on the Re-number. (Re) w.c Re is defined as Re = -, V c is the chord and v is of the flow is is the alower conRe-numReynolds-number

Dependance The airfoil of the floi where W is the kinematic All round airfoils the

characteristics

on the so-called

around the airfoil. the relati.Je velocity viscosity have airfoil a critical is less (in our

For an airfoil to the airfoil, case that Ii this Re the

of air). Re-number then the Cl-value the performance the effect of

Re-number. then

and the siderably

Cd-value better.

is higher; See for is shown.

above example

critical this Re critical fig. 4.1 where

ber on (Cd/Cl)min

fig.

4.1.

Effect ferent

of "he-number airfoils.

on (CdjCl)min-ratio

for

three

dif-

In general be LO4 while Re-number critical Fig. 4.2

the for

critical

Re-number

for

airforls airfoils

with like

a sharp

nose will critical have airfoils a

the more conventional 105; some of of about inverse 106. value of

NACA the types

is

about

the very

modern

airfoil

Re-number shows the

the id/Cl-ratio

of various

as f (Re).

MRTMANN Stullgar, FX GO-S-15%

L/D

ratlo

GEDSEA

PLANT

MAC24512

SCHMlTZ

NW

10

lob

2 Reynolds

10 number Re

fig.

4.2.

Inverse

value

of minimum Cd/Cl-ratio for several airfoils.

as function

of the Re-number From lit(5).

32

4.1

Calculation

of

the Re-number

for

the blades at X=X

of a windmill

rotor.

For the the flow

condition around way: if B r

that

the

rotor

the airfoil

the Re-number optimum can be determined with fig.4.3 in the

runs

of fol-

lowing

= number of blades = radius = distance blade coefficient to rotor center of blade element under

considerat;on A, = speed ratioof c1 = design deration vu2 = undisturbed the Ke-number Re = B *Cl is: * Re N from the graph presented J = 15 * 10 in fig.
-6

element

under

consideration element under consi-

lift

of blade

windspeed

Vm * r

R% may be read for air: kinematic

4.3 (valid

viscosity

[m2s -'I)

ReN(B=l,Vm=l,r=I,Cl=I)I w
V

(I-cos$)

0I

I
8910111213 fig. 4.3. Re = f (At) for rotors running
14

01234567

c15

at AoPtimum .

examp Ze : we will chapter

check 3.

the Re-number

for the

rotor

as designed

in

airfoil: radius tip-speed CL-design

7% arched : R = 1.7 &vatio: = 0.9

stee2 [ml X0 = 4

pZate

Number of blades 1) at the tip

B = 4.

hr = X0 = 4. r = R =l.?I-ml

fig4.3

ReiJ = 9*104 R*V Re r=R = ReN x m = B * C,

9 * lo4

* 1.7 Vm

4 * 0.3

Re r=R = 4.25

*lO

v,

2) at r = 0.5 R

Xr = 2; r = 0.85 * 0.85 v-=4* 4 * 0.9 h,r = 0.8 r = 0.34 I

17 * i04 Re r=O.SR =

3) at F = 0.2 R

28 * 104 * 0.34 Re r=O.2R = = 2.6 4 * 0.9 the whole blade, the than * 10'

Va-

i'oncksion:

for

Re-numI'er the critical

Cs, even Re-num-

for
ber Thus

very
for

low windspeecisis, higher


steel plates (= 10'). minimum

the asswned

Cd/CL-ratio

is

correct.

APPENDIX I. LITERATURE. van Doenhoeff A.E. including New York, Varst diktaat P. v.d. no. 3323, Eindhoven University of in 1977) airfoil 1959. data

( 1)

Abbot Theory Dover

I.H.,

of Wing sections. Publications, .I., (in Inc.,

( 2)

Beurskens Wind Energy Technology,

Houet M., Dutch),

Eindhoven,

the Netherlands.(English

edition

to be published

( 3)

Durand

W.F. Theory, Volume IV, Dover Publications, Inc., 1965.

Aerodynamic

( 4)

Golding

E.W. of Electricity Spon Ltd., with additional by Wind Power Lane, London 1976. EC4P 4EE, first published material

The Generation E. and F.N. 1955, ( 5) Hctter reprinted U.

11 New Fetter

Considerations Report 1974. wind

on the optimum energy seminar,

design

of wind

energy

systems

(in

German), September

Kernforschungsanlage

J:ilich,

Germany,

( 6)

Jansen

W.A.M. survey horizontal axis fast running wind turbines for

a) Literature Developing b) Horizontal Steering Amersfoort,

Countries. axis fast for running wind turbines for developing Countries, countries P.O.Box 85,

Committee

Wind energy June

in Developing 1976.

the Netherlands,

( 7)

Kraemer Airfoil Gi;ttingen, DGsseldorf

K. sections in the auf 2. critical Reynolds range (in German), volume 27, Forschung 1961, no. dem Gebiete des Ingenieurwesens,

( 8)

Schmitz

F.W. of flying models, measurements Reihe IV, at airfoil I, sections 1942. I, (in

Aerodynamics German),

Luftfahrt

und Schule,

volume

35

( 9;

Schmitz

F.W. of small Re-numbers 1953. P.B.S. of wind power machines. May 1974. U.S.A., (in German),

Aerodynamics Jahrbuch (10) Wilson Applied Oregon

der W.G.L., R.E., State Lissaman University,

Aerodynamics

(II)

Wilson Oregon Park Helion J.

R.E., State

Lissaman performance University,

P.B.S., U.S.A.,

Walker June

S.N. 1976.

Aerodynamic

of wind

turbines.

(12)

Symplified

Wind Power Systems Sylmar, California,

for

Experimenters. 1975.

U.S.A.,

(13)

Riegels

F.W. Profile Mcnchen (Windkanal-messersebnisse, 1958. theoretische

lierodpamische R. Oldenbourg, English Aerofoil Butterworth,

unterlagen\

translation: sections London (wind tunnel test results, theoretical backgrounds) 1961.

APPENDIX II-

36

~t;itiun 0 1.25 ?.5 5.0 7.5 10 15 20 25 30


0 2.44 0 1.5 0

Stnlimi 1.43 1.95 2.49 2.74 S.SG 2.88 2.74 2.5u 2.26 1.m 1.40 1.w 0.65 0.39 0 1.25 2.5 5.0 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 GO ?O 80 90 95 100 100

3rlhrtc -.

st3tion 0 1.25

3.39 a.73 5.76 6.59 7.s9 8.80 9.41


9.iB

2.5 5.0 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 Go


i0

.; 07 4.17 5.74 ti.91 7.84 9.27 10.25 10.92 11.25 11.25 10.53 9.30 7.G3 2.55 3.09 1.07 WlG) ... ...

2.5 5.0 7.5 10 15 20 5 30

.)rdm& --0 - 1.m - 2.4x - 3.27 - 3.71 - 3.98 .I : - .A.15 - 3.9s - 3.75 L 3.25 2.72 2.11 1.55 1.03 0.57 03 0.16 0

tirdinntc
0

Station 0 1.25 2.5 5.0 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 95 100 1UU

Drdlrlat~~ -0

1.25 2.5 5.0 7.5

3.7G 5.00 G.75


b.Uti

--

2.11 2.09 4.00 -1.tji 5.OG 5.19 5.56 5.49 5.26 1.70 -I.02 3.24 2.45 1.67

9.11
L(J.clb

11.72 13. Ii) 12.7G 13.70 11.85 10.-H 8.55 6.22 3.4G lS9 (0.19)

9.80 9.19 8.: 4 6.69 4.59 2.71 1.47 (0.13)

-rn
50 GO 70 80 9a 95 100 100

80

- 0.22 - O.lG - 0.131 0 0.20

- 0.93 - u.55 - 0.19) 0 --

LE. rldiuj: 1.56 Slope of rxlius through LX:

1sE. rmlir~s: 2.48 Slope of radius throu&

L.E.: 0.20

--

L.E. i-a&r;<: 3.X SIII]~P of r:ld~u~ ttl?~J..,:: I..!:.: . JJ

(Stations and ordinntes given in per cent of airfoil chord) Cpper surface
-. 0

Chtinn- ?nd ordimtes given in per cent of airfoil chord) 1 j Lower surfxe Lepper surface -.__ -_____ -~Drdiuat Station Min:rte Station ___0 0 0 0 I.970 - J.47: 0.530 3.96 4 I.536 3.464 - 4.83 5.624 G.225 - Li.UW 3.775 7.94? 5.847 - cl.931 G.153 9.G51 R.Gll 13.G7.1 lS.858 21.111 33.401 4~l.nOo 50.235 (i0.405 i0.487 Xl):lG-I ! 1.3s) ll.CJl? 13.045 / lG.32; 14.41G 1 21.142 15.2hi 55.859 15.735 30.599 1;j.G!IG 1 t.471 1?.G71 10.312 7.~147 -m.onc~ -J!liGj 59.595 G9.513 79.536 T.;lil S.lli! s.411: s:11 5.231 ;.ti:ll
(i.G9!

Lowr

surfnre

. i_
1.25 2.5 5.0 7.5 IO 15 20 -I? d, 30 40 50 60 70 so 90 95

ii.5 5.0-l
i.S2 9.21 !wxi 12.0-l 13.17 13.88 14.27 11.16 13.18 1l.f-A-J 3.50 6.91 3.85 2 II

1.25 2.5 .?I.0 7.5 :0 15 20 25 30 10 50 r3-J 70 80

0 2.12 3.45 4.3 5.62 Cl.; f.75 G.98 !J.!j.! 6.7G

- fi.lG - 5.31

- 4.m
- 3.35 - 2.31

5.56: 4.31: 3.00:

/ 1OMi / f- iI.22, I W.?2J , 100 / .. , loo L.E. radim: 4.85 Slt~pr qf m&Is thrw~ph J..II.: (1.20
100

co 0" d OD z d

--_-

.% d u" :t N s d u .8 d
0

a ? C3

4 G
l-4 E; d

El 9 0
u t

H d
0

N
*

N d I

4 Li

1
1.6 1.2 0.8 I I I I I/ I II I 0.4 0 -0X
/ I

a /,b /I I/// I I ;C

0.45 0

I///

-0.8

I
-32 -24

I I
-16

I I
-8

I I
0

I I
8

I I
16

I I
26

- 0.8 I

I
32

0.004

I I I

0.012

I I I

I I I d

I I I 0.020
I

I I I

a. [de91
a, Re z9*106 b. Re I S-10 c. Re ~3.10'

Y0.2 IC
0 -0.2 0 0.2 OX 0.6 0.8 1.0

NACA 4424

X IC

APPENDIX III

42

EFFECT OF CD/CL FOR I-WADED ROTOR

10

11

12

13

i4

15

TIPSPEED RATIO A

EFFLCI OF CD/CL FOR 2-BLIUIED ROTOR

EBru-------------------------Co/CL-o 0.005 0.01

4 E.5 ii

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13:\14 1s
TIP SPEED RATIO A

-------__.----_Y

_---

---------

..__-

.~ -_ -----

--

- -

--- --_---------_

_ ---c il /CL-o ~_ ~_~ ___, . 00; 0.01

-------

---------

10

li

12
TIPSPEED

13
RATIO A

14

1:

_..__. 3. Idcar. __.-_ - -----

_. -.__ -.. -__ _______ -.----

--.--

__.-

--.-

- ----

_ --____ _ _ ._. _ . .._ .- __- ___.. cl~I(~L-1~ .---__ .____._ 0.005----

10

11

12
RATIO

13
A

14

15

TIPSPEED

44

EFFECT OF CO/CL FOR 6-3LADIlD ROTOR

.5
.b 1

.3 I .2 1

.! I 0 0
0.3 \ I 1 0.2.\ 1 0.:25 \ I 0.1 _I \ 1 D.D\, L

I---

10

11

12

13

14

:z

TIPSPEED RATIO ).

.7
EFFECT OF CD/CL FOR B-BLADED ROTOR

.3

.2

0 0 1 2 3
4

10

11

i2

13
A

14

1:: ,II

TIPSPEED itAT

EFFICT OF W/CL FUH II-IILADED ROTOH CD/CL-O

12

i0

11

12

13

14

1s

TIPSPEED RATIO A

. 7

EFFECT OF NL'EISEA BLADESFOR CD/CL-O.15 OF -_--.. -_-

-.

__

-_

--

--

.-

--

_----

--.

.3

.2

.I

4
TIPSFEED RATIO 1

46

.7
EFFECTOF NUMBER OF BLADES FOR CD/CL-O.125

6 a.* ii g.5 i! B
2.4

.3

.2

6
TIPSPEED RATIO X

EFFECT OF t!DMBEROF BLADESFOR CD/CL-O.! Bctz-.._ _ ._ -_ _ _ _- _ --. __ _. .- _c___ ._..-- __--__---.__-_ --

._.-.--

,I /

_/-,/----__---

7
TIPSPEED RATIO A

47

EFFELT OF NUMBER OF BLADESFOR CD/CL-O.075 Bru--v-e-----___ ------__--__

10

11

12

13

14

15

TIPSPEED FAT10 A

.7 2 ii !i
; .5 3
f&A

EFFECT OF NUHBEROF BLADES FOR CD/CL-O.05 Ba; __ _ ,__ __ __ _._ ___ ._ _ _ __ _ -----: 1.b -..- JZ -

.3

O0 1 2 3

10

11

12

13

14

15

TIPSPEED RATIO A

40

EFFECT OF NUMBER BLADES FOR CD/CL-O.03 OF c.. 6 B&Z _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ --- -I -II---=

.3

.2

.1
I I I ---IL-,-L I I I III

0I

12

516

10

11

12

13

14

15

TIPSPEED RATIO X

.7

* li

HCU...

5
g .5 8

EFFECT DP NUMRBH BLADES FOR CD/CL-e.02 OF __ . . ____.-.. --,-.--.

.- _ ._____

._ .-.. __. . _------. _____._ -.

.------ -,::

._ __52

I o 12 3
4

I 5

1 6

I 7

L 8

I 9

10

11

12

13

14

15

TZPSPEED RATIO A

EFFECT OF NUMBER OF BLADID R&#@/'CL-0.01

10

11

12

13

14

15

TIPSPEED RATIO A

.7
u. 6 c Y Y e 8 .5
Ecu ----EFFECT OF NUMBER BLADESFOR CD/CL-O.005 OF ----_--------------

.3

.2

10

11

12

13

14

15

TIPSPEED RATIO A

APPENDIX IV

5o

Note on the is based. The design

theoretical

assumptions

on which

the

design

method

procedure

presented

in

this theory

publication

is based in

on general for example as coef-

momentum theory lit (2-3-6-10).

and blade This simple

element design

as can be found ignores tip

procedure collection the

effects

mentioned ficients

in paragraph given

2.4.3.

In the

of maximum power tip losses

in AppendixIII,

however,

are included.

As described

in paragraph with the

2.4.0

- 2.4.3,

the attainablepower

coefficient

can be described

following

effects: CP Betz = fi 27

1) Betz

coefficient

2) wake rotation 3) blade 4) tiplosses drag due to finitqnumber of blades

Effects (error

1) and 2) can be described 5 0.5 p=zrcent for X 2 I):

with

the

following

approximation

cP with Effect power for X=h

ideal

= 16 =.-0.35x 27

-1.29

optimum. by reducing with an apnroximation CP ideal = 2 percent for X=1; error,' 0.1 for percent

3) can be described loss X > 2;s) 16 cP drag =nq due to drag

(max error

Cd h

with

X=X optimum

and

sis c1

'd c at C 1 design 1

51

, cP

including max

drag

is: -1.29 Cd - c A) 1 q : B

CP = Crideh, max Effect 4) can be included

-cp drag by multiplying

=g(e

-0.35X

with Cp max

factor

B B = number

= (1 -B

I .386

Sin 7) 2 in Appendix V with Xr = Xtip .

of blades;

+ is

found

is: Thus Cp max cP = max IB (CPideal - Pdrag)

I .386 = (1 --y-rnax

sin

-1.29

Cd - c- A). 1

52 APPENDIX 1

(I-cos!$)
.- . i3 0 [ 5 , j r..q 0,00220 0,00232 0,00244 1;,00258 0,00272 0,00288 n,oo305 0,00323. 0,00343 0,00368 0,00390 0,00417 0,00447 0,00480 0,00517 0,00559 0,00605 0,00658 0,00718 0,00786 0,00865 0,00955 0,01061 0,01184 0,01336 0,01505 0,(31716 0,01774 0,02292 0,02691 0,032OO 0,03862 0,04739 0,05930 0,07585 0,09948 0,13397 0,18507 0,26025 0,36584 095

Ar=

si nq ,3cos1$-1 +xq)(2cos41+l)

i, , ,. \/ . 4!
c \ \ !

i: -- /.,

1.25 9.00 8.75 cI 1::;; a.00 I.75 7.50 7.25 7.00 6.75 6.50 t;.25 6.00 5.75 5.50 '1.25 >.oo 4.75 4.50 4.25 4.00 3.75 3.50 3.25 3.00 2-75 2.50 2.25 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 d,75 b.50 0.25 0.00

4.006 4.llj 4. 27-1 4 * 34 7 4.473 -s. 6 07 4.750 .I.902 5.063 5.2jd 1.420 5.618 5.831 6.060 b. 31!9 t; . ;j 77 t;.a7o 7.190 7.540 7.Q2i, 8.353 rj.827 9.357 5.954 lcl.6jO 11.402 12.290 13.322 14.534 15.975 17.710 19.830 22.460 25.773 30.000 35.420 42.290 50.642 60.000

i-

.--.l____

----I...-.

-i

._

._.____.

..__

_..

-.A..

----.

.L...--...Ie.

Xng:e,#, the flew speed

between

reiative of the

velocity at

and radius

plane r for

of

the

rotor

versus with a

ratio to

an element flow of

a windmill

equal

ay! ideal

windmill.

SWD PUBLICATIONS

Serial number

Price (incl. mail) us $ Dfl

SWD 76-l

Wind-energy utilization and constraints. By A. Dennis Fernando

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