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You are on page 1of 57

Axis Wiu

Rotor Desian

for Horizontal

by: W.A.M. Jansen and P.T. Smulders Published by: Steering Committee for Wind Energy in Developing Countries P.O. Box 85 3800 AB Amersfoort The Np erlands Paper copies are $ 4.00; single available to research institutions countries. free copies ark in developing

Available from: for Wind Energy in Steering Committee Developing Countries P-0. Box 85 3800 AB Amersfoort The Netherlands Reproduced by permission of the Steering for Wind Energy in Developing Countries.

L;nmittee

Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

..

G ccmp@r~E;i~?R WINDENERGY IN DEVELOPING COUNT,RIES ur&&p Whde&r& Ohwiklcelingskmden) 85);AMERiFOOfiT /Tklc NETHERLANDS-

,. .;.-,

This publication was realised under the auspices of the Steering Committee for Windenergy in Develooing Countries, S.W.D. The S.W.D. is financed by :he Netherlands Ministry for Development Cooperation and is staffed by ;he State University Groningen, the Eindhoven Technical University, the Netherlands Organization for Applied DhV Consulting Engineers, Amersfoort, and collaborates

Scientific

Research, and

The S.W.D. tries to help governments, institutes and private parties in the Third World, with their efforts to use windenergy and in general to promote the interest for windenergy in Third World countries.

in Developing by

Countries,S.W.D. Ministry

University

the Eindhoven the Netherlands DHV Consulting The S.W.D. tries parties and in general World Countries. in the Third

Organization

Engineers,Amersfoort. governments, their the interest institutes efforts for ant' ?rivate to use win? energy wind energy !n Third World with

to ?elp to promote

*)

Wind

of Fluid

Transfer, Technology,

of Physics,

Eindhoven

The Netherlands.

Concents

page number

UNITS CF MEASURE. 1 WIND ENERGY - WIND POWER. WINDMILL ROTOR. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4. Airfoils. Torque Basic 2.4.0 2.4.1 Dimensionless form Bets Effect Maximum power coefficients. of windmill coefficient. coefficient. of wake rotation - ratio 2. HORIZONTAL-AXIS

coefficient. of number of blades coefficient. 22 and blade chsrds angles. and angles. on Re-number. the blades of a 22 27 30 30 32 on maximum 21

3. DESIGN OF A WINDMILL ROTOR. 3.0 3.. I 4.0 4.1 Calculation Peviations Dependance Calculations windmill rotor. of blade from the chords calculated

Appendix I II Literature

Cl-a

34 characteristics, 36

and Cl-Cd

NACA 4412.......24 III Collection for different of maximum attainable numbers of blades tip-speed assumptions power coefficients, 42

function IV

on which

0'

fOr)

52

INTRODLCTIUN. This publication was written energy rotor. as to the it too like for those persons to know who are

how

interested

in

the

to design

on this this

parties

and outsidethe

we were

be written.

easy,

too difficult. that the design It a lot etc. familiar the first is understood, of attention with formulas procedure, however is given reader before as that to to prean attempt simple. are well quite important

to emphasize

chapters,

characteristics of

So we ask the

and patient.

the basic

concepts

and graphs

with

the

procedure

as

here, terms

speed of

and radius,

availability coupled

or to too high

loads.

number

of revolutions that

problems

selected

incorrect. calculations

A second are

forces during

strong

enough,

Touching

a rotor

to serious

materials

reader

a rotor

can be manufactured

LIST

OF SYMBOLS

n A

B

C

constant area number chord drag lift power torque diameter drag energy er,ergy plate lift mass rnnaber power torque rotor radius radius number B = Cl = r = Vm = 1 blade speed windspeed velocitv of attack value angle, for value for blade blade ratio for tip-speed at radius ratio r m2s-' ksm3 flow between velocity angular plane at the velocity of rotation rotor blades

S-

'd c1 cP

cQ

d D E

EV

S

-3

f L m

of

revolutions

per

second

W Nm m m

r Re Ren

U

local

Reynolds Re for tangential velocity, undisturbed relative angle design blade factor tip-speed design local

speed

at radius

ms ms _I:

-1

V Vma w a

to rotor angle of

blade attack

ms-1

UNITS OF MEASURE.

The units

used

in

this familiar

to,

on the given

data

example for

windspeed that

in mph),

give for

a short the

factors

the units

design

of windmill

lm

i ln

= 3.28 2 = 10.76

ft ft2 ft?264.2 mph ms lb lbf ft = 0.102 lbf = 0.2777* -1 = 0.738 ft -6 10 kWh=lNm Ibf s-'=lNms-' = 1 Js kW kW kgf -1 = 1.15 mph gallons

1 m3 = 35.31 -1 lms = 2.237 1 knot = 0.5144 = 2.205 = 0.225 = 0.738 = 0.239 = 1 watt = 0.7457 = 0.7355

1 kg IN 1 Nm 1J 1w 1 hp 1 pk

calories

Wind is

air

its

density energy

is

low.

has kinetic

expressed

lume of air,

has a velocity

ViD, is: CJmB31 to the wind a volume direction through (l-2) (see fig. I.l), area.

E = fpV2 m '.' If we consider it then Vm is may be seen that the undisturbed wind per second

an area A perpendicular

Vm A flows

this

velocity.

fig.

1.1

flow

per

second

Vm A.

So the

flow

per 0

through

that that

with

the

air,

through through

per second

Pcwer Power

= Energy = Energy

per per

Equations(l-2) 2 =ipV m

and (1-3) *V m A

combined

air

IP,,joYlA]

This power is the power available in the wind; can actually be extracted relation for The above derived the power

CWI

as will

is

proportional

to the

density

and varies

and temperature - in

swept

the

cube of eightfold

Vm. Note

2. HORIZONTAL AXIS WINDMILL ROTOR, To extract still This which rotor the power from the wind, several Examples devices of such have been used and are and

in use throughout book deals are rotors rotates only with with

devices

are sailboats

windmills. of rotors in for line horizontal with axis windmills, velocity. are The acting

the

forces

forces

the velocity

rotor

ces acting

on the

2.0

The

-A.

attached

to a hub.

cross fig.

of

forms,

as illustrated

in

and we call

these

cross

airflow

airflow

(plate

A. symmetric w . airfoil ---. alrflnw 'W cambered airfoil airflow _ sail ..\ with pole sail with pole .&flow ", '.\

airflow

highly

is

a surface

over

air force

flows.

This

flow

results to the

in flow.

two

measured

perpendicular

to the

- not 2.2.

is measured

parallel

- airflow

----.I. 6

-. 2.2 Lift and drag.

__-.-.-.-

fig.

All lift,

with the

in

order

to produce

larger the

connects

airfoil: attack

required between

line

and the

direction

airflow. of attack

See fig.

'

chord

line

fig.

2.3.

Chord

line

and angle

of attack.

We want airflow

of an airfoil lift z

independent

of

size

and

L and drag

density velocity area these (= chord divisions ? t blade 1 we call length) lift coeff

. 1

of

Cl =

L. hpV2 A

c-',

Cd = ? before, of attack.

D 4 ;oV2 A

C-l

of

lift

that

is

produced,

depends of

on

dependence in Cl-o

an airfoil

and is always 5 f

presented

and Cl-Cd

graphs.

the

chord

line

is

defined

otherwise.

9 4

c1

.+I

C---t+---+--t.-

cl I

---/g

-----

I/-

\$ I I !

-a a 2.4.

-c

Ll

fig

Lift

and drag

characteristics. of of that way: Cd=C1=O. See fig curve, we find a. Cl-design and a-design (C /C ) d 1 min' airfoils. airfoil whether with velocity i: that is is it relative is moving velo2.4.b. From . a series it of NACA airfoils is with important a minimum to

II

Cl-a

and Cl -C d characteristics For the design the Cl and CLvalues the is following drawn

a windmill correspond

C /C -ratio?)This is done in dl In the Cl/Cd graph a tangent From the point fig. 2.4.a where

through the

Cd and Cl.

we find

The Cl and a values and the division Table Note standing city "seen" W in

of Cd by Cl is these

the minimum C IC -ratio: d' 1 design values for several for the behaviour velocity matters is of the the W OK that

with

what 2.5.

by the

fig

2.5

%lative

velocity.

A blade j from

element

of velocity

a windmill in

rotor

"sees" with

velocity witI:

that

rczults

the wind

combination 2.6.

element

moves itself.

See fig

---I_ z) We will ratio is see on p.11 as small that a maximum power is obtained when the drag

_- *se.. to 'lift

as possible.

10

- --

--Fig.2.6

- ---

air

velocity

Relative relative

velocity velocity

3 is

the

angle

between

the

sail flat

arched

steel

plate

sail

0.05

1.0

sail

0.1

1.c

.--. I

0.01 0.01

4 4

0.8 0.8

2.1 =ue

and power in in

characteristics. the plane tangentSa of rotat;on of the lift forces from result the in rotor in tana

direction

force

is

diminished of

the drag is

direction. tangential

these

at some distance

the

corresponding

I L

= Lift

distance is the

consideraQ of the at an

to the

The rotor

rotates

angular

of revolutions

n = 2vn The power tracts formed This drag in tangential direction component of lift in tangential direction relative velocity W product angular

[rad that

(Z-3) ex-

transpower.

speed.

CNml Crad s .:

[power-l

L-WI ,,,

A windmill

of

given amount

energy

from

the wind

in-

to a certain

for a high for speed ; a high example We call

torque

load

a piston produce of

a low

speed that

amount of

torque

a centrifugal

a graph,

lar tics

torque windmills

for

the same power but for

characteris different

angular

T'he windmill

characteristic

in one characteristic.

12

-1

$6

IVii

IO

(rads-)

fig.

2.7.a.

P 80

high torque

60

50 5 kl

4 v

30

I\

fig. 2.7.b. power With the relation corresponding curves, (2-4) it power belonging is

10

low speed

windmill

high.speed power

windmill

characteristic

characteristic

very

simple

from

the

torque where

characteristics. to windmills

2.7.b,

speed

2.7.a,

are shown.

13

Note

the

is

is

at different

speeds

is delivered curves

the maximum torque. the power vacube of the angular (Z-5a) torque speed R: (Z-5b) values vary with the

Q(at

4) The starting per second, for Before compare of load the selecting the rotor. mat& of a load operate speed torque the

torque for

at zero high

considerably

lower

low speed windmills. the rotor of the to be designed, load with rotor it the is their the designer torque important efficiencies must ic both are maxiis not

speed of

characteristic

characterist that

For a proper

to a windmill

and windmill

at angular the

at which

to the

angular

speed

at which

load

case we need a transmission. the transmission but this factor remember the

in most the

optimum also

angular changes

and rotor,

a transmission factor

In practice basis

transmission

cannot

be chosen

of angular

14

2.2

Dimensionless

coefficients.

In order different

the

of C P

different

the mechanical

as the power

-3 *P P air mech = bP C is called P in extracting power power coefficient from and is a measure relation for (l-4) the

success

we have

the wind.

With

For the

same reasons

we divide 2.8

the

speed u of the

rotor

at radius

r by

the windspeed.

See fig.

fig.

2.8

Definition

of speed

ratio.

The result

(+ > we call OD

local

speed

ratio

and is

noted

I

The speed ratio tip-speed ratio: of

x =- If

r

=c

(Z-7) R we call

the element

Later power

it

will

62R i = -V m

(2-8) a windmill This ratio has one value called of X at which 'the tip-speed

coefficient

X is often

of a windmill

speed

of a windmill'.

15

There

is

of

course

a direct give

relation

between

X and Xr.

Relations

(2-7)

and (2-8)

together

From relation

(2-4)

With

this

relation way:

we define

a dimensionless

torque

coefficient

in

the

following

P = cp fpV2 lrR2

(2-6b) 1

We define: (2-11)

Note

that

in form:

this

way relation

(2-4)

is

still

valid

but

now in

dimen-

sionless

[Cp

(2-12)

16

2.3

Basic

form

of

a windmill

characteristic.

CR in

equation of

(2-6)

is

not that

an efficiency a windmill

may be interpreted

transforming mill less CR varies form this (2-6) Vm of wind with is

as a measure

energy the into tip-speed

mechanical

the windmill.

In dimension-

shown in a so-called

Cl, - A characteristic

and (2-8). one curve 2.7.b. now represents all the curves for diffig.

2.9 where

cp';;;4k

0 fig

I 2.9

b 2 3 4 I CR - X characteristic.

is

of air from

p, windspeed a dimensionless

Vm and form

of the fig

2.10.

fig Note

2.10

CG-X characteristic.

that

X = G but

that

the

torque

is

not.

See relations

2.4.

C as defined P how much power we get from the wind is given by relation (I-4). in how much wind a windmill. coefficient tip-speed will

coefficient

We are of course

In other CP is ratio.

to know what

the highest

coefficient

a further will

coefficient.

coefficient

paragraphs:

coefficient of wake rotation of Cd/Cl-ratio of number on maximum power on maximum power coefficient

coefficient coefficient

of blades

on maximum power

18

2.4.0

Betz It is

coefficient not possible to transform all the wind 1.1) in energy into from energy that flows energy. would mean vewould energy If to the in this equal the air

throughcross If that locity flow from we could we could behind through the wind

section21 transform extract the the will hand rotor rotor. stop the

the air

be zero

no kinetic

case no power will that, to Between behind Betz coefficient if the these the found flow velocity values

either of

the wind

an optimum

the wind

rotor. this (Betz cp max value to be f Vm and calculated the maximum power coefficient). + 0.593 (2-13).

This

value

is ratio,

however with

only

valid

for

a theoretical

design

for

a high drag

an infinite

to zero.

The effect by

assumptions

be shown one

one in

paragraphs.

2.4.1

Effect

of wake rotation

on maximum power

coefficient.

0

that, valid

of

the

we may expect

deviations

torque distances

* angular to the

is

produced

by forby their

These

the re=

of velocity force

change air

to the

of velo-

Since

in a direction

amount

of po-

relation

speed high.

consequence design

power; is

lower. 2.11

shown in

coefficients

of ideal without

number of blades

drag. -

0 0 fig.

12 2.11

3 Collection windmills.

45

78

9 coefficients

---r/l of ideal

of maximum power

2.4.2

Effect

of Cd/Cl-ratio

coefficient. is a measure These losses for the resistance deterare calculated of fig.

the blades

moving

the air.

The Cd/Cl-ratio

and included

coefficients

The results

are shown in

Ill

11

12

13

14

15

fig.

2.12

Effect a rotor

2.12 airfoils

shows

that

a rotor, for

designed

for

a tip-speed

ratio

X = 2.5 will

having,

example,

of 0.05,

coefficient

is designed have a

same Cd/Cl

value,

a maximum of 0.3. Note rotor that for from fig. 2.12 it is clear that

X = IO with

airfoils

(Cd/Cl)min

= 0.1.

2.lr.3

Effect

of number

of blades also

on maximum power coefficient. affects depend the maximum power tip-losses on the number that cozSficient. at the and the are included = 0.03 of tips of in fig. the tip-speed

OF blades These

caused

occur

of blades

The losses

of maximum power

The results

.7

i I

i;

2 /

.I !

/ 8-1 I

fig.

2.13

Influence

of number

of blades

B on Cp-max for

Cd/Cl=

0.03.

III

graphs

like for

fig. X-design

2.13

coefficient group

between

of graphs

Cd/Cl-ratio while If

number gives

of blades

B constant

Cd/Cl-ratio Conclusion;

for Cp max

design

A, number

of blades

the expected have been c!iosen, and C /C -ratio d 1 read from the graphs in appendix III.

coefficient

C, may be 2.

22

i)ESIG?I OF A WTNDMLL.LROTOR.

3.0 Calculation

of blade

chords

and blade

setting.

selection

of

the number

of blades

B af-

the is

ratios,

influence

B on C is larger at lower tip-speed P choice of a high number of blades E for to very will small be dealt and thin influence w ith blades on the in which lift 4). and a negative

lead

the blades

(th is problem

chapter

table

3.1

Selection

of number

of blades,

A second Drag

that power

the

power via

is

the This

drag. will

affects

even more, is

ratio airfoil

Cd/Cl-ratios

on p, 0.1

10).

Promising

a minimum

Cd/Cl-ratio

between

and 0.01.

23

restricts collection

the

design

ratio. loss

At lower

compensates

due to drag. it is

of maximum power

coefficients

a range

speeds

11X0$10 the maximum theoretically 20.5. max ideal geometry and 0.4. effects the design require be chosen or steelplates. pump, then will a high This the

coefficients

between of

and hub losses result power output. ratio. starting this If the -i-sign allows laad is

for

between ratio

shows that

choice is

or some other

speed of

running

speed will

be se-

simple the

can give

good results. pass over angular windspeed in silence of the to starting a windmill table 2.1 an of a design a number frequency load.

Cd/Cl-ratio,

of appendix to appendix

chosen

we can find

Appendix Appendix

III III

24

Wilh

For

reIatit)n consrrvativc

(Z-6)

we can

now c~l~ul.~te

Cl, 0.8

ttlc. desired

* Cp

radius

R of

the

rotor.

Jcsign

we take

mtx .

(Z-6)

Design We need

of

the

rotor number

design

R Li A

II

Iml c-1

c- 1

C-i

airfoil design

c1O

a0

data

may be found

in table

2. I,

II

armd (12). data are known, i.e. the the it chord is norm very c of the and the plane simple blade of to calculate the angle 3. I. 8,

geometry;

angle

between

chord

fig.

3.1

Hlade

setting

~3.

Only

three

simple

formulas

are needed

A = X0 x r/R r c=gL(,1 B=r$-a cos $1 (3. I) (3.2) Xr - 4 is too in complicated references the design of to be explained appendix the rotor, I), (appendix here (see who V)

and graph The underlying appendix is primarily this theory. theory interested

IV and the

literature

The reader

can do without

KOW

of equal

length.

In this

way we find

cross

sections center

Each cross

has a distance

speed ratio

according to (2.9). In appendix V we can find each cross-section. meets relation appendix with (3.2). the blade (3.1). V). (For The blade Q is section

W that

We now calculate

ease, angle

graph found

example:

our

design

of a rotor

with

Cm1

airfoil table

s tee I plate this (i.e. (i.e. airfoil: the value for minimum angle (3-2) table: Cd/Cl) of attack). z3e can mm com-

Cl = 0.9 0 a = 4O

0

of the foZlowing

26

Table

3.2

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1.4875

I .7000

3.5110.61

1 6.6

1 0.1771

The result

is

the blade

chord

setting gives

rotor

10

I I ,

0.5R e 1:(m>

s.-4&q~J.JJ.;~;J.p

Fig. 3.2 Blade form, twist and cross sections of the blade.

27

3.1

Deviations

from

the calculated

chords

and blade

setting.

In the

last

paragraph as well

we showed how to calculate as the blade the is and lead it angles blade. as calculated

the

ideal in par.

blade 3.0

a non-linear these

to manufacture

to an uneconomic possible

use of materials.

to reduce blade is of

angles.

in a small loss is it

done in

a few percent. from the wind, the blade efficiency extracted area

such linearizations

of the blades, the the 2.4.3. it

must be realized

swept of

the blades

hand,

losses

discussed

For the

reasons

mentioned angles

above,

is

advised

to

linearize

the

chords

B between

exmnple:

we linearize culated in

B as cal-

value

of r to 0.9 R in R). values table 3.2 is

these

of r the following

VU-

0.85 1.4875

c Cm1

0.281 0.159

f3O

13.7 6.6O

28

the chords

way:

and blade

angles

by writing

c = air

6 = a3r With the vulues a

+ a

+ a4

of c and B at r = 0.85

a3 and a4 are found. r + 0.444 r + 23.17 the rotor

md r = 1.4875,

the

constants

1' a2'

and the hub has a radius the chords and blade angles

of the blade:

+ 0.444 = 0.412 = 0.119 = = 21.f 4.3 [ml Cm]

* 0.17 *

* 0.17 *

1.7 f 23.17

of

the

linearizations

is

shown in

fig.

blade of

form fig.

and 3.2.

form

blade \

ideal .

twist

-.-.-.

-+

___

.

hubc-l

u

0.5R f

fig.

3.3.

Linearized

chords

and twist.

P r(m)

29

As may be seen very also angles ter, small remain for this will effect the of at

from the

fig.

3.3 half

the of

angles the in

outer

unchanged. lead

A rather

large

the this

R. For reasons

as stated

page of

loss

on the starting

torque

and in

starting not

the windmill

this

An example stroke

of a load

single

piston

pump. For

of the windmill

determined

30

4. 4.0

EFFXT

OF THE REYNOLDS-NUMBER. of airfoil characteristics depend on the Re-number. (Re) w.c Re is defined as Re = -, V c is the chord and v is of the flow is is the alower conRe-numReynolds-number

Dependance The airfoil of the floi where W is the kinematic All round airfoils the

characteristics

on the so-called

around the airfoil. the relati.Je velocity viscosity have airfoil a critical is less (in our

Re-number. then

Cd-value better.

above example

ber on (Cd/Cl)min

fig.

4.1.

Effect ferent

of "he-number airfoils.

on (CdjCl)min-ratio

for

three

dif-

the for

critical

Re-number

for

airforls airfoils

with like

a sharp

is

about

the very

modern

airfoil

the id/Cl-ratio

of various

as f (Re).

L/D

ratlo

GEDSEA

PLANT

MAC24512

SCHMlTZ

NW

10

lob

2 Reynolds

10 number Re

fig.

4.2.

Inverse

value

as function

32

4.1

Calculation

of

the Re-number

for

of a windmill

rotor.

that

the

rotor

the airfoil

runs

of fol-

lowing

= number of blades = radius = distance blade coefficient to rotor center of blade element under

considerat;on A, = speed ratioof c1 = design deration vu2 = undisturbed the Ke-number Re = B *Cl is: * Re N from the graph presented J = 15 * 10 in fig.

-6

element

under

lift

of blade

windspeed

Vm * r

4.3 (valid

viscosity

[m2s -'I)

ReN(B=l,Vm=l,r=I,Cl=I)I w

V

(I-cos$)

0I

I

8910111213 fig. 4.3. Re = f (At) for rotors running

14

01234567

c15

at AoPtimum .

check 3.

the Re-number

for the

rotor

as designed

in

stee2 [ml X0 = 4

pZate

B = 4.

hr = X0 = 4. r = R =l.?I-ml

fig4.3

9 * lo4

* 1.7 Vm

4 * 0.3

Re r=R = 4.25

*lO

v,

2) at r = 0.5 R

17 * i04 Re r=O.SR =

3) at F = 0.2 R

28 * 104 * 0.34 Re r=O.2R = = 2.6 4 * 0.9 the whole blade, the than * 10'

Va-

i'oncksion:

for

for

ber Thus

very

for

steel plates (= 10'). minimum

the asswned

Cd/CL-ratio

is

correct.

APPENDIX I. LITERATURE. van Doenhoeff A.E. including New York, Varst diktaat P. v.d. no. 3323, Eindhoven University of in 1977) airfoil 1959. data

( 1)

I.H.,

( 2)

Eindhoven,

the Netherlands.(English

edition

to be published

( 3)

Durand

Aerodynamic

( 4)

Golding

E.W. of Electricity Spon Ltd., with additional by Wind Power Lane, London 1976. EC4P 4EE, first published material

11 New Fetter

design

of wind

energy

systems

(in

German), September

Kernforschungsanlage

J:ilich,

Germany,

( 6)

Jansen

Countries. axis fast for running wind turbines for developing Countries, countries P.O.Box 85,

Committee

in Developing 1976.

the Netherlands,

( 7)

K. sections in the auf 2. critical Reynolds range (in German), volume 27, Forschung 1961, no. dem Gebiete des Ingenieurwesens,

( 8)

Schmitz

F.W. of flying models, measurements Reihe IV, at airfoil I, sections 1942. I, (in

Aerodynamics German),

Luftfahrt

und Schule,

volume

35

( 9;

Schmitz

F.W. of small Re-numbers 1953. P.B.S. of wind power machines. May 1974. U.S.A., (in German),

Aerodynamics

(II)

R.E., State

P.B.S., U.S.A.,

Walker June

S.N. 1976.

Aerodynamic

of wind

turbines.

(12)

Symplified

for

Experimenters. 1975.

U.S.A.,

(13)

Riegels

unterlagen\

translation: sections London (wind tunnel test results, theoretical backgrounds) 1961.

APPENDIX II-

36

0 2.44 0 1.5 0

Stnlimi 1.43 1.95 2.49 2.74 S.SG 2.88 2.74 2.5u 2.26 1.m 1.40 1.w 0.65 0.39 0 1.25 2.5 5.0 7.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 GO ?O 80 90 95 100 100

3rlhrtc -.

st3tion 0 1.25

9.iB

i0

.; 07 4.17 5.74 ti.91 7.84 9.27 10.25 10.92 11.25 11.25 10.53 9.30 7.G3 2.55 3.09 1.07 WlG) ... ...

.)rdm& --0 - 1.m - 2.4x - 3.27 - 3.71 - 3.98 .I : - .A.15 - 3.9s - 3.75 L 3.25 2.72 2.11 1.55 1.03 0.57 03 0.16 0

tirdinntc

0

Drdlrlat~~ -0

b.Uti

--

2.11 2.09 4.00 -1.tji 5.OG 5.19 5.56 5.49 5.26 1.70 -I.02 3.24 2.45 1.67

9.11

L(J.clb

11.72 13. Ii) 12.7G 13.70 11.85 10.-H 8.55 6.22 3.4G lS9 (0.19)

-rn

50 GO 70 80 9a 95 100 100

80

L.E.: 0.20

--

(Stations and ordinntes given in per cent of airfoil chord) Cpper surface

-. 0

Chtinn- ?nd ordimtes given in per cent of airfoil chord) 1 j Lower surfxe Lepper surface -.__ -_____ -~Drdiuat Station Min:rte Station ___0 0 0 0 I.970 - J.47: 0.530 3.96 4 I.536 3.464 - 4.83 5.624 G.225 - Li.UW 3.775 7.94? 5.847 - cl.931 G.153 9.G51 R.Gll 13.G7.1 lS.858 21.111 33.401 4~l.nOo 50.235 (i0.405 i0.487 Xl):lG-I ! 1.3s) ll.CJl? 13.045 / lG.32; 14.41G 1 21.142 15.2hi 55.859 15.735 30.599 1;j.G!IG 1 t.471 1?.G71 10.312 7.~147 -m.onc~ -J!liGj 59.595 G9.513 79.536 T.;lil S.lli! s.411: s:11 5.231 ;.ti:ll

(i.G9!

Lowr

surfnre

. i_

1.25 2.5 5.0 7.5 IO 15 20 -I? d, 30 40 50 60 70 so 90 95

ii.5 5.0-l

i.S2 9.21 !wxi 12.0-l 13.17 13.88 14.27 11.16 13.18 1l.f-A-J 3.50 6.91 3.85 2 II

- fi.lG - 5.31

- 4.m

- 3.35 - 2.31

/ 1OMi / f- iI.22, I W.?2J , 100 / .. , loo L.E. radim: 4.85 Slt~pr qf m&Is thrw~ph J..II.: (1.20

100

co 0" d OD z d

--_-

.% d u" :t N s d u .8 d

0

a ? C3

4 G

l-4 E; d

El 9 0

u t

H d

0

N

*

N d I

4 Li

1

1.6 1.2 0.8 I I I I I/ I II I 0.4 0 -0X

/ I

a /,b /I I/// I I ;C

0.45 0

I///

-0.8

I

-32 -24

I I

-16

I I

-8

I I

0

I I

8

I I

16

I I

26

- 0.8 I

I

32

0.004

I I I

0.012

I I I

I I I d

I I I 0.020

I

I I I

a. [de91

a, Re z9*106 b. Re I S-10 c. Re ~3.10'

Y0.2 IC

0 -0.2 0 0.2 OX 0.6 0.8 1.0

NACA 4424

X IC

APPENDIX III

42

10

11

12

13

i4

15

TIPSPEED RATIO A

4 E.5 ii

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13:\14 1s

TIP SPEED RATIO A

-------__.----_Y

_---

---------

..__-

.~ -_ -----

--

- -

--- --_---------_

-------

---------

10

li

12

TIPSPEED

13

RATIO A

14

1:

--.--

__.-

--.-

- ----

10

11

12

RATIO

13

A

14

15

TIPSPEED

44

.5

.b 1

.3 I .2 1

.! I 0 0

0.3 \ I 1 0.2.\ 1 0.:25 \ I 0.1 _I \ 1 D.D\, L

I---

10

11

12

13

14

:z

TIPSPEED RATIO ).

.7

EFFECT OF CD/CL FOR B-BLADED ROTOR

.3

.2

0 0 1 2 3

4

10

11

i2

13

A

14

1:: ,II

TIPSPEED itAT

12

i0

11

12

13

14

1s

TIPSPEED RATIO A

. 7

-.

__

-_

--

--

.-

--

_----

--.

.3

.2

.I

4

TIPSFEED RATIO 1

46

.7

EFFECTOF NUMBER OF BLADES FOR CD/CL-O.125

6 a.* ii g.5 i! B

2.4

.3

.2

6

TIPSPEED RATIO X

._.-.--

,I /

_/-,/----__---

7

TIPSPEED RATIO A

47

10

11

12

13

14

15

TIPSPEED FAT10 A

.7 2 ii !i

; .5 3

f&A

EFFECT OF NUHBEROF BLADES FOR CD/CL-O.05 Ba; __ _ ,__ __ __ _._ ___ ._ _ _ __ _ -----: 1.b -..- JZ -

.3

O0 1 2 3

10

11

12

13

14

15

TIPSPEED RATIO A

40

.3

.2

.1

I I I ---IL-,-L I I I III

0I

12

516

10

11

12

13

14

15

TIPSPEED RATIO X

.7

* li

HCU...

5

g .5 8

.- _ ._____

.------ -,::

._ __52

I o 12 3

4

I 5

1 6

I 7

L 8

I 9

10

11

12

13

14

15

TZPSPEED RATIO A

10

11

12

13

14

15

TIPSPEED RATIO A

.7

u. 6 c Y Y e 8 .5

Ecu ----EFFECT OF NUMBER BLADESFOR CD/CL-O.005 OF ----_--------------

.3

.2

10

11

12

13

14

15

TIPSPEED RATIO A

APPENDIX IV

5o

theoretical

assumptions

on which

the

design

method

procedure

presented

in

this theory

publication

is based in

element design

effects

mentioned ficients

in paragraph given

2.4.3.

In the

in AppendixIII,

however,

are included.

As described

2.4.0

- 2.4.3,

the attainablepower

coefficient

can be described

following

effects: CP Betz = fi 27

1) Betz

coefficient

Effects (error

with

the

following

approximation

ideal

= 16 =.-0.35x 27

-1.29

optimum. by reducing with an apnroximation CP ideal = 2 percent for X=1; error,' 0.1 for percent

(max error

Cd h

with

X=X optimum

and

sis c1

'd c at C 1 design 1

51

, cP

including max

drag

is: -1.29 Cd - c A) 1 q : B

=g(e

-0.35X

with Cp max

factor

B B = number

= (1 -B

I .386

of blades;

+ is

found

I .386 = (1 --y-rnax

sin

-1.29

Cd - c- A). 1

52 APPENDIX 1

(I-cos!$)

.- . i3 0 [ 5 , j r..q 0,00220 0,00232 0,00244 1;,00258 0,00272 0,00288 n,oo305 0,00323. 0,00343 0,00368 0,00390 0,00417 0,00447 0,00480 0,00517 0,00559 0,00605 0,00658 0,00718 0,00786 0,00865 0,00955 0,01061 0,01184 0,01336 0,01505 0,(31716 0,01774 0,02292 0,02691 0,032OO 0,03862 0,04739 0,05930 0,07585 0,09948 0,13397 0,18507 0,26025 0,36584 095

Ar=

si nq ,3cos1$-1 +xq)(2cos41+l)

i, , ,. \/ . 4!

c \ \ !

i: -- /.,

1.25 9.00 8.75 cI 1::;; a.00 I.75 7.50 7.25 7.00 6.75 6.50 t;.25 6.00 5.75 5.50 '1.25 >.oo 4.75 4.50 4.25 4.00 3.75 3.50 3.25 3.00 2-75 2.50 2.25 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.00 d,75 b.50 0.25 0.00

4.006 4.llj 4. 27-1 4 * 34 7 4.473 -s. 6 07 4.750 .I.902 5.063 5.2jd 1.420 5.618 5.831 6.060 b. 31!9 t; . ;j 77 t;.a7o 7.190 7.540 7.Q2i, 8.353 rj.827 9.357 5.954 lcl.6jO 11.402 12.290 13.322 14.534 15.975 17.710 19.830 22.460 25.773 30.000 35.420 42.290 50.642 60.000

i-

.--.l____

----I...-.

-i

._

._.____.

..__

_..

-.A..

----.

.L...--...Ie.

between

reiative of the

velocity at

and radius

plane r for

of

the

rotor

versus with a

ratio to

an element flow of

a windmill

equal

ay! ideal

windmill.

SWD PUBLICATIONS

Serial number

SWD 76-l

2.-

7,50

Literature survey; horizontal axis fast running wind-turbines for developing countries. By W.A.M. Jansen, 43 p., March 1976 SWD 76-3 Horizontal axis fast running wind-turbines countries. By W.A.M. Jansen, 91 p., June 1976 for developing

3,-

7.50

7.-

17,50

SWD 77 -1

Rotor design for horizontal axis windmills. By W.A.M. Jansen and P.T. Smulders, 52 p., May 1977 Model for cost comparison of windmills with engine pumps. By L. Marchesini, 25 p., (available January 1978) Static and dynamic loadings on the tower By E.C. Klaver, 39 p., August 1977 Construction manual for a Cretan windmill By N. van de Ven, 59 p., October 1977 Performance characteristics of some sail- and and steel-bladed windrotors. By Th. A.H. Dekker, 60 pag., December 1977 Research institutes in third world countries copy free of charge, writing directly to: SWD, c/o DHV Consulting Engineers, P.O. Box 85, Amersfoort. The Netherlands. SWD publications can only be ordered by sending money to: may ask for one of a windmill.

4,-

lO,-

SWD 77-2

3.-

750

SWD 77 -3

4.-

lO,-

SWD 77-4

5.-

12.50

SWD 77-5

5.-

12.50

Bank Mees en Hope, act. 25.00.72.009 P.O. Box 293, Amsterdam, The Netherlands and stating: al serial number of publication wanted, b) on money transfer: file 3.00.34.04, c) self addressed address in printing letters.

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