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MAY 2012

The Three-Tier Security Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sinks

Amar Rasheed, Student Member, IEEE, and Rabi N. Mahapatra, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractMobile sinks (MSs) are vital in many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications for efficient data accumulation, localized sensor reprogramming, and for distinguishing and revoking compromised sensors. However, in sensor networks that make use of the existing key predistribution schemes for pairwise key establishment and authentication between sensor nodes and mobile sinks, the employment of mobile sinks for data collection elevates a new security challenge: in the basic probabilistic and q-composite key predistribution schemes, an attacker can easily obtain a large number of keys by capturing a small fraction of nodes, and hence, can gain control of the network by deploying a replicated mobile sink preloaded with some compromised keys. This article describes a three-tier general framework that permits the use of any pairwise key predistribution scheme as its basic component. The new framework requires two separate key pools, one for the mobile sink to access the network, and one for pairwise key establishment between the sensors. To further reduce the damages caused by stationary access node replication attacks, we have strengthened the authentication mechanism between the sensor and the stationary access node in the proposed framework. Through detailed analysis, we show that our security framework has a higher network resilience to a mobile sink replication attack as compared to the polynomial pool-based scheme. Index TermsDistributed, security, wireless sensor networks.

1 INTRODUCTION

ECENT advances

in electronic technology have paved the important. However, the resource constraints of the way for the development of a new generation of sensors and their nature of communication over a wireless wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consisting of a large medium make data confidentiality and integrity a nonnumber of low-power, low-cost sensor nodes that commu- trivial task. Traditional schemes in ad hoc networks using http://ieeexploreprojects.blogspot.com nicate wirelessly [1]. Such sensor networks can be used in a asymmetric keys are expensive due of their storage and wide range of applications, such as, military sensing and computation cost. These limitations make key predistributracking, health monitoring [2], data acquisition in hazar- tion schemes [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18] the tools of dous environments, and habitat monitoring [1]. The sensed choice to provide low cost, secure communication between data often need to be sent back to the base station for sensor nodes and mobile sinks. analysis. However, when the sensing field is too far from the However, the problem of authentication and pairwise key base station, transmitting the data over long distances using establishment in sensor networks with MSs is still not solved multihop may weaken the security strength (e.g., some in the face of mobile sink replication attacks. For the basic intermediate may modify the data passing by, capturing probabilistic [12] and q-composite [13] key predistribution sensor nodes, launching a wormhole attack [3], a sybil attack schemes, an attacker can easily obtain a large number of keys [4], selective forwarding [5], [6], sinkhole [7]), and increasing by capturing a small fraction of the network sensor nodes, the energy consumption at nodes near the base station, making it possible for the attacker to take control of the reducing the lifetime of the network. Therefore, mobile sinks (MSs) (or mobile soldiers, mobile sensor nodes) are essential entire network by deploying a replicated mobile sink, components in the operation of many sensor network preloaded with some compromised keys to authenticate applications, including data collection in hazardous envir- and then initiate data communication with any sensor node. To address the above-mentioned problem, we have onments [8], [9], [10], localized reprogramming, oceanodeveloped a general framework [19] that permits the use graphic data collection, and military navigation [11]. In many of these applications, sensor nodes transmit of any pairwise key predistribution scheme as its basic component, to provide authentication and pairwise key critical information over the network; therefore, security establishment between sensor nodes and MSs. To facilitate services, such as, authentication and pairwise key estabthe study of a new security technique, we first cultivated a lishment between sensor nodes and mobile sinks, are general three-tier security framework for authentication and pairwise key establishment, based on the polynomial pool-based key predistribution scheme [14]. The proposed . The authors are with the Department of Computer Science and technique will substantially improve network resilience to Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845. E-mail: amar_rasheed@tamu.edu, rabi@cs.tamu.edu. mobile sink replication attacks compared to the single Manuscript received 7 Dec. 2009; revised 14 July 2010; accepted 21 Aug. polynomial pool-based key predistribution approach [14], 2010; published online 20 Oct. 2010. as an attacker would have to compromise many more Recommended for acceptance by Y.-C. Tseng. sensor nodes to launch a successful mobile sink replication For information on obtaining reprints of this article, please send e-mail to: tpds@computer.org, and reference IEEECS Log Number TPDS-2009-12-0606. attack. In the new security framework [19], a small fraction of the preselected sensor nodes (see Fig. 1), called the Digital Object Identifier no. 10.1109/TPDS.2010.185.

1045-9219/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

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bootstrap the initial trust between the sensor nodes. The main idea was to let each sensor node randomly pick a set of keys from a key pool before deployment, so that any two sensor nodes had a certain probability of sharing at least one common key. Chan et al. [13] further extended this idea and developed two key predistribution schemes: the q-composite key predistribution scheme and the random pairwise keys scheme. The q-composite key predistribution scheme also used a key pool, but required two sensor nodes to compute a pairwise key from at least q Fig. 1. The three-tier security scheme in WSN with mobile sinks. predistributed keys that they shared. The random pairwise keys scheme randomly picked pairs of sensor nodes and stationary access nodes, act as authentication access points to assigned each pair a unique random key. Both schemes the network, to trigger the sensor nodes to transmit their improved the security over the basic probabilistic key aggregated data to mobile sinks. A mobile sink sends data predistribution scheme. request messages to the sensor nodes via a stationary access The pairwise key establishment problem, however, is still node. These data request messages from the mobile sink will not solved. For the basic probabilistic [12] and the qinitiate the stationary access node to trigger sensor nodes, composite [13] key predistribution schemes, as the number which transmit their data to the requested mobile sink. The of compromised nodes increases, the fraction of affected scheme uses two separate polynomial pools: the mobile pairwise keys also increases quickly. As a result, a small polynomial pool and the static polynomial pool. Using two separate key pools and having few sensor number of compromised nodes may affect a large fraction of nodes that carry keys from the mobile key pool will make it pairwise keys. Although, the random pairwise key does not more difficult for the attacker to launch a mobile sink suffer from the above-mentioned problem, given a memory replication attack on the sensor network by capturing only a constraint, the network size is strictly limited by the desired few arbitrary sensor nodes. Rather, the attacker would also probability that two sensor nodes share a pairwise key, as have to capture sensor nodes that carry keys from the also by the number of neighbor nodes with which a sensor mobile key pool. Keys from the mobile key pool are used can communicate. An enhanced scheme using the t-degree mainly for mobile sink authentication, and thus, to gain bivariate key polynomial was proposed by Liu et al. [14]. They developed a general framework for pairwise key access to the network for data gathering. Although the above security approach makes the net- establishment using the polynomial-based key predistribuwork more resilient to mobile sink replication attacks tion protocol [21] and the probabilistic key distribution in http://ieeexploreprojects.blogspot.com compared to the single polynomial pool-based key predis- [12] and [13]. Their scheme could tolerate no more than t tribution scheme [14], it is still vulnerable to stationary access compromised nodes, where the value of t was limited by the node replication attacks. In these types of attacks, the attacker memory available in the sensor nodes. is able to launch a replication attack similar to the mobile sink replication attack. After a fraction of sensor nodes have been 3 THE THREE-TIER SECURITY SCHEME compromised by an adversary, captured static polynomials can be loaded into a replicated stationary access node that In this study, we have chosen the Blundo scheme [21] to transmits the recorded mobile sinks data request messages construct our approach. As we shall see, the Blundo scheme provides a clear security guarantee. Use of the Blundo to trigger sensor nodes to send their aggregated data. To make the three-tier security scheme more robust scheme, therefore, greatly eases the presentation of our against a stationary access node replication attack, we have study and enables us to provide a clearer security analysis. In the proposed scheme, we use two separate polynomial strengthened the authentication mechanism between the stationary access nodes and sensor nodes using one-way hash pools: the mobile polynomial pool and the static polynomial chains algorithm [20] in conjunction with the static poly- pool. Polynomials from the mobile polynomial pool are nomial pool-based scheme [14]. Our analytical results used to establish the authentication between mobile sinks indicate that the new security technique makes the network and stationary access nodes, which will enable these mobile more resilient to both mobile sink replication attacks and sinks to access the sensor network for data gathering. Thus, stationary access nodes replication attacks compared to the an attacker would need to compromise at least a single polynomial from the mobile pool to gain access to the single polynomial pool-based approach. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses network for the sensors data gathering. Polynomials from some existing schemes relevant to those proposed in this the static polynomial pool are used to ascertain the paper. Section 3 presents the security and threat analysis for authentication and keys setup between the sensor nodes a mobile sink replication attack, using the proposed scheme and stationary access nodes. Prior to deployment, each mobile sink randomly picks a [19]. Section 4 shows the security analysis and the threat analysis for stationary access nodes replication attack, and subset of polynomials from the mobile polynomial pool. In our scheme, to improve the network resilience to mobile sink Section 5 draws conclusions. replication attack as compared to the single polynomial poolbased approach, we intend to minimize the probability of a 2 RELATED WORK mobile polynomial being compromised if Rc sensor nodes The key management problem is an active research area in are captured. As an adversary can use the captured mobile wireless sensor networks. Eschenauer and Gilgor [12] polynomial to launch a mobile sink replication attack, we proposed a probabilistic key predistribution scheme to achieve this by having a small fraction of randomly selected

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Fig. 2. (a) Direct key discovery. (b) Indirect key discovery through intermediate stationary node i. (c) Indirect key discovery through intermediate stationary access node i.

sensor nodes carry a polynomial from the mobile polynomial pool. These preselected sensor nodes are called the stationary access nodes. They act as authentication access Fig. 3. The probability Pconn that a sensor has at least one stationary points for the network and trigger sensor nodes to transmit access node in its neighborhood versus the ratio of access nodes. their aggregated data to the mobile sinks. A mobile sink sends data request messages to the sensor nodes via a sink v sends the pairwise key Kc to node a in a message stationary access node. The mobile sinks data request messages encrypted and authenticated with the shared pairwise key will initiate the stationary access node to trigger sensor nodes Kv;a between v and a. If node a receives the above message to transmit their aggregated data to the requested sink. Each and it shares a pairwise key with u, it sends the pairwise stationary access node may share a mobile polynomial with a key Kc to node u in a message encrypted and authenticated mobile sink. All sensor nodes, including the stationary access with pairwise key Ka;u between a and u. nodes, randomly select a subset of polynomials from the If the direct key establishment fails, the mobile sink and static polynomial pool. The advantage of using separate the sensor node will have to establish a pairwise key with pools is that mobile sink authentication is independent of the help of other sensor nodes. To establish a pairwise key the key distribution scheme used to connect the sensor with mobile sink v, a sensor node u has to find a stationary network. We divide our scheme into two stages: static and access node a in its neighborhood such that node a can mobile polynomial predistribution and key discovery establish a pairwise key with both nodes u and v. If node a between a mobile sink and a sensor node. establishes a pairwise key with only node v and not with u. Stage 1 (Static and mobile polynomial predistribution). As the probability is high http://ieeexploreprojects.blogspot.com that the access node a can discover Stage 1 is performed before the nodes are deployed. A a common mobile polynomial with node v, sensor node u mobile polynomial pool M of size jMj and a static needs to find an intermediate sensor node i along the path polynomial pool S of size jSj are generated along with the u i a v, such that intermediate node i can establish a polynomial identifiers. All mobile sinks and stationary access direct pairwise key with node a. nodes are randomly given Km and one polynomial (Km > 1) from M. The number of mobile polynomials in every mobile 3.1 Security Analysis sink is more than the number of mobile polynomials in We have analyzed the performance of the proposed scheme every stationary access node. This assures that a mobile node using two metrics: security and connectivity [19]. For shares a common mobile polynomial with a stationary access security, we present the probability of a mobile polynomial node with high probability and reduces the number of being compromised; hence, an attacker can make use of the compromised mobile polynomials when the stationary access captured mobile polynomial to launch a mobile sink nodes are captured. All sensor nodes and the preselected replication attack against the sensor network. In connectivstationary access nodes randomly pick a subset of Ks and ity, we estimate the probability Pconn (see Appendix A for Ks 1 polynomials from S. Fig. 2 shows the key discovery detailed derivation, which can be found on the Computer between the mobile node and stationary node. Society Digital Library at http://doi.ieeecomputersociety. Stage 2 (Key discovery between mobile node and org/10.1109/TPDS.2010.185) of a mobile sink establishing stationary node). To establish a direct pairwise key secure links with the sensor nodes from any authentication between sensor node u and mobile sink v, a sensor node access point in the network as u needs to find a stationary access node a in its neighborhood, c m such that, node a can establish pairwise keys with both ; 1 Pconn 1 1 n mobile sink v and sensor node u. In other words, a stationary access node needs to establish pairwise keys with both the mobile sink and the sensor node. It has to find a common mobile polynomial with the mobile sink and a common static polynomial with the sensor node. To discover a common mobile/static polynomial, a sensor node i may broadcast a list of polynomial IDs, or alternatively, an encryption list ; EKv ; v 1; . . . ; jKsi j, where Kv is a potential pairwise key and the other node may have as suggested in [12] and [13]. When a direct secure path is established between nodes u and v, mobile where n represents the total number of sensor nodes in the network, c is the average number of neighbor nodes for every sensor node before deployment of the stationary access nodes, and m is the number of stationary access nodes in the network. Fig. 3 shows Pconn versus the ratio of stationary access nodes. The probability that a mobile sink and a stationary access node share a mobile polynomialin other words, the probability Pm; the mobile sink, and stationary access node can establish a key directlyis expressed by

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Fig. 4. The probability Psa that a sensor and stationary access node share a static polynomial versus the size jSj.

Fig. 5. The probability Pa that two sensors share a static or a mobile polynomial versus the size jSj.

Pm

Km : jMj

3.2 Threat Analysis In this section, we analyze the security performance of the proposed scheme against a mobile sink replication attack. As stated in the previous section, for an attacker to launch a mobile sink replication attack on the network, the adversary has to compromise at least one polynomial from the mobile polynomial pool. To achieve this, the adversary must capture at least a specific number of stationary access nodes The probability Psa , where a sensor node and a stationary that hold the same mobile polynomial. It follows from the access node share a common static polynomialthe prob- security analysis of the Blundo scheme, that for any ability that the two nodes can establish a pairwise key polynomial w in the mobile polynomial pool of degree tm , http://ieeexploreprojects.blogspot.com directlyis estimated by an attacker cannot recover the polynomial w, if no more than tm stationary access nodes that had chosen w are 2Ks 1 jSj captured by the attacker. If more than tm stationary access 2Ks 1 Ks 1 : Psa 1 4 nodes with w as their mobile polynomial are captured by the attacker, then the attacker can recover the mobile polyjSj jSj nomial w, and thus be able to launch a mobile sink replication Ks 1 Ks attack against the sensor network. We assume that an The probability Pa , where two stationary access nodes share a attacker randomly captures Rc sensor nodes, Rc > tm . To simplify our estimation for the probability Pr of a mobile common static/mobile polynomial, is estimated by polynomial being compromised, we consider the captures jSj 2 Ks 1 of sensor nodes are independent. Now let w be a jMj 1 Ks 1 2 Ks 1 Pa 1 : 5 polynomial in the mobile pool. The probability of w being 2 1 chosen for a stationary access node is jMj, the probability that jSj jMj any captured node is a stationary access node is m, and the Ks 1 n

Fig. 4 shows the relationship between the probability Psa and the combination of jSj and Ks , respectively. Fig. 5 shows the probability Pa with various combinations of jSj; Ks , and jMj. All figures clearly show that the closer jSj and Ks are the more likely two sensor nodes can establish a pairwise key directly. The probability Pd (see Appendix B, in the online supplemental material, for detailed derivation) of a mobile sink and a sensor node establishing a pairwise key (directly or indirectly) can be estimated by Pd 1 1 Psa Pm g :1 Pm Psa Ps g:d :1 Pm Pa Psa gg1 ; where d denotes the average number of neighbors that a sensor can contact, and g denotes the average number of

Fig. 6. The probability Pd of a mobile sink establishing a pairwise key with a sensor node versus the number of sensor neighbors d.

The probability Ps , where two sensor nodes share a common static polynomialthe probability that the two sensors can establish a secure link directly is estimated by 2Ks jSj 2Ks Ks : 3 Ps 1 2 jSj Ks

stationary access nodes that the node has in its neighborhood. Figs. 6 and 7 show the relationship between Pd versus d and the combinations of g and Pm; respectively.

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by a replicated stationary access node to enable insecure access to the network. When successful access to the network has been obtained through the compromised static polynomial, the replicated stationary access node transmits recorded mobile sink data request messages. Next, the sensor nodes that have the compromised polynomial in their rings will insecurely authenticate and establish a pairwise key with the replcated node and thus deliver their Thus, the probability that any polynomial from P mobile data to the replicated node. the pool being recovered by an attacker is Pr 1 tm P x. x0 In this section, we remedy the security performance of Fig. 8 shows the probability Pr when two separate the proposed scheme in the case of a stationary access node polynomial pools are used and compares it with the case replication attack. We use a one-way hash chain [20] algorithm of a single polynomial pool approach. The figure clearly in conjunction with the polynomial pool scheme. In shows that an attacker must capture many more sensors in addition to the static polynomial, a pool of randomly this scheme than in the single polynomial pool approach. generated passwords is used to enhance the authentication between sensor nodes and stationary access nodes. http://ieeexploreprojects.blogspot.com In the enhanced security scheme, each sensor node, such as 4 THE ENHANCED THREE-TIER SECURITY SCHEME u, is preloaded with a subset of Ks polynomials randomly As described in the previous section, the three-tier security chosen from the static pool jSj. In addition to the Ks preloaded scheme provides better network resilience against mobile static polynomials, node u randomly picks a subset of Gs sink replication attack compared to the single polynomial passwords from the password pool jW j. Subsequently, for pool approach. This scheme delivers the same security each of the Gs password P wi that has been randomly chosen performance as the single polynomial pool approach when r the network is under a stationary access node replication by node u, its rth hash value, H P wi , is loaded into node u. attack. In both schemes, for any sensor node u that needs to Each password is blinded with the use of a collision-resistant authenticate and establish a pairwise key with a stationary hash function such as MD5 [22]. Due to the collision-resistant access node A, the two nodes must share at least a common property, it is computationally infeasible for an attacker to polynomial in their polynomial rings. To perform a find a value P wx , such that HP wy HP wx ; P wx 6 P wy . stationary access node replication attack on a network, the For stationary access nodes, each node is preloaded with Ks 1 adversary needs to compromise at least a single polynomial static polynomials and Ga hash values (H r1 P wi for the from the static pool. This can be obtained easily by randomly chosen passwords from the pool jW j. To establish an authentication between a sensor node capturing arbitrary sensor nodes in the network. Then, the adversary can make use of this compromised polynomial and a stationary access node in the enhanced scheme, the two

probability that a captured node is a stationary access node 1 and it hold w is jMj m. Therefore, the probability that this n polynomial being chosen exactly by x stationary access nodes among Rc captured nodes is 1 m x 1 m Rc x Rc 1 : 6 P x x jMj n jMj n

1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 RS(|M| =7, t =100) PS(|M| =7, tm =100, m/n =0.08) PS(|M| =7, tm =100, m/n =0.1) PS(|M| =7, tm =100, m/n =0.15) PS(|M| =7, tm =100, m/n =0.2)

1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 RS(|M| =11, t =100) PS(|M| =11, tm =100, m/n =0.08) PS(|M| =11, t =100, m/n =0.1)

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Fig. 9. The probability Pconn for various node density versus the ratio of stationary access nodes and the probability p that a sensor and a stationary access node share at least a common chosen password. (a) c 10; n 1;000. (b) c 20; n 1;000. (c) c 120; n 1;000.

must share a common static polynomial. Also, they need to discover at least a single access node verification of HH r1 P wi H r P wi for which both the sensor node and the stationary access node have the same password P wi , randomly chosen from the pool jW j. In the access node verification, to verify the authenticity of a stationary access node, the sensor node performs a single hash operation on the hash value that is sent from the stationary access node.

4.1 Security Analysis Similar to the security analysis presented in Section 3.1, we evaluate the connectivity of the enhanced three-tier security scheme. We estimated the Pconn , verified by Pg 1 1 pPsa Pm g 1 pPm Pa Psa gg1 : 9 HH r1 P wi H r P wi , where H r1 P wi and H r P wi are the preloaded hash values of P wi in each of stationary Fig. 10 shows probability Pg under the given probabilaccess nodes and the sensor nodes, respectively. Thus, ities of Psa ; Pa ; Pm , and p versus the average number of http://ieeexploreprojects.blogspot.comg in a sensor neighborhood. stationary access nodes c m Pconn 1 1 p ; 7 n 4.2 Threat Analysis where p is the probability that a stationary access node and a In the stationary access node replication attack, the adversary sensor node share at least a common chosen password for needs to capture at least one polynomial from the static pool and at least one hash value H r1 () of a chosen password. To access node verification analyze the security performance of the enhanced three-tier jW j Gs Ga scheme, we estimated probability Php of a noncompromised Gs Ga Gs sensor node being under a stationary access node replication p1 : 8 attack, when x number of nodes were being captured. To jW j jW j calculate the probability Php for a noncompromised sensor Gs Ga node that had a hash value H r P wi in its hash value ring For different node densities c 10, c 20, c 60, and and static polynomial y in its static polynomial ring, we c 120, Fig. 9 shows the probability Pconn versus the ratio of were required to obtain the probabilities of both H r1 P wi stationary access nodes and the probability p. All figures and polynomial y, as they were being compromised when clearly indicate that for a given stationary access node ratio of the x nodes were captured.

, and a node density c, the probability of connectivity increases as p increases. We also estimated the probability Pg of the mobile sink being connected directly or indirectly to a sensor node via a stationary access node that shared with the sensor node, at least one common static polynomial and a common chosen password P wi , for which the node was able to verify the access node by HH r1 P wi H r P wi . To drive the probability Pg , we used a similar analysis as that used for the estimation of probability Pd , except that no sensor neighbor could act as an intermediate node; thus, Pg could be estimated by

Fig. 10. Probability Pg versus probability Pm and the average number of stationary access nodes g in sensor neighborhood.

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Fig. 11. The probability Ph of hash value being compromised versus the number of compromised nodes under different stationary access node ratio m. n

The probability Ph that a given hash value is not chosen by a noncompromised stationary access node is 1 Ga m. If jwj n there are x compromised nodes, the probability that a given hash value H r1 P wi is not captured is 1 Ga mx . As in, jwj n the probability of the hash value being captured is, thus, Ga m x Ph 1 1 : 10 jW j n

r1

the probability of this polynomial being chosen exactly j times among x nodes is j Ks Ks xj x P j 1 : 11 j jSj jSj Thus, the probability of polynomial y being compromised is Pp 1

jt X

pj: 12 Fig. 11 shows the probability of a hash value H () j0 being compromised versus the number of captured nodes. From these figure, we observed that the probability Ph From (10) and (12), the probability, Php that a nonincreased dramatically as we increased the ratio of the compromised sensor node is under a stationary access node stationary access nodes from 1 to 8 percent. In the case of replication attack can, thus, be estimated by the captured static polynomial y of degree t, the attacker http://ieeexploreprojects.blogspot.com ! Ga mx jt X cannot determine the noncompromised static polynomial : 13 Php 1 pj 1 1 based key, if no more than t nodes have been captured. jW j n j0 Similar to the analysis in [14], let us assume a case where Fig. 12 shows probability Php of a noncompromised the number of compromised sensors x > t. The probability Ks of any polynomial being chosen for a sensor node is jSj, and sensor node being under a stationary access node replication

Fig. 12. The probability Php of a noncompromised sensor node under a stationary access node replication attack.

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attack. The figure clearly indicates that for low fraction of stationary access node m 0:01; m 0:02, the enhanced n n three-tier security scheme has a better security performance in terms of network resilience to stationary access node replication attack than the previously proposed scheme. For access node ratios greater than 2 percent, both versions of the three-tier security scheme have a similar network resiliency against access node replication attacks.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, we proposed a general three-tier security framework for authentication and pairwise key establishment between mobile sinks and sensor nodes. The proposed scheme, based on the polynomial pool-based key predistribution scheme substantially improved network resilience to mobile sink replication attacks compared to the single polynomial pool-based key predistribution approach [14]. Using two separate key pools and having few stationary access nodes carrying polynomials from the mobile pool in the network may hinder an attacker from gathering sensor data, by deploying a replicated mobile sink. Analysis indicates that with 10 percent of the sensor nodes in the network carrying a polynomial from the mobile pool, for any mobile polynomial to be recovered, the attacker would have to capture 20.8 times more nodes as compared to the single polynomial pool approach. We have further improved the security performance of the proposed scheme against stationary access node replication attack by strengthening the authentication mechanism between stationary access http://ieeexploreprojects.blogspot.com nodes and sensor nodes. We used the one-way hash chains Amar Rasheed received the MS degree in algorithm [20] in conjunction with the static polynomial computer science from Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, in 2005. Currently, he is pool-based scheme [14].

[11] W. Zhang, G. Cao, and T. La Porta, Data Dissemination with Ring-Based Index for Wireless Sensor Networks, Proc. IEEE Intl Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), pp. 305-314, Nov. 2003. [12] L. Eschenauer and V.D. Gligor, A Key-Management Scheme for Distributed Sensor Networks, Proc. ACM Conf. Computer Comm. Security (CCS 02), pp. 41-47, 2002. [13] H. Chan, A. Perrig, and D. Song, Random Key Pre-Distribution Schemes for Sensor Networks, Proc. IEEE Symp. Research in Security and Privacy, 2003. [14] D. Liu, P. Ning, and R.Li. Establishing, Pairwise Keys in Distributed Sensor Networks, Proc. 10th ACM Conf. Computers and Comm. Security (CCS 03), pp. 52-61, Oct. 2003. [15] H. Chan, A. Perrig, and D. Song, Key Distribution Techniques for Sensor Networks, Wireless Sensor Networks, pp. 277-303, Kluwer Academic, 2004. [16] D. Liu and P. Ning, Location-Based Pairwise Key Establishments for Static Sensor Networks, Proc. First ACM Workshop Security Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, 2003. [17] S. Zhu, S. Setia, and S. Jajodia, LEAP: Efficient Security Mechanisms for Large-Scale Distributed Sensor Networks, Proc. 10th ACM Conf. Computers and Comm. Security (CCS 03), pp. 62-72, Oct. 2003. [18] A. Rasheed and R. Mahapatra, An Efficient Key Distribution Scheme for Establishing Pairwise Keys with a Mobile Sink in Distributed Sensor Networks, Proc. IEEE 27th Intl Performance Computing and Comm. Conf. (IPCCC 08), pp. 264-270, Dec. 2008. [19] A. Rasheed and R. Mahapatra, A Key Pre-Distribution Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks, Proc. Intl Conf. Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing Conf. (IWCMC 09), pp. 263-268, June 2009. [20] L. Lamport, Password Authentication with Insecure Communication, Comm. ACM, vol, 24, no. 11, pp. 770-772, Nov. 1981. [21] C. Blundo, A. De Santis, A. Herzberg, S. Kutten, U. Vaccaro, and M. Yung, Perfectly-Secure Key Distribution for Dynamic Conferences, Proc. 12th Ann. Intl Cryptology Conf. Advances in Cryptology (CRYPTO 92), pp. 471-486, 1993. [22] R. Rivest, The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm, RFC 1321, Apr. 1992.

REFERENCES

I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci, Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey, Computer Networks, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 393-422, 2002. [2] T. Gao, D. Greenspan, M. Welesh, R.R. Juang, and A. Alm, Vital Signs Monitoring and Patient Tracking over a Wireless Network, Proc. IEEE 27th Ann. Intl Conf. Eng. Medicine and Biology Soc. (EMBS), Sept. 2005. [3] L. Hu and D. Evans, Using Directional Antenna to Prevent Wormhole Attacks, Proc. Network and Distributed System Security Symp., 2004. [4] J.R. Douceur, The Sybil Attack, Proc. First Intl Workshop Peer-toPeer Systems (IPTPS 02), Mar. 2002. [5] B.J. Culpepper and H.C. Tseng, Sinkhole Intrusion Indicators in DSR MANETs, Proc. First Intl Conf. Broadband Networks (BroadNets 04), pp. 681-688, Oct. 2004. [6] H. Deng, W. Li, and D.P. Agrawal, Routing Security in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. IEEE Comm. Magazine, pp. 70-75, 2002. [7] C. Intanagonwiwat, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, Directed Diffusion: A Scalable and Robust Communication Paradigm for Sensor Networks, Proc. MobiCom, pp. 56-67, 2000. [8] A. Kansal, A. Somasundara, D. Jea, M. Srivastava, and D. Estrin, Intelligent Fluid Infrastructure for Embedded Networks, Proc. Second ACM Intl Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys 04), June 2004. [9] Y. Tirta, Z. Li, Y. Lu, and S. Bagchi, Efficient Collection of Sensor Data in Remote Fields Using Mobile Collectors, Proc. 13th Intl Conf. Computer Comm. and Networks (ICCCN 04), Oct. 2004. [10] A. Rasheed and R. Mahapatra, An Energy-Efficient Hybrid Data Collection Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks, Proc. Third Intl Conf. Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing, 2007. [1]

working toward the PhD degree in computer science and engineering at Texas A&M University, College Station. His research interests include wireless sensor networks, cryptographic algorithms for sensor networks, security schemes in mobile sensor networks, and key predistribution schemes. He is a student member of the IEEE.

Rabi N. Mahapatra is an associate professor with the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Texas A&M University, College Station, where he has been directing the Codesign Embedded Systems Research Group since 2001. His current research interests include embedded systems, low-power design, secure sensor networks, semantic routing, system-onchip (SoC), and (VLSI). He is the author/ coauthor of more than 100 research papers in referred international journals/conferences. His research has been funded by the US National Science and Foundation (NSF), DoT, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He is a senior member of the IEEE.

. For more information on this or any other computing topic, please visit our Digital Library at www.computer.org/publications/dlib.

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