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GATING SYSTEM Gating system means all the passages through which the molten metal enters the

mould i.e. it includes the pouring basin, runner, gate and riser etc. The manner in which the t metal enters the mould has a great on the quality of the casting. So the gating system should be carefully designed and produced. The functions of a gating system are: 1. To provide continuous, uniform feed of molten metal, with as little turbulence as possible to the mould cavity. Excessive turbulence results in the aspiration of air and the formation of dross. 2. To supply the casting with liquid metal at best location to achieve proper directional solidification and optimum feeding of shrinkage cavities. 3. To fill the mould cavity with molten metal in the shortest possible time to avoid temperature gradient 4. To provide with a minimum of excess metal in the gates and risers. Inadequate rate of metal entry, on the other hand, will result many defects in the casting. 5. To prevent erosion of the mould walls. 6. To prevent slag, sand and other foreign particles from entering the mould. The various elements connected with system are 1 Pouring basin or pouring cup 2 Sprue 3 Sprue base well 4 Runner 5 Runner extension 6 Riser 7 Ingate 8 Riser 1 Pouring Basin: Molten metal is poured into a pouring basin which acts as a reservoir from which it moves smoothly into the sprue. The pouring basin is also able to stop the slag from entering the mould cavity by means of a skimmer. 2 Sprue: It is the channel through which the molten metal is brought into the parting plane where it enters the runners and then gates. Sprues are conical in shape because: a. The molten metal when moving from top of the cope to the parting plane gains in velocity so requires a smaller area of cross section for the same amount of metal to flow at the bottom. b. Liquid tries to attain the minimum area at the bottom so there is an air gap between the liquid jet and sprue wall so air inspiration will be there which causes problem. 3 Sprue Base Well : This is a reservoir for m at the bottom of the sprue to reduce the momentum of the molten metal 4 Runner: It is generally located in the horizontal plane (parting plane) which connects the sprue to its ingates. 5 Runner Extension: This extension is provided to trap the slag in the molten metal. 6 Gates: These are the openings through which the molten metal enters the mould cavity. Types of gates a. Top Gate: In this type of gating, molten metal enters the mould cavity from the top. More mould erosion is there because metal falls from a height. b. Bottom Gate: In this type of gate, the molten metal enters the mould cavity at or near its bottom. It provides a smooth flow of molten metal so there is less erosion of mould, but in this hottest metal remains at the bottom and coolest at the top which causes problem in directional solidification. c. Parting Gate: In this type of gate, molten metal enters the mould cavity at the parting plane. So it is the compromise between top and bottom gate and mostly used. d. Step Gate: If the molten metal enters the mould cavity through a number of ingates which are arranged in vertical steps, is called step gate. This ensures a gradual filling of the mould without any mould erosion and produces a sound casting. 7. RISER Most of the foundry alloys shrink during solidification. As a result of this volumetric shrinkage during solidification, voids are likely to form in the castings so these (voids) needs the additional molten metal. Hence a reservoir of molten metal is to be maintained from which the metal can flow readily into the casting when the need arises. These reservoirs are called risers. TYPES OF RISERS Risers are of two types: 1. An open riser 2.The blind riser. Open Riser: The top surface of this riser is exposed to atmosphere. It is commonly employed on the top most portion of the casting. Blind Riser: The blind riser is a mould cavity formed either on the top or side of a casting and is surrounded from all sides by the moulding sand. RISER LOCATION In addition to the shape and size, a riser must be properly located to obtain a sound casting. A riser must have adequate metallostatic head and must maintain positive pressure of liquid metal on all portions of the solidifying casting, it is required to feed. The location of the riser should therefore be chosen keeping in view the metal to

be cast, the design of the casting, and the feasibility of directional solidification. The riser may be located either at the top of the casting or at the side. Top risering is advisable for light metals as it develops feeding pressure due to the metallostatic pressure in the riser. Frequently, more than one riser has been used to secure soundness in the casting. In such cases, their spacing should be carefully arranged so as to minimize the shrinkage. The feeding range, the distance a riser can feed the metal in a casting, thus becomes an important consideration in riser location. It is usual practice to maintain a feeding range of about 4.5 times the thickness. Use of Padding and Chills In certain casting such as plates, directional solidification is achieved with great difficulty. In such cases, padding is applied to promote directional solidification. The padding is a wedge shaped extra metal added to the casting so that its thickness becomes greatest at the point nearest to the feeder and least at the point furthest from the feeder. This extra metal, if not desired, can later be removed by machining. Exothermic materials serve to produce directional solidification by the generation of heat. These are mixtures of the oxides of the metal to be cast and aluminum metal in powder form which produce large amount of heat when come in contact with hot metal. The exothermic material also serves as an insert in the form of a core in the mould at the desired position to help in controlling directional solidification. Directional solidification can also be accomplished by chilling the metal those portions of the casting that are far away from the liquid metal source. If a casting consists of sections of uneven thickness, the thin sections tend to solidify quicker than the thick ones resulting in uneven contraction and severe distortion. This difficulty is also removed by embedding chills in thin sections and thus making them also to solidify at a faster rate. Chills also help in making the metal dense, thereby avoiding internal flaws. The chills are broadly classified into two types: external and internal. External chills are placed in the mould walls, while internal chills are placed right in the mould cavity and these become a part of the casting when molten metal is poured in the mould cavity. The use of exothermic material chills induces conductivity of sand USE OF CHILLS If a casting has different thickness at different sections than thin section tends to solidify more quickly as compared to thick section, so chills are inserted on the thick sections in order to accelerate the cooling rate, so that no internal stresses are developed due to difference in cooling rate. Sometimes some surfaces of the castings are more exposed to atmosphere. In that case also, chills are used to obtain the proper directional solidification. The chills are broadly of two types external and internal. External chills are placed in the mould walls (i.e. external to the casting) while internal chills are placed in the mould cavity (i.e. a part of the casting).

SPECIAL CASTING METHODS


All metals may be cast in sand moulds and there is no limitation about the size of the casting which can be made. Sand casting is having wide applications (because of low cost) however, sand moulds are single purpose moulds as they are completely destroyed after the casting has been removed from the moulding box. The use of a permanent mould casting would do a considerable saving in labour cost of mould making. Advantages of Special casting methods Special casting methods are not commonly employed because of their high initial cost however special casting methods have following advantages over conventional sand casting. 1 Greater dimensional accuracy. 2 High production rates. 3 Lower production cost. 4 Better surface finish. 5 Denser and fine grain structure. 6 Greater dimensional accuracy. 7 More ductile. 8 Good quality (less defects).

CLASSIFICATION OF CASTING PROCESSES (SPECIAL)


1. Metal Mould Casting (a) Gravity die or permanent mould casting. (b) Die casting Hot chamber process, cold chamber process. (c) Slush casting. (d) Pressed or corthias casting. 2. Non-Metallic Mould Casting (a) Centrifugal casting 1 True centrifugal casting. 2 Semi centrifugal casting. 3 Centrifuge casting. (b) Carbon dioxide moulding

(c) Investment mould casting or lost wax process or precision casting (c Shell moulding (e) Plaster moulding. 3. Continuous Casting (a) Reciprocating moulds (b) Stationary moulds (c) Direct sheet casting.

GRAVITY DIE OR PERMANENT MOULD CASTING


Introduction This casting is called gravity die casting because molten metal is poured into the mould under gravity only; no external pressure is applied to force the liquid metal into the mould cavity (opposite to die casting). This casting is called permanent mould casting because it uses the mould which is permanent i.e. the mould can be reused many times before it is discarded or rebuilt. Permanent Moulds Permanent moulds are made of grey cast iron (having high resistance to thermal shocks), alloy steels (for very high temp. and withstanding surface erosion) or non ferrous alloys. Inner surface of the moulds are coated first with a refractory and then with lamp black or core oil. This is done in order to reduce the chilling effect on the cast metal and to facilitate the removal of casting and prevent the adherence of the molten metal to the mould. A permanent mould is made in two halves in order to facilitate the removal of casting from the mould. Pouring cups, sprue, gates and riser are built in the mould halves itself. The moulds also have the facilities of setting cores, ejector pins for ejecting out casting from the mould and clamps for clamping etc. For faster cooling, fins or projections may be provided on the outside of the permanent mould. Cores for Permanent Moulds The cores may be either fixed type (which are fastened to the mould body and can be withdrawn with the mould) or movable type (which are separated from the mould and these are drawn before parting the mould). For hollow castings, either metal cores or dry sand cores can be used depending upon the shape of the hollow portion required. For complicated shapes, the dry sand core is used. If the metallic cores are used, they have to be withdrawn before the metal starts solidifying For facilitating their removal, metal core surfaces should have a draft of at Least 3 to 5 degrees. Comparison of Permanent Mould Casting with Sand Casting Advantages Closer dimensional tolerance and accuracy. Smoother surface and better appearances. Fine grained metal structure (because of chilling effect). Mass production is more economical. Low overhead charges. Less labour work and time. Require less skilled labour. Good quality of casting (high density, less porosity etc.). Castings dont have any sand adhered to them. Requires less space. Disadvantages A permanent mould costs much more than a sand mould. It is suitable for small and medium sized non-ferrous casting only. Castings have poor elongation. Several defects like stress and surface hardness may be produced due to surface chilling effect. Since the gating system is cut in the mould halves, once machined, it cannot be changed. The extremely high temp of the molten steel makes this method unsuitable for steel castings. Applications Carburetor bodies Refrigeration castings Oil pump bodies Connecting rods and automotive pistons Typewriter segments etc.

DIE CASTING (PRESSURE DIE CASTING)


Introduction 1 Unlike gravity die casting, in this molten metal is forced into permanent mould (die) cavity under pressure. 2 2 The pressure varies from 20 to 2000 kgf/cm and is maintained till solidification stage is reached. The pressure is generally obtained by compressed air or hydraulically. Die Casting Machines Die casting machines perform the following functions 1 Holding two die halves firmly together. 2 Closing the die. 3 Injecting molten metal into die. 4 Opening the die. 5 Ejecting the casting out of the die. Die casting machines are of two types + Hot chamber die casting machines. + Cold chamber die casting machines. Hot Chamber Die Casting In hot chamber die casting machines, the melting unit is in the machine itself that is why it is called hot chamber die casting machine. The molten metal possesses normal amount of superheat and therefore less pressure is needed to force the liquid metal into die. It has further two types of arrangements: a. Goose neck or air injection type (or direct air pressure). b. Submerged plunger type. 1. Goose neck or air injection type (or direct air pressure): In this machine, the goose neck container is operated by a lifting mechanism. Initially it is submerged in the molten metal and is filled by gravity. Then it is raised so as to bring the nozzle in contact with the die opening and is locked in that position. Compressed air then forces the metal into the die and pressure is maintained till solidification. When solidification is complete, the goose is then lowered down and casting is removed by ejector pins after opening the dies. 2. Submerged plunger type: In this machine, the goose neck type container always remains immersed in the metal pot. The molten metal from the metal container is forced inside the die with the help of a plunger submerged in the molten metal and operates hydraulically. When the plunger moves up, the molten metal comes up and fills the cylinder and when the plunger moves down, the metal is moved into the die. The movable die platen is synchronized such that when plunger is moving up, movable die platen moves away and the casting is removed. 3. Cold Chamber Die Casting In these machines, the metal is melted separately in a furnace and transferred to these by means of small hand ladle. After closing the die, the molten metal is forced into the die cavity by a hydraulically operated plunger and pressure is maintained till solidification. These machines can either have vertical plunger or horizontal plunger for forcing molten metal into die. These machines are widely used for casting a good number of aluminium alloys and brasses. Advantages of Die Casting It requires less floor space. Die casting provides for precision manufacture with a subsequent reduction in machining Thin sections of the complex shape are possible (0.4 mm). High production rate. Greater surface finish. Inserts can be easily cast in place. Die castings are less defective than sand casting. The increased soundness and reduction of defects provides increased yield. The labour cost involved is less. Threads and other fine surface details can be easily obtained. A number of non-ferrous alloys can be die cast. The die has a long life. It is possible to produce 1.00,000 castings in case of zinc base alloys and 75,000 castings in case of copper base alloys. Limitations of Die Casting The cost of die and equipment is high. The life of die decreases rapidly if metal temperature is high. Ferrous alloys are not cast and moreover a limited number of non-ferrous alloys can be economically die-cast. The size of the casting is limited. The air in the die cavity gets trapped inside the casting and creates porosity.

Special skill is required for maintenance and supervision of die. The minimum economic quantity for die casting is around 20,000. Die casting technique requires comparatively a longer period of time for going into production (set up time, preparation time). In certain cases, dies may produce an undesirable chilling effect on the die casting. Applications of Die Casting Die casting process has bee used for many non-ferrous metals and alloys such as zinc, aluminium, copper, magnesium, lead and tin. Automobile parts. Marine uses. Domestic appliances. Instruments. Parts of the refrigerators, washing machines, television, typewriters, projectors, radio, binocular, camera. Lead base alloys are used in radiation shielding, battery parts, light duty bearings etc.

CENTRIFUGAL CASTING
Introduction In centrifugal casting, centrifugal force plays a major role in shaping and feeding of the casting. In this process mould is rotated rapidly about its central axis as the metal is poured into it. The centrifugal force is utilized in two ways It is utilized to distribute liquid metal over the outer surface of a mould. Hollow cylinders and other annular shapes are formed in this way. Centrifugal force tends the poured metal and the freezing metal to fly outward, away from the axis of rotation, and this tendency creates high pressure on the metal or casting while it is freezing the lighter slag, oxides and other inclusions being lighter, gets separated from the metal and segregates towards the centre, which can be easily machined. There are three main types of centrifugal casting processes. They are 1 True centrifugal casting. 2 Semi centrifugal casting. 3 Centrifuge casting. True Centrifugal Casting In this process, the casting is made in a hollow, cylindrical mould rotated about an axis common to both casting and mould. The axis of rotation may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. The castings have more or less a symmetrical configuration (round, square, hexagonal etc.) on their outer contour and dont need any central core. Casting cools and solidifies from outside towards the axis of rotation; so it results in good directional solidification. Hence castings are free from shrinkage. True centrifugal casting may be produced in metal or sand lined mould, depending largely upon the quantity desired. Advantages s of True Centrifugal Casting There is no need of core to make a pipe or tube. No gates or risers are used so no material is wasted. Proper directional solidification is obtained. Dense and fine grained metal casting. it is a quick and economical method. The impurities segregate towards the centre from where they can be easily machined. Disadvantages of true Centrifugal Casting It is limited to symmetrical shaped objects such as pipes, rolls, cylinders etc Equipment costs are high. Skilled workers are required. Applications: Liners for l.C. engines. Pipes, rolls, cylinder sleeves, piston ring stocks, bearings, bushing etc. Semi centrifugal casting Unlike true centrifugal casting, a (sand) core is used to form the central cavity (as in the hub of the wheel). So internal shapes are controlled which is not possible in true centrifugal casting. Semi-centrifugal casting is normally made in vertical machines. The mould axis concentric with the axis of rotation. Spinning speeds need not be as high as required in true centrifugal castings. Directional solidification can be obtained by proper gating of the casting, and selective chilling. Casting shapes, more complicated than those possible for true centrifugal casting can be made.

A number of moulds stacked together, one over the other and can be fed by a common central sprue in order to produce more than one casting at a time. Parts produced are gears, flywheels and track wheels etc. Centrifuge casting. In this casting, the axis of the mould and that of the rotation dont coincide with each other. Parts are not symmetrical about any axis of rotation and cast in a group of moulds arranged in a circle. The setup is revolved around the centre of the circle to induce pressure on the metal in the mould. Mould cavities are fed by a central sprue under the action of the centrifugal force. The metal is introduced at the centre and fed into the mould through radial ingates. Centrifuging is possible only in vertical direction. Parts produced are valve bodies, valve bonnets, plugs, yokes, pillow blocks etc Advantages of Centrifuge Casting Methods Produce casting more economically. Better quality. It can cast parts which cannot be satisfactorily produced by other methods. Casting shape imposes no special limitation in this process and an almost unlimited variety of smaller shapes can be cast.

CARBON DIOXIDE MOULDING


This process is basically a hardening process for moulds and cores. Principle The principle of working of the CO 2 process is based on the fact that if CO 2 gas is passed through a sand mixture containing sodium silicate (water glass), the sand immediately becomes extremely strong bonded as the sodium silicate becomes a stiff gel. This gel is responsible for the necessary strength to the mould. The reaction is Na 2 CO 3 + SiO 2 x H 2 O Na 2 SiO 3 x H 2 O + CO 2 (Sodium silicate) +(Carbon dioxide) gives (Sodium carbonate) + (Silica gel) Operation 1. The mould material consists of pure dry silica sand (free from clay), 3 to 5% sodium silicate liquid base binder and moisture (generally less than 3%). Small amount of starch may be added to improve the green strength. Sugar may be added to improve the collapsibility. 2. After sand preparation, it is rammed around the pattern in the mould boxes or core boxes. 3. Carbon dioxide is forced into the mould or core at about 1.4 to 1 .5 kg/cm 4. Additional hardening may be done by baking. 5. Over-gassing should be avoided as it reduces the core strength. 6. After gassing, cores etc. may be given a suitable refractory coating and the system is ready for pouring. 7. Both wooden and metal pattern can be employed. 8. In case the pattern has not got passages for CO 2 to flow into sand rammed around it, gassing may be done after withdrawing the pattern. 9. Pattern withdrawal can be eased by rubbing the pattern with graphite before ramming the sand around it and gassing. 10. Wood pattern or wood boxes are attacked by sodium silicate and may be protected by an application of a varnish or silicon lacquer that is resistant to the effect of the binder. Advantages 1. Speedy operation. 2. No baking is required (generally). 3. Cores and moulds can be stored for long times. 4. Less floor space is required. 5. Same sand is used for the production of both cores and moulds. 6. Hollow cores can be easily made. 7. Process can be easily mechanized. 8. Permeability and flowability of sand are improved. 9. It can be used for both ferrous and non-ferrous casting. 10. Good surface finish, good dimensional accuracy and sharp corners can be made in castings. Disadvantages 1. Sand mixture is costly. 2. Collapsibility is poor. 3. It is difficult to reclaim the used sand. 4. Moisture susceptibility of the CO cores. 5. Sand mixed with sodium silicate binder tends to air harden if kept (unused) in air for a long time.

INVESTMENT CASTING OR LOST WAX PROCESS OR PRECISION CASTING


This process uses wax pattern which is subsequently melted from the mould, leaving a cavity having all the details of the original pattern (required casting).

Procedure: 1. Producing a die for making wax pattern a. Dies may be made either by machining cavities in two or more matching blocks of steel or by casting a low melting point alloy around a (metal) master pattern. b. Dies halves are then sent for necessary machining and drilling the gate through which wax is to be injected for preparing expendable patterns (wax, plastic, tin, frozen mercury in merest process but wax is more commonly used). 2. Making wax patterns a. The die halves are closed and properly clamped. b. Molten wax is then forced into die, under pressure, by means of a wax injection machine. c. Allow cooling and solidification. d. The die is then opened and the pattern is removed. e. A lubricant is then sprayed on to the die surfaces and the same is closed for casting the next wax pattern (therefore one wax pattern is used for one piece only). 3. Assembling the wax patterns Assemble a number of small wax patterns to a common wax gating system so that they can be placed together in one mould (to increase the production). 4. Pre coating the pattern assembly a. The wax pattern assembly is dipped into slurry of a refractory coating material. Typical slurry consists of 325-mesh silica flour suspended in a ethyl silicate solution. b. Wax pattern assembly is next, sprinkled with 40 to 50 AFS (American Foundry Society) silica sand and is permitted to dry. 5. Investing the wax pattern assembly for the production of moulds a. This is done by inverting the wax assembly on the bottom board, surrounding it with a paper lined steel flask and pouring the investment moldings mixture around the pattern. The mould material settles by gravity and completely surrounds the pattern as the work table is vibrated. b. The moulds are then allowed to dry in air for 2 to 3 hours. 6. Removal of wax pattern The wax pattern can be removed from the mould by two methods a. Place the mould in a furnace in an inverted position i.e. the sprue downwards. The wax is melted out due to heat and collected for reuse. b. In other method, mould is placed in a bath of trichloromethylene vapors which also enable the recovery of wax for reuse. 7. Pouring and casting a. The mould is again heated at the r of 40 C to 70 C per hour from about 150C to 1000 C for ferrous alloys and 650 C aluminum alloys. b. Preheating is done: To remove the wax, if any. It helps the metal to flow easily and fill up properly. It causes expansion of the mould. c. After preheating, the metal is poured into the investment mould under simple gravitational force or under the force of applied air pressure or by centrifugal force. 8. Cleaning, finishing and inspection a. Each casting is separated from the assembly and the gates, runner etc. are removed. b. Finishing and inspection of casting is done. Advantages of Investment Casting 1. High dimensional accuracy of the order of 0.08 mm can be attained. 2. A very smooth surface without parting line. 3. Machining can be eliminated. 4. Very thin sections can be cast easily (0.76 mm). 5. Complex contours and intricate shapes can be easily cast. 6. Die castings can be replaced when short runs are involved. 7. Castings are sound and have large grains as the rate of cooling is slow. 8. Complex shapes are possible because pattern is withdrawn by melting it. Disadvantages of Investment Casting 1. The process is suitable for small size parts. 2. This is a more expensive process. 3. Process is relatively slow. 4. Pattern is expendable; one wax pattern is required to make one investment casting. 5. The use of cores makes the process more difficult. Application of Investment Casting 1. Parts for sewing machines, locks, rifles, burner nozzles, milling cutters and other type of tools, jewellery and art casting. 2. In dentistry and surgical implants.

3. Parts of gas turbines. 4. Corrosion resistant and wear resistant alloy parts used in diesel engines, picture projectors and chemical industry equipments.

SHELL MOULDING
Introduction It is a process in which, the sand mixed with a thermosetting resin is allowed to come into contact with a heated metallic pattern plate, so that a thin and strong shell of mould is formed around the pattern. Then the shell is removed from the pattern and the cope and drag are removed together and kept in a flask with the necessary back up material. After that the molten metal is poured into this mould. Procedure 1. A metal pattern, heated to about 175C to 350C, is clamped over a box containing sand mixed with thermosetting resin such as phenol formaldehyde, urea formaldehyde or polyesters. 2. The box and pattern are inverted for a short time. The mixture when comes in contact with hot pattern, it causes an initial set and builds up a coherent sand shell next to the pattern. The thickness of this shell is about 6 mm to 18 mm and is dependent on the pattern temperature and the sand mixture. This takes 5 to 20 seconds only. 3. The box and pattern are brought in its original position. The shell of resin bonded sand is retained on the pattern surface, while the unaffected sand falls into box. The shell, still on the pattern is cured by heating it in an oven from 250C to 350C for 1 to 3 minutes. 4. The assembly is removed from the oven and the shell is stripped from the pattern by ejector pins. In order to obtain clean stripping, a silicon parting agent may be sprayed on the pattern. 5. The shell halves are assembled with clamps and supported in a flask with backing material. The shell mould is now ready for pouring. Advantages of Shell Moulding 1. Suitable for thin sections. 2. Surface finish obtained is excellent. 3. Good dimensional accuracy (Tolerance = 0.002 to 0.003 mm per mm). 4. Less floor space. 5. It can be easily mechanized. 6. Machining and cleaning cost is negligible. 7. The total sand used is only 5 to 10% that of green sand mould. 8. The moulds can be stored until required. 9. Less skilled labor is required. 10. Cooling rate of cast metal is slow so larger gain size. Disadvantages of Shell Moulding 1. Initial cost of pattern and sand is high. 2. Special equipments are to be used. 3. Reuse of sand is difficult. 4. Maximum size of casting is limited. 5. Minimum thickness of the section that can be cast is 4 mm. 6. Certain casting shapes are unsuitable when proper parting and gating is not available. Applications of Shell Moulding 1. It is well suited to ferrous and non ferrous alloys castings in the range of 0.1 to 10 kg. 2. Alloys that can be cast by shell moulding are aluminum alloys, copper alloys, cast irons, stainless steels etc. 3. Components cast by shell moulding are small pipes, cam shafts, bushings, valve bodies, spacers, brackets, bearing caps, shafts and gears, automotive rocker arms and valves etc.

CONTINUOUS CASTING
Introduction In this process the molten metal is continuously poured into a mould around which there are facilities for rapidly chilling the metal to the point of solidification. The solidified metal is then continuously removed from the mould at the calculated rate. The flowing two processes are commonly used for continuous casting of various metals and alloys 1. Asarco process 2. Reciprocating process 1. Asarco Process 1. In this process, the metal is fed by gravity into the mould and withdrawn by the rolls below. 2. The die is water cooled and self lubricating. 3. The upper end of die is in molten metal and thus serves the function of riser. 4. A saw is provided below the rolls to cut the product to desired length or oxy-acetylene cutting is done. 5. Argon is added with molten metal to avoid atmosphere contamination. 2. Reciprocating Process

In this process, molten metal is poured into a holding furnace. At the bottom of this furnace, there is a valve by which the quantity of flow can be changed. The molten metal is poured into the mould at a uniform speed. The water cooled mould is reciprocated up and down. The solidified portion of the casting is withdrawn by the rolls at a constant speed. The movement of the rolls and the reciprocating motion of the rolls are properly controlled by means of cams. Advantages of Continuous Casting 1. 100 percent casting yield (0% waste). 2. The process is cheaper than rolling. 3. Casting surfaces are better. 4. Grain size and structure of the casting can be easily controlled. 5. The process can be easily mechanized and thus unit labor cost is less. Applications of Continuous Casting 1. Materials such as brass, zinc, copper, aluminium and its alloys, magnesium, carbon and alloys etc. 2. Production of blooms, billets, slabs, sheets, copper bar etc. 3. It can produce any shape of uniform cross-section such as rectangular, square, hexagonal, fluted or gear toothed etc.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CASTING DEFECTS
INTRODUCTION Casting defects are usually not accidents, they occur because some steps in the manufacturing cycle do not get properly controlled and somewhere goes wrong. So close control and standardization of all aspects of manufacturing technique offers, the best defense against the occurrence of defects in casting. CASTING DEFECTS The factors, which are normally responsible for the production of these defects, are 1. Design of casting. 2. Design of pattern equipment. 3. Moulding and core making equipments. 4. Mould and core material. 5. Gating and risering. 6. Melting and pouring. 7. Melting and core making techniques. 8. Metal composition. Various casting defects are described below BLOW HOLES + They appear as cavities (holes) in a casting. + Blow holes visible on the surface of a casting are called open blows whereas those occur below the surface of castings and not visible from outside are termed as blow holes. Causes Remedies + Excessive moisture in the moulding sand. + Control moisture content. + Low permeability and excessive fine grain + Use clean and rust free chills, chaplets and metal insert. sands. + Bake cores properly. + Cores, neither properly baked not adequately + Proper use of organic binders. vented. + Cores and moulds should be properly vented. + Extra hard rammed sand. + Moulds should not be rammed excessively hard. + Rusted and damp chills, chaplets and inserts. :. Excessive use of organic binders POROSITY This defect occurs in the casting in the form of pin hole porosity or gas porosity. Hydrogen is responsible for pin hole porosity. Gases will be absorbed by the liquid metal. When the metal solidifies, the solubility decreases and gases will be released and create small voids throughout the casting called porosity. Causes Remedies High pouring temperature. Increase flux proportions. Gas dissolved in metal charge. Ensure effective degassing. Less flux used. Reduce moisture and increase permeability. High moisture and low permeability in mould. SHRINKAGE During solidification of metal, there is a volumetric shrinkage. To compensate this, proper feeding of liquid metal is required. Causes Remedies Faulty gating and risering. Ensure proper directional solidification by modifying

Improper chilling gating, risering and chilling. MISRUNS AND COLD SHUTS When the metal is unable to fill the mould cavity completely and thus leaving unfilled portion called Misruns. A cold shut is called when two metal streams dont fuse together properly. Causes Remedies Lack of fluidity in molten metal Adjust proper pouring temperature. Faulty design. Modify design. Faulty gating Modify gating system. INCLUSIONS During the melting process, flux is added to remove the undesirable oxides and impurities present on the metal. At the time of tapping, the slag should be properly removed, If it mixes with the molten metal, defect is called inclusion (slag). Causes Remedies Faulty gating and faulty pouring. Improve or modify gating and pouring. Inferior moulding or core sand. Use a superior sand. Soft ramming. Provide harder ramming. Improper flux Use proper flux HOT TEARS Since metal has low strength at higher temperatures, any unwanted cooling stress may cause the rupture (tear) of the casting called hot tears. Causes Remedies Lack of collapsibility of core and mould. Improve collapsibility. Faulty design. Modify design. Hard ramming Provide soft ramming CUTS AND WASHES These defects occur due to the erosion of sand from the mould or core surface by the molten metal. Causes Causes Remedies Low strength of mould and core. Improve collapsibility. Lack of binders in facing and core sand. Modify design. Faulty gating. Provide soft ramming METAL PENETRATION If the molten metal enters into the spaces between the sand grains and holds some of the sand tightly with it even after fettling, defect is known as metal penetration. Causes Remedies Large grain size of sand and used sand. Use sand having finer grain size. Soft ramming. Provide harder ramming. Moulding sand or core have low strength. Increase the strength of sand. Pouring temperature of metal two high. Adjust the proper pouring temperature. DROP If a portion of the sand breaks away from the mould and drops in the molten metal, that is called drop defect. Causes Remedies Low green strength in moulding sand and -re. Modify sand composition to increase the Too soft ramming. strength. Inadequate reinforcement of sand projections and Provide harder ramming. Provide adequate reinforcement to sand core projection. SHIFT A shift is a misalignment between two mating surfaces. This defect may occur at the parting surface between the two parts of the mould called mould shift or between the core and core seat called core shift. Causes Remedies Worn out clamping pins. Repair or replace the pins. Improper support and location of core. Provide adequate support to cores. Faulty core boxes. Locate the core properly. Repair or replace the core boxes.

FUSION

This is caused by the fusion of sand grains with the molten metal, giving a brittle, glassy appearance on the casting surface. Causes Remedies Low refractoriness. Improve refractoriness. + Faulty gating. + Modify gating system. + Too high pouring temperature. +. Use lower pouring temperature. + Poor facing sand + Improve quality of facing sand. SHOT METAL If the molten metal is poured into the mould when its temperature is relatively slower or There is not proper fusing between the main stream and small particles, shot metal defect occurs. Causes Remedies The low pouring temperature. Use higher pouring temperature. Excess sulphur content in the metal. Reduce sulphur content. Faulty gating. Modify gating system. RAT TAILS OR BUCKLES Under the influence of the heat, the sand expands, thereby moving the mould wall backwai Due to this there is an irregular line on the surface of the casting called rat tails. If there are a number of criss-crossing small lines and there are severe rat tails, that is called buckles. Causes Remedies Excessive mould hardness. Reduce mould hardness. Large flat surface of casting. Break continuity of large flat surface by grooving or depressions. SWELLS If there is an enlargement of casting surface because the mould wall moves backward due to liquid metal pressure and the size of cavity increases that is called swells. Causes Remedies Soft ramming of mould. Provide harder ramming. Low strength of mould core. Increase strength of mould and core. Mould not properly supported. Provide adequate support to mould. HARD SPOTS Hard spots on surfaces are generally developed on iron castings rich in silicon content due to local chilling of those spots by moulding sand. Causes Remedies Faulty metal composition. Suitable change in the metal composition. Faulty casting design. Modify the casting design. RUN OUTS A run out occurs when the molten metal leaks out of the mould during pouring, resulting in an incomplete casting. Causes Remedies Faulty moulding. Improve moulding technique. Defective moulding boxes. Change the defective moulding boxes. CRUSHES A crush is a deformation of mould surface due to pressing or scrapping of the sand during setting of core or assembly of the mould boxes. Causes Remedies Careless assembly of cores in the mould. Repair or replace core boxes. Worn out core prints on patterns. Repair or replace core prints. Defective core boxes. Proper setting of cores. WARPAGE If the deformation takes place due to internal stresses developed in the casting or due to differential solidification in different sections, it causes warpage. Causes Remedies Not proper directional solidification. Facilitate proper directional solidification. + Continuous large flat surfaces. Modify the casting design to break continuity.

CLEANING OF CASTING (FETTLING)


When the casting has solidified, it is removed from the sand of the moulding box. This is called shake out. Sometimes moulds are broken to obtain the casting. This is done manually or mechanically. Casting when taken out of the mould, are not in the same condition in which they are desired since they have sprue, gates, riser etc. attached to them. Besides this, sand is also there on the surface of the casting. The operation of cutting off the unwanted parts, cleaning and finishing of the casting is known as fettling. This includes 1. Removal of gates and risers. 2. Removal of unwanted metal projections, fins, nails etc. 3. Removal of adhering sand and oxide scale from the surface of the casting. 4. Repair of casting, wherever possible or required. 5. Heat treatment of casting. Cleaning 1. Rough Cleaning Surface cleaning is done by 1 Wire Brushing: Wire brush is used to clean the surface of the casting. 2 Tumbling: In this method the casting to be cleaned is placed inside large steel barrels, t with a number t small cast iron pieces called stars. Both ends of the barrel are closed ap4 rotated. It is very efficient method of cleaning. 3 Sand Blasting: In this method, a stream of high velocity air, carrying large size sand particles, is thrown on to the surface of casting. 4 Shot Blasting: It is similar to sand blasting but here metallic abrasives are fed instead of Sand particles. 5 Hydro-Blasting: High velocity stream consisting of water and sand is thrown on to the casting surface. 6 Mechanical Impact Cleaning: In this the metallic abrasives are fed against the casting surface by means of centrifugal force. 7 Pickling: In this process an acid is used for cleaning the sand from casting surface. 3 Finishing Surface finishing is done by machining, chemical treatment, polishing, buffing and painting to put them into a suitable appearance.