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COSMOLOGY : WHAT THE SPACE - TIME IS MADE OF? mauesj@gmail.

com
Original in Portuguese translated to English by World Lingo.

Defined for the unrivalled genius of Albert Einstein, we know today that we live involved by an entity known as the fabric space-time. Many of its properties are known and others not yet. I believe that our bigger unfamiliarity is exactly its more basic characteristic: of what it is constituted? As Engineer, then I relate the fabric term something of real, concrete existence and with well defined physical parameters. Ok, we are speaking of a unique e very special type of fabric much more sophisticated and with characteristics much more complex of what those physical entities that we coexist daily in our trivial daily experiences. But still we are talking about a real entity and that, already evidenced by observation, it is subjects to mechanical deformations in the presence massive objects. Bigger the mass of the object, greater the deformation caused in the fabric space-time around it. Here I make an interruption for a commentary of much importance: I have no pretension to arrive at any conclusion but simply to provoke, with my questions, people much more capable then me, who certainly already thought about the subject and perhaps came to an answer. As somebody without formation in Physics, and therefore not specialist in Cosmology, I have the risk to be incurring into primary and basic errors or to be plagiarizing, not intentionally, in all or part the some published work already. For the eventual readers of this text I anticipated excuse for the occurrence of the two possibilities Let us come back to the subject and lets try to structuralize some logical and simple line of reasoning that has as consequence the establishment of hypotheses and questions with a minimum value. A real entity called space-time and therefore formed by something responsible for its existence and characteristics. I imagine that the understanding as how it was created will automatically help us to understand of what it is constituted. We need then to establish a start point which can be considered as an unquestioned truth to be able to give continuity to this search. 1

This initial concept could not be another but the postulate of the beginning of the Universe 14 billion years ago by a great explosion that we call Big Bang. Considering that everything that exists was created by the Big Bang, we can affirm that the structure space-time was created at a moment immediately after its occurrence. The space-time would be then stage in which all the remaining portion of the creation starts to have existence. Here, we have two important speculations: - the creation of the space-time precedes all the other creations. - the existence of a Universe is only possible if a structure space-time exists allowing the actors, from elementary particles to the great conglomerate of galaxies, can perform the wonderful spectacle of the Creation. If these affirmations are correct, we can imagine that, in its more basic essence, the space-time is formed by the same constituent of all the remaining portion of the Universe being the oldest, basic and primitive structure of the Universe over which all the rest had organized. Another interruption becomes necessary: Cosmology is the only area of Physics that allows anyone to exercise the imagination through texts like this with no mathematical structure, any observational base or suggesting experiments that prove the affirmations. Lack of seriousness? Not at all since in the origin of all scientific discovery, before the necessary, difficult, laborious and indispensable mathematical formalization, experimental or observational evidences, it comes the curiosity, intuition, much imagination, independence of the academic system strong established and many times guided by strong conservatism and the courage to dare without fear of the potential exposition of criticisms indispensable seeds to the scientific and technological advance of Mankind. With regard to the Mathematics, more important area of the human knowledge and for which I keep an enormous respect and admiration only comparable to the frustration to know it so little, I make only one comment that I consider relevant: the possibility of the existence of coherent and robust theories sufficiently sophisticated and sound but that do not describe reasonable physical realities. It is a trap created by the enormous power of the Mathematics and that I believe many physicists have fallen advocating complex theories that describe realities rejected by their lack of simplicity by wise nature that would not expend unnecessary efforts in its creations. Let us come back to the Big Bang to try to give another step in this speculation.

At the moment of the collapse of the primordial singularity, the Big Bang, a finite but unimaginably amount of Energy is released in an infinitely short period of time that forms our Universe constituted of two great blocks: the space-time (stage) and particles that later will create from atoms to galaxies (actors). It becomes obvious that part of the Energy created the stage (space-time) and the another part the actors (elementary particles). What part became the stage and what part formed the actors? I do not know to quantify this reply but a strong intuition says to me that most was destined the construction of stage (space-time). And what is the reason of this intuition? If to consider that the addition of the energy contained in the space-time more the energy contained in elementary particles is constant and equal the 1, we have two sufficiently interesting and significant extreme cases that are: - all the energy of the creation was directed for the space-time and therefore in this in case that we do not have the elementary particle formation what it takes the reason between energy space-time and energy elementary particles equal the infinite. - all the energy of the creation now is directed for the elementary particle formation nothing remaining for the appearance of the space-time leading the reason between energy space-time and energy elementary particles equal the zero. In both the cases we have an only situation in which the two Universes possess a so great instability, represented for the results zero and infinite one, that result in its immediate extinguishing. In 1 case due the enormous energy contained in the space-time that makes with that its expansion happens so quickly reaching its limit of rupture instants after its creation. No longer 2 in case that, the enormous energy accumulated for elementary particles makes with that its destruction also occurs immediately after its creation. The assumption that most of the energy was directed for the creation of the space-time is sufficiently convenient because in the aid to answer the question that gave to origin of this text. We arrive then the reply: as in our Universe we know that the great part of the mass and energy are not part of the actors and is called dark (in such a way the mass how much the energy) would be then it (dark mass + dark energy) the construction blocks of the space-time.

Thus, when detecting or the mass or the dark energy we will be detecting the space-time! They remain two questions: - how much of the energy of the space-time it created the space and how much the time. - because the structure space-time meets in continues sped up expansion? If the space-time is subject to deformation, this means that the parcel space has mass and thus our space is formed by the dark substance and consequently the time for the dark energy. We have then the answer of the first question since we know how much energy and dark matter exist in our Universe. This model presents two basic relations for one determined Universe: - the ratio of energy between elementary space-time and particles and - the ratio of energy between the space and the time. However, we also have the reply the second question since the relation energy of the time on energy of the space is a constant, and therefore we conclude that the expansion of the space is obligator consequence of the expansion of the time. The energy of the time is used to make it to flow while the energy of the space is used for its expansion, that is the Universe this being used these two energies and at some moment in a very distant future these energies will be depleted determining in such a way the end of the space and the time. The fabric space becomes so tenuous that such fragility leads accurately to its disruption in the same instant that the time stops to exist what, for definition, it means the end of our Universe that already very before already becomes emptiness without the existence of an only elementary particle. But why the expansion of the fabric space-time is accelerating? We have a reservoir of energy being used to make the time to flow and another one being used for the expansion of the space. Considering that the taxes of use of these energies are constant we can imagine that for two equal and consecutive intervals of time, the occurred expansion in 2 interval is necessarily bigger resulting in a speed of bigger expansion that that one presented in 1 interval. Jurandyr Arone Maus - mauesj@gmail.com December of 2012