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& FN SPON

T ay l or & Francis G rou p









1 9 8 8







































































































































































































































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A ctu al







Characteristic









T ransformed




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Factors


















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Nu mber

Characteristic


Characteristic




























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T otal

Depth





















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ov er

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Safety factors, l oads and pressu res







1 6 2 0 are





l oads.




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from

































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1 . 0 , 1 . 4 1


1 . 0
































and from

k 1


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at




































































































































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accou nt






































































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to








































































































































































































































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fol l ows

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where

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( i. e.

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is































































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mu st

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g iv en



































































































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with 1 0












































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su fficient








































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appl y




















































































































































































in





can



1 . 1 5 , can











( 0 . 6
is















in





mu st
































H owev er,



















corresponding






























4 6 0
















































































































































































set














of

















and























0 . 1 :






0 . 5 ,



0 . 1 ,

















k 3 4 x



k 1 )















are










and


does






























div ided


T he




















For





































may





M d/ bd2 ) for
1 5



























is cal cu l ated





A ,,


and









































M d/
( d










































































































1 0 0 0














































































I) ,
2 0 0 / E r




; p)



g iv en






of






1 3 6 ,
the































































is



1 3 7 . Since




























ansformed























x ) / ( h x ) .














































































































































do











































to


may

















are




































































































and





























0 . 4 E v J / 2





















B rief






























































































0 . 4 5



















+













































B y



k 1 x b +
A ,2 fY d2
M k 2 x ) + d') +


are





















O. 7 fcu / y m, k 2 = 0 . 5

0 . 6 0
fcu / y rn,
k 2 = 0 . 5







dc,
O. 7 2 j ,

A 3 2

with 1 d'/ h) .














In







and these
and

Charts








of

permitted

is

































( h/ 2 )













h/ '2 )





h/ 2











bel ow





































is




in






x











a'



4 / 9

















































= 1 ( 7 N/ 6




















( 2 / 3 )


M Y / M U Y











and



may

can



















































acting

M d/ Nd. T he











































d')












































1 5































and



is







+ f,,)


/ 3 3 and

and

and



= 0

Nd3 8 1 / fi2 bd
{ ( fcrK i/ 2 )






1 5




































[ fcr(




If


is
























of





0 .



















A tr
J / A tr.







































If

and


then


















g reater





fl 2
can












is





























=
bd/ 1 2 )
fcr








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T he


















is
















































A n







































































N) NbaI) .










h d, 7 ( h d') / l l



































across




8







1 Nbal / bh)
0






























































































































































































































































































6 0 0











































































































If


























































































0 . 1 5 E ( h/ r) 2 .





0 . 6 E ( h/ r) 2 .
















































































































































2 5 0
8 @ 2 5 0
3 7 5 6 @ 1 5 0
8 @ 2 0 0


8 @ 2 2 5


1 2 @ 2 7 5
2 2 5 1 2 @ 2 5 0




2 0 0 '





























































. 1 IA T 'l . . I I
anu raii. aic
Notes






















































T he






































































































































































































































E x cept
































































































































































































+



























of






















































and



































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































6 . 9 3

































in





T A ) k hc/ k C,











=




























































































































Pressu res behind wail s
T he


































































































































































































































where


































































T he



is







T he




































































































is





















2 F,,5 / 3 ,













neg ativ e







( 2 F,,5 / 3 )





















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































otherwise.






k N

































































































































































































+
























































































































































\ fl
















M / FV.









situ


















































































=
K


0 . 5 x ,,.


E l ectronic






























































































































































































































































































































































































































= 3 0 1 . 5












































at










1 0 0
E l ectronic






































































































Du ring




of
























































































































































































1 0 2
E l ectronic



























































































































































































































































































































































1 0 4
E l ectronic












stru ctu ral





































X 2 ( X ) 2 ,



































































ios
Fu tu re


















































































































































1 0 6
E l ectronic




















































































P
1


safety factors



























fk / Y m


for































_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _























1 . 4





0 . 8

1 . 0













.
Shear




I 1 . 5



1 . 2 5

* M ax imu m +



ex cessiv e
= 1 . 0 5






characteristic







ends

T T
L oads 1 . 6 Q ,, -
remaining





on







fix ed

For

RS8 1 1 O:











on





+








A S
For



















Vertical






throu g hou t

4 -. ,
-o

5 ,,
en
0
0
U

























corresponding













































































2





0
0
0
0
I-
0
a

C


















1 4 4 to










































0
0
0
a

0
0






























































0

















G l ass-bl ock

























2 . 6 3






















3


























1
l b/ ft2


































1 0 %

1 . 2 5 %

5 %
1 0 %


























0
0
4






U ,
U ,
U ,
'-4
0





0
0






4
2 . 5



U ,
4 -
0
'a,
a

c)
-a



























a
a






a


metres

. 0
Partition


1 0 0 0

1 2









( minimu m)
A rea = 0 . 4 3 3 1 2 h,
= 0 . 8 7 ( 1 h





































1














































9 ,

































5
-0
E

'a,
0
























8 . 2


































































































. ,
5 . 0



3 1 . 8












Notation D1 weig ht

9 8 0 7





v ol u me



=
+ h
If D1 ) : D,1 I


D1 h0

fi) +



= 9 8 0 7 N/ rn3
6 2 . 4































I










'
nil

3 . 6


.














.
B ars,v estibu l es

nil


d)
. E
























per

)
nil













, 3 . 0



.
L ig ht






9 . 0


7




I-












4 . 5






































}

U ,

tL l

















0
0







0 )

5 2 . 5 '

1 2 0 . 9














}
nil













l oad



U ,
.


u



6 0 0 mm



























1 1 8
L oads




































Fa

( 1
Fd( l










































































0
a

0
0
E

L 5 6 ff
m
pl u s tender
8






3 m
pl u s tender


3 2 ft6 in
( tank )
4 . 7 m
( tank )






















y


T otal





-
ao-B O
ooi
2 1 . 2 m 2 0 . 7 m
1 5 . 2 m
1 3 2 0






7 . 9 m 6 . 1 m
3 0 0









tons

C
0
a

m





6 1 6 ft
1 . 8 3 m

2 . 4 4



8 5 0
8 5











'7 5
I




T ractor


0 0 0 0



4
9 ft





1 . 3 5 m I '. I
8 ff
H
9 . 7 5 m

k N














3 2 0















. 2 . 7 4 m


9

l . 4 3 5 m
l . 3 7 m
G au g e

driv ing

driv ing






















dimensions

U nl ess

No






























.
From






































H B
Du e to v ehicl e as fol l ows:
per wheel = 2 5 0 0 / newtons ( where L imit of v ehicl e
j = nu mber of u nits of H B l oad)
1
1
1 m
I

O. 2 m. J
( whichev er has most critical
effect on member being considered)











(
* B u t



2 SOk N
rn_ fi. 6 rn_ fl . 6 mJ O. 8 rr



0





=


f
h'


in


=


J






f
=







L oad = 1 . 1 N/ mm2





















Dispersal of l oad
concrete sl ab
. 1 / 6 l oad transmitted
by this sl eeper
Dispersal of l oad throu g h
asphal t etc. su rfacing
I. .
ov er which sl eeper
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
transmits l oad to bal l ast
* aor
DIspersal of concentrated l oad beneath sl eepers
0 . 4 m































































































1 1
H A

U )



E

I-

I-




0
Ce

5 -.



U )






































































7 Smm. $
3 7 5 mm
Direction
9 0 0 mm 3 ft
trav el
H

C)
C)
iB m



6 . 1 m 1 . 8 m
mm-u
9 0 0 mm
Ii

mrnl _ f_
9 0 0 mm

trav el CeO
4 ---
* - 3 tt
mm
2 0 ft


















C)

0
U )


l oad
dL rY ) 1 )
Su rfacing
/ /
a
=
+
I /
i '.
/ a contact l eng th
B l
b width of ty re
I
( = 7 5 1 0 4 5 0 mm or3 to l 8 in)
I
/
I
/
'. W heel -l oad dispersion area = A x B
C ov eral l width ( two sl eepers)
1 l eng th of sl eeper
A x l e-l oad dispersion area = A x B























1 2


2







area 2 5 %









1 / 5

ci,
0 )
C)
Ce
Ce
I-
0 )
3 .
0



E


2 0 2 1 . 8 6 0 2 0 0 8
5 0 2 . 5 8 6 - 1 1 5 1 3 0
1 0 0 1 0 3 . 0 1 0 0 1 8 0 2 0 0 2 1 5 1 8 2 0 2 1 . 5 2 . 0 6 9 9 . 5
2 0 0 2 0 3 . 2 1 0 6 3 1 0 3 1 3 3 2 . 3 7 6 2 8 0 1 1 may v ary du e
3 0 0 3 0 3 . 6 1 2 0 4 6 0 4 8 0 5 1 0 4 6 4 8 5 1 2 . 6 8 6 1 2 tomak eand
5 0 0 5 0 4 . 0 1 3 0 7 2 0 8 1 0 - 7 0 7 2 8 1 3 . 1 1 0 3 1 4 u seofcrane











E l ectric








7


1 5 0 0
















Vsis 2 s3




















1 . 1

0 . 9











1 3
Rel ation



( m/ s)

B A SIC W IND SPE E D ( mis)
5 4
1 0
1 2
1 4
1 6
1 8































































I
1 0


































E E 4 )


m
5 0 m














0 . 1 5 b,
whichev er

are described in more detail in section 2 . 7 . 2 .

FOR




1 4



6 b















































i1
a= h




1 0
















































+ 0 . 7

0 . 6

0 . 7

0 . 6

+ 0 . 6

0 . 5

0 . 8

0 . 8
-
+



0 ,8

0 . 7



C
5 )



1 . 4
1 . 0

2 . 0
1 . 2


1 . 2


1 . 2
1 . 2
1 . 1
1 . 1
1 . 1


2 . 0

1 . 0
2 . 0

2 . 0
1 . 5
2 . 0
1 . 5
1 . 5
1 . 5




1 . 0
1 . 2
1 . 0
1 . 0

2 . 0

1 . 5
1 . 5
1 . 0


2 . 0
1 . 5




1 . 5
1 . 5
1 . 5
1 . 0
1 . 2
1 . 2
'I,
C
V

5 )

ci
I-
5 )
C












1 . 0
1 . 0




1 . 0
1 . 0

1 . 0
1 . 0
1 . 0


l . 0 ( 0 . 5 )
1 . 0 ( 0 . 5 )
1 . 0 ( 0 . 5 )



0 . 9

0 . 6







0 . 2


0 . 8


0 . 6

1 . 0 ( 0 . 5 )
1 . 0 ( 0 . 5 )
1 . 0 ( 0 . 5 )


C
V

5 )

C
1 . 0
1 . 0
1 . 0
1 . 0

1 . 0
1 . 0
1 . 0
1 . 0







2 . 0
2 . 0



2 . 0
2 . 0
1 . 8
1 . 8
1 . 8
1 . 8
1 . 5
1 . 5



0 . 5
2 . 0

1 . 8
1 . 8
0 . 9
0 . 5
1 . 5
1 . 5
1 . 4
1 . 4
0 . 9



Ou tl ine of basic procedu re
1 . Cal cu l ate characteristic wind pressu re W k as indicated on
T abl e

Determine appropriate ex ternal and internal pressu re Co.
efficients from T abl e 1 4 or T abl e 1 5 ( top. and Centre) .
3 . T otal wind force F on area A of stru ctu re as a whol e
w5 A ( C,,,5 where and are ex ternal pressu re
coefficients on windward and l eeward faces respectiv el y .
T otal wind force F on area A of particu l ar face of stru ctu re=

wind force F on cl adding el ement = w5 A

where C,,. and


are ex ternal and internal pressu re co.
efficients respectiv el y .
T o obtain total force on entire stru ctu re, div ide stru ctu re into
parts, determine force on each part by steps 1 3 and then su m
resu l ts v ectorial l y . Consider appropriate v al u e of Is for each
indiv idu al part ( bu t for approx imate anal y sis, u se of sing l e v al u e
of wk corresponding to heig ht to top of bu il ding errs on side of
safety ) .
A l ternativ el y , first cal cu l ate characteristic wind pressu re. Nex t,
obtain v al u e of force coefficient C1 from T abl e ( bottom) . T hen
total wind force on area A = W 5 A C1 . For g reater accu racy ,
su bdiv ide stru ctu re and su m indiv idu al resu l ts v ectorial l y
as
before.



0 . 6 0

0 . 2 5

0 . 7 0
0 . 7 0




+ 0 . 7 0

0 . 6 0





+ 0 . 8 0
0 . s0 0 . 8 0




0 . 7 0

0 . 8 0


0 . 5 0


0 . 5 0


5
VA L U E S




0 . 7 0





0 . 6 0


0 . 5 0

0 . 2 0

0 . 5 0




0 . 8

1 . 0



! i heig ht







W ind

0 . 3
0 . 3




FOR















1 . 0


b 4 8 r



B etween






H I
b 6 r









0 . 9


1 . 1
0 . 6


b1 2 r


1 . 1


b 6 r





0 . 7
























Pressu res











1 0 . 1 . 1 E ffect




= ( k 2 D2 +













+ +










k 2
























1 6

= k Dh sin2



F

( 9 0

Force
F F1

0 ) : F1 F; 0 ;



ang l e






Incl ined
Incl ined
ou twards
inwards




Vertical



( 0
1 >
I-,
en
en
I)
0
( 0
I-
U
( 5


Cs

sin( fl


k _ [ ( + l ) sin$ j
sin2 fl







=
tan

sin

sinfl

sin( / 3 0 )

sine+ sinfl j

sin( fl O) 1 2

sin
1

k

( / 3 0 ) 1 2 C0 5


[ sin( 1 1 + $ ) sin( / 3 4 1 )

0
C)
Cs







--0

k 1 = k
Fsin( 9

F

k 3 = k
k 1 = cos2 0

= . . j [ sin
= k
= ,J [ 2

0 ) :

n



= 0 ) :
sin

+





0
0

U





= 0 )




3
0
0
)

3
0

t
o

4
5
0

'
I
,
4
)
I
-
C

4
)
4
)
0
.

3
5

2
4

2
3

2
4
.
5

2
5

3
0

2
5
0

3
5

3
5

2
5

4
5

=
1
+
k
2
L
_
_
_
(
1
_
f
l
)
]
}

D
1
=
6
2
.
4
1
b
/
f
t
3

l
O
O
f
l
)

C
o
h
e
s
i
o
n

I
C
,,
0

4
)
0
,
4
)
0

4
)
4
)

}

l
9

q
2

I
-
(
0
0
0
= 0

5
0
1
0
0

1
8
'
1
4


0
2
'
1
5

2
+
s
i
n
O

I
-
_
_
_
_
_
5
0
0

6
0

0
.
6
1
0

0
.
5
8
9

2
5

3
4
'
3
0
0

3
0
'
4
5

0
.
8
2
1

0
.
5

1
9

0
.
7
8
1
0
.
7
7
0
0
,
7
6
0
0
.
7
5
1
0
.
7
4
3
0
.
7
3
5
0
.
7
2
7
0
.
7
2
5
0
.
7
1
1
0
.
6
9
9

0
,
3
0
0

0
.
5
5
6

0
.
5
1
4
0
.
5
5
3
0
.
5
3

0
.
4
7
5
0
.
4
5
9

3
3

4
1
'
l
i
n
l
.
5
0
.
6
9
2
0
.
2
8
6
0
.
2
1
7

4
5
0

D
1

D
2

0
.
6

5
5

6
0



























= D1 h{ l +
_ fl ) ] } +
D1 h0 = D( h0


is







































q h/ q 0

































8 4 0 0 2 5 . 0 . 7 5 6
1 8 . 7 5

0 . 3 4 0



tan
4 7 . 0










( this

=
( k 2 D2 4 - D,,,) ( h

h1 .


2 Ch II
C,. . ,
-




1 9





9 . 8 1


0 . 6 D












--- . ( see


2 C
















0
C',
4 )
C-
C',
CO
0 )
C-
0 . .
4 )
C. )











Dr/ tan 8 4 0 0 4 7 . 0
2 r/ tan 3 / 0 . occu rs
r/ tan 1 . 5 / 0 ,2 6 8
5 . 6 0
1 0 . 8
3 / 8 . 8 2 0 . 3 4 0
1 e 3 4 0 . 2 8 8 . 3 7 . 1
1 0 . 7 0





0
0
FM
2 0
0
I-.
0
0
- k 2 N\
g o =
k 2 N
[ d+ ( b1 2 ) + h] ( 2 h a)
'-
0 5
I-
V
E
V
V
( d) Indefinite ex tent
( e) L imited ex tent
A ' = cross-Sectional area
4 5 A '



B )
F0 = n,h1
= k 2 n ( force per u nit
l eng th of wal l )
approx ,
N
Note: pressu res du e earth retained by wal l to be
added
For max ,, stope + 0 : k =
For mm sl ope U k = k 3
For v al u es of k 1 ,k 2 and see 1 8 .
a = +

2 1
Pl an
Dr
e
hk tan
tanG '










tan

k q ,,




d/ 4 .
For











2 5
2 5
2 5
2 5

e

the = hk tan

M u l tipl ier
0
I, I I,aiil ai a a Ittiti t It I I i_ _ I I I I I
( a) Core fl ow
T y pes of
E l ev ation
of horizontal

Powdered

0 . 7 5 0
o
0 . 6 0 0

0







max , max

max ' q h max q h max '





Dr



q hmax =


q , max =

max =
Dr Dr



where
1

i I I I I I I
I
I I I I
I''''
I
I I
I
I I I I t
I
, I I
I
0
of h/ h0










































du e








1 the






=

Partial
1 j 3 3 " \ )

3 0

/ 1 1 1


shou l d









2
B A SIC

l oads

rate



= rate



I

j
U



tO_ _ _ _ _ _
U niforml y distribu ted 0 5 U T tt-} 1 4 -! 0 . 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
0
H IU ffl tt

dbdddcSddb
doodddddd. -
Cantil ev er
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
0 . 1 0
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
+ VE
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Propped cantil ev er
y e4 -1
0 D5
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Q 5

_ _ _ _ _ _
0 . 0 5
I
force
( I l i/ l it I l il t! NA .
( = coefficient x total l oad)
Il l l l l l Iil l l fl l Il l tl Il iIl
oIl '! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I
E nd span IJ _ l -1 4 + t IT U 't1 1 1
B M env el opes du e fo
0 . 0 5 1 1
of l oad on span or
til l !
on adj acent spans. ( A ctu al
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
/ / env el ope depends on nu mber
Il l
j L I-I-Il l
/ of continu ou s spans and
Il -Ft T hU i IA ' I
eq u al ity or ineq u al ity of spans)
fl 4 l o. s
+ v e
( Il l Il l Il III! Il il l Il l Il Il tI
Interior span
0 . 0 5
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E nd conditions and
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
ow
I
odooodddd. -
B ending moments ( = coetticient x total l oad x span)
CRIT ICA L

opiu onai
T o

CP1 1 O:



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2 7
0 . 4
0 . 3
0 . 2
0 . 1
0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 5 0 . 6 0 . 7 0 . 8 0 . 9
T otal wl ( 1 -a-j 3 )
W
B ending moment = coefficient x F!
Position of max imu m moment
= from l eft-hand su pport
0 . 4
1 0
0 . 9
1 3
0 . 8
0 . 7
0 . 5
T otal l oad


B ending moment = coefficient x F!
Position of max imu m moment
= if! from l eft-hand su pport
O0 1 5 \
/
0 0 0 7
and beams of one span
_ _ _ _ _ _
For = 0 . 3 7 5 and 0 . 2 5
= 0 . 1 0 4 W 0 . 0 3 9 0 w! = 0 . 3 7 5 w! ) .
For 0 . 7 5

0 :
0 . 0 2 5 W 0 . 0 0 3 1 w! = O. 2 5 w1 / 2 ) .
For 0 ,6 2 5
= 0 . 1 3 0 W = 0 . 0 2 4 4 w! = ( 1 / 2 ) 0 . 3 7 5 w! ) .
= 0 . 0 3 9 0 0 . 0 6 6 5 w! .
Simil arl y ,
0 . 2 5

0 . 3 7 5 :
=
0 . 1 2 9 W 0 ,0 4 8 9 w! .
For 0 . 6 2 5 =
0 . 0 4 9 W 0 . 0 0 9 2 w! .
0 . 7 5

0 :
CRA
0 . 1 1 0 W 0 . 0 1 3 8 w! .
0 . 0 4 8 9 0 . 0 7
0 . 3 7 5 0 . 0 9 7 W 0 . 0 6 6 7 w! .
0 . 2 5
= 0 . 3 7 5 ,
= 0 . 1 0 4 W 0 . 0 7


3 u nits 3 u nits
I
2 u nitS
0


A l fi
( C) A
( d) A
Q
cc= O6 2 5 0
0



9
can

CA B IA B C8 4

M B A

CA B IA B CRA


FA B ) = FRA )

CA B IA B CB A

FB A A C


A

D=

= _ or_ _ or_ or_ _ j =




z

'A S




CRA
--a) F
F! ) Fl ] F! j F! )
$
1 2 ( j +
j
factor


0 . l 0 4 F

A ny nu mber of l oads ( j )
spaced
,
+

O5 F 0 5 F

or u se



F( total )


Parabol ic
'




L aiJ
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M


IIIT II1 U U IIIIIIIU IIT I
FIIIT T IT IT T T n,. . . _ =
minu s
A ny nu mber of l oads


3 ( CA R

3 1
0 4 0 6 0 . 7 1 0
1 D
0 9
for
CA B


to /
0 1 4 8 2
T otal l oad F= wl ( 1
B
0 . 1
0
0 1 0 2 0 4
1 0
fi
for
CA B x

to then FE M B A = CB A x

0 1 1 1 9
oad F = a / 1 )

beams
































whil e
where














































3 2


=


= ( F V. )



















coefficient







M max

W 1 ST
+ f] M ST



SF du e to restraint B M s
SF du e to l oad ( if any )
diag ram V7 = + VM )


















1 / 9 . 1

1 / 1 2 . 5



1 / 1 1 . 6

1 / 1 6 . 0



1 / 1 0

1 / 1 0

1 / 1 2

1 / 9 1 / 1 0

1 / 9 1 / 1 2
1 / 2 4



1 / 1 0
1 / 1 6

0
1 . 0 0 0

0 . 0 6 7


+
1 . 2 6 7

+


1 . 0 0 0

1 . 0 0 0



0 . 0 0 5

1 . 0 0 0

1 . 0 0 0
1 . 0 0 0

+
1 . 0 0 0
1 . 0 0 0

+
1 . 0 0 0
- 1 . 0 0 0


0 . 0 5 3

1 . 0 0 0











1 . 2 5 0

+

1 . 2 6 8


0 . 0 8 9



1 . 2 6 8

+ 0 . 3 4 0

0 . 0 9 1
0 . 0 2 4




1 . 5 0 0
1 . 5 0 0

+

1 ,2 0 0

0
1 . 2 0 0


1 . 2 8 6

+
0 ,4 2 9
1 . 2 8 6


1 . 2 6 3



1 . 2 6 3



B f

B f J f
K t
H t
A dj u stment


span




>
.


0 . 1 0 1

[ 0 . 1 0 7 ] [ 0 . 0 7 1 1






















A
0 . 1 2 7















A
dA E E

0 . 1 2 1


L .













4 1




max .

0


A

0 . 1 2 4
A

0 . 0 8 9 0 . 1 3 3
0 . 1 3 1 0 . 0 9 8 0 . 0 9 8 0 . 1 3 1

A
0 . 0 5 0
A

A

A
0 . 1 0 4
-A
0 . 1 2 7 0 . 1 2 7



[ 0 . 1 3 3 ]
( 0 . 1 3 3 )
0 . 1 3 3 0 . 1 4 9
A
A
0 . 1 3 2 0 . 1 0 9 0 . 1 0 9
[ 0 . 1 3 1 ]
( 0 . 1 3 2 ) ( 0 . 1 3 2 ) ( 0 . 1 4 4 )
0 . 1 4 9 0 . 1 3 8 0 . 1 3 8 0 . 1 4 9
A A

A

A
0 . 1 3 3
0 . 1 0 7 0 . 1 1 5

1
4
Q
o
0 . 1 5 6
A O. 0 9 5 0 . 0 9 5 A


A

A

0 . 0 8 9 0 . 1 3 4
A
0 . 0 5 6
A

A

A
0 ,1 3 2 0 . 0 9 9 0 . 0 9 9 0 . 1 3 2
A



0 . 1 4 6

0 . 1 3 6 0 . 1 0 4
[ 0 . 1 3 4 ] [ 0 . 0 8 9 ] [ 0 . 1 3 4 ]
( 0 . 1 4 5 ) ( 0 . 1 3 4 ) ( 0 . 1 4 5 )
0 . 1 5 1 0 . 1 3 4 0 . 1 5 1
A
A
0 . 1 1 1 0 . 1 1 1
[ 0 . 1 3 2 ] [ 0 . 0 9 9 ] [ 0 . 0 9 9 ] [ 0 . 1 3 2 ]
( 0 . 1 4 5 ) ( 0 . 1 3 3 ) ( 0 . 1 3 3 ) ( 0 . 1 4 5 )
0 . 1 5 0 0 . 1 3 9 0 . 1 3 9 0 . 1 5 0
A 0 . 1 1 7 A



A

A
0 . 0 6 8
A
0 . 1 0 5
0 . 1 3 5 0 . 1 0 9

0 .
m
o
a


0
c
0
0
0 . 1 8 8
A

A
0 . 1 5 0
A

A

A
0 . 1 0 7 0 . 1 6 1
A

A

A

A

A
0 . 1 1 8 0 . 1 1 8 0 . 1 5 8
A
0 . 1 8 8
A

A
0 . 1 7 5
A
0 . 1 7 5
A
0 ,2 1 3
A

[ 0 . 1 0 7 ] [ 0 . 1 6 1 ]
( 0 . 1 7 4 ) ( 0 . 1 6 1 ) ( 0 . 1 7 4 )
0 . 1 8 1 0 . 1 6 1 0 . 1 8 1
A

A

A

A
0 . 2 1 0
A
[ 0 . 1 1 8 ] [ 0 . 1 5 8 1
( 0 . 1 7 4 ) ( 0 . 1 6 0 ) ( 0 . 1 6 0 ) ( 0 . 1 7 4 )
0 . 1 7 9 0 . 1 6 7 0 . 1 6 7 0 . 1 7 9
A
A


A

A

A
0 . 1 3 2
A
0 . 1 7 1
0 . 2 1 1 0 ,1 8 1
a
" a
0

0 . 1 6 7
0 . 1 6 7


A
0 . 1 3 9
A
0 . 1 5 6
A

A

A
[ 0 . 0 9 5 ] [ 0 . 1 4 3 ]
( 0 . 1 5 5 ) ( 0 . 1 4 3 ) ( 0 . 1 5 5 )
0 ,1 6 0 0 . 1 4 4 0 . 1 6 0

A

A

A
0 . 1 3 3

A

0 ,1 4 3 0 . 0 9 5 0 . 1 4 3
0 . 1 4 3 0 . 1 1 1
[ 0 . 1 4 0 ] [ 0 . 1 0 5 ] [ 0 . 1 0 5 ] [ 0 . 1 4 0 ]
( 0 . 1 5 5 ) ( 0 . 1 4 2 ) ( 0 . 1 4 2 ) ( 0 . 1 5 5 )
0 . 1 5 9 0 . 1 4 8 0 . 1 4 8 0 ,1 5 9
A 0 . 1 0 8 A

L

A

A

A
0 . 1 1 9
0 . 1 4 0 0 . 1 0 5 0 . 1 0 5 0 . 1 4 0
A

A


A
0 . 0 5 0
A

0 . 1 0 8
( coefficient)
























































5 2 . 5
6 0 . 0
1 1 2 . 5

3 9 . 5
5 5 . 5
9 5 . 0

3 9 . 0
5 0 . 0
8 9 . 0

2 3 . 0
4 3 . 0
6 6 . Ok Nm


2 0 / 2 0 1 .




9 0 . 1
6 9 . 9





4 5 . 3

8 5 . 3





l Ok N/ m 2 Ok N/ m,
l Ok N/ m
3 6 k N/ m.




2 6 . 3
1 0 4 . 4

1 3 0 . 7

2 0 . 0
9 6 . 3

1 1 6 . 3

1 9 . 5
9 0 . Ok Nm
1 0 9 . 5

1 1 . 5
7 7 . 4

8 8 . 9







5









0 . 4 5 0

0 . 4 4 6




.
V




V
Q )




E
0

0 . 6 4 3


For any trapezoidal l oad.
SF ( k

0 . 5 ,

i
0 . 5 ) ( 1 0 . 6 5 6 .

3 6

CP! 1 0




0 . 0 6 3 0 . 0 8 5 0 . 0 8 8 0 . 0 6 3 0 . 0 8 5 0 . 0 8 8





0 . 1 8 8

0 . 1 6 9

0 . 1 3 1

0 . 1 8 8

0 . 1 6 9

0 . 1 3 1

0 . 1 8 8

0 . 1 6 9



















+

+





.
+









0 . 0 5 0








0 . 0 7 4







0 . 0 7 0








0 . 0 5 0








0 . 0 7 4





0 . 0 8 2

+


+

+



0 . 0 0 0








+ 0 . 0 3 3






+






























0 . 0 9 4 ( 2 3 )