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Example 1 . A three-phase, Y-connected generator is rated at 100 kVa, 60 cycles, 2300 volts. The effective resistance of the armature is 1.5 ohms per leg. The test data are given below:
Field 10 20 30 Current (A) Terminal 1200 2100 2830 Volts (OC) SC Current 13.2 26.0 40

3460

Calculate the synchronous impedance and the synchronous reactance per phase for this machine, using the highest point given on the saturation or open circuit voltage curve to obtain the values.

Example 2 . A three-phase, slow speed, Y-connected alternator is rated at 5000 kVA and 13,200 volts. The resistance of the armature between terminals is 0.192 ohm at 75 C. The effective resistance is 1.6 times the dc-value at 75 C.. The test data on this machine is given below.
Field 90 Current (A) Terminal Volts (OC) SC Current 135 180 14900 225 15800

9800 13000 195 291

a) Calculate the regulation at a pf of 0.8 lagging. b) Calculate the regulation for a load of unity pf.

Example 3: A 3-phase, 800 kVA, 3000 V, 50 Hz alternator gave the following results:
Exciting Current (A) O.C. volt (line) S.C. current 30 _ 140 35 _ 150 40 _ 170 50 2560 190 60 300 0 _ 65 3250 _ 70 3300 _ 75 3450 _ 77.5 3500 _ 80 3600 _ 85 3700 _ 90 3800 _ 100 3960 _ 110 4050 _

a) A field current of 110 A is found necessary to circulate a full load current on short circuit of the alternator. The armature resistance per phase is 0.27225 . Calculate the voltage regulation at 0.8 p.f. lagging and 0.9 p.f leading, using synchronous impedance method. Show also the vector diagram.

Example 4 . A 30-kVA, Y-connected alternator rated at 555 volts at 50 Hz has the open circuit characteristics given by the following data:
Field Current (A) Terminal Volts 2 4 7 9 12 15 20 22 24 25

155

287

395

440

475

530

555

560

610

650

A field current of 25 A is found necessary to circulate a full load current on short circuit of the alternator. Calculate the voltage regulation at 0.8 p.f. lagging and 0.8 p.f. leading, using synchronous impedance method. Show Solution: also the vector diagram.
IL = 30 kVA /(3) (650) = 26.6469355 A ZS = [ 650 / (3) ] / 26.6469355 = 14.08333333 A

Ra=0; XS = ZS IXS = 375.2776749 V Eph = Vph + IL ( Ra + j XL ) ; Vph + IXS < 53.13010235 Eph = 622.7425899 < 28.8224976 V VR% = 622.7425899 (555/ 3) (555/ 3) = 94.34627131 %

Solution: IL = 30 kVA /(3) (550) = 31.49183286 A Vph = 550 / 3 = 317.5426481 V IRa= 4.72377493 V/phase Eph = Vph + IL ( Ra + j XL ) ; Vph + IRa < 36.86989765 Eph = 321.3341678 < 0.50537273 V ELL = 556.5671049 V If = 20<90.50537273 + 7<216.8698976 A = 16.82207726 < 110.0830856 A

Solution :

S 144 = = 18 (slots 1to19 ) P 8


180 = 10 = 18

1. The following information is given in connection with an alternator: slots = 144; poles = 8; rpm = 900; conductors/slot = 6; flux per pole = 1.8 x 106 maxwells; coil span = slots 1 to 16; winding connection = star. Calculate: (a) the voltage per phase; (b) the voltage between terminals. 20 PTS

3x10 k p = cos 2
k p = 0.965925826 1 pt

Z T = 6(144 ) = 864 conductors


Z ph =
864 = 288 1 pt 3 288 T= = 144 turns / phase 2

144 slots 8 poles m= =6 3 phase


6 x10 sin 2 kd = 10 6 sin 2

1 pt

E g = 4.44 (k d )(k p ) 1.8 x10 6 (144 )(60 ) 1x10 8


E g = 637 .7283753 V
k d = 0.95614277
1 pt 8 pts

E g LL = 3 (637 .7283753 ) = 1104 .577947 V


8 pts

Solution :

E LL = 6600V
E g = 6600V = 3810 .511777 V 3

S 288 = = 12 (slots 1to13 ) P 24


180 = 15 = 12

2. In a 3 phase, start connected alternator, there are 2 coil per slot and 16 turns per coil. Armature has 288 slots on its periphery. When driven at 250 rpm it produces 6600 V between the lines at 50 Hz. The pitch of the coil is 2 slots less than the full pitch. Calculate the flux per pole, total number of conductors and turns per phase. 20 PTS

120 ( f ) P= = 24 poles N

288 slots 24 poles m= =4 3 phase

2 x15 k p = cos 2
k p = 0.965925826 1 pt

2coils 16turns 32turns 64 cond . x = = slot coil slots slot


Z T = 64 (288 ) = 18432 conductors
Z ph =
k d = 0.957662196
1 pt

4 x15 sin 2 kd = 15 4 sin 2

18432 = 6144 6 pts 3 6144 T= = 3072 turns / phase 2 6 pts

continuati on of no.2 Solution :


3810 .511777 = 4.44 (k d )(k p )( )(3072 )(50 )

= 6.040223388 mWb

6 pts

Solution :

f =

10 (600 ) = 50 Hz 120

Z T = 90 (12 ) = 1080 conductors


Z ph =
T=

3. A 3-phase, 10-pole alternator has 90 slots, each containing 12 conductors. If the speed is 600 r.p.m. and the flux per pole is 0.1 Wb, calculate the line e.m.f. and voltage per phase when the phases are (i) star connected (ii) delta connected. Assume the winding factor to be 0.96 and the flux sinusoidally distributed. 20 PTS

1080 = 360 3

1 pt

360 = 180 turns / phase 2

1 pt

Wye:

Delta:

E g = 4.44 (k d )(1)(0.1)(50 )(180 ) E g = 3836 .16V


6 pts

E g = 4.44 (k d )(1)(0.1)(50 )(180 ) E g = 3836 .16V = E LL

E g LL = 3 (3836 .16 ) = 6644 .424026 V


6 pts

6 pts

Solution :
a) For Wye load:

I L1

440 30 = I = 3 100

I L1 = I = 2.540341184 30 A
For Delta load:

1. Three non-inductive resistances, each of 100 , are connected in star to 3-phase, 440 < 0O V supply. Three equal choking coils each of reactance 100 are also connected in delta to the same supply. Calculate: a) line current of each 3-phase load (in polar form) b) the total line current (in polar form) c) power factor of the system c) pf of the system

440 0 I = j100
I = 4.4 90 A

PT = (I L1 ) (100 ) = 645 .3333331W


2 2

QT = (I L 2 ) (100 ) = 1936Vars U T = 2040 .723183 VA PT pf = = 0.316227765 (lagging ) UT

I L 2 = 7.621023553 120 A
b) total line current

I T = I L1 + I L 2 = 8.033264177 101 .5650512 A

Solution :
a) For Wye load:

I L1

173 30 = I = 3 6 + j8 I L1 = I = 9.9881 30 A

For Delta load:

2. A symmetrical 3-phase, 3-wire supply with a line voltage of 173 < 0O V supplies two balanced 3-phase loads; one Y-connected with each branch impedance equal to (6 + j8) ohm and the other -connected with each branch impedance equal to (18 + j24) ohm. Calculate: a) line current taken by each 3-phase load (in polar form) b) the total line current (in polar form) c) power factor of the entire load circuit d) total real power and apparent power

I = 18 + j 24 I = 5.766666667 53 .13010235 A I L 2 = 9.988159757 83 .13010235 A


b) total line current

I T = I L1 + I L 2 = 19 .97631931 83 .13010235 A

Solution continuation No.2:

PL1 = (I L1 ) (6 ) = 598 .58W


2

PL 2 = (I L 2 ) (6 ) = 598 .5800001W
2

U L1 = 997 .6333333 VA PT = PL1 + PL 2 = 1197 .16W

U L 2 = 997 .6333334 VA

U T = U L1 + U L 2 = 1995 .266667 VA

PT pf = = 0.6(lagging ) UT

PT = 3VL I L pf PT = 3 (400 )(55 )(0.85 )


PT = 35628 .28511W
power factor of 0.85 (lagging).

3. A 440-V, 50-Hz induction motor takes a line current of 55 A at a power factor of 0.85 (lagging). Three -connected capacitors are installed to improve the power factor to 0.9 (lagging). Calculate the kVA of the capacitor bank and the capacitance of each capacitor.

= 31 .78833062
QOLD = tan( ) PT QOLD = 22080 .42799 VARS
power factor of 0.9 (lagging).

= 25 .8419327
Q NEW = tan( ) PT Q NEW = 17255 .56604 VARS

Continuation of No. 3 solution:

QCAP = QOLD Q NEW


QCAP = 4824 .861954 VARS

QCAP =

4824 .861954 VARS = 1608 .287318 VARS 3

I C =

1608 .287318 VARS = 3.65519745 A 400V


X C = 440V = 120 .376501 I C

C=

1 = 26 .44285915 F 2 (50 )(120 .376501 )