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A STUDY ON TIIE PHONOLOGICAL FEATURES OF KELANTA}'IESE

STUDENTS' PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS

IVTT\RIA

LIZABINTI PAKIR MOHAMED LATIFF

TI{E DEGREE A PROJECT PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FTILFILMENT FOR oF B.Ed (TESL)

FACULTY OF EDUCATION NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA BANGI

2042

KAJIAN FONOLOGI TERHADAP ASPEK SEBUTAN KONSONAN BAIIASA


INGGERIS OLEH PELAJAR I(ELANTAN

MARIA LIZA BINTI PAKIR MOIIAMED LATIFF

LATIHAN II}4IAH INI DIKEMIIKAKAN UNTUK MEMENUHI SEBAHAGIAN DARIPADA SYARAT MEMPEROLEH IJ AZNISARIA}IA MUDA PENDIDIKA}i
DENGAN KEPUJIAN DALAM PENGAJARAhI BAI{ASA INGGERIS SEBAGAI BATIASA KEDUA

FAKULTI PENDIDIKAN
UNTVERSM KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA

BANGI

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful, Peace be upon the Holy Prophet, Muhammad s.a.w.
First of all, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to my supervisor, Mr. Haziili Abd. Hamid for his guidance and assistance that enable me to finish this project paper. I would also like to thank my lecturer Ms Joanne V. Rajadurai, for the valuable knowledge of phonetics and phonology and Dr. Aziz Idris (FPB) for sharing his knowledge on the contrastive analysis and error analysis.

A bouquet of thanks and love to my parents, Pakir Mohamed Latiff and Kulsom Bibi Abdul Mohamed, my elder sister (Zuraida), my younger brother (Mohd. Faizal), my grandma (Habeba Bramsah), my brother in-law (Ahmad Sophian Ali), my nephew (Amirul Irfan) and all of my family members for their never ending support for me to finish my project paper.

special thanks goes to my best friends and sisters, Kak Ida (Suhaida Muhamed Shafii), and also Ms Yate ( Rohayate Rahmat). I really appreciate their advice and motivation in the really needed time.

My

Finally, a heartfelt thank you to all my TESL 10 friends and those whom I have interviewed. I appreciate your comments and criticism on the work I have done.

MARIA LTZA PAIflR MOHAMEDLATIFF BUKIT MERTAJAM


PENANG

v1

A STUDY ON THE PHONOLOGICAL FEATURES OF KELANTA}IESE STIIDENTS' PROIII]NCIATION OF ENGLISH CONSONAIITS

ABSTRACT

This study aims to describe the phonological features of Kelantanese students, pronunciation of English consonants. It is an attempt to find the similarities and
differences between the Kelantanese students' pronunciation, those who have lea:nt phonetics and phonology, and those who have not To elicit data for this

study, six Kelantanese students are chosen; three undergraduates

of rESL

10

students in their third year and another three students from a course not related to

linguistics. They will be interviewed on specific themes and recorded in order to analyse their realization of specific phonemes. This papff will concentrate on four

specific phonetic phenomenon, the production of two plosives ltJ, ld/, and trvo fricatives l0 l, and,/6 /, specifically involving the alveolar and dental production
mechanism. The analysis seeks to hnd the possible influence of the first language in the pronunciation of students who are aware of phonetics and phonology. The results of this study might also show the areas of difficulty in the pronunciation

of

particular consonant phonemes for the Kelantanese students,

vtr

KAJIAN FONOLOGI TERHADAP SEBUTAN KONSONAN BAHASA INGGERIS OLEH PELAJAR KELANTAN ABSTRAK
Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menerangkan aspek fonologi sebutan konsonan Bahasa Inggeris oleh pelajar Kelantan. Ini merupakan satu cubaan bagi mencari
persamiBn serta perbezaan di antara pelajar yang telah mempelajari fonetik dan

fonologi Bahasa Inggeris dan juga peiajar yang tidak mempelajarinya. untuk mengumpulkan data bagi kajian ini, sebanyak 6 orang pelajar Kelantan telah dipiltlq tiga mahasiswi terdiri daripada pelajar TESL
10 tahun tiga dan tiga pelajar

daripada sebuah kursus yang tidak berkaitan dengan linguistik. Mereka akan ditemuramah berdasarkan tema khusus dan sebutan mereka akan dirakam untuk
dianalisa. Tumpuan kertas projek ini adalah khusus pada empat fenomena fonetik, sebutan yang melibatkan dua plosif I + l, I a

/ dan dua frikatif / CI l,/6 /,

secara

spesifiknya melibatkan mekanisma sebutan di bahagian gusi depan atas (alveolar)

dan ggr depan atas (dental). Analisis

ini bertujuan untuk mencari

pengaruh

bahasa ibunda yang mungkin terjadi dalam sebutan pelajar yang mempunyai pengetahuan tentang fonetik dan fonologi. Keputusan kajian ini juga mungkin menunjukkan masalah sebutan yang mungkin dihadapi oleh pelajar Kelantan dalam menyebut fonim konsonan yang terdapat dalam Batrasa Inggeris.

v11l

TRANSCRIPTION COIIVENTION
RP
Symbols in the phonetic transcription are used with the following values

Ip]asinpet

Ii: ]asinpgt

tbl ttl tdl tkl tgl I m] I n] t tl t tjl t gl tl I


lrl tfl

boy

loy
doe

kite grrl
gran

$sht
logg

&air
jam
lamb

ttl I e] lxl lael I a:] [" ] I o] [r'] [u] I u:] I s.]


[e

pjt
mgt
bge

fet
cq{

hgt

pgt
pq-rt

foot
food
hSrd

IIce

hgt

far
lrase
9ea

lvl
lsI

leil
[.u]

dry
g9

ttr
1,4

gloe
zoo

tail laul
[r.] [i"] [""]

my

cry

tg
here

[z] [e]

mealure
Lhin

hg5
sulg hideous

tbl t hl
M
ti

tat
Seh
p,itch

['"] I i"J

lour

1X

KEI"ANTAIIESE DIALECT PHONEMES

ibu / zvu / [e] kilir / ustq/ gla / erc / [a] [a] twal /a,ua / belit /v>tT 1 til t e1 kail / u-ae /
[1]
as in

[pJ as

i"p.ku
baju

/ 7au-/
/va"1u/

tbl [t 1 td I tkl

lubuh
4apur

/ +,ovuv7
/
AaTo/

t:l ttl lul lol trt [']

/ dngrn / Z |l.n /
ggtung /u*3 7

tapqi /+a?7

tel
t?l ls I lzl thl [c] tjl tl I [m] lnl I n] f3f lwl tyl

\aki glup
angkat

/vav\ /

/Xr\a?/

aLa?7

layup

/? a\o? t

labgh /t
tSngah

avou

?t
hapus

kusgt /uusi!1

/+a3*t/

culas

julai
.lapar

/ z.a? / / r.aguu/ /a ,lzu / /i.u\a,/

/ t\a/
/ ,n'.d.7 /
/oase!
1
l

grudik
pasib

lyamuk /y arn>7

gansa
wap

1wt?

'Y\- /
7

yatm

/3*t/

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

DECLARATION DECLARATION
ACK}IOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT INENGLISH ABSTRACT IN BAHASA MELAYU TRANSCRIPTION CONVENTIONS KELANTANESE DIALECT PHONEMES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER

1.0 1.1 L.2 1.3 I.4 1.5

1
hoblem

INTRODUCTION
1

Introduction
The

Justification for the Study

Aims ofthe Study


Research Questions

Defenition of Terms 1.5.1Dialect


1.5.2 Interlanguage,_

1.5.3 Interference 1.5.4 Phonetics 1.5.5 Phonology

XI

CHAPTER

REYIEW OF LITERATURE
10 12 16

2.0 2.1 2.2

Introduction
Language Transfer in Second Language Phonology Review of Previous Research

3 RESEARCH DESIGN A}{D METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Subjectofthe Study 3.2 The Measurement Instrument 3.3 The Thematic Questioning Agenda 3.4 Procedure 3.5 Data Analysis
CHAPTER

18

t9
20 22
23

CHAPTER4

RESI]LTS AND INTERPRETATION


24

4,0 4.1 4.2

.Infroduction
ResearchDesign Analysis

2s
26

4.2.1 Phenomenon 1 4.2.2 Phenomenon 2 4.2.3 Phenomenon 3 4.2.4 Phenomenon 4

Itl
tdl
31 JJ

lsl

l^t

36

4.3

Conclusion

37

CHAPTER

CONCLUSION
39
41

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Summary

Limitation of Study
Pedagogicallmplications RecommendationsforFurtherResearch

42 44

REFERENCES

45

APPENDICES

CHAPTER

OI\i-E

INTRODUCTION

Although English is not the primary language in Malaysia, it still plays its role as

one of the languages of education, some fomral proceedings, and a prominent tool of
communication. Presently, the need to leam the English language has arisen. Many efforts
have been made in preparing sfudents

in school with the skills to master the

language,

especially in communication. In this situation, the English teachers play an important role. They are going to be the role models for their students in the use of the language and also in terms of pronunciation-

According to Malmberg (1963), anyone wishing to learn to pronounce a foreign language properly

will first have to

acquire the mastery

of a

large number

of

new

articulatory habits. He must accustom himself to articulate the foreign sounds exactly as native speakers do in the language in question, and not to continue using habits peculiar to his native language. Hence, TESL students are exposed to various disciplines, such as listening and speaking, and also phonetics and phonologv, to familiarize them with the English words and also to the pronunciation of English consonants and vowels according to the Received Pronunciation (RP). However, this does not mean that the TESL students have

to speak exactly like the native speakers do. If possible, their pronunciation should

be

approximately or nearly to RP, and should be seen as good models for their future students to follow.

Why is it important for TESL students to learn phonetics and phonology? Scott
(1961) argues that phonetics is taught of as method of teaching pronunciation, or in some

way cormected

with

correct pronunciation. Without knowledge and skills in clear and

understandable speech (phonetics), one cannot have good realization

of the

speech

(phonology). In addition, without a good knowledge of phonetics of the two languages concerned (native language and the target language), the language teacher

will

never

succeed in teaching his pupils a perfect pronunciation of the new language (lvlalmberg

1963: 109). This notion is somehow supported by O' Connor (1982), that says the basis

of good pronunciation teaching is a knowledge of the systems and structures of both


languages.

The question is, do the pronunciation of TESL students who are exposed to
phonetics and phonology have improved as compared to the pronunciation of students
who do not have any exposure to phonetics and phonology? One of the language speakers

goups known to have a strong dialect accent in Malaysia is the Kelantanese students.
This has triggered the interests of some researchers to conduct studies on t}re phonetics
and phonology of Kelantanese dialect (some of the studies done are mentioned in the
previous researches, in chapter two).

It is possible that this strong dialect accent might cause the Kelantanese

students

problems in pronouncing English words according to the RP. As mentioned by Malmberg

(1963), the problem occurs for a person who speaks a rural dialect or has a strong
regional or wlgar accent and wants to lose it and learn 'good' pronunciation. She added

that the greater the difference between regional pronunciation and


the greater is the

standard

pronunciation- from the points of view of articulatory habits and of the functional system-

difliculty and the more

a knowledge of phonetics is necessary.

Kelantanese Malays' pronunciation of English may not be considered as 'vulgar

accent' and to regard their pronunciation as 'bad' is also not justified without looking at certain aspects. The correchress of pronunciation is important to convey the meaning

of it

the words uttered in communication. In other wor4 as long as the pronunciation of the
speech uttered is approximate to RP, and can be understood by the listeners (in this case can be the native speakers of English),

it is considered

as good. However,

if the meaning

of the speech do not get across to the listeners, because of unclear pronunciation, or that

which differ much from the pronunciation of the standard English (RP), this may cause
problems.

1.1 The Problem

The main concern of this study is the problem of undergraduates Kelantanese students,
especially TESL students who are unable to approximate the consonants sound in English

according to RP. These TESL students have been exposed to phonetics and phonolory
since they were in their matriculation years. Hence, their pronunciation of certain English

consonants should be distinguishable from their pronunciation

of consonants in their

mother tongue so that they can be good role models for their future students. There might

be some factors that cause the pronunciation problems among the Kelantanese TESL
students.

1.2

Justilication for the StudY

This study is an attempt to determine the phonological features of the English consonants as pronounced by the Kelantanese students in general. It also attemps to look
at the similarities and differences in the pronunciation between those who are not aware

of phonetics and phonology and those who study linguistics (TESL students). They have been some studies carried out in the area of phonological deviations of certain dialect
speaking goups such as Sabah Malays, Sarawak Malays, and also Kelantanese Malays'

pronunciation in En gl i sh.

However, none of these studies give a special ernphasize on the pronunciation

of

four consonant phonemes, which are plosives, ltl, ld/, and two fricatives 16l, and 16l.
Besides, this study does not only look at Kelantanese Malay students who do not learn

phonetics and phonology, but also those who have learnt linguistics (TESL students).

Their pronunciation will be compared and contrasted to identifu the possible areas of
difficulties in pronunciation of certain consonant phonemes.

1.3

Aims of the Study

This study aims to


D

Identi$ the similarities and differences between the pronunciation of


Engtsh (RP) and

some

consonant phonemes of the English spoken by Kelantanese students and Standaxd

ii)

Highlight the diflerent pronunciation

of English consonants as spoken

by

Kelantanese TESL students so as to be realized and improved.

1.4 1. Z. i.

Research Questions

How does the pronunciation of consonant phonemes byKelantanese


students differ from StandardEnglish (RP)?

What are the common pronunciation errors found in Kelantanese TESL


students pronunciation?

What are the factors that cause the errors to occur when the TESL students
should be familiar with the consonants and vowels as pronounced in
Standard English?

+.

what implications do the findings have on the Teaching ofEnglish

as a

Second Language (TESL) particularly in relation to Kelantanese students?

1.5

Ilefinition of Terms

1.5.1 Dialect

A dialect is a regionally or socially distinctive variety of language, identified by a


particular set of words and grammatical structures. Spoken dialects are usually associated

with distinctive pronunciation, or accent Any language with a reasonably large number of speakers will develop dialects, especially if there are geographical barriers separating
groups of people from each otheE or

if

there are divisions of social class (Crystal D,

1997). Dialects are subdivision of languages. As defined

byPei and Gaynor (1968), it is

"...a specific form of a given languagg


from the standard or literary fomr

spoken in a certain

locality of geographic area, showing sufficient differences

of that

language

as to

pronunciation, grammatical constructions and idiomatic


usage of words, to be considered

a distinct entity, yet not

sufficiently distinct from other dialects of the language to


be regarded as a different language."

(Pei and Gaynor, 1968:56)

1.5.2 Interlanguage

Interlanguage (tr-) is a term coined by Selinker (1972) to refer to the second learner's attempt at establishing closer approximation to the system as used by the native
speakers of a particular target language.

It reflects the learner's evolving system of rules,

and results from a variety

of

processes, including the influence

of the first

language

('tansfer'), confrastive interference from the target language, and the overgeneralization
of newly encountered rules (Crystai D.,1997).

1.5.3 fnterference

Interference is a term used in sociolinguistics and foreign language learning to

refer to the errors a speaker introduces into one language as a result of contact with
another language; also called negative transfer (Crystal D., L997). This usually occurs in

the speech of bilinguals, as a result of their familiarity with more than one language. According to Weinrich (1961), the greater the difference between the two languages
system, i.e. the more numerous the diflerent found of the exclusive forms and patterns in each language is, the greater is the learning problem and the potential

of interference.

This problem is manifested in the phonetic and phonemic systems, morphology, slmtax,
semantics, and vocabulary of a language.

1.5.4

Phonetics

Phonetics is the science, which studies the characteristics

of human sound

making, especially those sounds used

in

speech, and provides methods

for

their

description, classification" and transcription. The transcription is actually the graphic


description of the sounds and sequences of sounds occuring in a language. This phonetic representation is transcribed between the square brackets

]. For elample, the word

'car' is transcribed as fta:]. Phonetic categories are generally defined using terms, which have their origins in other subjects, such as anatomy, physiolory and acoustics.
Consonant sounds,

for example, are described with reference to anatomical place of

articulation (as in Dental, Palatal" etc.), or to their physical structure (the frequency and amplitude characteristics of the sound waves)(Crystal D., 1997). Work in phonetics can, accordingly, be classified into two broad types: (a) general studies of the articulation,
acoustics or percepion of speech" and (b) studies of the phonetic properties of specific
languages.

In this latter

sense,

it is evident that a further approach to phonetics is usually

carried on under the heading of Phonolory (Roach p.,1997).

1.5.5 Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics, which studies the sound system of languages.

Out of the very wide range of sounds the human vocal apparatus can produce, and which
are studied by phonetics, only a relatively small number are used distinctively

in any one

Ianguage. According to Cystal (7997), the sounds are organized into a system of contrast,

which are analyzed in terms of phonemes, distinctive features, other such 'phonological
units', according to the theory used. The aim of phonology is to demonstrate the patterns

of distinctive sound found in a language, and to make as general statements as possible about t.he nature

of

sound systems

in the languages of the world. The units of


At the phonologlcal level, the

phonological description are referred to as phonemes.

graphic representation consists of sequences of phonemes transcribed between slashes For instance, the word'bag' is transcribed as /

/.

,*V.

10

CHAPTER TWO

RJ\rIEW OF LITERATI]RE

Intro.duction
.:

There have been some studies done to examine the deviations of phonological
features of the non-native speakers of English language (eg. Aidah Ahamed 1990, Ismi

Arif Ismail lgg3, Nirmal Kaur 1999, Jane Wong Kan Ling lggg, Suhaila Md Zainr
2000). Some of these researches done includes the dialect speaking groups in Malaysia,

such as Iban, Sabahan, Sarawakian and even Kelantanese Malay's pronunciation of


English. These studies are very helpful in helping the second language learner of English

to find out the areas of difficulties and try to work out some possible ways to cope with
the problem of pronunciation. These studies

will also eventually help the teachers to be in


for

improving and preparing themselves with 'good pronunciation' of Engtstr, which is to


say very near to the Received Pronunciation for they are going to be the role models

the students.

Scott (1961) mentioned that in the practical matter of dealing with pronunciation, this knowledge is for the teacher rather than the pupil. The best results are likely when the
teacher not only knows that a mistake is being made but just how he may devise means of working from the

it is being made,

so that

li

incorrect articulation to what is required. He furthermore added that a language teacher, whether in school or university, has a clear responsibilrty for his students' pronunciation,
and he should be no less
l

well able to deal with this than with the rest of his teaching. This
as he had learned,

is because, although it

will not normally fall to him to teach phonetics

he must himself have had sufficient phonetic training for his purpose.

This somehow means that TESL teachers should be better in their pronunciation
than the students.

If they themselves lacked the knowledge of phonetics and phonology,

and their pronunciation of English sounds more of their mother tongue, this could impair

the understandability of the English acquired by their students.

In a study by Lott (1983), he mentions that to reach the stage of understanding for
the cause of students' errors and their occurrences, the teacher should get the information

of second language acquisition" techniques of error analysis and how to apply them to their evaluation on students. As this study scope is on the phonology, which somehow
involves the TESL sfudents,

it is wise to say that the students, who will be the future

language teachers, should evaluate their own phonological competence and performance.

In addition, they should also have at least sufficient information on the study of second
language phonology before evaluating their students' pronunciation.

t2

2.1

Language Transfer in Second Language Phonology

When a second language phonology is concerned, one cannot avoid discussing the interference and interlanguage effects that occur between the mother tongue and the target language. Traditionally,

it is believed that the universal goal of all non-native

language language

acquisition

is to

develop proficiency

in the linguistic norms of the target

(Lowenberg 1986). Various researches have been carried out on the processes of the learneis' attempts in acquiring the target language. From these studies, there have been many hypotheses and explanation given
acquisition.

to merit for the nafure of

second language

One hypotheses argues that the earlier in life that one begins to leam a second
language (L2), the better one is apt to pronounce

it

(e.g. Suter, Asher

&

Garcia 7969,

Oyama 1979, Purcell

& Suter 1980, Tahta, Wood & Lowenthal

1981, Thompson 1991).

The so-called Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) is widely vieved as providing an


explanation for why many individuals speak L2 with a foreign accent. It is said. that at the
end of a critical period, there is some sort of neurological change that

will take place (e.g.,

lost plasticity, hemispheric specialnation or neurological reorganization) as the result

of

normal maturation (Flege 1997). Such a change(s) night be expected to occur at roughly
the same chronological age in many individuals. This is supported by the studies made by

Penfield

&

Robert 7959, Lenneberg 1967, Scovel 1969, and Lamendella 1977. The

change (s) could conceivably affect the processing and/or storage in long- term memory

of information pertinent to the L2. This is supported by Manonen, Seitz & Starch 1978.

Genesee, Hamers, Lambert,

l3

According to Nenfeld (1980),

in children as old as ten or eleven years,

the

language acquisition device or system is viewed to be still intact, therefore enabling any school-age child to attain nativeJike proficiency in a second language. Back to the critical

period hypothesis, this device or system either decays or becomes progressively less accessible with the onset of adoiescence, rendering adults incapable of native-like proficiency L2. Researchers (Scovel 1969,

Hitl

1970, Asher

& Garcia 1969, Krashen

1973) who have discussed the relevance of the critical period hypothesis in second language learning have been careful to restrict their claims to the adults' ability or inability to produce accent-free speech inL2 (Ftege J.E lggT). These researches findings and the critical period hypothesis can be seen as some of the reasons why adults second
language learner are usually backward in their pronunciation as compared to children yorrng age-

of

Talking
avoided.

of

second language learners, the issue

of

bilingualism cannot be

How

a bilingual controls her or his languages may be different from a

monolingual- Weinrich (1953) was apparently the fust to suggest that the mutual influence of a bilinguai's two languages on one another is inevitable. If so, it may be impossible for a bilinguat to control two languages in exactly the same way as two
separate monolinguals (Frieda 1997). Indeed
suggested that

a number of investigators have been


in the same way that one
assesses

it is not appropriate to

assess bilinguals

monolinguals (Grosjean 1952). For instance, Cook (1995) observed that divergences from monolingual-defined norms for the Ll or the L2 should not be viewed as a failure, as suggested by Selinker (1972),but as the necessary consequence of "multicompetences,, in two languages.

t4

In this respect, Selinker (1969) identified two types of transfer, which are positive
and negative transfer. Positive transfer occurs when there are 5sms 5imilarities between

the native language (f[L) and the target language

(Tt)

and the NL

will actively aid the

Iearning of the target language. The latter occurs when there are differences between the

NL and the

TI

and in which the NL

will interfere with the learning of the TL. Another

tenn used for the negative transfer is "interference', which is the concern 6f many
researchers in the second language acquisition and second language leanring.

Lado (1957), in his book " Linguistic Across Cultures" asserts that:

Experience shows that when the foreign language uses a phoneme which
does not exist in the learner's native language, that is,

when there is no

phoneme in the native language that could be transferred to the foreign


language

and actually function

as the phoneme

in question, the student


j I

will not be able to produce


language. He

that phoneme readily in leandng the foreign some other phoneme

will substitute

from his native

stock.

In the excerpt above, Lado points out that the first language interference do occur among the second language learners in their utterances of the second, language. Lado (1957), later on proposes that in order to see how this happen, there is a need to compare
specifrc native language withthe target language.
a

15

Similarly, Nemser's (1971) research suggests that two different systems may be
internalized in the target language depending on the fust language one is exposed to. He

finds out that in the productive modality, phonological substitutions may occur depending
on the correlation between the sounds in their mother tongue and the target language.

This means that the learner's pronunciation of the target language's phonological
features is influenced by his knowledge in pronouncing the phonotogical features in his

native language. The learner is in advantage if the phonological features of the native and
target language are somehow the sarne- However, some difficulties in pronouncing a new
sound may arise

if

the phonological features of the two sound systems are different.

The discussion of interlanguage interference can also be seen in our local context.

Our official language, Bahasa Malaysia has its own interference within itseld which is called'intraference'. Thii leads to subdivision of various regional dialects like Kelantantype, Kedah- type, Sabah- type and so on. Asmah

Ni

(1977) mentions that the standard

Bahasa Malaysi4 which lead to the various regional dialects.

Since first language interference is said to be one of the factors for the deviation

found in the second language phonology, it is quite possible that although the Kelantanese TESL students have the linguistic knowledge, their pronunciations still has the features their Kelantanese dialect

of

t6

t)

Review of Previous Research

There have been several researches and studies done to examine the deviations

of

phonological feattres of the non-native speakers of English language. Some of these


researches focused on the dialect speaking groups in tdalaysia.

A study of the Sarawak Malay English

done by Aidah Ahamed (1990), focuses on

the interference

of Sarawak Malay Dialect with the UKM Sarawakian Malays'


of

pronunciation of English. In her study, she mentions the evidence to support the role

fiansfer in second language phonology. Her studies showed that first language acquisition
processes are reactivated to a certain extent in the learning of second language phonolory.

The strategies employed are substitution of one vowel phoneme with another, monophthongization of diphthongs, vowel insertion, substitution of one consonant
phoneme with another, insertion of consonants, deletion e1 simplification of consonants
.:

or consonant clusters and unaspirated voiceless plosives in initial position. The findings
reveal that the majority of the errors made by the subjects are due to the influence
language transfer.

,i

of

I i I

I
I

study conducted by Ismi

Arif Ismail (1993) on the phonological features in

{ I
d

Kelantanese Malay's pronunciation of English also shows the interference of the mother

tongue in the second language phonolory. His findings somehow explained that the native dialect is the major interference factor, but

it is also assisted by the factor of


of

exposure to the target language. He identified some effors done in the pronunciation

English by the Kelantanese Malays. They are errors under the insertion rules, errors under

the

substitution rules, errors under

the

nasalization rules, errors under the

monopthongization flrl9s, elTors under the vowel reduction rules, and errors under the
deletion rules.

t7

In this paper,

I aim studying the interference of Kelantanese Malay dialect on the

English pronunciation of Kelantanese learner

I also would like to find out whether the

exposure that the Kelantanese TESL students get over the past few years of their studies

on the English language together with their linguistic knowledge have somehow help
them in their pronunciation ofEnglish language.

18

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN AI{D METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This chapter explains how this study is carried out in order to collect the relevant
data. This chapter also explains all the procedures involved

in conducting the

research.

The description of the subject, the measurement instruments and also methods of data
analysis will be discussed too.

3.1

Subject Of The Study

The subjects for this research are six undergraduates Kelantanese students of The National University of Malaysia @KM). Three Kelantanese students are chosen
randomly from the Faculty

of Islamic Learning (FPI) and another three Kelantanese

TESL students are also chosen randomly from the Faculty of Education (F.PEND). These TESL students have gone through their matriculation program for two years at Center
Preparation of Education (CPE), ITM. They have been exposed to linguistic courses,

including phonetics and phonology in their matriculation and also during their degree
courses in

UKM.

19

The Measurement fnstruments

Previous researchers for a study of this nature have used and suggested various

types of data elicitation techniques. For instance, (a) lsading of words


(Johansson 1973); (Schneiderman,

in

isolation

(Wilson and Mollegard 1981); (Hammerly 1982); (b) reading of preset isolated sentences

et al. 1988); (c) reading of prescribed passages

(Nababan 1981); (Altenberg and Vago 1983); (d) engagrng in spontaneous narration, for

sxample, telling a story, grving an account or describing an experience, etc.

( Tarone

1980); (Hammerly L982). However, for this research, only technique (d) has been chosen.

Method (d) is chosen for it provides an adequate sarnple of authentic material of


the students' pronunciation on certain consonants. According to Corder (I974),learners

typically produce a different set of errors in their spontaneously generated utterances, when attempting 1o
"66111r'nicate, addition, in informal or casual speech, the students' attention would

than their practice utterances (Corder 1974:69). In

be

more focused on

the semantic aspect (i.e. getting the meaning or messages across) rather

than the

linguistic aspect (for example, attending to the fonnal rules of pronunciation, etc.) However, the interview will be guided by a specific thematic euestioning agenda.

Hence, the main data elicitation techniques used

is the spontaneous speech

activity. The data gathered using these techniques is useful for the description of the
English consonants spoken by the Kelantanese students. It is also important and relevant

for the identification of the similarities and differences that can be found between the pronunciation of consonants sound of the Kelantanese students speaking in English and
the standard English sound systems.

20

3.3

The Thematic Questioning Agenda

In order to allow for the natural flow of speech, the subjects should not be made to
speak under predetermined conditions, such as reading

a text.

Spontaneous speech

activity might involve an intenriew session with the subject, free discussion, and so on.
However, for the purpose of being more specific in carrying out this study, this research

will use the thematic questioning agend4 which consists of a list of questions.
questions, (main and sub-questions)

These

will be asked

as a guideline to probe the subjects to

speak and use the consonants, which are

of concern. Other

questions may be asked

depending on the responses glven by the students. The sub questions are necessary
because in test interviews,
answer

I found that there is a tendency

arnong these respondents to

in short non- elaborated answers.

The list of questions, are as stated below:

What do you think about the environment (surroundings) in UKM?

2.

What do you think ofthe social environment? What are some ofthe environmental problems in UKM?

Do you like to stay here?


Etc.

What do you like to do in your free time?

If reading books:

What kind of books do you read? Why do you like to read this kind of book? Who is your favourite author? Etc.

2t

If watching movies:

J.

What movies do you like to watch?

Do you often go to the cinema? What is the recent movie that you have watched?
Etc.

What are some of the interesting places in Kelantan?

Ifbeaches:

What are some of the beautiful beaches inKelantan? Do you like to go there?

Withwhomdo youusually go with?


Are there any hotels/ chalets for the tourists near the place?

If museum:

Have you ever visited the museum before?

What are some ofthe interesting artifacts displayed in the museum? Etc.

What are some of your favourite food?

Do you know how to make it? Why don't you learn howto make it?
Where can you get the food here? Etc.

Do you preferto taik inEnglish, Malay, orKelantanese Malay Dialect with


your friends?

With whom do you usually speak in English?


Do you do anything to improve your English language?
Etc.

22

3.4

Procedure

The recording sessions were conducted on six different occasions; 25b,26b zgh
a:ranged to suit the convenience of the subjects.

All of them

were told beforehand and

306 of January, and3d and-5m of February 2A02- The dates and the venues were about the purpose of the recording and what was required of them

The researcher asked the subjects to caln down and


asked

rela><

for they will not be


as a guide

difficult questions. A list of questions were prepared by the researcher

to

make each of the subjects to get engaged in the informal interview. Although a list

of

questions were asked to the subjects, the researcher could also add some other questions, or explainthe questions to help the understanding of the subjects on the questions asked.

Throughout this session, the researcher monitored all of the recordings. This is to

make sure that the sound level was well adjusted during the recordings, and the
microphone was not that far from their mouths. For the convenience of differentr?ting
between Kelantanese students from FPI and TESL, both side A and side B of the cassette were used. Side A contains the recorded voice of the FPI students, while side B consists

ofthe recorded voice of TESL students.

On the whole, the data collected were quite clear with minimal noise disturbances.

However, theie are some parts in which the subjects' utterances were slightly faint. This is due to the subjects, who had somehow lowered their voice or started to mumble away. There are no parts in the recordings, which were erased. This is because the researcher
wanted the speech or utterances from the subjects to be spontaneous or unprepared. In
1

I
I

23

other words, the researcher emphasized on the authenticrty of the speech produced by the
subjects.

Data Analysis

The data of the sound system in the recordings were transcribed in both the
orthographic and phonetic scripts. This phonetic transcriptions form the basis contrastive analysis (CA) betrveen the sound system

for

of

Kelantanese ldalay English

(KI\ffi) and

Standard English (RP). This part of the analysis focuses on the differences

in

the pronunciation of English among the Kelantanese students, especially the TESL
sfudents and to investigate the possible reasons or causes for any of the deviations found.

The analysis also involves extracting the relevant


pronunciations

lL data through an error


link between the
language. Deviant

analysis (EA). This is to find out whether there is any association or

of

English with the sound system

of the native

pronunciations that are traceable to the native language (NL) are identified and classified
as errors resulting from mother tongue.

24

CHAPTER

REST]LTS AND INTERPRETATION

Introduction

There are some steps taken in analyzing the data. Firstly, the recorded speech of the subject is written down (in Roman alphabets), before they are transcribed using the phonetics symbols according to their pronunciation. This is a basis
as pronounced by the subjects. Using the transcription as a guide,

to

analyze the words

all of the words with

the concemed consonant phonemes, in their initial, medial and final position are picked out and grouped to the category they belong to accordingly. By doing this,
some

pronunciation

of

words with different sounds can be detected easily. The TESL

Kelantanese students' pronunciation and the FPI Kelantanese students' pronunciation are then compared to the pronunciation of Standard English (RP). This is to find out the similarities and/or differences in their pronunciation of the four consonant phonemes

of

concern' lt l, ld l,

Io

l,

and 16 /. Once the data has been xnlyzed,thoroughly, the findings

are used as the basis for further recommendations and pedagogical implications on the subject matters.

'l
I

RESEARCH DESIGN

Choosing suitable questions for the spontaneous speech activitY

6 subjects selected randomly (3 Kelantanese students from TESL program and another 3 from FPI)

Interview recorded

English pronunciation analyzed

Data is written down

Data is transcribed

Data is classified

Data is

verified

Findings confirmed

Recommendation and pedagogcal implications suggested

Conclusion

26

4.2

ANALYS$

4.2.I

PHENOMENON

Itl

The findings show that the subjects did not have any difficulties to pronounce the /

t / sound when it occurs at the initial position Below are the examples of the sr:bjects'
pronunciation of the initial /V sound found in their utterances in the spontaneous speech activrty.

RP

TESL

FPI

Trees l'tri:s

L.l tr-rs 2.1 +' i..s /


I. l+u /
2.

+crs 2. / +.i:s
1.1
3-

I I

/ tri:s
/+v /

to

h":

L.

l+-

2.

/+ul

3.1+-

3. lr',t1

talk

l+c.Y I

talking / i": h_i1 I

2.1+"..u I 3. / +":Ls.,1 I

2.1

+b? I

Perhaps, the subjects did not face any difficulties in pronouncing the English

/t/ sound in

the initial position for they are familiar and used to the sound" which also exists in the
standard Bahasa Melayu and Kelantanese Malay Dialect. Some of the examples of the use

ofthe/ilsoundininitialpositioninBahasaMelayuarelike'tidur'/rido l,,topl, /'iopi /, 'tali' l+ati / and so on. The initial /V sound in intial position is also evident in
Kelantanese Malay dialect. For instance, 'tiga'

/ t ,3o/, 'tubuh'

l+t},ol, and . tapi'

Aali

/.

27

The consonant I

t/ sound is also pronounced accordingly


TESL
1.

by the subjects when it

occurs in medial position as shown below.

RP
interesting /intces+t3 /

FPI
3.

/ rnlecsstrS
tnt"raSlcrl /

/ rntlras\r1

2.

Study

/ s trdr

f.lst,rAe I 3. / s+rdr I
1.

beautiful

/uio't'$t I
/srsta(./
[. / srstes/
2.

/ ui-+"f,,t

3./u1-+r\"1 I

Sister

/ ststas /

However, there were instances, in which the subjects substituted the I t / sound in the
medial position with the / d / sound. For instance, RP

TESL

FPI

Thirly loz'-\rl
Minutes / .n:..'t+s /

l. / \asdi I
1.

/ nnrnrds /

that's / 6ae-+s

2./6"-As /
3./ teds I

l./ 6e-ds /
2.

{-ds

3./te.ds I i gto\s/ ArlwOrk / o: \w::[ / lots / tots/


plots
1.

j\uds /

3.1

,"

"d w a\

l./\uds/

28

The analysis of the /t/ sound in the medial position shows that the subjects tend to pronounce the

ltl

sound accordingly when

it is followed by the vowel

sound. There are

more tendency among the subjects to substitute the I

t/ sound in the medial position to the


/t/ sound is followed by

/d / sound when the ltJ sound is followed by another consonant sound. It can be seen that

in almost all of the occurrences, the supposedly


which
thre ltJ sound

pronounced

another consonant sound" which is in this case the /s / sound. There is also an instance in is followed by the /w/ sound. Since this a spontaneous speech activity,

it

can be assumed that the subject pronunciation reflects the subconscious effort that they

do for the ease of pronunciation.

It is also found that in all of the subjects pronunciation, most ofthe / t / sound in
the finat position is dropped or omitted. For instance,

RP

TESL
1.

FPI
1.

Environment /rnrrara,n-"ot/

/ rn.rar"aYh an

e-nv

atram+r)

2. / rn.a:t6ge

2.

I e-nvarcmar)
<-n

3. / 1"ry3.. a rn +n /

3.1
3.

vart mat /

don't

/ "larln+ /

1.

/ as>q /

/ dotl

2.1 ao-vn I 3.1 A"lrn /


student

/ st\u:dn{ I

2./ st'.''d*n
a J.

/ st",.d"n /

against / a3-tns| / dialect / Aarg\ebV

l.

e3e-rns I
3.

l,.l dart.h /
2. 3.

/ Aar\qt

.(at\ah /

Jat\.-t /

29

After analyzing it is found that this phenomenon occurs when there is a consonant
cluster in the end of the word- These consonant clusters consist

of lntl, ldnt/, lnst/

and

lW.

In Kelantanse Malay dialect and even Bahasa Melayu, there is no such thing as the consonant clusters found in the English pronunciation as mentioned above. It should be
note that the second final consonant before.the final /t/ sound, in this case the /n/ sound, is pronounced by the respondents. Perhaps, for the ease of pronunciation, the respondents
end up dropping the ltlsound

inthe final position.

There are also instances when the final / t / sound is substituted with the ld I
sormd. For instance,

RP

TESL

FPI
3. 7.^.,^d

what

/ wrr+ I

1-l*,tdl

/ *^+/

-M I 3./^'Ml
2.1

hot

luo+ I

1./xua/

2.lu"Al favourite / (*i,,a.rl /

r.t
2.

(.te'ad

l.l !a..,"t+d
3.1 { e.rqlad

I { o-.r=rad /
I

Z.l $<_vacs4 I

3-l $..r-ced/ expert


/
e-h,sqa

'I/

2.1

",usg.d

30

of TESL tend to use the ltl andthe ldl There is also an instance in whictt" the first speaker final /v sound' Someho% the third sound interchangeably in pronouncing the supposedly I / 3 / sound in pronouncing the final speaker of TESL also used the/ t l,ld.land also

lt

table below, sound in different instances. This is shown in the

that

ltarL+ I

1./t.r
2.

llL<-dl

2.la "al

/\.a I I A"a I

3./t.d//4.\llaz?l

all It is not justified to generalize that the interference of mother tongue exists in
speaker's of the subjects' pronunciation, however, thete are certain instances when the This is pronunciation did show the influence of the mother tongue, like shown above' because the words ending with the

/t/ sound in the final position in

standard Batrasa

dialect- For Melayu pronunciation is pronounced with the /U sound in Ketantanese Malay /y.tp?/, 'ikut' /rh."7l, and SO On. ThuS, it Can be Said that' 'kerut' fca,vlf
instanCe,

,'pegat'

to although the subjects may have knowledge of the pronunciation of English according Rp, there is still certain times they commit the mistakes without realizing it due to
language interference.

31

4.2.2 PEENOMENON

ldl
/ sound in the initial

The subjects did not face any problems in pronouncing the I d

position. This is evident as can be seen in the table below. RP

TESL
[- / A>rro /

FPI

dOn,t

/Aarrn\ /

3./don I

2.1
3.

de-no

/ da."n /
1.

dogs

aulz /

/ drr3s /

2.

/ du3s I
I

dialect

la: a\e-\\ /

1.

/ dar\e-\ I
cl,ar\e-\

3.lAu1 I 3. I Aar. \c\

2-

3.1 Aar\c-h I

do
during

ld- /
/

l. / d.'r /
2. lJ,u I

otltrrl
I

2.1

d\o"t5

day

/-\.1

definition / d,.{+n'\n / dramatic / d...re-\rt/

2.lae-:' I 3. / Ae-Q r.r\"n /


1.

/Acamdr\/
/

disturb / ars\s..b/

2.

.\* t:b

32

The subjects also did not face any problems in pronouncing the /d / sound in the medial position. This is illustrated in the table shown below.

RP

TESL
2.

FPI

students

/ e +!u:do+s/

study reading
kidding

/ s\a6,1 /
/ . i: Ar1 /

/ s+"-d"n / J. / st-'rdsx 2. I '*,.J.,. I


3.

/ g.\,tAr /

3./- i '.d..r1 /
f. / b-tdr,1
3.

1./rrd.i:,1 llr;'Ar1/

3./.i,Ar1
h.rdr1 /
/

wordings /

*s .. dry / traditional / +.adi\'nl


condition / Lsndrlo /
Surrounded

/ *o.drts
l. / ua nAr!"n
1.

3./+..d"t*r'sV
/ "a.a"'ndad /

s.carmdsd/

everyday / ev.rder I

today / +.dcr

l- / tvder I

There is a possibility that the subjects did not face any difficulties in pronouncing the i d

sound in initial and medial position for they are familiar with this sound as it is used in

the initial and medial position in their mother tongue (Kelantanese Malay dialect). For
instance,

KELAI\ilTAI\I-ESE MALAY DIALECT


/d,

/ Inlnitial Position

ld,llnMedial Position /
/

dapur / d"jo
daging dapat
d'^.3i

Dadah
Sudah
Redah

a"?n? /

/ daA,u, / / s'doh / / r.ao\ /

JJ

When it comes to the /d/ sound in the final position, most instances show that when there

is a consonant sound before the ldl sound in the final position, the subjects tend to drop
the /d / sound. This is shown in the table below.

R} Around /a'avnd /
bond

TESL

FPI

2./a.a.t.l
3.

I I

/\cond /

/b,'

.,

It can be seen that when there is a consonant cluster in the final position, the subjects tend to drop the final /d / sound. This could be a problem because in the Kelantanese Malay
dialect, the speakers do not have the / d / sound in the final position.

4.2.3 PHENOMENON

/et

The findings show that the subjects tend to replace the lol sound in the initial

position with the /t / sound. A list of examples is shown below. RP

TESL

FPI

thing / e31

2. 3.

I +:-'7

I I
1.

+s."1

thirty / e s 'ti / Thriller /.0rr\3,:/

l. /

ta.dr

/ *r-r\ac

think /er1t

Ll *.3
2.1

I
I

*"'1

+t1 3./ +al


2.1

I I

34

l6.i'. I thank / o ae5\./


three

3./ti,7L // +r1/ 1./ \ri: I

thfud

/6a,d
/

+o\ 2./rc'd
2.1

Through

e cu

.-

2.

I +c'tt I

Perhaps the respondents tend to substitute the /o/ sound in the the

initial position with

ltl sound for they are not that used to the /o/ sound in the English pronunciation. This
It is questionable why the Kelantanese TESL students themselves made the
errors

is because in Kelantanese Malay dialect there is no consonant phonemes with the /o/
sound.

despite of having the linguistic knowledge- In this case, perhaps

it

can be assumed that

the TESL students having the linguistic knowledge did not apply it in the real life
communication. This could be because they were unaware of their pronunciation in the

impromptu speech that they made. It could also be that it is done unconsciously for the
ease

of pronunciation

The lel sound in the supposedly medial position were also not pronounced by the subjects. There axe no instances or examples that can be taken from the utterances of the

FPI students. However, there are some examples which show the students from TESL
tend to substituted the medial /e/ sound with the /t/ sound. For instance,

RP

TESL

author /r:.(.)/

/ oter I 3./t, tar / Something /s^."erJ I 2.1 sam*rt1


l.

35

Once again the explanation for this could be that there is no such consonant phoneme

with the /o/ sound in the Kelantanese Malay dialect or even Bahasa Melayu. Thus, the
respondents might have find

it

easier to pronounce the

ltl

sound which is the nearest

sound that they were familiar with instead of the /o/ sound.

There are also no examples that can be taken as samples

to

analyze the FPI

students' utterances of the /oi sound in the final position- However, surprisingLy, the lel sound in the final position is pronounced accordingly by the TESL students. This is
evident as shown in the table below.

RP

TESL

both with

/ ba'w / /^1 b
I

l. /bete /
31.

/b arro /

/ *,te /

2.

I ,-s-e I

In this case, it can be said that if the TESL students have substituted the lol sound with
the

ltl

sound in the final position, the pronunciation

will not only

sound odd, but the

meaning of the utterances

will differ from intended meaning. For


Or

instance, saying

it

as

'bgat'/\' arr\ / instead Of 'bOth'/ba'uO/

'Wit'

/uri\

/ inStead Of 'With' 7 ,.r S /. In

additiorq perhaps they were more familiar of pronouncing the

lol

sound

in the final

position for it will sound rather odd to substitute it with the lt/sound.

36

4.2-4 PHT}1616NON

/\t
/ 6 / sound.

Mostly, the subjects had used the right pronunciation of the initial

However, there are certain instances that shows the deviancy in the pronunciation of the

initiali 6 i

sound. The

subjectstendtousethe/ 6

perhaps shows the interference of mother

landl! I soundinterchangeably. This tongue. This is because the l6 / sound does not
FPI

exist in the Kelantanese Ivfalay Dialect The examples can be seen in the table below.

RP

TESL

the

/6.

ll\t/

1.1 6a

lar- I

1./\a/
2.

2.la> I l6t I

l\> l\-d

I
I

that

/6x.\

3./6: I lA>l l.i 6.+ I lT -a I

3./\r / l6a/
2.

2.I6.a / /A-d I l.itad ll6.+ lldzTI


they /6er
/
6 o-a

3./6-d I
2.1 Ae I

1./ta I l\-:.l
2.

t\e/

they're their

(.) /

/tor I 1./ 6.'n

3.

/ d.rca I

/ 6ea(.Y

2.1 * eac /
3.

I bj^c

T\e

/6/ sound is one of the consonants which is not realized in the Kelantanese Malay

dialect. Howevet, both of the respondents groups manage to pronounce the / 6/ sound
almost correctly in al1 of the instances despite a few deviances in their utterances.

JI

CONCLUSION

It is found that there are only two types of outstanding errors that are found from

tleir pronunciation. The first one can be classified


/d/ sound,
t&Le

as errors under the substitution rules.

In this case the respondents tend to substitute the ltl sound in the medial position with the

sound in the final position

with the ldl sound, the lol sound in the initial initial position with the A/

and medial position with the /V_sound, and the 16l sound in the

sound. The second erTor can be classified as enors under the deletion rules. The
respondents' pronunciation showed that they tend
pronounced consonant sound. is omitted-

to omit or delete the supposedly For instance the final ltl and /d/ sound in the final position

With the findings,


pronunciation
below.

it

can be said that there is a bierarchy

of diffrculties in the

of alveolar plosives and dental fricatives by the respondents, as shown

/tl +ldl

)16l

)lot

---------------)
easy

difficult

38

In

conclusion, although there were certain instances when the respondents'

pronunciation showed deviancy from the Standard English pronunciation (RP) due to interference, this is not always been the case. The informal questionings before the real recorded interview taken place has somehow been helpful to come out with reasons for
most of the correct pronunciation ofthe consonant phonemes that are of concern. Some

of

the respondents like to watch English movies, read English books and even listen to

English songs. The students exposure to the language has possibly influenced their
pronunciation of English words and decrease the seriousness of errors made. In addition"

it should be noted that

since this study only focuses on four specific consonant phonemes,

therefore, we could not assumed about the respondents' pronunciation of the other
consonants.

39

CHAPTER

CONCLUSTON

5.1

Summary

The findings from this study have proved that there are some errors in the pronunciation of English consonants by Kelantanese TESL students and FpI students.
Some of the errors in theirpronunciation can be related to the influence from their mother

tongue,

in this case, Kelantanese

Malay Dialect. However, perhaps some other

pronunciation erors were done subconsciously as the effort that second language leamers
usually make for the ease of pronouncing the sounds that they are not familiar with.

Since this study does not include all of the English consonants sounds,

it

cannot

be said for certain the improvements that can be seen in the overall pronunciation of Kelantanese TESL students. However, by studying their pronunciation of the four
consonant English phonemes

ltl,ld/, lol

and

l\1, it is found that their pronunciation were

near to RP. They could pronounce all of the consonant sounds that this study is concerned.

with. However, they tend to make some errors by substituting the supposedly pronounced consonant sound with other or omit the sound altogether- These erors can be seen as
discussed in chapter four.

40

Thus, it is not too much to say that somehow, the exposure that the Kelantanese

TESL students have to phonetics and phonology has been fruitful, for they have shown
some improvement in their pronunciation. Learning phonetics and phonology can be
seen here helping students make their spoken English clearly understandable, even

if they

are among the native speakers of the language itself. Hence, the knowledge of phonetics
and phonology should be taught for the second language learners of English to make their

spoken English clear and understandable for the listeners. This study does not

try to

thx the students should speak like the native speaker of English. What is important is that they do not make serious errors that can impede the listeners
impose
understanding

of the words spoken. Below a certain level, even

if

grammar and

vocabulary are completely correct, effective communication cannot take place without correct pronunciation because poor phonetics and prosody can distact the listener and
impede comprehension of the message @skenazi 1999).

The knowledge of phonetics and phonology

will

also be much

of help for the

future Engtish teachers. Learning the English use and usage for years,
humiliating

it will be

if they are the one who teach alL of the incorrect pronunciations to their
in other fields. This
does not mean that they have certain

students. Of course, this knowledge can be seen as less important for other Kelantanese students whose majors are

exception in learning phonetics and phonology. Learning phonetics and phonology can be
an advantage for them in

futurq who knows?

41

Limitations of StudY

There are some limitations that can be seen in this study. First of all, this study

only concerned with four consonant phonemes, which are M, ldl,

lel

and 16l- Thus, the

frndings are only limited for how the subjects pronounced these four consonants and other
deviations found in other consonants sounds were ignored. This can be seen as a waste for the deviant pronunciation found in other consonant phoneme could be a clue for a better

description of the Kelantanese students' pronunciation of English.

Secondly, due to time constrain! this study only included six students as the
subjects. With only six subjects involved

in spontaneous speech activity (interview), it

could not be expected that all of the students will pronounce the same words as the others

or the words that consist of the phonemes that the study is concemed of. Hence, more assumption can be made than giving out the evidence for the phenomenon that occurs in
some of the sfudents' pronunciation.

42

5.3

Pedagogicallmplications

From the findings of this study, some ways are suggested on how these effors found in Kelantanese students' pronunciation can be overcome. These suggestions are dedicatei for the teachers of English language and also the second language learners of
English, specifically Kelantanese.

One of the ways for the Kelantanese students to improve their pronunciation is by

undergoing the pronunciation training. According to Eskenazi (1999), there are some
basic principles that contribute to success in pronunciation trarning. Five from the list are
said to be applicable to the automatic language training situation.

a)

Learners must produce large quantities of sentences on their own. Learners must receive pertinent corrective feedback. Learners must hear many different native models. Prosody (amplitude, duration, and pitch) must be emphasized. Leanrers should feel at ease in the language learning situation.

b) c)
d) e)

The first four principles refer to the "external" environment of language learning

while the fifth principle addresses the leamers, "internaf' environment, that is, their
atritudes and language learning capacities. He added that whereas very young language

learners produce new sounds readily, as their age increases, ease

in perceiving

and

producing them decreases. Therefore, the Kelantanese students have to put extra effort to improve their pronunciation of English words. In order for the pronunciation training to
be a successful one, the teacher and the students themselves have to play their roles.

43

The pronunciation training mentioned above can also be applied for the TESL
students who are still in the universities or colleges, and also for the English teachers in classroom situation.

Since students like to watch English movies on television or cinema and listen to

English songs, teachers can manipulate these media so as to expose the students to variety
I

pronunciation of English. For instance, let the students watch English movies, programs

or even cartoons with the British" American or other accents. The Kelantanese students
themselves can hke their own initiative to improve their pronunciation by watching more

English based programs, and listen to more English songs. Somehow, by doing this, the
students may improve their pronunciation of English-

Besides that, teacher can conduct a session in the class in which the sfudents are
asked

to read aloud. However, the teacher does not have to waste their time by listening

to each of the students, if they are quite a big number of students involved. The teacher
can

just pick a number of students on random and ask them to read aloud- The teacher is

the one who should be responsible in assisting the students by correcting their deviant
pronunciation. Ideally the teacher should only point out the incorrect pronunciation at the

right time, and refrain from intervening too often in order to avoid discouraging the
students using the language.

44

It is important for the Kelantanese students to be familiar with the consonants and vowels sounds inEnglish. One of the best way that one can be familiar with the language
and the sounds is

to use it often. The learner should use English for their

daily

communication or as often as they can, so that they will get to be familiar with the sounds

of English words. Teachers can somehow encourage their students to speak English
during English subject period or by carrying out activities, which require the students to
speak. For instance, role play, simulation and so on.

5.4

Recommendations for Further Research

I would like to suggest some areas in which


can be carried

further research of the same nature

out:

1.

This study covers only a small number of subjects.

larger nunber of

subjects may reflect a clearer description of the Kelantanese students' pronunciation

of

English words. This can be much better for and a more elaborate discussion can be made
on the similarities and differences of their pronunciation compared to RP.

2.

Further research can be also carried out on other English consonants and

vowels. Perhaps, by carrying a study on all of the English consonants and vowels, the various erors done by the students can be analyzed and these findings

will be of much

help for to those who are learning English as a Second Language, and those who educate them.

45

REF'ERENCES

Abdut Hamidlvlahmood. 1994. Sintaksis Dialek Kelantan. Ampang: Dewan


Bahasa danPustaka.

Aidah Ahamed.1990" A Study of the Phonological Features of Sarawak Malay English. Lafihan llmiah. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Cik Norazlina Mohanad. 2001" An Enor Analysis of Pronunciation of Words


Containing Consonant Clusters Among Malay Speakers. Latihan llmiah. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Crystal, D.7997. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. united states

of

America: Blackwell Publishers Inc.

Eskenazi, M.1999. Language Learning and Technology.2(2): 62-76. (atas talian)

htto://polygot.cal.msu.edu/liVvol 2mm2l anicle 3 I (20 January 2002)

Flege, J.E., Fried4 E.M., & Takeshi N-ozawa. 1997. Amount ofNative Language

(L1) Use Affects The Pronunciation Of An L2. Journal of Phonetics 252


169-186.

46

Ismi Arif Ismail.1993. A Study On The Deviations Of Phonological Features In


Kelantanese Malay's Pronunciation of English. Latihan Ilmiah- Universiti
Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Junaidah Januin1996. Phonological Deviations in the English of Speakers of the


Sabah Malay Dialect. Latihan Ilmiah.

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Malmberg B. 1963. Importance andPractical Applications ofPhonetics. Dlm:


Malmberg, B. (pnyt.). Phonetics, hlm. 107-112. New York: Dover
Publications-

Newfeld" G.G. 1980. On the Adult's Ability to Acquire Phonology. TESOL


QUARTE RLY l2(3): 28s -298.

O' Connor, J.D. 1982. Phonetics. Great Britain: Hazell Watson &Viney Ltd.

Roach, P. 1991. English Phonetics and Phonologr.,. Australia: Cambridge

University Press.

Scott,

N.C. 1961. The Place of Phonetics in the University. GreatBritain: Luzac &
Co. Ltd.

47

Suhaila Md. Zaini. 2001. EnglishPhonological Variation: A Case Study Among

uKM

undergraduates from Kelantan. Latihan Ilmiah. Kebangsaan MalaYsia.

universiti

APPENIDICES

SPEAKER

PROGRAMME: TESL AGE: 23 PASIR MAS, KELANTAN

Environment in UKM?...What do you mean with environment?

f rnvatclrnar\

Tn y h-e ern ur,rd drr jv

rnin wl-q anvar..m.ol

The people in UKM?.. . that what you mean?

t t. grq:,\ 1q

\-rr

le- <-m

6.a *\J

1- ".t.f
..

The people in UKM.. . they are fine, but some of them have that kind of.

f t" grgs'-l !n Ir

be e.rn

t. o,. \..n b^d s^m \"\ te-m v.q-v t*d tar" "$l
..

Ah what ah?. . . bad attitude against English.

that's

it

f o ' *nd n\. \eed e-lsl\rd

33e-ry\s r13f

r\

f,e-sr.\

Flora and fauna? I think they should plant more trees in UKM

f f t"t" .n {a'o.a ar *r1 ber \-''d y\^n mr: \crs rn \u


because it is hot in

\_e_

em

UKM

\'rEps :.t rr hud rn \- h. "- 1


But they're still not enough

f L".d
C^an

6"r. c

s\r\

",oa.

..,^\ 1

you be more specific... in UKM? Or...


Le.

['L"n \r' Lr mr.-c sjoss\r\. :n \u


would say just rubbish

rrn ",.1

at wud se-r dj.. ...t"\

I would like to say is that the UKM people who's here don't

urn\ at *.rrd \aub \.v se_r !s [e\ \c

5u

\.c,

rrq

Srga\

hus \oeac derro

have the spirit arnong the Cellonese who have the

hc-v 6) slr.rds arn^\ \a


environment and practice it...
f.n \, a1 c

s-r\onrS

\r, hcv 6r

men en 1cc\\rs It 1

I like to read books and sleep t .= \arb \> ci:A '\or'Es e.n
I.

",.-11

..

all kinds of books.. . like story books, magazine

L at- r.l. tgtns u\ t""Un \gsU g\urt Lr:rbs .,.,.X"."n1


Author? I don't have a specific favourite author

f u\a.

ar ds"'n \re., . sgesr.\ib Qe.r+.:J ut..l

Favourite food? Guess... Kenny Roger

f \ -vsred $-A \*
Because

h.enl . oA3.r

I like to eat chicken


\er'e-

L urto* ar

\r' rd r\r!.r,1
will be... wtrat do

Some of interesting places in Kelantan... that

f ='.*

$ rn\e.ssfs3 3\esses rn h>\nn*nn 5eA .^r!l b1 wrd. A.'


..

we call... Rantau Panjang and Pengkalan Kubu.

that are few places...


o._

wr bu\ rn-n\nrr gnnd5al c-n 3a5tn\^.n h.-vbrr t"e


for shopping

tj- 3\ers+r

to. [.t.\ I
Yes, I like to go to that place... with my sisters

I i". ar \ar\ {u i; \ur

6e-A q\e-rs .Da$

ftar *"s,\rsl

Not very far, but quite far

L.o+ vsr\ \o:. bnA b.rard t".-\


Ok... from my house to Rantau Panjang... it takes about thirty minutes

t" \to*

"nat-

harts +\t inrr\au j,rnd1,..1 i\

\e-r-h.s

+ba'ud \ar& mrnrAs

to reachthere...and I think it goes the same to PengkalanKubu from

trr .{

6e'

e.n

a:-

selm \v 4r5 a+ 3o" 6a

ja1b.^.\nn

bu\ru- t"*

my house ... .. I'm in Pasir Mas

rna1 \aarrs al.or an 3,\sl.f *,.." 1


Ok...I prefer to...I use all those three...I speak English with tru- $ Rtr$er *ru.: ar- 5.rs >:t 6us \ci, ar s6.r\
my friends in class,I Speak Malay with my friends outside

r$\.\

*^,aO

rna:- \cqng

S,n

t\ees

8a SftU ma\qt wBE rnas. ,tr<rre ar:dSard

the class and I speak Kelantanese dialect with friends from Kelantan

6 . L\aes rt a! sli r k- h.>\nnturnrs

Aer\c_h-

wt 0 {,.,ln* ,t r*

L.at..n}nn1

I would like to say both

L ar **'-d \ar\- {"r s*r tartel

SPEAKER 2

PROGRAMME: TESL AGE: 23


KETEREH, KELANTAN

Environment in UtrCv1... Ok, I think... UKM is a very... good place.-.

f an131'rnan sn \-

\-e em bEe_ al

*\

\ce.

crn f-s

s vr-s! X"'d 1\e-rs

with... a good studying environment for the students because..

wrO n 3-d

s+r..ajr1 enrrsss-an

8or Ke

s+rl{Dns \rrbas

well because...very far away from...what you call...busy crty

wc-\ brbas vefr. {nc ewsr \ro-

*rnd y bol \orzr s:.tr

like KL or Shah Alam or something like that...so it's a good...

\ar-t Lee\ uc \rh ,r\nm 6r sa.vn\r1 \ar\ B<d s5.. t\s . X-d
good place to study

X?d e\ers \^r s\".d.r]


Social environment...youmean ...the people in UKM...

f ""t"\

R-nvar.trnon

y mi..n \a qrg:t 1r1 \'' E. "ml

Ok, for me...honestly as a student of English language studies... o\-c- $ o c rnr bn ss,\.r as - s\"'Aan "q tX$.\ \.5X*r\! s* n di : s

I mean TESL. . . not many people like to get along with us. . . al 'ni:n tesal nod rnqnf daX wrb as 3rgsl \arE \u

$ed

because perhaps because we learn English and their perception

brt-as

f arhe-gs blLas ix\ ran a5$r\ 6 6r-*c ga.seq\sn

towards English is not that good...because perhaps they tr,-.'rade 3f,-1d"$ r" nuJ 6ed \osbas qarhegs

5"d.

'6es

can not master the language very much...so that's why they...

ken np\ rnes\sr ts \ailwr\\

.,e_cs

m^t\ so 6ade

urs-1 6q1

they tend to ignore us when we're around

b"-r \an l.u

1\nru

r es \ relr

\Ne-

A{-ora.unJ

Ya... ya... y4 so far yes, lots of them

I j^ i" \n sr {a:r I tr {tu.n


on

!e.s

\ods ,,\

t.*l

The flora and fauna...I think... this is a very good place...

{a-nr. ar \tt 6ts ss e vers 3,rd 1\ers

the...the good thing about UKM is the flora and a \r5 abaud, -y Le- em rs 'f,s
A

*" 1'd
..

\\o'r

err

fauna.

that-. . the.

..

the. .. the.

..

esh.

..

esh.

..

especially

{.-.', j.d da d" .le


6e \futn
\osLa s \pd"

.J

"$ .1re\"rs

the flora because lots of trees here so the environment is

rz\ \r\ rs htar sr' [a eoveitman \q

not that hot like the busy city... busy city... what do you call...

ntz\ 6edr hrrd \at\- 6a L:.zt srtl

\6621

sr\5 waA A.r'y.r Lr\

busy city or big city like Kuala Lumpur...and the fauna, I think...

bret s-r\t br forl stVc \ar.E L'ur.\^ \vrny-\rr a te \a-,mn a:. h\


the people here will agree with me because a lots

of

Ae 1rqa.\ hrar wst

a1,,a \^,ro 161

br,tas a \ods r"\

monkeys here... as I can see... monkeys here...lots of monkeys..

*ntLfs \"1a.

e-s 3-a L,e-o

si:

wrrrlErs

Vrac \uJe "\ *"gfsl

I like them because they are very cute... cute!

f ar \at\

6e-m

b:\as 6er o.- vqcr U\"y\ LT"\J


I would like to do... dwing the free time,
\at-m

Free time? Lots of thing

f..t.t \atm \uds v\ t"i.\ e! w.'J. \s:'L \rrdt AyttvS t' \.r
butthe...the...the...the...the...the...the...the...the
most...the most-..

b,rd 6a 6a 6a Ae da Aa 6a ta 6a

rrnrrs

da

mus

what you call. . . the most. . . the most. . . the most. . . Yal

...

the thing

'NAA )o L"\

6s vros 6e mps 6s tnos \r.. d" \\

that I like to do most. .. thank you very much ... is sleeping. ..

td *t \arL ku Arr "r,o= *e1 b1"r vef,l m^\\


f ar \ar-b \.rr s\.it

ts s\ryr.\1

I like to sleep very much...no, not because of I like to sleep vs-ra

rnn{ nb nuJ \"rbas o\at \a.r!h-.r s\ry

very much but because well... hcause this is my third

ve-ca "nn\\ bld bttas we\ bt_tas 6ts rs mas t3:d


years and my third and... and last semester... so a lot of thing that

\313

err

ynat f :.-d

-rt

en \,rs gsmas\sr s>,,A \od a\ +r1 .{ed

I have to do... so sleepless at night... so, I only have time to sleep at... al hev \r dr sr: s\r1\as e.\ nart sb e! bn\r \tqv \gsm \-u s\t:g e\

during days... during day time... so I take that advantage to sleep

'\yrrr1 J,at-s dyrrv5 Aes f slrn sb ri \e-ib


during day time...

de-d e-J.vnn\e6a

\rr s\i:?

d\.'"r5

An-r

facm\

Average?.. . we have 24 hours a &y .. . so I think perhaps l8 hours..

f o.le..d5 wf- \.rav \ruen*1 \t:r


average...

a-as a d.e-r

SEar

t,a \r1 gar\neys er\i;n auas

e""..d5

No, I just kidding. . . perhaps five to. . . five hours. . .

1"" el

dSas

Lfl15 garhc?s \atv \',' \"r., "*t.l

My favourite food is laksa...laksa Penang

t**t

\ov'."d q.d rs \abs,\ \,rtsn yrna$

Yes, f'm very...I'm expert in this yah.. Just kidding...

ti"=

erm verr! arm e-Ls\"d rq

6rs \^u

A5.:s U:dr1\

I learn to make it through my mother...but actually, she, she, she, she, she

L *t

\3:tn \.u

rneL

t\ \c.r: rv\al

rnn

6>r fond aL\\a\r \, h \. 5'

\"

didn't... she didn't ... she didn't ever... she didn't even teach me how to

Aa"A \i, ,land \, ArJrl. eve \t Ardan avan \r.\\.,,r


do that . .. so she just ask us to look at her and how to make it.. . yah...

\,"3-,r

\rr

.lr-' \".1 sb \r- J5as lrs 3s \..: \vt

e.d

\-a. en har: \-v rneL i\

i^t

observe her and then... and then try to make it by ourself...

u\sav \er

e-n 6en o-n {en icat \-rr rneL i\bar

arrase-\tl

Our here means that my siblings... my sisters... younger sisters...

\."o-n' Vrt. ynrns \.A mar srb\rr1S nnat gas\as i^Sl" =*s\"sl
This question, I am very very sorry because...even though I am a Kelantanse,

f tt*

k-,..e-s\tan L! e.''. ve-r! v<r\ sbtr" btLas svEn \r, xr e.n e ba\nn\nnl.s

but I.. . I,... I don't... yah, I don't stay at Kelantan most of the time

bnA at a! at

da.r:rn gtrq-1 e<I

te\nn\nfl yvrbe rr\ t+ \arrr.r

because during holidays

I will usually go to Penang... 1,rs5r:a\r

tsJces

"rTt"\ \.'u\rdrrg er wr-\

larr \r,- \ttl.\l

Because during semester break I work" I work and also, you know spend my...

t btu"* d5rrrrl

samas\-er \ore-rb 3t w>L La \^)lL en

y>gr2

,,1o

stcs {.at

rest of my time at my sister's house

fes b\ Ynst \atrn e\ ,rn3a srs\+r V,a.rsl


Friends? It depends on friends that I talk to...but usually I

will

speak

C"

L\cers i\ drte.'s r'n \.en= 6ed rr,r>:E trr bnd ^y5n\r at wr\ s3rL

to them in Malay...

\.rt {ern rn m.\e. \


TESlians...usually we talk Malay, but when I meet with my

('. L\osrhrt,n I3.t"


Le\nntantn

r4.:r

\>.-t me\er b^J

,.ven as

mrA wrb ma\

Kelantanese friends, usually I will talk in Kelantan ... in Kelantanese

\.non

.lrt\ \e:\ f 5a\t e.i

X-n

L,s\nn\no !n \a\nn\nnrg

Malay dialect

nna\e-i. Jar\eu1

SPEAKER 3

PROGRAMME: TESL AGE:24

KOTA BHARU, KELANTAN

Environment in UKM, well... green is the colour for UKM in terms of nature,

L\nva'lremen sn f

\-c- ern qrQ-\ trr-n

iS Kt bn\et \or \.r. \"

e-cn

aq \ems r"\ner\\a

but then sociologically, I think UKM is like any other campus in the country,

\"n\ ten sutu\radz;L\r. at \r5L yrb4qrn rs \anL qnr l6ar

\-erngas an

6r-\nn\rr-

whereby students have their own life, busy with their own study and also

wLbet ettdens \ac-v '6\rr

ran

\et$ \orz.r

\r.,alD

t:,.. a\rn s\nAr en>\se-u

personal life... and in a way it can be said that... all of us here...lecturers

f ecssns\ \ar\ <n !n + wer t\' Len \.r sed 6eA \r\ r.\ as \ttar \e\-\>raS
or students have our own busy life to attend.. . that's it

o. s\ard.xs \^ev a.uar e1'n \ar:zt \as\ t* >\eq 6An S{


Fauna,

well...I

can see lots of monkeys over hele and also cats...very...

f\.^tn.

.rue-\

ar Lcn sl- \ot5 t"\ rna.\\rs rargt hrar en .o\sw Le-\s \rarr

I'm into cat actually...and for me they're quite..-attractive

8!nr an\.rr Le-t eL\\+\r


Yeah, in my definition

nn

!re, ..,t 6ecr

Ewar\ a\.eLtrw\

I St t'.

YY\aa

&o\anr\anl

No, I don't think so...to be polluted by vehicles or what so over...

f ","'rl ar Aa.'n \rgs> \'u Lr ga\yr\ad \eat veVr\-a\s s'r


what so ever...

w,Aof

sL' pwar

t^rnJ sr' ur., I

I don't think we have any ... ok...

so, oo

pollution problem

f ar. A>n \lv5 rr,: \rev

,Lna obe g:p nu go\-v\an q.Or\aml

Sleep, the most Imean outstanding thing that you know... students

L"t..g 6a ma's\ a! rnan au\s\e$dr\

\ed

1-u

no s\-Aens

tendto do andalso reading...some reading ten \- d-u en yr\sr, cirArvl eAy6 rirdr\l

I read...historical bools, romance type of book

L a" .i--A hrs,\trsL:..\ tr:Ls


Yeab my favourite

cbmens

targ \rt U-vL1

Lin,"

(nsr.

{ev..Jf

Yeah, novels...my favourite authorwill be...Judith Mc Naught

t1,..\ nbve\s nner \ev>s>d c=lar wr\ !t A5rJt6 metnu\f


Well, for me she has the. . . you know. . . the ability to touch and stir emotion

!-*e\ \ur r",t \r h"s br 1", ne tr e\or\rtr t.'trtt\ e,n e\ec


deep inside me, thewordings and also the, the way how she deals

lmu$ag

with

d,,y rnsatd mr d3 ward.rlg

en r2\sb

6r ta we.! \ra.rr \r art* *>r0

a situation in his.. . in her novel, sorry... and I just lie... and love and like

a ss\.wwer-\*n rn hrs !n \nsr nrzvs\ gucr en Br J5as \aa en \av


her work very much

en

\arL

\ngr v'Dtve-rs *"$l


Favourite faod,...tau-hu-fa andyong tau-hu...butthen as a Kelantanese, I

r^

L\e-"stsd t*d

fav L":r\a, en )o1 t"-\'u

bnq te', c-s a b-a\nnVr'nEi ar

like... obviously my traditional food, nasi kerabu, where.. . whereby I cannot find

\ar\- bbvT->s\t. rngr \radr\a.n.t \"rd *.131 \-ar,rb.u \^re we\raa ae \_cn\2cl \^t.,
it.. . you know anywhere else... save for my Kelantan...I mean the delicious and the

1.\ \rt nu' c{\ihJe c-\S sc-av \uy <nes La\rrn*nn


real taste ofnasi kerabu

A9 nni;n t>

Ar\f\as

e.,., )61

t"\t\ \eas >\ n,rsr La.n\rol


Maybe in a way...Ithink so...

L *ebr a$ s .^,e! at \r.,1 sv I


Pasar malarn, we got lots of nasi kerabu stalls over here, but then the taste is

f fr."n- mrr\nrv1 *rt- yA \sAs u\ \As1 Earnbrr gtra\s uvac \"rler Ln\ \<n 6s \e15 13
not... that similar to tbe one tbat I.,. L.. that we have in Kelantan

nut

6e_A 31mt\ar \t: ba *r..n 'Se_t a! a! tie\

qr \e_v T.^ \calrn\nn\

Well, if you come to Kelantan, you might be interested to go to Istana Jahal,

L*.r

$ S- L^*r \.r \-a\nn\nn \rr mar\ \ar an{aras,Lr6 *rr Xra \.u.rs\-nnrr A3&n\

Istana Biru and also Kampung Kraft, akampong whereby...it is a place,

aslnnru \o.r.c.r ar., rr\st" \-rsrglrr1 L.n\+ a bnm1rr,5 ure-bat L\ T.s a q\ecs
whereby lots of craftsmen do their craftwork... artwork...

*-\o3l \ects of h",r$sr,r6n d.r


Talking about beachs.
..

"'\o,..

L.n\*a.A

r.raur oE1

you can.

..

one of the outstanding beaches in

L\',Lr\

absuJ bi:\\as J- Len *^. o\ 6r a,v\syendrl bi.\\as

Kelantan is like

h-g\nn\an rs \ anf

PCB, Pantai Cinta Berahi or Pantai Cahaya Bulan, the recent name given.

f a sr

br gnn\s1 l\rnln bac4hr v,s gnn\nt 1\r.hn\r ,r*.r\,*q 6a rrsan nerm XLVbnl

That beach may be one of interesting places that you may want to visit.

t t.t

tr-\\

rne-a\c!

wnn o\ tr,\"rrs\r1

1\c-rsas {e-d

y rne! wrrn \.ry vr-rr\l

Wbat do you mean by friends over here? My Kelantanese friends or my

f -^a drr jrr mi'-n bar \-en* re-rer \sar rnar ba\nn\nn* {rens r:r rnal
colleagues or...

L->\sbs

,". J
...

Olq among my Kelantanese friends. . . ovio

obviously I will tend to speak Kelantan,


.v.rL\

f ut.

am^\ yrla! b:a\n-n\nntS \.ens vvao uvras\r ar

\en \r

sjsL L>\nn1nr)

Kelantanese dialect, inKelantanese dialecJ ok...among my colleagues, -[ESL

lce\rrrilnn! s o\,ade-\' rn t'a\Aqklnr-s agr\eL ro\.e arhl\ rnar ba\11s \e-eo\


students,I'll speak a mixtwe ofboth, standardMalay and also English

gt'vAans atl sSrt a ms[ef\+s s] tgrro =\endsd


Normally, Engli5[ will do...that's it I think...

rna\e-r en u\ga-u

.\$r\l

I n>-.r, i$r\ wr\ d.rr be-s s\ ar \r'$


Well, we share the same dialect and we come from, I think we come

L.-a\ wr \to '&> serm o\at\"t

,,'us

Lnm $"o.", at. \r1

w!

bnrn

from a similar root, identity...youknow...we have Malay root, but then

t.t'o., s strnr\sr. rrrd }lAen|1.!r \v n>

ssa \nev

r"r:\er r.rrJ bn+

6e.n

being a Kelantanese... we also share an additional bond among us...that's it...

\"c\t\

> b->\run\Mrs wt t'\st" !e-. e,,6 e.dr\aoa\ t>n >mn\ a! {e-+* 11]

SPEAKER

FACULTY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION


AGE:21
PASIR MAS, KELANTAN

Very much at its good condition...high education center that provide...

f '.r..r n,n*\ *A:)s 5"d bundr\an har .drrLelan sen\ar 6.d pwa:d
new environment.
..

very comfortable

"y

ernva:-rer.

an vecr tum\oc\ata\l
..

Since UKM is surrormded by... pra-forest area... so, it's.

it's more g> s\-s

L sst.s y

Uee-rn

!s .a"3"rndsd b:r q.n\>oas err>

rts

mr._,

it's more trees and... flora.. . and fauna here

lfs rnbr \.rs err \\v.n on \aon" Ut{


We got monkeys, dogs...that's all lah

L*t

Xoa wrnSbrs d"3* 6.as >\\nhl

So many activities, thus such as reading, and watching t.v.

f ""r

vnerrr.e.-L\rvr\ts

t^s sn\\ .s rt.li,.n1 .n *r,{r1 +tvrl


s\br! V-uhs nbve\* o' sool o\1

I love to read magazine... story books, novels... and sort of... f.- "t \av \.s rtd mSrzh
Sidney Sheldon, of course

"s-d'.,r \e\d.n ,'\ uon]

Mostly...his writing is about thriller, thriller...dramatic...dramatic plots and... I.

L mus\r hrs sa*rr5r rs "ba"rd \rr\ar \rr\ar Jtnmn\1f drn.vrn*ft

fl'ds

eo

As long as it's entertaining

es \br1

c-s.

rLs en+e\c-nr$

Yes...Hindi

I j* hrndrl
It's so relan... relaxing

f tas sb st\e.bs cr\.\.srr{


I eat-..I eat all-..no favourite-.-Yes

Lar rd ar

l'.d tz\ np

\ave."d ).*1

Myhometow4 Pasirlvlas

lmar

LPvn\arvn fnsar

*^nl
..

OklalL to be frank$. .. frankly speaking. . . Kelantan got.

many beaches''' many

t ut.r\aV \r' br \'.tL\ r


bautiftlbachs

e3s\.t1 ba\nn\nn 3"4 .ne-r,r

tr\:,rs

mehr

by\r\-ur urt\,sl
ctry... Such as Pastai kama... and Kelantan you know Kelantan is a historical

L s"\\ es 1nn\ar lrn ynl en ba\nn\nn y


the culttrre city... Sometimes

n> ba\nn\nn ag a

hsslorr\.r\ st\t

X: Ln\\\a. sr\r sn'.\atmsl


Hotel, we got hotel...hotet Perda..hotel, hot...hotel Perdana...Pantai Cahaya Bulan...

fUol.t

'.^,r 1,ud hu\e-\

hu\e\ qr.dn hu\e-t h>\ hr'\e\ \arAnn^ (An\er \^U;r^U-\nn]

Depends on uihat situation I am in...

LAty*"

pn wnA sst-uwe,r\an

ar ern 5n1

I don't...I don't select my reading items-..

f "t d>n at Artt, sa\c-L rna! ri'.dt1

*\"*al

SPEAKER 2

FACULTY OF ISLAMIC STUDIES


AGE:21

KUBANG KER[,AN, KELANTAN


Ok-.. I think IJKM'S environment is comfortable.. . very. .. very nice so,.

f ot " ar \rg jrr \.e- ems cnvarrrn. ts

\.rrmlsbb>\ ve-rr verr

ners

it's also very pace you know... peace because they are many trees.. . and.. . lds Edsu wzrr yis jt nro q.- ffe_ns \ri..s trLus

irs

*=

en

very green environment


v e rt

3s

in

envar-r

r.sn

1
..

The social environment...I think it' s ok than other universities.

Ah.. . that's
a". 6e-ds

f t"
all lah... u\ \nh

su!.\

<nvar.rmen aa

{1 rds uge 6en a:5ar

\unrvarsr\rs

I
-.

I think... monkeys... monkeys.

and dogs...

ar

+tv1 wra.lbss

rnn$rs

un

d-g 1

Actually monkeys not too bad... bad it disturb... disturbs people... who.. .lalu ap? ..aa.. L"U.t\*'"ir- rnn5Lrs nbt {ry bed bed T.\ Ars\ab jrga\ h,u

\a\rr ^pA 4,.

walking.. . walking down the street..

l^,uLrr3

wb\-r5

d.a.,sn

da

s\rt\l

Maybe, yes of cowse ah...

L *d'r

!o* ''of bo.* r.r.\

I like to sleep and also writing ah...

**

larb-

!'

s\r-y e.n t"\s>

rar\1 ^\ l

I like to write stories... about my life today ah... how's... and write

t.t

\art \rs sar) s\br-rs .a\a:r:d rrnal \ar\ \*dec n\n harrs *.ar,l

in my diary ah... but... ah... everyday...

!n rnat dar.r o, Lrd 6,. o.r.rd"rl


No, no jrtst for myself only...
{1

L''o qb d5as $ur m21sg\ -n\sl

Becarse I think they are nothing special about my uniting...

LUrto ar \rv1 {r-a,. nn\r\ =y.\"t aLarrd -a..ar\"11


Ok...my favourite food is nasi dagang...not really

t ob" *at \e,ver36 {.ud rs n,rs: Azr3ll


lvlaybe... Insya-Allah after this maybe

rrvcL

.r\{

L*.br

rn\n a5L-1n a\\ar 6rs me\rrl


I came here...I just once...I mean eat wen

Nasi dagang,..I think I...when

f tt"sr A5^t ar- \\

ar

zr L,erm h\a. ar d5as urnn3 aI. mrn t\

nasi dagang at Warung Muhibbah...

t\nsa d^3^\ -A wnr.rrl *rr\=t^\\


Yes, of couse...

f )* >\ uus\
In Kelantan, mayte beachlah...

Ltn g5tnn\nn rv.etr- bltt\^\J


I talk about, about Pantai Cinta Berahi... Pant ai CatnyaBulan...

f ,.

\t,L- >baod >barA qnn\n1 \\rn\,..

tatn\r prn\er

A!,rv'1"

t"'\"ttl

No, only near... near from my grandpa's house...


I

Lno

bn\s-

"jr "\. \.o.

anar

frengns V,arsl

Maybe 3 kilometres... maybe.

f ",e\or \rt
Yes.
..

\.$urnnr\er *"!r f

by my sisters... Oh... no...

f)*

\cas-

rna\ srs\es uh

n>l

I think I like to speak English...but somewhat lah...tlns surrounding not...not

L "t {tr1 ar \sr\

\-u sjs.U rrg,fr\ bnd snmha'\nh

6rs ssra.r.,dr1 nsd nbd

suitable /aft...because my surrounding is...you know...my friend all Kelantanese...

s-u\aba\\rth brh.us rnsg s>ratndsl u \u .,\, "rrar $.en r,\ h"\,.n\nnstf


Ok. When I'm in English class and also with my my friends who know

f oU.

qren

eln * \,r\

b\ns "n u\sp wr

rnas

$"sJ's

b.b n\,

English more lah

t$,*\

Yn:.-r

\^\"1

Malay...I'm not so good in English /alz

t*"\e-t

atrn nvd

"o 5oJ rn

qs\t^f"l
I

Yes, I buy a book that... how to learn English ox press... and also

L j*

aL

Var

> brrL 6ud

heu \r: \g,n ,gr\

desqri:z en r:\slr

watch t.v. in English lah

*r\ rrvl !n $s\r"r"l


Movie.
..

X-Files and also. . . tak dok

eh.

..

anybody.

..

can' t remember

f *nrtt

dcs\ats en bsb \n\ dob<ln enr\andt hq:n rrrrre.mLdl

!
!.

r
i

t.

t:

SPEAKER 3

FACULTY OF ISLAMIC STUDIES


AGE:22

BACHOK KELANTAN
The environment in UKM...very very very very very what ah? Very

[. tt enva\man 1. y te

e-rn

verr vgrr ver! wer! vert ,^rnd

nL.,

v4.st

beautifi:l...sometime I feel like stay, stay in the jungle

Uftr\-ul

snvn\srm ar

\:\ \ar\_ s\e-r s\er r.n 6e d5^X1a\l


I heard
slyh\a\vn

Because lot of trrees, flora and fauna..-monkeys, squirrel...sometirne

fLruo* \ud o\ \ri'.s {\o.r. * \a^r.,r* nnalbrs g\were\


about monkeys not the dog...

er had

aba.wd

',nnvfrs nu\ E > Ab31

Adog? Yes adog...

! " Ao3 J"* = 4"11


Not really, but sometimes...

n*od,

.r\r tna s^m\ar*sf


..

Actually.

absolutely yes
o*b

t "ul\"rr
I

s-s\t\\r y*l

just like to reading the boolg watch the cd...vc4 and ...and reading the

L *t

ASas \as\

\r c'rdrr1 \ou\ wu\\ 6a srdr vrssdr

e-rr ed\

ci.drr5{e

newspaper and what's that's all about...

t\.'=ttl*

n't

^rrtds

XqAs u\ a\easaJ

Books? Novel, magazines and so on

f.b-Ut

hove-\ m e$aztq

eJrl

BD

l2nJ

Yes, in Malay

f J an *t\"rl r..
Vcd that I watch was...Malay movie, Hindustan movie and...sometimes

tlrrstdr

6ed ar wb\ wbs vna\qT- y\nrva ht,An:s\an rt\$va en

s,rnr\asms

English movie too...

t$t"\

".'-uv'!

1.1

Hindustan movie... Kabhi Kushi Kabhi Gam no not Kabhi Kushi Kabhi

f \rnd":s\Avl .n-\rvt- bn\"t tu\r bn\cc larvr nu oud Enbr trr\:- \n\ct
Gam.
..

Aspalela.

..

I'm not sure, Aspalela maybe.

..

3^*l ,rsgn\e\n AIm nprl \*ra. ,r.sgn\e\,,r ".eUrl


No,I don't like

f .'o at dun \ar\l


My favourite food, tom yam. . . tom yam. . . ys, I just like it.
..

f *er

\e-.,e.ce-d

\.,:t \bm fyn \b* Y* \* e,r dSes \"rL ld]

Notpro /aft

L n oa

gru \nvr

J
it

Ok. I will learn it... how to how to cook

f ub. at wr\ \st) a\ hau \rr har \'v r*'ut rdl


In my place, interesting place...Pantai kama, kama Beach

('

L rn (nat l..F u\eca:hr5 \\"S l^.\er lrlynl


Yes, coz I like it

sr^ynn

Urftl

I io u*

ar \aru sd ]

The scenery is beautiful...very clean

[ 1" srnrrr rs bf\r$u\ rerr l\i'n I


No, it's near from my house

f tto rts n1a \rum wlel \',a,.'"sl


Bachok

f u n+5oul
Malay and Kelantanese dialect...

f *a\e-s en La\nn\ne1sg das\etl


I think I have try to we English, btr I don't know how to use it and with who I need t\ c-n\,.'io vrrra:.nrd bnd ar Aon ,.r> hgrr \..r t.r \rv5 ar Vev \rar \sf"

-\-^*\

ius

to talk

\rr \ u\l

Not really... yes... yes

fnoa rr\r Sr \*1


ok, maybe I have-a problemthere...I usually...I ...I ask my friends or rny roommate f sU. rne\of gg hev a rltu\cf sm 6e" a" j-3.,.ra\t ar at As q^tt \."r,s o
to help... translate...
me\ rq'-mrne+

4l' hep \rcns\cdl


No, no, no...just the topic

f .o

nb nb

Ab* Ae \o3rLl

No...yes...

Ino i""