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The Role of the Military Attaché in Diplomacy

Gerald Mathis 11/15/2012

CAR IR 535 Diplomacy & Statecraft Fall 2012 Professor Erik Goldstein

Military Attachés have been instrumental in the successes of foreign policies across the globe yet little is known about what they have accomplished or what they actually do. This paper will try to explain the historical role of the military attaché beginning in Europe and transitioning to the United States. We will look at how the roles have evolved and how the attaché is trained to support the current diplomatic environment and foreign policies.

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military attachés are part of the Foreign Area Officer1 (FAO) Program and include: Defense Attachés (DAs). a work which gave us a deeper look into the lives and experiences of soldier diplomats. Next we intend to inform the reader on the evolution of the role of the MA up to the present with an emphasis on the United States (US) Defense Attaché System. But the only full-length study was published in 1959 in a Swiss doctoral thesis entitled Der Militarattaché. Air Force. and Security Assistance Officers (SAOs) who heads the Office of Security Cooperation (OSC). This research is a brief synopsis of the MA throughout history by first examining the European examples documented primarily by Vagts to provide some historical background. Navy. seine Volker. very few publications exist that discuss the roles they have played in shaping or promoting foreign policy or the impacts they have had in the development of diplomatic relations. A Historic Perspective of Military Attachés Military attachés can best be described as military officers assigned to embassies around the world as representatives of their national Defense Ministries.und landesrechtliche Stellung mit besonderer Beruchsichtigung de Schweizer Verhaltnisse (DiNicola 2010). the Security Assistance Officer is a FAO but does not have the diplomatic credentials of the DA. In concluding this research. Later. service attachés from the various armed services (Army. U. Marine). we will describe the future of the MA and the roles they are expected to play in the application of Defense Diplomacy. In most cases. They are also serve as advisor to the US Ambassador on all issues related to US and host nation militaries. in 1969 Vagts penned The Military Attaché. . Defense Attachés are the senior military representative responsible for all military activities and service attachés within a host country. in some cases serving as the senior military representative in the host country. Service Attachés (SAs).S.Introduction Although military officers have served as ―soldier diplomats‖ for centuries. 2 The term Military Attaché includes military officers such as the Defense Attachés (SDO/DATTs: Senior Defense Official/Defense Attachés). In 1956 Andrew Vagts and William Fox wrote Defense and Diplomacy: The Soldier and the Conduct of Foreign Relations which helped to shed some light on the impacts military attachés (MAs) have had in international relations up to 1956.2 In 1 Foreign Area Officers are Soldiers who are regionally-focused experts in political-military operations with advanced foreign language skills and cultural competence who advise senior decision-makers throughout all phases of military operations.

and the Reinsurance Treaty 1887 were all in no small part integrated in what would be called today defense diplomacy and military attachés played a part in maintaining these relationships. .19643. McNamara established a new agency to be the nation‘s premiere producer of foreign military intelligence and the central intelligence manager for the Department of Defense (DoD) under the title of Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) (DiNicola 2010). By the eighteenth century. frustrated with poor coordination efforts of information and intelligence gathering from the various agencies. the League of the Three Emperors 1873. Otto Von Bismarck to some degree relied on MAs to provide him with information to assist him in holding together the fragile alliances and instituting his defense diplomacy that he so adeptly weaved together from 1871 to 1890. Each of his treaties and alliances: the Treaty of Frankfurt 1871. and gather intelligence‖ [information] (Defense Attachés 2007). yet paranoid. an act 3 Some sources have the date as 1961. Bismarck habitually questioned the competency of the attachés and regularly suggested that their activities of collection was liken to a form of espionage. defense attachés (DAs) were being assigned as permanent positions in some embassies around the world (Defense Attachés 2007). monitor military developments. the Triple Alliance 1882. Brilliant. the Dual Alliance 1879. But military officers have been used as representatives and spokesmen for their respective countries since the 1600‘s on the European continent. during the time of the Thirty Years‘ War. military officers were ―dispatched by the Duke of Richelieu to liaise with allied powers. a trend encouraged by the emergence of national defense establishments and the building of colonial empires‖ (Defense Attachés 2007). Defense Secretary Robert S. the Mediterranean Agreement 1887. Beginning in the seventeenth century. While he entrusted the task of ensuring these alliance and treaties (to varying degrees) to his MAs he consistently took issue with most attachés assigned to Germany from abroad (Vagts 1967). Technology had evolved warfare and weapon systems to new heights and the importance of situational awareness in the form of information gathering became essential in solidifying alliances and quenching the thirst of nervous European leaders. The nineteenth century ushered in a practice where ―most countries were using DAs. Even the great German statesman.

1906-1914. ―lead the observer-officer to neglect his true office duties‖ (Vagts 1967). Some statesmen feared that attaches would be more susceptible to political ambitions by such intermarriage. Petersburg in the late 1870‘s. So lofty were the political ambitions of Ligntz he often defied the wishes of the German Ambassador and would refuse to adjust reports back to Germany that were in contradiction to those of the ambassador (Vagts 1967) causing what was essentially chaos. in an age of nationalism…did nothing to further what is euphemistically called a better understand between the counties concerned‖ (Vagts 1967). Major von Lignitz. they were well received abroad. The information that MAs were able to collect about the composition. As the world created more and more states. the need for military liaisons and cooperation became even more critical. disposition and strengths of allied and rival forces alike. So much international marriage had taken place between military attachés and host country and foreign women.which he despised. which would. he referred to them as being ―socially lower ranking persons‖ (Vagts 1967). that one would assume the sentiment of international unity would have been at an all time high. confusion and at times complete misunderstanding of what was really happening in Russia at the time. provided insights for the decision makers that could not be obtained through normal diplomatic channels. Ligntz went so far as to ―on one occasion [lose] his equanimity and called out to Russian officers: ‗If it is war you want. Tim Hadley wrote in his 2010 article ―Military Diplomacy in the Dual Alliance: German Military Attaché Reporting from Vienna. major changes were in place for the DA system. so much so ―that a number of them contracted foreign marriages‖ (Vagts 1967) much to the chagrin of foreign leaders such as Bismarck. and we are ready‘‖ (Vagts 1967). These speculations were true in the case of the German military attaché in St. in most cases. In fact. This was in direct contradiction to Bismarck‘s diplomatic efforts and unsanctioned by the ambassador causing alarm and confusion that Bismarck himself had to calm. However despised the MAs were by Bismarck. but such ―expectations. we can wish for nothing better. of the important role Colonel Carl Graf von Kageneck played in the collection and dissemination of information for the Germans and how his efforts afforded the Germans to have . As we approached the twentieth century.

to get into its mindset and institutions. His personal contacts made up another 48% of his reporting with personal contacts that included the ―chief of the Evidenzbureau. but what is certain is that they all were required to observe and report. (DiNicola 2010) U.S. While not formally trained in the art of relationship building.S. so far as the relationships permit. Freytag served at War's outset as Prussian military representative at Austro-Hungarian Headquarters. These same skills will be needed as the duties and responsibilities of the MA expand into being key components of military and defense diplomacy. and technical capabilities. and the chief of the Austrian army‖ (Hadley 2010). is extensive and storied. He was to ―to make himself familiar with the more important developments in the army. diplomatic efforts have helped to shape our foreign policy and 4 Noted Prussian general and one of Germany's most prominent military writers. regulations. Kageneck seems to have acquired the necessary skills needed to be successful as a military attaché. particularly in personnel. This 1890 publication outlined the duties that Kageneck and others like him were required to perform while serving abroad as German attachés. The Defense Attaché System & the Foreign Area Officer Program The diplomatic history of the U. France in March of 1778. training. Kageneck was under the ―reporting obligations‖ (Hadley 2010) outlined in the Instruktion. . and army organization‖. and. to make observations on its personnel. Over half of all of his reporting came from ―open source either official or public‖ (Hadley 2010) information. organization. Hadley (2010) explains that Kageneck was an avid reader of Austrian publications where he gleaned information on ―significant changes.an insight into Austrian military weakness. the minister of war. who served as minister to France in the Revolutionary War and continuing with the establishment of the first consular post in Bordeaux. A Great General Staff officer who had a significant voice within Falkenhayn's inner circle. Beginning with the nation‘s first diplomat Benjamin Franklin. to seek contact with officers and follow the relevant military and civilian periodical literature‖ (Hadley 2010). training. Hadley writes that ―Freytag4 praised the German military attaché…noting in particular Kageneck‘s great wealth of detailed information on the ally…attribute[ing] useful observations and insights on the Austrians to Kageneck‖ (Hadley 2010). materiel. It is not clear whether all MAs were under the same marching orders as Kageneck.

while roughly 25 percent were still in training.S. London.100 new FAOs entering the program by 2014 (Department of Defense 2005). and by 1918. and Vienna. But in the late 1800‘s: …permanent military attaches [U. defense diplomacy. with almost 1. wishes to assist its allies in preventing conflicts in the future. Today‘s U. Paris. had 24 Army attaches in 28 capitals and 15 Navy accredited to 18 seats of government. While heavily civilian centric. clarify and if possible prevent conflict before it begins.S. information rich environment. The question may be raised as to why the U. Austria. the attaché program had grown to a total of 464 military attaches overseas (DiNicola 2010). Russia.S. the military cannot be dismissed in its roles in aiding these efforts.S. the ranks have continued to grow. Globalization and technology has reduced the reach between one country and another. The first Air Corp attaché was assigned to Europe in 1927. attachés find themselves key and critical to the implementation of defense diplomacy and the plan for how the U. Over the years.] could be found in Berlin.solidify our international relations. the U. One response would be due to the changing nature of global security but there is yet another reason. it is the need to rely more heavily on information and intelligence through coordination and relationships with militaries and authoritative figures in foreign countries in order to identify. Given the rapidity of an ever evolving global security climate. The unique skill sets of the FAO are well suited to accomplish these tasks and are a vital component to U. Their roles in diplomacy have expanded to support the strategic and operational needs of an interconnected security climate. As of 2005. had just over 2. . military attaché is a new breed of officer. diplomatic and policy skills of the military attaché must be sharper than the skills required of attachés from the past. the U. All the services plan to recruit and train more than 170 FAOs a year. although war loomed in Europe. is increasing its number of FAOs so drastically.S. Petersburg. The military attaché is a key component in ensuring that future conflicts or potential crises are handled in a more controlled.200 FAOs in active operational capacities.S. the interpersonal. The military has always been associated with diplomatic post but mostly from a perspective of protection for personnel and property or military observers. What is communicated in private in an office in Vienna no longer takes a few days to reach Quebec. social.S. As a result. By 1936. St.

lords and royalty of old. It is through these expanded roles that the defense attaché system hopes to usher in a new era where personal relationships are more important than governmental bureaucracy. Beyond these responsibilities the MA can be called upon to assist in moments of crises with Non-combatant Evacuation Operations (NEO) such as that which took place in Lebanon during in 2006. Principal advisors to the U. He was also in charge of establishing logistical supply points for the United Nations Interim Forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL) and the French Embassy in Beirut in coordination with Lebanese staff (Defense Attachés 2007). their general duties have not changed much since the 1600‘s. the attaché exercised direct command over French troops and other assets. . Time spent in developing these ―hard-won connections. In efforts to locate isolated individuals and bring them to safe gathering points. the authorities of other Western countries. Ambassador on matters concerning the host country‘s armed forces Personal representatives of their respective Service‘s Secretary and Chief-of –Staff. to the host country‘s military In certain instances performs security assistance functions. A large portion of a MA‘s time is spent developing relationships with host country nationals and military leaders.Their roles as soldier diplomats have expanded to include preventive diplomacy as well as military diplomacy. (Thornblum and Grzella 2002). Lebanese Army and French military staff as he implemented security and evacuation plans for the civilian community. might result in the attaché being the first person to note changes in a nation‘s military and its power structure‖ (DiNicolo 2010). These duties include but are not limited to:     Overt information collectors of military and political military information.S. but rather career military officers who have been trained specifically to work within the diplomatic community. While MAs are no longer the princes. The French DA in Lebanon was the interface between the French Embassy. barons.

32. "The Defense Attaché System (DAS) was established by DoD Directive C-5105. Sometime within this first phase of training the officer will attend a FAO Entry/Orientation Course. and what it means to be a FAO. The directive assigned. The program has improved over the years and provides the military officer with the necessary skills and competencies need to succeed as either a military attaché or security assistance officer. Here the FAO is put thought a rigorous language learning program with the goals of having a working knowledge of the target language in reading. and speaking. But before an officer could become a DATT they would first have to meet the qualification and undergo the extensive educational curriculum headed by the FAO program. the FAO is normally sent to conduct in-regional training (IRT) or a graduate program.. The level of proficiency is elementary but the FAO is required to show proficiency yearly after completing the training with an goal of being completely fluent. Following the language training that could last anywhere from 6 to 18 months depending on the difficulty of the language. assignments. CA. This is a mandatory course in order to be a fully qualified FAO.. 12 December l964. IRT is a 12-month immersion program in their region of specialization designed to assist the FAO in improving their language skills by practice and the learning of colloquial speech. They began with language training at the Defense Language Institute in Monterey. the tasks performed by the MA could not be possible had the attaché not been prepared with ―the social and professional competence and the intellectual curiosity‖ in all aspects of the duties they would be required to perform.the DAS as part of the DIA and it would consist of all military personnel accredited as Attachés or assistant Attachés to foreign governments as well as other DoD personnel assigned to Attaché posts" (Defense Intelligence Agency 1994). introduce the FAO to . This is a one week course designed to introduce the officer and spouse to the program and provide some initial guidance about future training. Training After a rigorous selection process the officer begins his career with 3-5 years of training and preparation under the FAO Training Program. The selected officer receives training based upon his regional concentration. become familiar with the operations of an embassy and all of its offices.However. listening. Although the DAS grew and improved over the years its main purpose was to coordinate the efforts of the DATT in foreign embassies.

the officers are ready to tackle their first assignment and become a vital part in the U. The graduate school program is fully funded and aimed at making the FAO well-rounded in matters of foreign policy. foreign policy. Once complete. or recourse to law‖ (Muthanna 2011). to include defense and military diplomacy. diplomacy. Here he defines diplomacy ―as the conduct of international relations by negotiation and engendering goodwill and mutual trust rather than by force.S. and security within a particular region. Once the FAO has graduated the training continues. It is here that the officer begins to hone the skills of solder diplomat and learn the intricacies of security assistance operations. We chose this definition because it embodies the very nature of the relationships we strive to obtain. propaganda. development and defense as a guiding principles for defense diplomacy. Military Diplomacy.the security assistance and defense attaché operations. and to gain perspectives on the issues related to the region.A. The FAO is required to write comprehensive reports on his activities while assigned to IRT. that the FAO will begin to make those personal contacts that can be most useful as a SAO of MA in the future. defending U.S. Depending on the officers first assignment as a FAO they may attend either the Joint Military Attaché School (JMAS) and or the Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management (DISAM). the soldier will have the opportunity to attend a foreign military or civilian school further enhancing language and cultural appreciation as well as educational skills. diplomacy apparatus. those of ―engendering goodwill and mutual trust rather . In some instances. The studies are closely monitored by the military and in most cases master‘s thesis‘s are approved first by the military and then by the university. and to be a significant building block in implementing diplomacy. Defense Diplomacy & the Military Attaché To better understand the doctrine of military and defense diplomacy and the importance of the military attaché in implementing it we must first work from common definitions of diplomacy. For this clarity we have chosen the definition provided by K. culture. These years of training are necessary to provide the FAO with the necessary tools to operate independently. sometimes as the only military personnel in the country and to equip and prepare the officer for the duties associated with promoting national interest. and finally to travel the region in order to gain a better appreciation of the people. It is during IRT. Muthanna (2011).

The military attaché of Israel's embassy in Russia was expelled from the country for gathering intelligence there . Zambia. but they are both FAO‘s and part of the defense diplomacy team. It is true that historically militaries ―are associated with achieving national aims and objectives in international relations through the use of force (Muthanna 2011). the State Department said Thursday May 2011. The SAO is not a military attaché as his duties and responsibilities are different. The greatest difference between the two is that the SAO is not an information collector and does not warrant diplomatic status as the MA does. Navy officer for allegedly passing secret information from the Venezuelan military to the Pentagon and warned he would throw out all U. The following are just a few examples of such. However. From a standpoint of defense diplomacy this concept can often times be beneficial to the overall success of defense diplomacy.than by force‖.Russia has ordered the expulsion of two American military attachés working at the U. Cooperation is essential in the creation of relationships and trust need in achieving the goals of diplomacy. An SAO can easily move from their current duties to those of an MA. Under the FAO training program the two military officers would have received the same initial training and have the same core competencies.      July 1955-Moscow expels three US military attachés for “inappropriate behavior” May1986-The US expels the South African military attaché in response to raids by South African forces into Botswana. often falsely.S. The OCS provides technical and operational support to its host nation through the leadership of the FAO assigned to the host country as an SAO. and Zimbabwe February 2006 .S. Thus military diplomacy could be defined as ―the ‗peaceful‘ use of military in diplomacy. MAs across the globe have fell victim to allegations.President Hugo Chavez of Venezuela expelled a U. This peaceful use of the military as a tool of national diplomacy led to the use of the term ―military diplomacy‖. of committing espionage and declared ―persona non grata‖. Military Diplomacy Military diplomacy can be conducted in various ways and under a series of programs and initiatives with the primary objective of ―cooperation‖ (DiNicolo 2010). One of the ways in which the MA assists in this endeavor is through the OSC. Embassy in Moscow. as a tool of national foreign policy‖ (Muthanna 2011). there are numerous instances of peaceful use of military to further a nation‘s international relations.S. military attaches if further espionage occurred May 2008 . It is such relationships that are vital to the MA‘s success in executing defense diplomacy.

Laplante was in a position [working relationship] where he could work [the details] out over the phone-not mentioning it was the attaché who wanted to see the [FARC leader]. The ―3D‘s‖ –diplomacy. national security. facilitates communication and may allow the SAO to gain access that the DATT cannot. and defense are now the cornerstones of U. has yet to officially define defense diplomacy it has issued its policy changes with regards to the national security.S. Defense Diplomacy The United Kingdom‘s defense diplomacy mission is defined as ―to provide forces to meet the varied activities undertaken by the MOD [Ministry of Defense] to dispel hostility build and maintain trust and assist in the development of democratically accountable armed forces. Development and Defense.S. national security policy. defense attaché wanted to talk to him but was not having much luck with the Venezuelan government. Increasing the profile of diplomacy and development. Laplante is quoted as saying that ―We didn‘t work the intelligence like the attachés…Having others handle those functions helped in our access with the host nation‖.S.S. development. It is for this reason that some countries remain paranoid in communicating with them. in some cases. DoS and USAID could not continue at their current pace and remain productive.S. has outlined the policy in the terms below: Diplomacy. If a single definition could be used to describe the 3d‘s policy it would look very similar to that provided by the UK Defense Ministry. Venezuela captured a senior Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC) leader.‖ While the U. But for now the U. He asked [Laplante-the SAO] for help. defense diplomacy. Case in point: In 1996.S. This paranoia coupled with the closeness with which the SAO works with host military authorities.S. thereby making a significant contribution to conflict prevention and resolution.It‘s no secret that defense attachés are in the business of overt collection and reporting. a shift in policy was formulated. alongside defense. The U. is smart — mainly because the . form a central framework for American strength and influence. security cooperation abroad and a key factor to the U. (DiNicolo 2010) This example demonstrates that the information gathered and relationships forged by the military are integral in the strength of U. Understanding that the individual agencies of DoD. the ―3Ds‖ of U.

visits. FAOs are heading. It would also reduce animosity and enable a more conducive approach towards problem solving and inter-operability. Government recognizes the importance of preventing and deterring conflict by working with and through partners and allies as well as through better collaboration between defense and civilian agencies and organizations. and more strategic focus for our diplomacy and development efforts as key partners alongside defense. is imperative. including service attaches. To support the initiatives of the ―3d‖ doctrine.S. and defense cooperation as those activities covered by training exchanges. development. more resources. MAs are well placed to ―further country specific foreign policy objectives by managing defense foreign relations and supporting the other diplomatic initiatives of government‖ (Muthanna 2011). (2008) discusses the nature of defense diplomacy in the context of India. . dialogue[s] on security challenges and port calls. Prevention. In his work he describes defense diplomacy as the ―use of military personnel. in support of conflict prevention and resolution. (United States Department of State 2010) Anton du Plessis. including greater attention to failed and failing States. All of these tasks are more easily accomplished by FAO trained personnel due to the core competencies they posses. production and marketing of defense equipment and other forms of cooperation‖ (Ministry of Defense India 2003-04). We have come to realize that the global challenges and opportunities of the future will demand a greater scale. Today‘s MA is fully trained to be able to conduct defense diplomacy by participating in ―exchange[s] of high-level defense related visit[s]. Contact at all levels would serve to create a better understanding of respective positions. the FOA has been asked to help achieve the goals of diplomacy by ―the use of armed forces in operations other than war. conferences etc. Participation in exchanges. The U. and presentations of papers at these events educate the participants and provide decision makers with necessary inputs for astute decision making (Muthanna 2011). combined exercises.S. seminars. Among a number of activities this includes providing assistance in development of democratically accountable armed forces‖. His explanation of the Indian system is clearly in the same direction as that of the U. building on their trained expertise and discipline to achieve national and foreign objectives abroad‖ (Du Plessis 2008).cost of conflict is higher than ever before. sourcing. Murthanna also writes: While the aims and objectives of nations participating in military diplomacy or cooperation could differ the crux is that they work together to develop an environment of peace and trust.

finds itself still to some degree.S. the duties and responsibilities . the United States had no trained military intelligence personnel in Sarajevo and no U. This is no small request coming from a force that is designed to fight wars. Although there was not a defense attaché in Bosnia at the time. These officers tend to focus more on the role of their service in the war and in the postwar world. However with the shift to a doctrine of defense diplomacy. …This report demonstrates the unique military intelligence value of attaché reporting on the ground. A prime example can be taken from the events that took place in during the civil unrest in Bosnia beginning in 1992. political climates. as well as personal insights from vetted and authoritative sources that neither theater commanders. nor heads of individual services.The Military Attaché As the U. and as a key player in other hotspots around the world. The first comes from the commander of the theater in which the war is being fought. occupied by two global conflicts. This usually stresses the importance of that particular theater and the need to support the effort there and indicates a belief in eventual success in that theater. civilian sentiment and military readiness from living and working within the country. Generally speaking there are three ―sources of wartime advice given by the military‖ (Craig and George 1995). But the advice of the military has historically been welcomed council to our civilian leadership. there were military attachés in nearby Belgrade that were able to gather critical information and insight about the situation and sent reports that advised the leadership with an accuracy that could not have been obtained from other advisors and sources. It is often optimistic. The second comes from the heads of the individual services. the military has advised the government and its allies to find more peaceful means of negotiation. often a number of military officers detached from their services to serve in a joint staff for planning purposes. Because of its more objective view.S. this last group carries great weight in war-termination calculations (Craig and George 1995). defense attaché representation in Bosnia-Herzegovina. As a result. These advisers tend to be closer to the overall political realities of the war and less influenced by parochial considerations. there is now room for a fourth source of advice for which leadership can draw from. and they try to increase its budget and power in relation to the other services. The military attaché has extensive experiences and insight into the policies. nor senior military advisers are able to ascertain. The third is from the senior military advisers to the nation‘s leadership. At the time of the siege. which are normally located in the nation‘s capital.

This report provides an excellent example of the unique and invaluable contributions of DIA‘s defense attachés (Defense Intelligence Agency 2011). The task force would ultimately play a huge role in U. NSA. CIA. Their ever expanding role in diplomacy is not longer characterized solely by ―protocol. dispatches from the USDAO staff provided an eyewitness account and expert analysis from a defense intelligence perspective that could not be obtained elsewhere. . While open-source reporting on the events was abundant. it is apparent that the significance of the military attaché was far greater than just as a soldier diplomat. These roles will continue to be greater for MAs as we advance the doctrine of defense diplomacy and ―3D‖. mastery of language and adeptness in cultivating enduring relationships has been placed in a position to greatly enhance the capabilities of our defense diplomacy efforts. consisting of DIA. They serve as force multipliers for service Chiefs of Staff and Combatant Commanders in their endeavors to analyze and process information in a timely manner in order to be able to take informed measures in averting crises. and Joint Chiefs of Staff officials. military officers have proven to be effective in collecting open source information and disseminating crucial advice to both their respective countries and their host nations. The ability to see the importance in day to day activities and to have an acute 5 A historical phrase used to describe the large number of social events associated with the requirement for military attaches to build relationships and network of contacts. in June 1992. Not every military officer sent abroad is considered an attaché. The MA armed with their intellectual acumen. and cholesterol (Shea 2005)5. decision making regarding the Balkans. While arguable that the information received was not acted upon in a timely enough manner to save the lives of hundreds maybe thousands of Bosnians from genocide committed by the Serbs against the Muslims in Bosnia. Over the centuries. The officer must be ―accredited and accorded full diplomatic status to include diplomatic immunity‖ (Shea 2005). but also defined by their abilities to ―read the tea leafs‖. alcohol.with respect to Sarajevo fell to the USDAO [United States Defense Attaché Office] in Belgrade. reports such as these served to underline the urgency of the crisis in the Balkans and helped spur the creation of the Director of Central Intelligence Interagency Balkan Task Force.S. Moreover. extensive military expertise. Conclusion The title of Military Attaché has always held a certain prestige among the diplomatic elite.

but as indicated previously in this research. expects to be able to create bonds and alliances not only through arms sales and soldier exchanges. well educated. Through the use of personal relationships. defense and military diplomacy. used the press judiciously. the . primarily for its transcriptions of lengthy but relevant parliamentary statements or significant interviews. Indeed. U. Kageneck‘s success is a result of these attributes. Such abilities have been relied upon to shape the current doctrine of defense diplomacy. the Austrian general staff. The most important characteristic of diplomatic as well as military reporting is the quality of its source. The ability to gain the confidence of an ―authoritative‖ source or to create an atmosphere conducive to establishing a ―quality‖ source that is open to the exchange information is a difficult task without certain tools. and achieve the success that Kageneck was able to accomplish. and access. and focused his efforts on contacts with human sources. which have the capability to provide information that otherwise.S. personal relationships have been essential in creating an atmosphere for capacity building and professional bonds.S. These exchanges and relationships are designed to open the doors for dialogue where they may or may not have been open previously. the Evidenzbureau (Hadley 2010). Kageneck‘s reporting record demonstrates an instinctive grasp of this principle: he let official and semi-official organs speak for governmental pronouncements. Carl Marquart Victor Graf von Kageneck who served as the German military attaché to Vienna. the U.S. Although today‘s MAs normally do not come from royalty as did Kageneck (Hadley 2010) MAs should aspire to gain the accessibility. but also through one on one personal relationships that provide a sense of mutual responsibility and reciprocity in the free exchanges of information. He spoke French.understanding to the nuances of host country activities has made the military attaché an invaluable resource in helping leaders to make decisions about foreign policies. skills. They are key components in the implementation of U. Austria (as a Colonel) from 1906 and 1914 (Hadley 2010). Today. and its intelligence service. and groomed in the fine arts of diplomacy. would be unobtainable. One or two reports per month from an authoritative source were worth more than scores of press clippings from local newspapers. He leveraged his not insignificant status to get access to high-level sources in the War Ministry. personal relationships are not the glue that holds our policy together. Kageneck had traveled and lived extensively throughout Europe. We can look back to the German cavalry captain. MA‘s are highly trained.

conflicts. These same attributes is what the Defense Attaché System has designed for the modern MA through the rigid selection process. . made Kageneck a diplomatic success. investment in defense and military diplomacy as a means to advert crises will yield results without the use of force. The success of the MA relationships will be determined by the extent of which our foreign policy objectives and international relations are progressed. extensive education and language training.diplomatic language of the time and he had ―…links to the Austrian and Holy Roman empires that were centuries old‖ (Hadley 2010). Success would emerge as a part of an integrated information system where detailed information is obtained well in advance of crises and diplomacy will be given a chance to work without plumes of smoke instigated by conflict.S. The expected results will be quantifiable and measurable. Over the next few decades. Failure would mean more ―knee-jerk‖ reactionary military actions to force our policies. and regional specialization. his abilities to communicate in the sources language. And the Military Attaché will be at the heart of this debate. We will be able to determine if the U. As such. and wars are significantly reduced. we will be able to determine if the number of crises. his solid command of the current situation as well as the historical context linked to the current situation and the confidence that accompanies years of training.

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