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G1

G2
T2

T1

0.2 5 + 0 .7 j

0.1+0.4j

0 .1

55
+0.

0.1+0.35j

Line
Number
1
2
3
4
5

Starting
Bus
1
2
2
3
4

0.15+0.6j

Ending
Bus
2
3
4
4
1

Series Line
Impedance
0.1+0.4j
0.15+0.6j
0.18+0.55j
0.1+0.35j
0.25+0.7j

Line Changing
Admittance
0.15j
0.02j
0.018j
0.012j
0.03j

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FORMATION OF Z-BUS BY THE METHOD OF INSPECTION

AIM:
To develop a program to obtain bus impedance matrix Z-bus of the given power
system.
THEORY:
Z-bus matrix is an important matrix used in different kinds of power system study
such as short circuit study, load flow study etc.
In short circuit analysis the generator uses transformer impedance must be taken
into account. In quality analysis the two-short element are neglected by forming the z-bus
matrix which is used to compute the voltage distribution factor. This can be largely
obtained by reversing the y-bus formed by resection method or by analytical method.
Taking inverse of the y-bus for large system in time conditioning managing modification
in the system requires whole process to be repeated to voltage changes in the system. In
such cases z-bus computed to z-bus solving algorithm.
ALGORITHM:
Step 1: Read the values such as number of lines, number of buses and line data, generator
data and transformer data.
Step 2: Initialize y-bus matrix y-bus[i] [j] =complex.
Step 3: Compute y-bus matrix by considering only line data.
Step 4: Modifies the y-bus matrix by adding the transformer and the generator admittance
to the respected diagonal elements for y-bus matrix.
Step 5: Compute the z-bus matrix by the modified y-bus matrix.
Step 6: Check the iteration by multiplying modified y-bus matrix to z-bus and check
whether the resulting matrix is a unit matrix or not.
Step 7: Print the z-bus matrix.
HAND CALCULATION:
Step1: Read the line data.
Step2: Initialize y-bus data. y-bus[i] [j] =complex (0.0, 0.0).
Step3: Compute y-bus matrix.
Y11 = (1/Z12) + (1/Z14) + Yc12 + Yc14
= (1/ (0.1+0.4j)) + (1/ (0.1+0.25j)) + 0.0075j + 0.006j
= 1.3430 - 4.981j
Y22 = (1/Z23) + (1/Z24) + (1/Z21) + Yc23 + Yc24 + Y21
= (1/ (0.15+0.6j)) + (1/ (0.25+0.7j)) + (1/ (0.1+0.4j)) + 0.01j + 0.015j + 0.0075j

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START

READ No. OF BUSES; No. OF


LINES AND LINE DATAS
INITIALIZE THE Y-BUS MATRIX

Consider line 1 = 1

i = sb(1); I = eb(1)

Y(I,j) = Y(I,i)+Yseries(I)+0.5Yseries(I)
Y(I,j) = Y(I,1)+Yseries(i)+0.5Yseries(I)
Y(I,j) = Yseries(I)
Y(I,1) = Y(I,j)

Is
I = nl

I=I+1

Point Y - Bus

Compute Z-bus by inverting


Modified Y-Bus

Print the Result

Stop

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Ex.No.:
= 1.4329 - 5.1562j
Y33 = (1/Z34) + (1/Z32) + Y34 + Y32
= (1/ (0.018+0.55j)) + (1/ (0.15+0.6j)) + 0.009j + 0.01j
= 0.926 - 3.1919j
Y13 = Y31= 0.0006 + 0.00j
Y23 = -1/ (0.15 + 0.6j)
= -0.8922 + 1.5686j
Y14 = Y41 = -1/ (0.1 + 0.35j)
= 0.7547 + 2.64j
Y24 = Y42 = -1/ (0.2 + 0.7j)
= -0.425 + 1.2670j
Y34 = Y43 = -1/ (0.18 + 0.55j)
= -0.5375 + 1.6423j
Y44 = (1/Z34) + (1/Z41) + (1/Z42) + Y34 + Y41 + Y42
= 1/ (0.18 + 0.55j) + 1/ (0.1 + 0.359j) + 1/ (0.25 + 0.1j) + 0.089j + 0.006j + 0.015j
Step4:
Modified Y-matrix
Adding the transformation and the generator admittance to the respective diagonal elements Y-bus
matrix is formed as follows.
Y11mod = Y11old + 1/ (ZT4 + ZT1)
= 1.3430 - 4.981j + 1/ (0.25 + 0.08j)
= 1.3430 8.5524j
Y22mod = Y22old +1/(ZT2+ZT3)
=1.4329-8.0132j
Y33mod=Y33old+0.9296-3.1919j
Y44mod=Y44old+1.7447-5.5208j
The modified Y-bus matrix is as follows
1.3430-8.5524j
-0.588+2.35j
-0.58+2.35j
1.432-8.013j
0.00+0.00j
-0.89+5.68j
-0.75+2.6145j
-0.452+1.267j
Step5:
0.0069+0.195j
-0.0084+0.11j
-0.0084+0.11j
0.012+0.158j
Step6:
Verify check matrix

-0.008+0.011j
0.11+0.217j
0.006+0.1881j
-0.007+0.159j

0.00+0.00j
-0.39+1.58j
0.929+3.19j
- 0.537+1.54j
-0.043+0.13j
0.0064+0.88j
0.1008+0.517j
0.282+0.26j

-0.75+2.64j
-0.45+1.26j
-0.53+1.64j
1.744+5.250j
0.012+0.138j
-0.007+0.159j
0.282+0.263j
0.060+3.55j

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Check matrix=[YBUSMOD]*[ZBUS]
1.00+4.16j
2.77e-16+2.77e-17
2.22e-16+5.5e-17j
2.22e-16+5.55e-17j

1.38+4.16e-17j
1.00+2.77e-17
2.22e-16+4.16e-17j
2.20e-16+0.00j

0.00-0.378e-19j
5.511e-17-1.38e-17
1.00-5.5e-17j
0.00+0.00j

0.00+0.00j
-1.1e-16-0.00j
0.00-5.5e-17j
1.00+0.00j

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RESULT:
The program has been developed to compute the Z-bus matrix and thus result are verified
by multiplying the modified Y-bus matrix and Z-bus matrix to get unit matrix.