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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

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ROLLED NONWOVEN FABRIC STORAGE

Table of Contents
Page 1.0 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Changes ............................................................................................................................................ 3 2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................... 3 2.1 Construction and Location ............................................................................................................... 3 2.1.1 Building Construction ............................................................................................................ 3 2.1.2 Steel Protection ..................................................................................................................... 3 2.1.3 False Ceilings ........................................................................................................................ 3 2.1.4 Ventilation .............................................................................................................................. 3 2.1.5 Water Damage Protection ..................................................................................................... 3 2.1.6 Allowable Loads .................................................................................................................... 3 2.2 Protection ......................................................................................................................................... 4 2.2.1 Highloft Nonwoven ................................................................................................................ 4 2.2.2 Nonwoven Fabric .................................................................................................................. 4 2.2.3 Suppression Mode Sprinkler Protection for Rack and Palletized Storage Of Nonwoven Rolls ...................................................................................................................................... 28 2.3 Human Element ............................................................................................................................. 28 3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................. 28 3.1 Test Data ....................................................................................................................................... 28 3.2 Variables Affecting Fire Behavior .................................................................................................. 29 3.2.1 Storage Height .................................................................................................................... 29 3.2.2 Clearance ............................................................................................................................ 29 3.2.3 Storage Methods ................................................................................................................. 29 4.0 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 30 4.1 FM Global ...................................................................................................................................... 30 APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ..................................................................................................... 30 APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY ..................................................................................... 30 APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION ................................................................................... 30 C.1 Loft Factor ..................................................................................................................................... 30

List of Figures
Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. 1. Double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high. ...................................................................................... 11 1a. Alternate to Fig. 1 for double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high. ................................................ 12 1b. Alternate to Fig. 1 for double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high. ................................................ 13 2. Double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high. ..................................................................................... 14 2a. Alternate to Fig. 2 for double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high. ................................................ 15 2b. Alternate to Fig. 2 for double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high. ................................................ 16 3. Double-row racks under 25 ft (7.6 m) high. ..................................................................................... 17 3a. Alternate to Fig. 3 for double-row racks under 25 ft (7.6 m) high. ................................................ 18 3b. Alternate to Figure 3 for double-row racks under 25 ft (7.6 m) high. ............................................ 19 3c. Alternate to Fig. 3 for double-row racks under 25 ft (7.6 m) high. ................................................. 20 4. Double-row racks above 20 ft (6.1 m) high. ..................................................................................... 21 5. Double-row racks above 20 ft (6.1 m) high. ..................................................................................... 22 6. Double-row racks above 20 ft (6.1 m) high. ..................................................................................... 23 7. Double-row racks above 20 ft (6.1 m) high. ..................................................................................... 24 8. Multiple-row racks of any height. ...................................................................................................... 25

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Fig. 9. Multiple-row racks of any height. ...................................................................................................... 26 Fig. 10. Multiple-row racks of any height. Protection using horizontal barriers and in-rack sprinklers. ...... 27

List of Tables
Table Table Table Table Table Table 1. 2. 3. 3. 3. 4. Floor Storage of Rolled Nonwoven Fabric ..................................................................................... 5 Floor Storage of Rolled Nonwoven FabricAlternate ................................................................... 6 Double Row Rack Storage of Rolled Nonwoven Fabric .................................................................. 7 Double Row Rack Storage of Rolled Nonwoven Fabric (continued) ............................................. 8 Double Row Rack Storage of Rolled Nonwoven Fabric (Continued) ............................................ 9 Multiple Row Rack Storage of Rolled Nonwoven Fabric ............................................................. 10

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1.0 SCOPE This data sheet provides fire protection guidelines for indoor storage various types of rolled nonwoven fabrics stored solid-piled or palletized, on end or on side and on-rack, on end or on side. 1.1 Changes May 2008. Section 2.2.3, Suppression Mode Sprinkler Protection for Rack and Palletized Storage of Nonwoven Rolls, was revised. 2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS 2.1 Construction and Location 2.1.1 Building Construction 2.1.1.1 Buildings may be conventional with storage on-floor or on-racks placed inside the structure, or the racks themselves may form the structure that supports the roof and walls. 2.1.2 Steel Protection 2.1.2.1 When sprinkler systems are installed in accordance with this data sheet, fire protection of roof steel is unnecessary. 2.1.2.2 Provide protection for steel building columns located wholly or partially within storage arrays. A sidewall sprinkler, at the 15 ft (4.6 m) elevation, pointed toward one side of the steel column, discharging 30 gpm (114 dm3/min) is adequate. 2.1.3 False Ceilings 2.1.3.1 If necessary to achieve appropriate clearance over the top of the storage, a false ceiling should be installed over the storage with sprinklers installed below the ceiling. Sprinkler protection should be provided at roof level if the roof or ceiling is combustible. False ceilings should be of substantial construction, capable of withstanding temperatures above 1000F (538C) for up to 10 minutes and uplift velocity pressures of at least 3 lb/ft2 (0.14 kPa). Materials suitable for such a purpose include 38 in. (9.5 cm) plywood, 38 in. (9.5 cm) gypsum board, corrugated or sheet steel, or mineral tile. Sheets of these materials can be mechanically fastened to the underside of existing framework or supported on framework from above or below. If the false ceiling is hung from existing roof framework, it should be verified that the roof framework can support the ceiling and additional automatic sprinkler piping. 2.1.3.2 If the false ceiling is partial, it should extend at least 10 ft (3 m) beyond any storage and with a row of sprinklers 2 to 3 ft (0.6 to 1 m) inside the edge (storage side of edge) of the false ceiling. 2.1.4 Ventilation FM Global Research recommended protection is based on roof vents and draft curtains not being provided. Fire tests have not shown automatic vents to be cost effective; they may even increase sprinkler water demand. Hence, permanent heat and smoke vents, if any, should be arranged for manual operation. Smoke removal during mop-up operations can frequently be achieved through eaveline windows, doors, monitors, nonautomatic exhaust systems (gravity or mechanical) or manually operated heat and smoke vents. Fire departments can cut holes in steel or wood roofs and can also use their smoke exhausters. 2.1.5 Water Damage Protection 2.1.5.1 Skids, pallets, trenches, floor drains or other suitable means to minimize water damage should be provided. 2.1.6 Allowable Loads 2.1.6.1 Upper floors used for rolled nonwoven fabric storage should be designed to hold possible additional weight from rolled nonwoven fabric water absorption that will vary between types of fabrics. Higher absorption may be anticipated with longer sprinkler discharge durations and inadequate drainage or skidding. However, neither total absorption nor the confinement of a large depth of water are likely.

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2.2 Protection 2.2.1 Highloft Nonwoven 2.2.1.1 Locate fiberfill, highloft and batting in a one-hour rated cutoff area with ceiling protection capable of 0.60 gpm/ft2 (24 mm/min) over the entire area. 2.2.1.2 As an alternate, store fiberfill, highloft and batting in a low value sprinklered or unsprinklered detached building. 2.2.1.3 An additional alternate is to store fiberfill, highloft and batting in 500 ft2 (46 m2) piles separated by 20 ft (6.1 m) in all directions. Limit storage height to 10 ft (3 m) with ceiling protection capable of 0.60 gpm/ft2 (24 mm/min) over 3000 ft2 (279 m2). Use 1732 in. (20 mm nominal) 286F (141C) sprinklers. 2.2.1.4 An exception to the above is the lesser of a one-day supply or 500 ft2 (46 m2) of in-process storage of rolled fiberfill, highloft or batting. In-process storage should not exceed 10 ft (3 m) in height and should be separated from all other combustibles by at least 20 ft (6.1 m). Ceiling protection for: up to 5 ft (1.5 m) should be 0.30 gpm/ft2 (12 mm/min) over 2000 ft2 (186 m2); up to 10 ft (3 m) should be 0.60 gpm/ft2 (24 mm/min) over 3000 ft2 (279 m2). 2.2.1.5 Use 1732 in. (20 mm nominal), 286F (141C) sprinklers. One-half in. (15 mm nominal), 286F (141C) sprinklers may be used if design discharge is 30 gpm (12 mm/min) or less. 2.2.2 Nonwoven Fabric 2.2.2.1 Sprinkler System 2.2.2.1.1 In heated areas, wet pipe sprinkler systems are most suitable for rolled nonwoven fabric storage protection. Preaction systems are an alternate to wet pipe systems for use in unheated areas. Dry pipe sprinkler systems should not be used. 2.2.2.1.2 Except as modified in this data sheet, installation of sprinkler systems should be in accordance with Data Sheet 2-7, Installation Rules for Sprinkler Systems Using Large-Drop Sprinklers and Data Sheet 2-8N, Installation of Sprinkler Systems. 2.2.2.2 Preaction Systems 2.2.2.2.1 Use only FM Approved preaction sprinkler systems. Determine water demands for preaction sprinkler systems on the same basis as for wet pipe sprinkler systems. See Data Sheet 2-8N, Installation of Sprinkler Systems for details of preaction system design. 2.2.2.2.2 Heat detector spacing should not exceed one-half the Approved linear detector spacing or the full allowable sprinkler spacing, whichever is greater. Dry pilot sprinklers are not acceptable detectors. 2.2.2.3 Pipe Layout 2.2.2.3.1 Sprinkler system risers should be protected against impact from handling equipment or falling rolls. 2.2.2.4 Sprinklers 2.2.2.4.1 Use 1732 in. (14 mm) orifice or large-drop sprinklers nominally rated at 286F (141C). Limit the coverage area of 1732 in. (20 mm nominal) orifice and large-drop sprinklers to a minimum of 80 ft2 (7.4 m2) and a maximum of 100 ft2 (9.3 m2). 2.2.2.5 Sprinkler Water Demand 2.2.2.5.1 Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 provide sprinkler density and operating area for various storage arrangements and storage heights. Locations having mixed storage or several different storage arrangements should be protected based on the greater storage hazard. 2.2.2.5.2 Water demand for rolled nonwoven fabrics wrapped in plastic is the same for rolls not wrapped in plastic. 2.2.2.5.3 When clearance between top of storage and sprinklers is maintained at 412 ft (1.4 m) or less, the design area may be reduced 15 percent, but not less than 2000 ft2 (186 m2).

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2.2.2.6 Storage Heights 2.2.2.6.1 Do not interpolate either density or area for intermediate storage heights. 2.2.2.7 Storage on Axial Rods 2.2.2.7.1 Limit storage height to not more than 10 ft (3 m). Store rolls as close together as possible, in at least one direction, to reduce flue space and minimize reradiation.
Table 1. Floor Storage of Rolled Nonwoven Fabric Storage Mode On end Closed or standard array (Do not store in open array)* Building Height Type of Sprinkler System Sprinklers Sprinkler Spacing Sprinkler Pressure Storage Height Up to 20 ft (6.1 m) Up to 16 ft (4.9 m) Up to 10 ft (3.0 m) Hose Stream Demand Water Supply Duration 30 ft maximum Wet or Preaction Large-Drop, 286F (141C) Per Data Sheet 2-7, Installation Rules for Sprinkler Systems Using Large-Drop Sprinklers. 75 psi (5.2 bar) minimum Number of Design Sprinklers 25 20 15 250 gpm (950 dm3/min) 2 hours

*See Data Sheet 8-21, Roll Paper Storage, Page 1, for definitions. Rolls of nonwoven fabric, either 1) enclosed including both ends, in a cardboard carton, or 2) wrapped, including both ends, with at least four layers of 40 lb/1000 ft2 (19.6 kg/100 m2) or heavy kraft paper, may be protected as unexpanded plastic (Data Sheet 2-2, Installation Guidelines for Suppression Mode Automatic Sprinklers, 2-7, Installation Rules for Sprinkler Systems Using Large-Drop Sprinklers, or 8-9, Storage of Class 1, 2, 3, 4 and Plastic Commodities).

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Table 2. Floor Storage of Rolled Nonwoven FabricAlternate Storage Mode On end Closed or standard array (Do not store in open array)* Building Height Type of Sprinkler System Sprinklers Storage Height ft (m) Up to 5 ft (1.5 m) Up to 10 ft (3.0 m) Up to 16 ft (4.9 m) 30 ft maximum Wet or Preaction
1732

in. (14 mm) (20 mm nominal), 286F (141C) Design Area ft


2

Sprinkler Density gpm/ft 0.30 0.60 0.60


2

(mm/min) (12) (24) (24)

(m2) (186) (279) (465)

2000 3000 5000

For storage heights above 16 ft (4.9 m) refer to Table 1. Hose Stream Demand Water Supply Duration 250 gpm (950 dm3/min) 2 hours

*See Data Sheet 8-21, Roll Paper Storage, Page 1, for definitions. Rolls of nonwoven fabric, either 1) enclosed including both ends, in a cardboard carton, or 2) wrapped, including both ends, with at least four layers of 40 lb/1000 ft2 (19.6 kg/100 m2) or heavy kraft paper, may be protected as unexpanded plastic (Data Sheet 2-2, Installation Guidelines for Suppression Mode Automatic Sprinklers, 2-7, Installation Rules for Sprinkler Systems Using Large-Drop Sprinklers, or 8-9, Storage of Class 1, 2, 3, 4 and Plastic Commodities).

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Table 3. Double Row Rack Storage of Rolled Nonwoven Fabric Approx. Ht. of Minimum Storage on end Ceiling Density, or on side ft gpm/ft2 (mm/min) (m)

Recommended In-Rack Sprinkler Protection

1. Install three lines of sprinklers over top of storage (flue & face), staggered. 2. Design for eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of two hydraulically most remote sprinkler lines. 3. See Figure 1. 0.3 (12) 10 (3.0) OR: 1. Install two lines of sprinklers over top of storage (face), staggered. 2. Design for eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of two hydraulically most remote sprinkler lines. 3. Provide barrier within 5 ft (1.5 m) of top of storage. 4. See Figure 1a. 1. Install three lines of sprinklers over top of storage (flue & face) staggered. 2. Design for eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of two hydraulically most remote sprinkler lines. 3. Provide barrier within 5 ft (1.5 m) of top of storage. 4. See Figure 1b. 1. Install one level of in-rack sprinklers including flue and face sprinklers (three lines) staggered, at approximately 12 to 23 height of storage. 2. Design for eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 3. See Figure 2. 0.45 (18) OR: 1. Install a barrier at approximately the 10 ft (3 m) level. 2. Install one level (2 lines) of in-rack sprinklers (face) beneath the barrier, staggered. 3. Design for eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 4. See Figure 2a. 1. Install a barrier at approximately the 10 ft (3 m) level and also at approximately the 15 ft (4.6 m) level. 2. Install two lines of in-rack sprinklers (face), staggered, beneath the lower barrier and three lines of in-rack sprinklers (face and flue), staggered beneath the top barrier. 3. Design of eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of the hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 4. See Figure 2b.

0.15 (6)

11 to 15 (3.4 to 4.6)

0.15 (6)

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Table 3. Double Row Rack Storage of Rolled Nonwoven Fabric (continued) Approx. Ht. of Storage on end or on side ft (m) Minimum Ceiling Density, gpm/ft2 (mm/min)

Recommended In-Rack Sprinkler Protection

1. Install one level of in-rack sprinklers including flue and face sprinklers (3 lines) staggered, at approximately mid-height of storage. 2. Design for eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote sprinkler lines. 3. See Figure 3. 0.60 (24) OR: 1. Install a barrier at approximately the 10 ft (3 m) level. 2. Install two lines of in-rack sprinklers (face) beneath the barrier, staggered. 3. Design for eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 4. See Figure 3a. 1. Install a barrier at approximately the 10 ft (3 m) level and also at approximately the 20 ft (6.1 m) level. 2. Install two lines of in-rack sprinklers (face), staggered, beneath the lower barrier and three lines of in-rack sprinklers (face and flue), staggered, beneath the top barrier. 3. Design for eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote sprinkler lines. 4. See Figure 3b. 0.15 (6) OR: 1. Install a barrier at approximately the 20 ft (6.1 m) level with three lines of in-rack sprinklers (face and flue), staggered, beneath the barrier. 2. Install three lines of in-rack sprinklers (face and flue), staggered at approximately the 10 ft (3 m) level. 3. Design for eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 4. See Figure 3c.

16 to 20 (4.9 to 6.1)

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Table 3. Double Row Rack Storage of Rolled Nonwoven Fabric (Continued) Approx. Ht. of Storage on end or on side ft (m) Minimum Ceiling Density, gpm/ft2 (mm/min)

Recommended In-Rack Sprinkler Protection

0.60 (24)

1. Install three lines of in-rack sprinklers at approximately each 10 ft (3 m) level (face and flue), except for the top most 10 ft (3 m) of storage. Sprinklers should be staggered. 2. Design for 14 sprinklers, seven sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 3. See Figure 4 Arrangement A or B. 1. Install three lines of in-rack sprinklers at approximately each 10 ft (3 m) level (face & flue) except for the top most 5 ft (1.5 m) of storage. Sprinklers should be staggered. 2. Design for 14 sprinklers, seven sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 3. See Figure 5Arrangement A or B. 1. Install three lines of in-rack sprinklers at approximately each 10 ft (3 m) level (face and flue), staggered. 2. Install a barrier over and within 5 ft (1.5 m) of the top most level of storage. 3. Install three lines of in-rack sprinklers beneath the barrier (face and flue), staggered. 4. Design for 14 sprinklers, seven sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 5. See Figure 6Arrangement A or B OR: 1. Install a barrier at approximately each 10 ft (3 m) level. 2. Install two lines of in-rack sprinklers (face) staggered beneath each barrier, except for the top most barrier. 3. Install three lines of in-rack sprinklers (face and flue) staggered, beneath the top most barrier. 4. Design for 14 sprinklers, seven sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 5. See Figure 7.

0.45 (18)

Over 20 (6.1)

0.15 (6)

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Table 4. Multiple Row Rack Storage of Rolled Nonwoven Fabric Approx. Ht. of Storage on end or on side ft (m) Minimum Ceiling Density, gpm/ft2 (mm/min)

Recommended In-Rack Sprinkler Protection

To 20 (6.1)

0.60 (24)

1. Install in-rack sprinklers at approximately the 10 ft (3 m) level (face and flue). Sprinklers should be staggered. 2. Design for eight sprinklers, four sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 3. See Figure 8. 1. Install in-rack sprinklers at approximately each 10 ft (3 m) level (face and flue), except for the top most 10 ft (3 m) of storage. Sprinklers should be staggered. 2. Design for 14 sprinklers, seven sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 3. See Figure 8. 1. Install in-rack sprinklers at approximately each 10 ft (3 m) level (face and flue), except for the top most 5 ft (1.5 m) of storage. Sprinklers should be staggered. 2. Design for 14 sprinklers, seven sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 3. See Figure 9. 1. Install a barrier at approximately each 10 ft (3 m) level. 2. Install face sprinklers on maximum 10 ft (3 m) spacing, staggered. 3. Install flue sprinklers on maximum 10 ft (3 m) spacing, staggered, except for top most level of in-rack sprinklers. 4. Design for 14 sprinklers, seven sprinklers on each of the two hydraulically most remote in-rack sprinkler lines. 5. See Figure 10.

0.60 (24)

Over 20 (6.1)

0.45 (18)

0.15 (6)

ADDITIONAL GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONSTABLES 3 AND 4 1. Ceiling area of demand2000 ft2 (186 m2) for all storage heights. 2. Ceiling sprinkler temperature rating286F (141C). 3. Ceiling sprinkler minimum orifice size1732 in. (14 mm) (20 mm nominal). Exception12 in. (13 mm) (15 mm nominal) sprinklers may be used when ceiling density of 0.15 to 0.30 gpm/ft2 (6 to 12 mm/min) is required. 4. In-rack sprinkler temperature rating165F (74C). 5. In-rack sprinkler discharge30 gpm (12 mm/min) each. 6. In-rack sprinklerseither 12 in. or 1732 in. (13 or 14 mm) (15 or 20 mm nominal) orifice. 7. In-rack sprinkler spacingminimum 8 ft (2.4 m), maximum 10 ft (3 m). 8. Clearanceup to 25 ft (7.6 m) clearancetop of storage to ceiling sprinklersis acceptable in buildings 30 ft (9.1 m) high or less. For buildings higher than 30 ft (9.1 m) clearance should not exceed 10 ft (3 m) except if three lines of sprinklers are installed beneath a barrier over the top of storage. 9. Wet pipe or preaction sprinkler systems only. 10. Hose stream demand 250 gpm (950 dm3/min). 11. Water supply duration2 hours. 12. Single row rackstwo sprinkler lines (face) staggered. 13. Rolls, either 1) enclosed, including both ends, in a cardboard carton or 2) wrapped, including both ends, with at least four layers of 40 lb/1000 ft2 (19.6 kg/100 m2) or heavier, kraft paper may be protected as unexpanded plastic (Data Sheet 2-2, Installation Guidelines for Suppression Mode Automatic Sprinklers, Data Sheet 2-7, Installation Rules for Sprinkler Systems Using Large-Drop Sprinklers, or Data Sheet 8-9, Storage of Class 1, 2, 3, 4 and Plastic Commodities).

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Fig. 1. Double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high.

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Fig. 1a. Alternate to Fig. 1 for double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high.

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Fig. 1b. Alternate to Fig. 1 for double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high.

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Fig. 2. Double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high.

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Fig. 2a. Alternate to Fig. 2 for double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high.

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Fig. 2b. Alternate to Fig. 2 for double-row racks under 20 ft (6.1 m) high.

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Fig. 3. Double-row racks under 25 ft (7.6 m) high.

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Fig. 3a. Alternate to Fig. 3 for double-row racks under 25 ft (7.6 m) high.

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Fig. 3b. Alternate to Figure 3 for double-row racks under 25 ft (7.6 m) high.

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Fig. 3c. Alternate to Fig. 3 for double-row racks under 25 ft (7.6 m) high.

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Fig. 4. Double-row racks above 20 ft (6.1 m) high.

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Fig. 5. Double-row racks above 20 ft (6.1 m) high.

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Fig. 6. Double-row racks above 20 ft (6.1 m) high.

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Fig. 7. Double-row racks above 20 ft (6.1 m) high.

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Fig. 8. Multiple-row racks of any height.

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Fig. 9. Multiple-row racks of any height.

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Fig. 10. Multiple-row racks of any height. Protection using horizontal barriers and in-rack sprinklers.

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FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

2.2.3 Suppression Mode Sprinkler Protection for Rack and Palletized Storage Of Nonwoven Rolls The following recommendations are specific to rolled nonwovens made with polypropylene, rayon, and polyethylene. Do not use these guidelines for fiberfill, highloft and batting, or nonwovens such as dry-laid pulp. The recommendations are also specific in that the rolls have cardboard end caps and are wrapped (sides and ends) with plastic stretch wrap. 2.2.3.1 Acceptable storage arrangements are: 1) in-rack (on-side or one-end), and 2) palletized. The rolls may be banded or unbanded. These recommendations are not intended for on-floor/on-end storage of nonwovens. On-floor/on-end arrangements have continuous flue spaces that have the potential of producing very strong fire plumes that can overpower the suppression mode sprinkler system. 2.2.3.2 Protection Guidelines Sprinklers: FM Approved, pendent, suppression mode sprinklers System type: Wet-pipe (no dry-pipe or preaction) Sprinkler system design: Design for 12 sprinklers K14.0 K16.8 K22.4 K25.2 (200), (240), (320), (360), at at at at 75 52 45 40 psi psi psi psi (5.2 (3.6 (3.1 (2.8 bar) bar) bar) bar)

Hydraulic design: 4 sprinklers per branch line on 3 branch lines Sprinkler temperature rating: Nominal 165F (74C) Sprinkler installation guidelines: Follow all installation recommendations in Data Sheet 2-2. Maximum storage height: 35 ft (10.7 m) Maximum building height: 40 ft (12.2 m). Hose stream: 250 gal/min (950 L/min) Water supply duration: 1 hour 2.3 Human Element 2.3.1 There is no substitute for a well-trained emergency organization. Early detection and effective action by personnel during a rolled nonwoven fabric fire can greatly reduce fire and water damage. Controlling possible ignition sources, maintaining proper aisle spacing and practicing good housekeeping are other recommended safe practices. See Data Sheet 8-0, General Storage Safeguards, for details on these and other general storage safeguards. 3.0 SUPPORT FOR RECOMMENDATIONS 3.1 Test Data Numerous laboratory, Fire Products Collector (FPC), intermediate-scale fire tests and a large-scale fire test have been conducted on rolled nonwoven fabrics. Except for batting, fiberfill, and highloft materials, there are no obvious differences, at this time, in the level of protection required, once burning is established, between various nonwoven fabrics (low vs. high heat of combustion, low vs. high density). In most cases, rolled nonwoven fabrics display moderate to heavy dripping of molten plastic as they burn, which increases fire intensity and, to some extent, fire spread. Intermediate scale, on-floor, on-end fire tests with large orifice sprinklers discharging 0.60 gpm/ft2 (24.5 mm/ min) were not controlled when stacks were 20 ft (6.1 m) and 18 ft (5.5 m) high. A 21 ft (6.4 m) high intermediate-scale, on-floor, on-end fire test with large drop sprinklers operating at 25 psi (1.7 bar) was not controlled. A 21 ft (6.4 m) high full-scale, on-floor, on-end fire test with suppression mode sprinklers operating at 50 psi (3.4 bar) was not adequately suppressed.

2008 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

Rolled Nonwoven Fabric Storage


FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

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Page 29

Tests conducted on batting, fiberfill and highloft materials indicate that large-drop ceiling only sprinklers discharging at 75 psi (5.1 bar) did not control a fire in a 16 ft (4.9 m) high rack storage array. If rolled nonwoven fabric storage is inadequately protected, fire development and spread is unusually severe and rapid. Exposed building steel can quickly heat to temperatures at which it fails structurally. Excessive steel deflection can break sprinkler piping and deprive the building contents of fire protection at a time of maximum need. 3.2 Variables Affecting Fire Behavior There are many variables in rolled nonwoven fabric arrangements that can affect fire severity. A few of the major factors are discussed below: 3.2.1 Storage Height Fire testing has shown that fire hazard increases with the increase in storage height. Generally there is more damage and larger numbers of sprinklers operate. 3.2.2 Clearance Both fire testing and loss experience have shown that low clearance between the top of storage and ceiling sprinklers is advantageous in fire control. Generally, the number of operating sprinklers and amount of damage increases with increasing clearances. 3.2.3 Storage Methods 3.2.3.1 On Floor/On Side Storage On-floor/on-end storage is more varied and more widely used than on-side storage. Where clamp-jaw equipment is used, jaw clearance space of at least 4 in. (100 mm) is usual, resulting in an open or standard array storage arrangement. Rolls varying in diameter provide spaces between stacks that may reach several feet. Fire can grow rapidly in such storage; air supply is favorable for burning in flue-like spaces. In addition, heat radiated and reradiated from one stack to another promotes intense fires. Individual stacks consisting of rolls with assorted diameters, such as butt rolls, are considered an open array and should be stored in a separate cutoff area. When all rolls in a sector of storage are of the same diameter, adjacent stacks should be placed in, or nearly in contact in both directions. Close stacking or butting requires extra care and effort by equipment operators and their supervisors, particularly where clamp-jaw equipment is used. Less effort is needed where vacuum clamp equipment is used, but some rolls cannot be handled by suction. Rolls are sometimes stored vertically on pallets. The fire hazard is essentially that of the same storage without pallets. 3.2.3.2 On-Floor/On-Side Storage Rolls stored on-side may be nested between rolls of a lower tier or separated by dunnage placed between tiers. Where dunnage is used, there is opportunity for fire to burrow into a pile and make extinguishment more difficult than for nested rolls. Such fire is well shielded from fire fighting efforts, can involve a large portion of the storage, and can become quite severe in vertical flues between rolls ends. 3.2.3.3 Storage on Axial Rods Rolled nonwoven fabric is sometimes supported horizontally on racks by rods that run axially through the rolls. Store rolls as close together as possible, in at least one direction, to reduce flue spaces and minimize reradiation. Limit storage height to not more than 10 ft (3 m). 3.2.3.4 On-Rack Storage Rolled nonwoven fabric is sometimes stored on-racks on-pallets, either on end or on side.

2008 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

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Rolled Nonwoven Fabric Storage


FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

4.0 REFERENCES 4.1 FM Global Data Data Data Data Sheet Sheet Sheet Sheet 2-2, Installation Guidelines for Suppression Mode Automatic Sprinklers. 2-7, Installation Rules for Sprinkler Systems Using Large-Drop Sprinklers. 2-8N, Installation of Sprinkler Systems. 8-9, Storage of Class 1, 2, 3, 4 and Plastic Commodities.

APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS Nonwoven Fabric: a relatively low-to-moderate density fiber web construction product usually having the appearance of tissue paper, medium-weight paper or felt. The more common fibers are wood pulp, rayon, polyester and polypropylene. Polyethylene is less commonly used. Plastic fibers are used alone, in combination with each other or with wood pulp. It can be made by several processes such as, but not limited to, hydroentanglement, thermal bonding, needle punch or adhesive bonding. It is used for: interfacing in shirts, suits, jackets, dresses; soil erosion control; disposable baby and adult personal care products; health care products; carpet backing; and many other purposes. Definitions for aisle, bulkhead, clearance, encapsulation, flue space, horizontal barrier, pallets, rack storage sprinklers, solid shelving, storage height, storage racks, tier, etc., are found in Data Sheets 2-7, Installation Rules for Sprinkler Systems Using Large-Drop Sprinklers; 2-8N, Installation of Sprinkler Systems; 8-9, Storage of Class 1, 2, 3, 4 and Plastic Commodities. APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY May 2008. Section 2.2.3, Suppression Mode Sprinkler Protection for Rack and Palletized Storage of Nonwoven Rolls, was revised. May 2003. Minor editorial changes were made for this edition. January 2000. This revision of the document was reorganized to provide a consistent format. APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION C.1 Loft Factor A relatively low density, fiber web construction, high bulk nonwoven product having the physical appearance of fiberglass insulation generally, though not exclusively, 14 to 3 in. (6 to 76 mm) thick, usually white in color and generally made from polyester fibers with acrylic or latex binder. It is used as clothing insulation, filling for comforters, filters, furniture padding, and sound deadening insulation. L (Do2 Di2) pf Roll Loft Factor = 1 4 (Wo Wc )
where L=roll length Do=roll outer diameter Di=roll inner diameter pf=density Wo=roll weight Wc=weight of inner core =3.1416 US ft ft ft lb/ft3 lb lb (Metric) (m) (m) (m) (kg/m3) (kg) (kg)

A roll loft factor of 25 or above indicates batting, fiberfill, highloft. Roll Loft Factor is a FM Global Research derived number for comparison purposes.

2008 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.