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Wind Energy and Wind Turbine Technology

Renewable Energy Technology II Advanced Course MJ2412 (RET 2) (RET-2) Lecture series on WIND POWER
Miroslav Petrov
Department of Energy Technology, p gy gy, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

Structure of the lecture series


Introduction historical review and latest trends. Basic wind turbine aerodynamics understanding how they work. Machine elements and electrical generators for wind turbines
important characteristics.

Operation of wind turbines Turbine output in real applications.


Operational characteristics. Energy yield. Maintenance issues.

Environmental Aspects issues related to the impact of wind power.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

Section 1

Brief Historical Review


Wind turbines were the locomotives of refined engineering long before the steam engines and the industrial revolution.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

Ancient Windmills

Large drag-force vertical axis devices, used in the Middle East, Central Asia and China for milling grain or pumping water. p p g Need steady winds from one direction only. Date back more than 3000 years.

Source: www.eurowind-uk.net

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

Ancient Windmills still in operation

Source: Deutsches Museum

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

First Windmills in Europe

Tower mills appeared on the Mediterranean coasts ~ 1000 years ago. y g Solid stone structures, again facing only one certain direction of prevailing winds. di ti f ili i d

Source: Wind Power Plants, R. Gasch & J. Twele

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

Improved Technology: gy Post (Pole) Mills

The wooden 4-bladed windmill was developed p and widely used in Medieval Europe

Source: Deutsches Museum

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

First scientific approach

John Smeaton, in 1759, , , experimented on wind rotors with his revolutionary test apparatus. He proved the 4-bladed rotors superior performance at that time, and defined the twisted wing.

Source: www. windturbine-analysis.com

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

Yawing the turbine g


The pole mill was resting on a pole in order to be able to yaw (facing the wind). The mill was yawed by hand. y y

Source: www.molendatabase.nl

Source: www.windmillworld.com

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

Further Improvements

Windmills grew in size and got further sophisticated. The bl d i Th blade is a wooden frame d f covered with sail cloth or wooden plates.

Source: www.molendatabase.nl

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Yaw Levers for large windmills g


Some windmills (or windpumps) grew to enormous sizes, but yawing was still manual.

Source: www.molendatabase.nl

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Mechanical Yawing: the Fantail g


Important step forward th I t t t f d the introduction of forced yawing propelled by a rosette (fantail).

Source: www.windmillworld.com

Source: www.eurowind-uk.net

Source: www. members.ozemail.com.au

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Internal construction of the mill


Wooden drivetrain and wooden gears rotating the milling stone.

Source: www. members.ozemail.com.au

Source: Wind Power Plants, R. Gasch and J. Twele

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Power Output Control

Power output in strong winds was regulated by yawing the rotor out of wind, then uncovering the cloth on the blades by climbing on them, after which the mill was ready to be yawed back in action. y

Source: www. members ozemail com au www members.ozemail.com.au

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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The Multiblade Windpump


Source: www.molendatabase.nl

The multiblade western farm mill (water pump) was a breakthrough for simplicity of construction, maintenance, and output control in the 19th century.

A simple tailvane for yawing, and a special side-vane for turning out of wind at high windspeeds...
Source: www windturbine-analysis com www.windturbine analysis.com

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Multiblade windpump applications


Source: Wind Energy Systems, Gary L. Johnson

Low-speed high-torque turbine, L d hi h t t bi always coupled to the load. The blades are curved steel plates. The load is a piston pump.

Source: www.windpower.org

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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First attempt for electricity g y generation

Poul la Cours turbine in 1904 Cour s 1904, Denmark, used an old-style rotor with a DC generator, and was the first one to produce electricity.

Source: www.afm.dtu.dk/wind

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Modern Experiments (1) ( )

The Smith-Putnam turbine Smith Putnam in Vermont, USA, 1940, was the first one to introduce proper aerofoil blades with f il bl d ith a rotor diameter of 53 m, and to attempt a power output of 1 MW ! t t f

Source: www.integener.com

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Modern Experiments (2) ( )

The 200 kW Gedser turbine in D i Denmark, 1957 with rotor k 1957, ith t diameter of 24 m, showed that further development will be governed mostly by possibility to manufacture better, larger, and lighter blades!

Source: www.afm.dtu.dk/wind

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Modern Experiments (3) ( )

TVIND turbine in Denmark, 1977, had an installed capacity of 2 MW with rotor diameter of 52 m.

Source: www.afm.dtu.dk/wind

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Modern Experiments (4) ( )

The WTS-4 project turbine in USA, 1981, had a generator of 4 MW, but the rotor diameter was too small (78 m) and the turbine hardly ever operated at its rated capacity. p y

Source: www.afm.dtu.dk/wind

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Modern Experiments (5) ( )


The MAGLARP turbine in Sweden, 1982, had a rated capacity of 3 MW and operated reliably for 11 years. years It was the most productive turbine among all early large experimental projects.

Source: www.ieawind.org

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Modern Experiments (6) ( )

The Eole C vertical a is ertical axis Darrieus turbine in Cap Chat, Qubec, 1987, was 100 m high ith hi h with a rotor of 64 m t f diameter, and had a rated capacity of 4.2 MW, the largest at that time.

Source: www.windpower.dk

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Modern Experiments (7) ( )

The 3MW WEG-LS1 turbine on Burgar Hill (Orkney Islands) in the UK 1988 UK, 1988, costed 17 million !!!...

Source: www.stockscotland.com

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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To learn from ones mistakes


The quest for designing and installing super-large experimental turbines continued in Denmark, USA, Germany, Britain, Italy, Spain, Japan, etc.. Valuable experience was gained many possible gained, failure points and technical hinders identified. But for the windpower to enter a commercial breakthrough, some new, reliable, lower cost solutions were required! q

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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The evolution approach


Learn first how to make small reliable machines, and after that you may let them evolve into larger ones Manufacturers in Denmark emerged around 1980 and started producing series of small wind turbine models (2050 kW) ready for the market. d l (20 50 d f th k t The first mass-market for wind power was launched in the early 1980s in California following the second oil crisis, which triggered the introduction of favourable legislation for promoting renewable energy sources. sources Wind power became competitive and started to grow.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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First commercial windmills


California s Californias windparks: First machines (up to 100 kW) were mechanically inferior and had the bad luck of getting morally old and obsolete before managing to serve their designed lifetime.
Source: www.nordex.dk

Source: www.wind-works.org

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Technological Development g
Wind turbines continuously grow in unit size. Costs of wind-generated electricity are becoming competitive to those from newly built fossil-fired plants. Further growth in size is dependant not only on the possibility to produce longer blades, but also on electrical power aspects and load management. Further deployment of wind turbines must utilize the huge offshore wind resources and find a solution for efficient grid integration and/or energy storage. ffi i t id i t ti d/ t

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Largest wind turbines today g y


The l Th largest commercial t i l wind turbine for onshore installations is the Enercon 4.5 MW machine, with rotor diameter of 114 m! First prototypes of 5 MW turbines, designed for offshore applications, are currently being tested by several companies companies.
Source: www.enercon.de

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Complexity of modern wind turbines y


Large modern wind turbines involve all these fields:

Aerodynamics (blades and structures); Mechanics (machine elements, strength of elements materials, novel materials, testing); Electrical Engineering (electrical machines, grid connection/integration, load management); Electronics (controls and power electronics); Controls (control theory, hydraulics, pneumatics); Civil Engineering (foundations, roads, power lines); Transport Logistics; Design & Architecture; Economics; Project Planning & Management...
Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)
Source: www.afm.dtu.dk/wind

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Section 2

Overview of wind energy realities


the explosive development of windpower during the last 30 years, and its importance for the present & future energy mix in the world p p gy

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Importance of Renewable Energy gy


Old renewable energy targets in the EU:

Source: www ewea org www.ewea.org

Surpassed already by the end of 2005 !

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Renewable Energy Targets gy g

EU: 12% renewable energy by 2010 (incl. 75000 MW wind power) EU: 20% renewable energy by 2020 (incl. 180000 MW wind power) USA: 20% electricity from wind by 2030 Greenpeace wishes globally: 12% electricity from wind by 2020

EU: Investments of 443 billion are required until 2020. More than 2000000 new jobs can be created. 2 000 000 created

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Incentives for reaching the targets g g


Various investment grant schemes have been offered in the early years. Later on, a secured electricity price scheme for the investor has been enough to trigger the development. Nowadays, several types of support schemes are still in action, though their importance is decreasing as wind power becomes more and more competitive. The three major support schemes used today are: j y Fixed Feed-in Price for renewable electricity; Fixed Quantity of Renewable Electricity (Green Certificates); y y( ); Tax Credits (the Production Tax Credit in the USA).

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Support Schemes
Fixed price (feed-in tariff): Guaranteed price per kWh. The higher costs are covered by the end users. This is the most promotional scheme, perfect examples are Denmark, Germany, and Spain, featuring the highest penetration of wind power. Other countries have also tried to use guaranteed prices, but suffer from problems with grid connection and t d i b t ff f bl ith id ti d power regulation. Fixed quantity system (Green Certificates or Renewable Obligation Certificates): Involve a decision by national governments about the level of renewable electricity to be achieved over a certain period, while market forces are left to establish the price per kWh. Tradable certificates are applied to reflect the additional costs (UK, I l d Sweden, Italy, etc.), li d t fl t th dditi l t (UK Ireland, S d It l t ) which again are ultimately covered by the end users. Production Tax Credit (PTC): Used in the USA and other North- and South-American countries. A federal support in cents/kWh is applied to the power producer, which is not directly transferred to the end user.

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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The Danish Example


A success story for Danish industry:

~22% i 2009! 22% in

Denmark is the largest producer and exporter of wind turbines (per capita), p (p p ), and has the largest share of electricity consumption covered by wind...!

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Market Development in Europe


Annual wind power capacity growth in Europe [MW]:

Source: www.ewea.org

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Europe 2002

Source: www.ewea.org

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Europe 2003

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Europe 2004

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Europe 2005

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Europe 2006

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Europe 2007

Source: www ewea org www.ewea.org

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Europe 2008

Source: www.ewea.org

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Europe 2009

Source: www.ewea.org

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Europe 2010

Source: www.ewea.org

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Market development in the USA


Everything began in California Annual growth of wind turbine capacity in the USA, [MW]: f S

Source: www.awea.org, & the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Energy Program

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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US annual growth g

Source: www.ucsusa.org g

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Recent US annual growth g

Source: www.awea.org

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USA 2006
Cumulative wind turbine capacity in the USA, end of 2006 [MW]:

Source: www.awea.org & the U.S. Department of Energy Wind Energy Program

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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USA 2008

Source: www.awea.org

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USA 2009

Source: www.awea.org

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USA 2010
Source: www.awea.org

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Global Market Development

Mostly China and India

Mostly Brazil

Source: www.ewea.org g

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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Global Manufacturers Overview


(Now Alstom Power - Wind division)

(Taken over by Gamesa)

Major producers of prod cers wind turbines & their market shares in 2002. This status-quo was almost same in 2005. By 2010, Suzlon has expanded a lot, and d d l t d new names have entered the market.

(Now Siemens)

(Now GE Wind Energy) GE Energy )

(Now joined with Vestas)

Dept. of Energy Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Course RET II (MJ2412)

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