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Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences School of Technology

Project Group 2A1S Duco Golhof Allard de Groot Jotham Hensen Judie Ibrahim Sander Mestemaker Erik Portman Iris Prinsen Wouter Seignette

Amsterdam, March 22, 2011

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls

Table of contents
Summary ................................................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction............................................................................................................................................. 4 Chapter 1 Flight Controls......................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Theory Flight Controls ................................................................................................................... 5 1.1.1 Theory Aerodynamics ............................................................................................................. 5 1.1.2 Theory Movement .................................................................................................................. 7 1.2 Primary Flight Controls ................................................................................................................ 10 1.2.1 Ailerons ................................................................................................................................. 10 1.2.2 Rudder .................................................................................................................................. 12 1.2.3 Elevator................................................................................................................................. 13 1.3 Secondary flight controls ............................................................................................................. 13 1.3.1 Trailing edge high lift devices ............................................................................................... 13 1.3.2 Leading edge high lift devices .............................................................................................. 14 1.3.3 Spoilers ................................................................................................................................. 15 1.3.4 Trims ..................................................................................................................................... 15 1.4 Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 16 1.4.1 Law requirements................................................................................................................. 16 1.4.2 Company requirements ........................................................................................................ 18 1.5 Comparison small and large airplanes ........................................................................................ 18 1.5.1 Small Airplane ....................................................................................................................... 19 1.5.2 Large Airplane....................................................................................................................... 19 1.6 Function research ........................................................................................................................ 19 Chapter 2 Flight Control System............................................................................................................ 21 2.1 Boeing 737 Flight Control Systems .............................................................................................. 21 2.1.1 System overview................................................................................................................... 21 2.1.2 Conventional Flight control system ...................................................................................... 23 2.1.3 Backup Boeing 737 ............................................................................................................... 24 2.1.4 Flight control law Boeing 737 ............................................................................................... 25 2.2 Airbus A320 Flight Control System .............................................................................................. 26 Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s |

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls 2.2.1 System overview................................................................................................................... 26 2.2.2 Airbus fly-by-wire system ..................................................................................................... 28 2.2.3 Backup Airbus A320 .............................................................................................................. 29 2.2.4 Flight control law Airbus A320 ............................................................................................. 29 2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages ................................................................................................... 31 2.3.1 Conventional elevator system function table ...................................................................... 31 2.3.2 fly-by-wire elevator system function table .......................................................................... 31 2.3.3 Conventional flap function table .......................................................................................... 32 2.3.4 Fly-by-wire flap function table ............................................................................................. 32 2.3.5 Comparison .......................................................................................................................... 32 2.4 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 32 Chapter 3 Modification System ............................................................................................................. 33 3.1 Modification plan ........................................................................................................................ 33 3.1.1. Primary ................................................................................................................................ 33 3.1.2. Secondary ............................................................................................................................ 34 3.1.3 Backup system ...................................................................................................................... 35 3.2 Design aspects ............................................................................................................................. 35 3.2.1 Certification .......................................................................................................................... 35 3.2.2 Maintenance......................................................................................................................... 36 3.3 Financial Aspects ......................................................................................................................... 36 3.3.1 Costs ..................................................................................................................................... 36 3.3.2 Benefits ................................................................................................................................. 37 3.3.3 Costs and benefits analysis................................................................................................... 37 3.4 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 38 3.5 Recommendation ........................................................................................................................ 38 Bibliography........................................................................................................................................... 39 List of Appendixes ................................................................................................................................. 42

Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s |

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls

Summary
Group 2A1S has been given the assignment to examine the modification of a Boeing 737 by Amstel Leeuwenburg Airlines. The assignment is about the modification from a conventional flight control system to a fly-by-wire system, and to see if its profitable. The aerodynamic laws relevant for the flight controls are the Continuity law and Bernoullis law. The laws say that the inflowing gas in a tube is always similar to the outflowing gas, and that the sum of the static pressure and dynamic pressure is constant. There are four main forces on an airplane. The four main forces on an airplane are lift, drag, thrust and gravity (weight). An airplane moves with different control surfaces. The control surfaces will cause changes to the airflow around the wings which will change the lift, drag and direction of flight. The four major control surfaces are ailerons, flaps, rudder and elevators. Ailerons are used for banking, flaps create more lift, rudders are used for yaw turns and elevators are used for pitch moments. Also, the wing shape affects the wings characteristics. There are two different types of flight controls. The first type of flight controls is called primary flight controls, and consists of the ailerons, rudder and elevators. The second type of flight controls is called the secondary flight controls, and consists of flaps, slats, spoilers and trims. There is variation for each type of primary and secondary flight controls. In small airplanes these flight controls are usually controlled by human power, in large airplanes the human power is amplified by hydraulics. Hydraulics are fluids under high pressure, and are used to transport and amplify forces. The law requirements for the flight controls are described in CS-25. CS-25 is used because a Boeing 737 is considered a large airplane. Large airplanes weight more than 5700 kg. The main differences between the two flight control systems are the hydraulics. The conventional system uses hydraulics. This system has the advantage that the mechanic system wont fail if power failure has occurred, the mechanical system can still be used. The system gives mechanical feedback to the pilot which makes it easier to steer accurate. The disadvantages are that because of the use of rods and wires the weight of the plain will increase which will lead to higher fuel consumption. Rods and cables take a lot of space in an airplane. Also a hydraulic system can create friction, which means it can be less accurate. The fly-by-wire system is controlled by computers and electric cables. The advantage of this system is that the computer can calculate limits like stall speed, maximal bank and maximal load factor. Another advantage is that there are less mechanical moving parts. This causes less wear and so also less maintenance. Less mechanical parts causes also less weight of the airplane. Thats an important advantage because less weight causes more space for payload. The modification of the flight control system is expensive. There are a lot of different costs for the purchase and installation of the system, the retraining and certification costs and of course the costs to hold the airplane on the ground and make no profit. Thats why our final recommendation is to not modify the conventional system to a fly-by-wire system.

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls

Introduction
Project group 2A1S is working for the technical service, section engineering, of the Amstel Leeuwenburg Airlines (ALA). The ALA has two types of airplanes operational; five Boeing 737s and seven Airbus A320s. The main object of project group 2A1S is to investigate if it is possible and profitable to modify the conventional flight control systems of the Boeing 737s, to a fly-by-wire system as used in the Airbus A320s. During this research project group 2A1S has to cope with the requirements of direction of ALA and the law requirements. This report is separated in 3 chapters, according to the Kroonenberg methodical design plan. Chapter 1 explains what flight controls are, and how they work. A comparison between flight controls on a small airplane and on a large airplane has been made. Chapter 1 ends with a functional research in which the several functions between input and output on flight controls are reviewed. Chapter 2 explains what the differences are between a conventional flight control system and a flyby-wire system. This is done by using an overview of the conventional and the fly-by-wire flight control system. The advantages and disadvantages of the two flight control systems are reviewed as well. Chapter 2 ends with a comparison between the two systems and a conclusion. The modification plan is described in Chapter 3. Before the recommendation, which is made in the last paragraph of Chapter 3, the design aspects and the financial aspects are reviewed. The main sources used in this report are; the project book Modificatie Flight Controls written by Simon Ijspeert (2011), the book Methodisch ontwerpen written by Kroonenberg (2004) and Introduction to Flight written by John D. Anderson Jr. (2008). The other sources are listed in the source list of the report.

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls

Chapter 1 Flight Controls


Chapter one describes what flight controls are and how they work. First of all the theory of flight controls is reviewed (1.1). The primary flight controls are explained in 1.2, the secondary flight controls in 1.3 and then the requirements concerning flight controls are reviewed (1.4). In 1.5 a comparison between flight controls on a small airplane and a large airplane has been made. Chapter 1 ends with a functional research in which the several functions between input and output on flight controls are reviewed.

1.1 Theory Flight Controls


Flight controls are moveable surfaces on an airplane which make it possible to steer an airplane in a desirable direction. To understand how flight controls work, it is important to understand the aerodynamic aspects of an airplane (1.1.1) and the theory of movement of the airplane (1.1.2).

1.1.1 Theory Aerodynamics


There are a two important nature laws in aerodynamic (1.1.1.a & 1.1.1.b). In this paragraph are also reviewed, the forces on an airplane (1.1.1.c), and especially the drag is reviewed. 1.1.1.a Continuity Law The continuity law explains why streamlines on an airplane wing, are getting closer together if the airplanes speed increases. According the continuity law, the amount of inflowing gas in a tube, is always equal with the amount of out flowing gas. The continuity law is only valid under the next conditions: A steady fluid flow. The gas is incompressible. And there is no friction between the layers of the gas. Figure 1.1 shows a gas flowing through a stream tube, when the surface of the tube decreases, the speed increases. The red marked area in the figure shows where the speed increases. The velocity will go up because the amount of out flowing gas, has to be equal to the amount of inflowing gas, according the continuity equation. The gas density stays the same, because the gas is incompressible. Knowing this information a formula (formula 1.1) was made. A1= Surface of inflowing stream A2=Surface of out flowing stream v1= Air speed at begin of tube v2= Air speed at end of tube 1=Gas density at begin 2= Gas density at end The formula of the continuity equation is: 1*v1*A1= 2*v2*A2 = Density = Kg/m3 v=Velocity v= m/s A=Surface A= m2
Formula1.1 continuity law Figure1.1 Example continuity law

Known is that 1=2, so 1 and 2 are left out of the formula.

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls 1.1.1.b Bernoullis law With Bernoullis law it is possible to calculate the relation between air speed and pressure in a streaming flow. Bernoullis equation contains that, in a steady flow the sum of the static pressure (Ps), the pizometric head (gh) and the dynamic pressure (**V) is constant. The Bernoullis law is only valid under the next conditions: A steady fluid flow The stream must be adiabatic The stream must be incompressible The stream must be not viscous, and homogeneous. The formula of Bernoullis law is illustrated in Formula 1.2 Ps + **v + gh = constant Ps = Static pressure = Density V = Velocity h = Height

Ps= Pa = Kg/m3 V= m/s h=m


Formula1.2 Bernoullis law

Using Figure 1.2, Bernoullis law can be explained. The wing is moving through streaming lines, but because of the wings shape, the streaming lines above the wing are pushed closer together as the streaming lines under the wing. This causes that the speed of the streaming lines, above the wing increases, while the speed under the wing keeps a continuous speed. Bernoullis law predicts that if the speed in a streaming line increases the pressure has to decrease, that means that the pressure above the wing is lower than the pressure under the wing, and this causes that the wing moves up(also known as lift). 1 = Streaming lines with lower pressure and higher velocity 2 = Streaming lines with Higher pressure and lower velocity 3 = Wing

Figure 1.2 Bernoullis law on a wing

1.1.1.c Forces on a plane During a flight there are forces working on a plane. These forces are; lift, drag, thrust en gravity. They are illustrated in figure1.3

Figure1.3 Forces on a plane

Lift is created by the wings of the airplane, it makes the plane moving up. The magnitude of the lift depends on several factors including the shape, size, and velocity of the airplane. Thrust is created by the engines, and it makes the plane move forward. Gravity is a force that works down (to the earth); it is created by the weight of the airplane. Drag is created because the air resist the motion of the plane, drag is directed opposed the flight direction. In figure 1.4 the drag in relation with speed is illustrated. Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 6

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Drag must be separated in two types of drag: 1. Induced drag 2. Parasitic drag Ad 1 Parasitic drag Parasitic drag caused by the shape of an airplane, it increases if the airplane velocity increases, and it decreases is the airplane velocity decreases. Parasitic drag must be separated in: pressure drag, skin friction drag and interference drag. Ad 2 Induced drag This type of drag is the result of lift. During a flight, the pressure on top of the wing is lower as the pressure below the wing. Air has the tendency to move from a place with high pressure to a place where the pressure is lower, and for that reason the air starts spinning around the wing, this is called vortex. This vortex causes drag and this is called induced drag. The induced drag increases if velocity decreases. 1= Total drag 2=Induced drag 3=Parasitic drag

Figure1.4 Relation between drag and velocity

1.1.2 Theory Movement


An airplane moves with different control surfaces (1.1.2.a). The control surfaces will cause changes to the airflow around the wing (1.1.2.b). The changes to the airflow will cause changes to lift, drag and direction of flight (1.1.2.c). When the energy in air gets reduced by the lift and drag this will cause different kind of airflows to occur (1.1.2.d). 1.1.2.a Control surfaces An airplane uses different control surfaces (figure 1.5). These can be divided in Ailerons (1), flaps (2), rudder (3) and Elevators (4). The ailerons will make it possible to make turns. Flaps are used to create extra lift at take-off and landing. This is done by accelerating the air over the wing. The rudder is used to make vertical movement (yaw) and the elevators are used to make movement around the longitudinal axis. The exact working of these flight controls and there correction methods will be explained in (1.2) and (1.3).

Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 7

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls 1 1 2 3 Ailerons Flaps Rudder Elevator

4 3
Figure 1.5 Control surfaces

1.1.2.b Wing profile A wing (figure 1.6) is created with different aspects. The front of the wing is the leading edge (1). There are two lines. First the chord line (2) connecting the leading edge with the trailing edge (3). The second line, the camber line, (4) is the middle of the profile. This line indicates the type of profile. If it is above and below the chord line it is an asymmetrical profile with a positive (above) or negative (below) camber. If it is the same as the chord line it is a symmetrical profile.

Figure 1.6 Wing profile

1.1.2.c Lift A wing changes the airflow around as explained in Bernoullis law. The pressure above the wing is lower than the pressure below. The pressure difference between the two areas is the lift.

Figure 1.7 Lift

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls The angle of attack is another factor, which will change the lift. The angle of attack is the angle between the undisturbed airstream and the chord of the wing. As this angle increases the pressure difference will increase which will cause the lift to increase. The wing will not generate lift if the angle of attack is too high. When the angle of attack increases to CL,max (maximum angle of attack) the airplane will stall. Lift can be calculated by using the lift formula. The formula can calculate the Lift with the lift coefficient and data from the air and airplane. Lift formula L = CL * v2 * S L = Lift L=N CL = Lift coefficient = air density = kg/m3 v = airspeed v = m/s S = surface S = m2
Formula 1.3 Lift

1.1.2.d Air flow Air is not an ideal gas, it will not stay in a laminar flow forever (figure 1.8). The laminar layer (1) cannot stay on the wing profile. It changes to a turbulent layer the air. The turbulent layer (2) has more energy but it is also a thicker layer which causes more drag. 1. Laminar flow 2. Turbulent flow 2

Figure 1.8 Airflows

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls

1.2 Primary Flight Controls


An airplane moves around three different axes. The longitudinal axis is the axis which is parallel with the fuselage. The movement around this axis is called roll and is made by the ailerons (1.2.1). The second axis is the vertical axis. Movement around this axis is called yaw. This movement is caused by the rudder (1.2.2). The last axis is the lateral axis; this is the axis that passes through the airplane from wingtip to wingtip. The movement around this axis is called pitch and is caused by the elevator (1.2.3).

1.2.1 Ailerons
The ailerons are used to roll the airplane (1.2.1.a). In (1.1.2.b) is explained how this is made possible, and which side effects the ailerons cause are explained in (1.1.2.c). In (1.1.2.d) are the solutions for the side effects. 1.2.1.a Purpose The ailerons are used for movement around the longitudinal axis (1) as shown in figure 1.9 the ailerons are positioned at the end of the wings (2). These ailerons work in contrary way of each other, when left side is in up position the right side in down position. This is to enlarge the force to roll (3).

1.2.1.b Operation The ailerons are controlled by controlling the steering wheel left or right (figure1.10). When the aileron on one side is in down position (1), this causes more lift at this side of the wing (2). At the other side happens the opposite (3), this causes less lift (4). This will cause the airplane to roll (5).

Figure 1.9 Ailerons

Figure 1.10 Roll movement

1.2.1.c Side effects There are two different side effects of using the ailerons. These are called: 1. Adverse yaw 2. Aileron reversal

Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 10

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Ad 1 Adverse yaw Adverse yaw is caused by drag when the airplane makes a roll. When the aileron on one side is down will it generate more lift but also more drag. In the other hand when the aileron is up it will generate less lift and drag. This will make the airplane make a movement around the vertical axis (yaw), in the opposite direction the movement was meant to be. Ad 2 Aileron reversal Aileron reversal only happens at airplanes with large wings at the outboard ailerons. When the large airplane is at high speed the wings have the ability to move up and down because of the forces at the wingtips. The moment is bigger at the wingtip because of the length of the wings. The movement of the wingtips is called aero elasticity. The movement at the outboard ailerons, at high speeds, could deform the wing by forces of the air which could cause reversal roll movement. 1.2.1.d Solutions There are several ways to counter the side effects. For the adverse yaw are four types of solutions designed to counter the yaw movement: 1. Differential ailerons 2. Fris ailerons 3. Asymmetric spoilers (large airplanes) 4. Turn coordination Ad 1. Differential ailerons Differential ailerons do not use equal movement, the ailerons which are going up uses moves more than the aileron which is in down position. This will cause that the drag at the upcoming aileron will increase and this will reduce the yaw movement. Ad 2.Fris ailerons The axis of the fris ailerons are placed more down and also have a pointed edge (1) at the bottom wing side of the aileron (figure 1.11). Together this will cause more or less drag when the aileron is used. When the ailerons are up (3) it will cause more drag by the pointed edge of the aileron. The aileron which is down (4) will cause less drag. This will result in an opposite drag and solves the yaw movement to the side which was not needed.

Figure 1.11 Fris aileron

Ad 3. Asymmetric spoilers Asymmetric spoilers are only used by large airplanes because of the large amount of mass and surface which is used by the wings. Because of this the spoilers are used for roll movement as well. The spoilers which are used to make rolls are called roll spoilers. When the plane is making a roll to the left, the inside ailerons at the right side are up and the ailerons at the left side are down. When the steering wheel is more than 15o turned to the left the spoilers on the left wing are also up. When the maximum bank angle is reached with the steering wheel (ca. 78o) the spoilers are in the Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 11

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls maximum position up (15o). At the other wing the spoilers stay retracted. This will cause drag and gives a force to decrease the yaw effect. Ad 4.Turn coordination The rudder is used to compensate the yaw movement, this is called turn coordination. This does not really solve the adverse aileron yaw problem, but generates a force which is against the yaw movement which is not needed.

1.2.2 Rudder
The rudder is a free moving surface on the vertical stabilizer and is using to control the vertical movement (yaw). The purpose will be explained in the first section (1.2.2.a), the operation in the second (1.2.2.b) and at last the side effects (1.2.2.c). 1.2.2.a Purpose The purpose of the rudder is to make a controlled movement in the yaw direction. 1.2.2.b Operation The rudder (figure 1.12) is controlled by moving the rudder pedals (1), which send a mechanical signal. When the left pedal is moved, the rudder will also move to the left. Then tail of the airplane will move to the right. That is because the left turned rudder induces a sideward lift (2). The sideward lift creates a left turn moment at the central gravity (3) of the airplane and moves the airplane to the left. Moving the right pedal will create the opposite effect. The speed of the airplane is a major factor of the effectiveness of the rudder. When the airplane is flying with a slow speed it will need large deflection to get the preferred movement. Flying with a high speed it will need small deflection.

1
Legend 1. Rudder pedals 2. Sideward lift 3. Central gravity

3 2

Figure 1.12 : Operation of the rudder

1.2.2.c Side effects A side effect of the rudder is roll. When the airplane yaws the rudder is not pointed in the direction of the airflow. Therefore the airplane will roll in the same direction as the rudder is applied. So if the rudder is to the right, the rudder will create a lift for the yaw direction and a moment later a lift that creates a roll to the right. A solution for that is to compensate with the ailerons.

Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 12

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls

1.2.3 Elevator
The elevator is used for pitch (1.2.3.a). How the elevator operates is described in 1.2.3.b. 1.2.3.a Purpose The purpose (figure 1.13) of the elevators (1) is increasing or decreasing the angle of attack; this is called pitch movement (2). Pitch movement will happen by pushing the steering wheel forward or pulling the steering wheel backward. Pitch movement is the movement around the lateral axis (3). The elevator is located at the end of the tail.

Figure 1.13 Purpose of the elevators

1.2.3.b Operation To adjust the angle of attack the elevator is used. When the steering wheel is pushed forward, the elevator is in up position and decreases the lift, because the chamber will decrease. When the steering wheel is pulled back, the elevator is pushed down and increases the chamber which will cause more lift. This force at the tail will push the nose up or down.

1.3 Secondary flight controls


The primary flight controls explained in the previous paragraph are supported by the secondary flight controls. They are used to change lift, speed, pitch and yaw. The devices causing these changes are; trailing edge high lift devices (1.3.1), leading edge high lift devices (1.3.2), the spoilers (1.3.3) and the trims (1.3.4).

1.3.1 Trailing edge high lift devices


Trailing edge high lift devices, better known as flaps, are hinged surfaces located on the back of the wings. These flaps can be extended; this will increase the camber of the air foil. By extending the flaps the wing will generate more lift, decreasing the stall speed. It will also generate more drag. The flaps are most often used during take-off, where the extra lift and low stall speed are very useful, and during the landing, as extending the flaps increases drag and thus slowing the airplane down. This allows a steeper descent without speed increase. There are different types of flaps (Appendix I). The most common types of flaps are plain flaps (1.3.1.a), split flaps (1.3.1.b), slotted flaps (1.3.1.c) and fowler flaps (1.3.1.d). 1.3.1.a Plain flap This is the most basic type of flap. It is a section of the trailing edge that can bend down. These flaps increase the lift, but at the same time greatly increase drag. 1.3.1.b Split flap The split flap consists of a plate that is lowered from the trailing edge of the wing. This flap produces a slightly greater increase in lift than the plain flap. When fully extended, both the plain and split flap produce high drag with little additional lift.

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls 1.3.1.c Slotted flap The slotted flap, in addition to the plain flap, has a gap between itself and the trailing edge that allows the airstream to flow through. When the slotted flap is lowered, the airstream from the lower surface will flow to the upper surface of the flap. The airstream from the slot accelerates the upper surface boundary layer and delays airflow separation, providing a higher lift. Slotted flaps increase the lift coefficient significantly more than plain or split flaps. 1.3.1.d Fowler flap Fowler flaps are a type of slotted flap. Not only does this flap bend down, it also slides backwards. This flap changes the camber of the wing, as well as the wing area. The fowler flap is generally considered to offer the highest lift, especially on larger airplanes. Therefore these flaps are often used during take-off and landing. A graph of the lift of all the flap types can be found in appendix II.

1.3.2 Leading edge high lift devices


Leading edge high lift devices (Appendix IV) are applied at the leading edge of the wing. Some of these devices increase lift by extending the wing surface during landing or take-off. The most common leading edge high lift devices are slats (1.3.2.a), fixed slot, (1.3.2.b) Krueger flaps (1.3.2.c) and cuffs (1.3.2.d). 1.3.2.a Slats The slat is located at the leading edge of the wing. The purpose of slats is to increase the lift and critical angle of attack, while the speed is reducing. Slats are used during take-off and landing and they move forward (figure 1.14). There will be a gap when the slat is extended. The gap delays the separation of the airflow along the air foil. A slat increases the critical angle of attack and the lift coefficient (Appendix VI) this causes the stall speed of the airplane to reduce. 1.3.2.b Fixed slot A fixed slot cannot extend, in opposite of slats. At higher angles of attack, fixed slots delay airflow separation (Appendix V). Also the fixed slot gives the airflow more kinetic energy to the boundary layer.

Figure 1.14: Retracted and extended flaps

1.3.2.c Krueger flaps A Krueger flap (Appendix IV) is a special kind of slats. A Krueger flap is not moving forward, like other slats, but is turning on a pivot outside at the leading edge (figure 1.15). Krueger flaps are only used during take-off and landing to change the flow pattern. The CL-value is increased and the airplane has a lowering stall speed. Krueger flaps are only used by bigger airplanes, like the Boeing 737.

Figure 1.15 Retracted and extended Krueger flap

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls 1.3.2.d Cuffs Cuffs (Appendix IV) are used to increase the CL,max and the camber of the wings. Cuffs are fixed aerodynamic devices, unlike the trailing edge and leading edge flaps. Leading edge cuffs extend in the most cases the leading edge down and forward, because the airflow is attached better to the wing its upper surface at higher angles of attack. This causes a lowering of the airplane its stall speed.

1.3.3 Spoilers
Spoilers are devices that reduce lift and increase drag on an airplane (1.3.3a). The function of these spoilers will be explained in paragraph 1.3.3b. 1.3.3.a Purpose Spoilers are devices that are located on top of the wings. During the flight they are often used to slow the airplane down. They are also used for roll control. For example: To turn left, the spoilers on the left wing are deployed. They reduce lift and increase the drag on the left wing. The left wing will drop, and the airplane will bank and yaw to the left. Spoilers are also used to reduce the ground speed. 1.3.3.b Operation Spoilers disrupt or spoil the airflow on top of the wing (Appendix III). When the spoilers go up, they disrupt the airflow on top of the wing. This greatly reduces lift and increases the drag. The spoilers can be deployed right before the landing, this will reduce the lift and put more weight on the wheels. This improves the effectiveness of the brakes.

1.3.4 Trims
To reduce the steering forces, the pilot can use a trim tab (1.3.4.a). The function of a trim tab will be explained in paragraph 1.3.4.b. 1.3.4.a Purpose A trim tab is attached to the trailing edge of the elevator. This is the most common installation on a small airplane. The movement of the elevator is opposite to the direction of movement of the elevator trim tab. The purpose of a trim tab is to reduce the steering force. Some airplanes have a trim tab on all three (primary) flight controls and other airplanes have only a trim tab on one flight control. There are also servo tabs, balance tabs and adjustable tabs (Appendix VIII). 1.3.4.b Operation The trim tabs are controlled by using a trim wheel which is located in the cockpit. Using this wheel, a lift is created. Placing the trim control in the full nose-down position, the trim tab moves to its full up position. The trailing edge of the elevator is down, because the airflow over the horizontal tail surface tends to force this down. The tail of the airplane is moving up and the nose is moving down (figure 1.16).

Figure 1.16: Full nose-down position

When the trim control is placed in the full nose-up position, (figure 1.17), the trim tabs are moving to its full down position. The air is flowing under the horizontal tail surface and is hitting the trim tab. Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 15

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls This causes to push the trailing edge of the elevator up. The tail of the airplane is moving down and the nose is moving up.

Figure 1.17: Full nose-up position

1.4 Requirements
Before being able to modify an airplane its flight control system, two different requirements will be explained: the determined requirements better known as the laws and the variable requirements which are the company requirements. Legislation with all the laws to ensure safety is made by ICAO. The laws for airplanes above 5700 Kg were given by the European Aviation Safety Agency. The laws are named Certification Specifications 25. The laws that deal with flight controls are filtered (1.4.1). There are also requirements made by the company which gives the assignment (1.4.2).

1.4.1 Law requirements


The law requirements described in Certification Specifications 25 will be explained in this paragraph. The exact laws can be found in the list of appendixes (Appendix IX). First the general laws are described (1.4.1.a), the second part describes the rules of stability augmentation or automatic- and power operated- systems (1.4.1.b). The third subject is about the trim systems (1.4.1.c) and the fourth point tells about the operation tests (1.4.1.d). 1.4.1.a General laws flight controls An airplane must be capable of continued safe flight without requiring extraordinary piloting skill or strength, even when all engines fail the airplane must remain controllable with the smoothness, ease and positiveness appropriate to its function. So each part of the flight control system must be designed and build to minimize the chance of incorrect assembly which could lead to malfunctions. 1.4.1.b Stability augmentation and automatic- and power operated- systems If stability augmentation or other automatic- or power operated- systems are necessary to comply with the flight characteristics shown in this CS-25, such systems must comply with the following rules. A warning sign, which is clearly visible to the pilot without requiring his attention, must be provided for any failure in the stability augmentation system or any other automatic or poweroperated system if this failure could conclude unsafe flight when not shown to the pilot. The stability augmentation system or any other automatic- or power operated- system must permit direct counteraction to failures. After any single failure the airplane must be safety controllable at any speed or altitude. 1.4.1.c Trim systems Trim controls must be designed to prevent abrupt or unmeant operation. The trim control must be indicated to the direction of the control movement relative to the airplane its motion. 1.4.1.d Operation tests When portions of the loads are up to 80% of the limit and the powered portions of the control system are loaded to the maximum load, the system must remain free from: jamming, excessive friction and excessive deflection. Must be shown that in the presence of deflections of the airplane Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 16

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls its structure, it can be moved around all control axes while remaining free from jamming, excessive friction, disconnection and any other form of permanent damage. 1.4.1.e Control system Each part of a control system must be designed and installed to prevent jamming, chafing and interference from cargo, passengers, loose objects or the freezing of moisture. It must be prevented if a foreign object enters places of the airplane where it could jam the system. There also must be means to prevent the slapping of cables or tubes against other parts in the system. 1.4.1.f Cable system Each cable, fitting, turnbuckle, splice and pulley must be approved. No cable smaller than 3.2 mm diameter may be used in the primary flight controls. Each cable system must be designed so that there will be no sudden change in cable tension throughout the range of travel and temperature variations. Pulleys and sprockets must have closely fitted guards and each pulley must lie in the plane passing through the cable so that the cable does not rub against the pulley flange and each pulley most correspond to the cable meant for the pulley. Fairlead must be installed so that they do not cause a change in cable direction of more than three degrees. Clevis pins may not be used in the control system if they are used for load or motion. Turnbuckles must be attached to rotating parts. Fairleads, pulleys, terminal, and turnbuckles must be clearly visual for inspection. 1.4.1.g Lift and drag devices, controls Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots can place the device in any take-off, enroute, approach, or landing position. Each lift and drag device control must be designed and located to make inadvertent operation improbable. The rate of motion of the surface in response to the operation of the control and load limiting device must give satisfactory flight and performance characteristics. The lift device control must be designed to retract the surfaces from the fully extended position, during steady flight at maximum continuous engine power at any speed below Vf + 9 knots. 1.4.1.h Lift and drag device indicator There must be means to indicate the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In addition, an indication of unsymmetrical operation or other malfunction in the lift and drag device systems must be provided when indication is necessary to enable the pilots to prevent or counteract an unsafe flight or ground condition. There must be means to indicate to the pilots the take-off, en-route, approach and landing lift device positions. If any extension of the lift and drag device beyond the landing position is possible, the control must be clearly marked to identify this range of extension. 1.4.1.i flap and slat interconnection Unless the airplane has safe flight characteristics with the flaps or slats retracted in one side and extended on the other, the motion of flaps or slats on opposite sides of the plane must be synchronized by a mechanical interconnection or approved equivalent means. If a wing-flap interconnection or equivalent mean is used, it must be designed to account for the applicable unsymmetrical loads, including those resulting from fight with the engines on one side of the plane inoperative and the remaining engines at take-off power. For airplanes with flaps or slat that are not subjected to slipstream conditions, the structure must be designed for the loads imposed when the wing-flaps or slats on one side are carrying the most severe load and those on the other side are carrying not more than 80% of that load.

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls The interconnection must be designed for the loads resulting when interconnected flap or slat surface on one side of the plane are jammed and immovable while the other side is free to move and the full power of the surface actuating system is applied.

1.4.2 Company requirements


Next to law requirements are the company requirements. The company requirements are variable and are made by the board of ALA. There are five company requirements: Safety (1.4.2.a) Costs (1.4.2.b) Maintenance (1.4.2.c) Reliability (1.4.2.d) Sustainability (1.4.2.e) 1.4.2.a Safety Before things can change to the flight control system safety must be considered. Safety is an important factor in flying. There should always be safe flight conditions as described in the law requirements. It is a fixed requirement not an actual company requirement; the company wants the airplane to have minimal failures or errors to ensure safe flight. If a flight control has less failures or errors due to reliability and sustainability it also decreases the costs, but the costs and maintenance cannot be spared if it decreases the safety matter. 1.4.2.b Costs The costs are an important aspect in aviation. ALA wants to keep its costs low so they can make profit. It is important that the costs of remodelling a flight control system remains lower than the made profits and that the maintenance and AOG-costs becoming lower with the new system. AOG-costs are the Airplane On Ground costs. When an airplane is booked for flight but it is not capable of flying it creates costs because the company has to rent an airplane or delay the flight. 1.4.2.c Maintenance Maintenance includes safety and costs. With a newer system the company wants the maintenance to becoming cheaper and faster to do. So there will be fewer costs and fewer AOG-costs. The period tests that are standard to do (told in 1.4.2) should be over a longer period with the new system, but not if it decreases the safety matter. 1.4.2.d Reliability Reliability is important for the pilot and his passengers. The new system must be more reliable than the old system. If maintenance is easier to do for the mechanics, then checks can be done better and more specified in the same time which makes the system a lot more reliable. 1.4.2.e Sustainability Sustainability includes costs and maintenance. If the new system is more sustainable due less wear, less maintenance is needed and new parts can be bought a lot fewer. It also makes the system a little bit more reliable; if the pilot knows his system is sustainable he can trust that there will be less failures.

1.5 Comparison small and large airplanes


The main difference between the flight controls of a small (1.5.1) and large (1.5.2) airplane are the hydraulics. When flying with a small airplane, the forces of the movements of the primary and secondary can be done with human power (or sometimes with electric motors). When flying large airplanes, the aerodynamic forces are higher, and too big to be done with human power. Therefore a Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 18

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls hydraulic system is used. Also, a large airplane often has more secondary flight controls, like slats, speed brakes and high speed ailerons.

1.5.1 Small Airplane


In a small airplane, the surfaces are controlled via cables springs and wheels, and are done by human power by the pilot. An advantage of this system is that the movement of the surfaces is felt directly by the pilot. When flying long-time, keeping a surface in a position with human power can be exhausting. That is why small airplanes often have trims. Also to reduce the amount of muscle power of the pilot, a small airplane can contain pulleys and servo-tabs.

1.5.2 Large Airplane


The increased forces of control surfaces of large airplanes cannot be done with pulleys and servo tabs. Therefore, a hydraulic powered flight control system is used. In a hydraulic system, the inputs are mechanically transported to fluids under high pressure. The disadvantage is that the forces can not be felt directly by the pilot. Therefore, artificial feel devices are sometimes put in a hydraulic system. The advantage of this hydraulic system is that it can create great forces by only small human power. The differences between a small and large airplane are illustrated in table 1.1. Small Large Primary Flight Elevator, ailerons, rudder Elevator, ailerons, Controls rudder Force Human force Hydraulic force Transportation Cables and springs Hydraulic transportation Feeling Feedback Direct feeling Artificial feel device Secondary Flight Controls Force Transportation Feeling Feedback More secondary flight controls, cable and spring transportation Human / Electric Force Wires / Cables Direct / Electric Less secondary flight controls Hydraulic force Hydraulic transportation Artificial / Electric

1.6 Function research

Table 1.1 Comparison small and large airplanes

To investigate the operation of a flight control, function research is needed. The investigation in the function research is all about the functionality of the input to the output and all the stages between them. The following stages are investigated: 1 Input 2 Convert 3 Transport 4 Correct 5 Amplify 6 Transport 7 Output 8 Feedback Ad. 1 Input When the position of the flight controls are changed the direction of the airplane will also change. The input is always a mechanical signal. Ad. 2 Convert To transport the input to the next stage it needs to be converted to a certain signal that can be transported. Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 19

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Ad. 3 Transport After converting the signal it needs to be transported to the next stage. Ad. 4 Correct A signal can lose information and be less accurate, that is why a signal needs to be corrected to a right signal. Ad. 5 Amplify The signal is not strong enough to change the position of the flight control. to get the signal to the right strength it needs to be amplified. Ad. 6 Transport The signal needs to be transported to a flight control. Ad. 7 Output In this stage the signal will change the flight control to the preferred position and change the position of the airplane. Ad. 8 Feedback The pilot will notice when the airplane has changed position. The pilot can give than another input and the system will start all over again with the stages.

Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 20

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls

Chapter 2 Flight Control System


Now that all the theory is explained, the different flight control systems are explained. First the flight controls of the Boeing 737 (2.1) and Airbus A320 (2.2) are reviewed. After the systems are explained, the advantages and disadvantages are compared (2.3), followed by a conclusion (2.4).

2.1 Boeing 737 Flight Control Systems


The flight control system of the Boeing 737 is explained using a system overview (2.1.1). This flight control system is called the Conventional system (2.1.2). If this conventional system fails, there is a backup available (2.1.3). The system has to meet the requirements and limitations of the flight control laws (2.1.4). A schematic overview of the conventional flight control system is shown in

2.1.1 System overview


The Airbus 320 uses the fly-by-wire system and Boeing uses the conventional system. In the conventional system are less electric transfers and more mechanical transmissions. Based on the function research, each function of Boeing its flight control system is explained. Not every flight control is explained, the explanation will be limited to one primary flight control and one secondary flight control. The two explained flight controls are the elevator (2.1.1.a) and the flaps (2.1.1.b). 2.1.1.a Elevator As described in figure 2.1 the elevators are meant for increasing the pitch of an airplane. A schematic overview of the elevator system is shown appendix X. Before the resulting motion is possible a lot functions are activated and used: 1. Input 2. Convert 3. Transport 4. Correct 5. Amplify 6. Transport 7. Output

4 3 1 5 2

Map key 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Elevator Down Force Length of arm Center of Gravity Resulting Force

Ad 1. Input Using the elevators starts with the control column which is used to control the attitude of the airplane. The forward or backward motion controls the elevators. The Boeing 737 has two control columns. If one fails the other can still function.

Figure 2.1: Explaining the elevators

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Ad 2. Convert The movement of the control column gets converted to a signal which gets corrected, amplified and transported to the elevators. A conversion is done by cable conversion or using hydraulic pressure. An example is shown in figure 2.2. The control column (1) is the gray part in the middle which is connected to the red circle (2). When the control column gets pushed forward or backward the pistons (3) extract or retract which causes the fluid to flow.

3 2

Map key 1. Control column 2. Rotating connection 3. piston

Figure 2.2: Convert of the control column

Ad 3. Transport Transporting the signal is done with copper cables and hydraulic pipes. Which simply transport the signal towards the elevator. Ad 4. Correct During a flight in a Cessna, the forces of the air on the elevators can be felt by the pilot. In an airplane like the Boeing 737, where a mechanical or hydraulic system is used, the forces cannot be felt. The pilot needs the forces of the elevator to get a better feeling of the flight. This is why Boeing invented the Elevator Feel Computer. This computer is placed within the hydraulic system and has control of the hydraulic pressure and signals of the movement of the elevator. All the information of the elevator is sent to the Elevator Feel and Centering Unit. The Elevator Feel and Centering Unit uses feel actuators to give a signal to the control column of the pilot. Because of this system the pilot is provided with an artificial feeling of the aerodynamic forces that work on the elevator. Ad 5. Amplify Amplifying the input signal is very important. It is quite hard to use human power to manoeuvre a large airplane. The signal of the control column gets amplified by an hydraulic actuator. Ad 6. Transport Transporting the signal is done with copper cables and hydraulic pipes, which simply transport the signal towards the elevator. Ad 7. Output The last step in the control of the elevators is the output (Figure 2.3). The same thing happens as in step two, which is conversion. In addition to the second step it goes backwards. A signal in form of moving hydraulic fluid activates a piston (1) which expands or retracts (2). This sets a motion in the elevator (3). 1 2 3 Map key 1. Piston 2. Connection point 3. Elevator
Figure 2.3: Moving the elevator

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls 2.1.1.b Flaps Flaps make it possible for an airplane to maintain low speed while there is still enough lift to keep the airplane in the air. A schematic overview of the flaps is shown in appendix XI. The flaps are found on the backside of a wing. The flaps can be extended, which provides a bigger wing area, causing the lift to increase. This also increase the friction with the air so if the airplane wants to maintain the same speed with more extended flaps throttle must be increased to overcome the friction. 1. Input 2. Convert 3. Transport 4. Correct 5. Amplify 6. Transport 7. Output Ad 1. Input In a Boeing 737 the input is provided by the flap handle. The flap handle can be moved up and down. In case it is moved downwards the flaps will extended, in case the flap handle is moved up they retract back to their previous position. Ad 2. Convert In the Boeing 737 the movement of the flap handle is converted by a hydraulic system to a horizontal movement, which is the same principle as the conversion of the elevator. Ad 3. Transport In the conventional system of Boeing the amplified signal it transported by different cables and pipes. Ad 4. Correct For the flaps are no corrections made. Ad 5. Amplify The movement of the flap handle is amplified by the same component used in the elevators, an hydraulic actuator. The motion of the pilot moving the flap handle is magnified for many times. So there will be enough power extending the flaps of the airplane. Ad 6. Transport In the conventional system of Boeing the amplified signal it transported by different cables and pipes. Ad 7. Output After the pilot moved the flap handle down or up a signal gets amplified and transported towards the flaps. There the signal will be performed into the right direction. This will cause the flaps to expand or retract to increase the lift of the airplane.

2.1.2 Conventional Flight control system


To amplify the input force a hydraulic system is used (2.1.2.a) & (2.1.2.c). To keep a real flight feeling an artificial feeling device (2.1.2.b) is used. 2.1.2.a Hydraulics Hydraulics are used to amplify the forces via fluids. Fluids are used because they are hard to compress and can flow under high pressure. The fluid is controlled directly or automatically by control valves and distributed through hoses and tubes. The fluids are put under high pressure via Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 23

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls pumps, and transmitted throughout the system (circuit) to various hydraulic motors and hydraulic cylinders. The liquid under high pressure is then transmitted to pistons. Pistons are sealed containers that are used to move fluids. In a system with pistons, oil is mostly used as liquid because water can corrode the pistons. They can be used to amplify force, so an effort force on one piston can be amplified to move a heavier load with the other piston. After that the fluids return to a reservoir. The fluid is then filtered and re-pumped. 2.1.2.b Artificial feel devices With only mechanical flight control systems, the forces are felt directly by the pilot. This gives some indication of the surrounding air. With hydro mechanical flight control systems, the forces are absorbed by the hydraulic system, thus there is less indication than a purely mechanical system. To overcome this problem artificial feel devices are used. A stick shaker is an example of an artificial feel device. It is a mechanical device to vibrate the yoke, in an event of danger. It is composed of an electric motor connected to a unbalanced flywheel. When operated, the shaker makes a noisy and shaky movement of the control yoke. 2.1.2.c Conventional system Boeing 737 The Boeing 737 has a lot of systems that rely on hydraulics. Examples are the primary and secondary flight controls, landing gear and thrust systems. The Boeing 737 has three different hydraulic systems, namely system A, system B and backup. System A and B work completely independent of each other. The backup system is used if system A and B fail. The two systems are connected to different flight control systems (Appendix XVI). Some flight control systems are used by both hydraulic systems (for example; ailerons, rudder, elevator, feel controls). The systems start in a reservoir. The fluids are kept under pressure via bleed air, this is air taken from the engines. Each system has a pump and a backup pump, to transport the fluids through the system. The controls of the hydraulic system are placed on the overhead panel of the cockpit. By putting both ENG 1 (system A) and ENG 2 (system B) to OFF, both pressure systems from the engine will be shut down. By putting ELEC 2 (system A) and ELEC 1 (system B), the hydraulic pumps will be shut down.

2.1.3 Backup Boeing 737


A Boeing 737 has several backup systems; these are separated for the different flight controls. The ailerons (2.1.3.a) and the elevators (2.1.3.b) can be controlled mechanically. The rudder (2.1.3.c) has a separate standby system. The high lift devices (2.1.3.d) have an electrical and a hydraulically backup system, and there is no backup available for the spoilers (2.1.3.e). 2.1.3.a Aileron backup The ailerons are moved by a Power Control unit (PCU), which is powered by two hydraulic systems, A and B. If one of these systems fail, the other one is sufficient to power all the ailerons. However, if both of these systems fail, the pilots have to mechanically move the ailerons with the control wheels. The force the pilots have to excite will be higher, because there are no hydraulics to help them. If the aileron system jams, the co-pilots control wheel can be used to roll the airplane. This will not use the ailerons, but will use the spoilers instead. 2.3.1.b Elevator backup The backup for the elevators work the same as with the ailerons. The elevators are powered by two hydraulic systems, A and B. If one of these fails there is still sufficient pressure to power the elevators. If both systems fail, the elevators have to be controlled manually. The stabilizer trim can still be used to reduce the force required to control the elevators.

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls 2.3.1.c Rudder backup The rudder is powered by the same PCU as the ailerons and the elevator. If both of the hydraulic systems fail, there is a backup PCU with hydraulic system for yaw control. There is no manual reversion for the rudder. 2.3.1.d High lift devices backup The high lift devices are powered by hydraulic system A and B, but if these fail the flaps can be extended and retracted electrically. The flaps can also be powered by the backup hydraulic system. 2.3.1 e Spoilers backup The spoilers are partly controlled by hydraulic system A and partly by hydraulic system B. This serves as a backup system. Should one hydraulic system fail, all the spoilers will still work. There is no other backup system for the spoilers.

2.1.4 Flight control law Boeing 737


When an airplane is developed it has to meet several requirements. The requirements a large airplane like a Boeing 737 has to meet, are registered by the European Aviation Safety Agency, known as EASA. The EASA has registered these requirements in the document CS-25. The Boeing 737 has his own minimum requirement within the requirements of EASA . The requirements for a Boeing 737 are registered in the Airplane operating manual of the Boeing 737, in this paragraph we will only review the requirement with reference to the flight controls. The limitations of roll (2.1.4.a), yaw (2.1.4.b), pitch (2.1.4.c), and the secondary flight controls (2.1.4.d) are also described in this paragraph. 2.1.4.a Roll Ailerons are powered by the hydraulic systems A or B. If both hydraulic systems fail, manual reversion is available from both control wheels. If the aileron system jams, the co-pilots steering wheel can be used to move the spoilers (hydraulically). 2.1.4.b Yaw The rudder is moved by a PCU powered by hydraulic system A or B. If A or B fails a standby PCU can be powered from the standby hydraulic system. There is no manual reversion for the rudder. The authority of the control surface is installed in relations to the airplanes IAS. The movement of the rudder reduces if the IAS goes up. The maximum rudder panel deflections is 15 degrees, this is if the airplane is on the ground. In the air during a normal cruise, the maximum rudder panel deflection is 8 degrees. The yaw damper system can move the rudder a maximum of 2 degrees (flap up), 3 degrees (flap down), on either side of the trimmed position. 2.1.4.c Pitch The stall warning system shakes the control column when the airplane gets close to a stall. The components of the stall warning system are: Stall management yaw dampers (SMYDs) Control column shakers Elevator feel shift module (EFSM) Stall warning test panel. During a stall, the flight control computers, command the stabilizer to trim the airplane nose down. The EFSM and column cut-out switch modules operate to make sure the pilot cannot easily stop this automatic stabilizer movement with the elevator control column nose-up input.

Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 25

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls 2.1.4.d Secondary Flight Controls. The speed limit if only one LE device remains extended is 300kts The speed limit if more than one LE device remains extended is 230kts Not deploy speed brakes during a flight at a radio altitudes less than 1000ft It is prohibited to extend flaps in icing conditions Speed brakes cannot be used above an altitude of 20.000ft

2.2 Airbus A320 Flight Control System


To compare a conventional system with a fly-by-wire system, it is necessarily to make a system overview (2.2.1). The Airbus A320 has a fly-by-wire flight controls system (2.2.2), in contrast with the Boeing 737. For an optimal safety there is a backup system (2.2.3). In paragraph 2.2.4 will be explain the flight controls law.

2.2.1 System overview


The Airbus A320 is controlled by an electrical system. To understand how this system works, research is being done to the primary flight control, the elevator (2.2.1.a). And for the secondary flight the flaps (2.2.1.b) are being studied. 2.2.1.a Elevator The elevator is used for a pitch movement. A schematic overview of the elevator system is shown in Appendix XII. To move the elevator, there are a few stages that must be taken. The following stages will be investigated: 1. Input 2. Convert 3. Transport 4. Correct 5. Amplify 6. Transport 7. Output 8. Feedback Ad1 Input The input method for an elevator is a side stick. A side stick replaces the steering column and the control wheel of a Boeing 737. The elevator will be activated by pushing the side stick forward or backward. The two side sticks in the A320 are not linked to each other, this means that they are moving independently in contrast to the Boeing 737. When both sticks are controlled, the movements will be accumulated. If the pilot moves his side stick all forward and the co-pilot his side stick all backward, the accumulated movement will be zero. The accumulated movement will be transported to the computer. Ad2 Covert Side stick Transducer Unit (SSTU) converts the motion of the side stick to an electrical signal. The SSTU contains a variable resistor. Because the resistor is still distinct, there passes always a different voltage. Ad3 Transport The Airbus A320 transports electrical signals with ARINC 429. The data bus provides a serial connection between computers and different instruments. Only twenty instruments can be connected to a data bus. The instruments are linked to each other by two twisted cables. These cables are sending information of 32 bits. Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 26

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Ad4 Correct The signals from the SSTU will be corrected by an ELAC (Elevator and Aileron Computer). An Airbus A320 has two ELAC computers. ELAC 1 operates in active mode while ELAC 2 operates in damping mode. If ELAC 1 fails, ELAC 2 will take automatically over control. Ad5 Amplify The input is amplified by a hydraulic system. The flight control computers are giving commands to the hydraulic system. There are three hydraulic systems (Appendix XVII), namely blue, green and yellow. The left elevator is controlled by the green system and the right system by the yellow system, because of safety. The both elevators are controlled by the ELAC 2. The ELAC 2 computer gives fortunately the signal to the electro serve valve. The pressure of the hydraulic liquid here will be held on 3000 psi. The electro servo valve passes the hydraulic liquid to the mode selector valve. This valve decides which part of the actuator full flow with the liquid. The actuator contains two rooms, separate by a piston. If there is more liquid in the left room for example, the piston will move to the right. The piston is mechanically linked to the elevator and when the piston is moving, the elevator will be released. Ad6 Transport The Airbus A320 transports electrical signals with an ARINC 429. Ad7 Output The Airbus has two elevators, which are both connected to two actuators. Only one actuator is active and the other one acts as a damper. If the first actuator fails, the second actuator will take over control automatically. The pilot pushes the side stick backward (during climbing). This signal is send to the ELAC 2 and verifies whether the pilot is not exceeding the 30 degrees nose up limit. This signal is transported to an electro servo valve. An electro serve valve is sending the right amount hydraulic liquid to the right camber, as result that the elevator is moving up. Ad8 Feedback The Linear Variable Displacement Transducer (LVDT) gives a feedback to the pilots and shows this through the ECAM F/CTL page (Appendix XV). This page is projected on a display in the cockpit, which is showing what the movements of the flight controls are. A LVDT is connected on the actuators and the servo control valve. 2.2.1.b Flaps Flaps are ensuring that there will be enough lift during low airspeed. A schematic overview of the flap system is shown in appendix XIII. To realize the function of flaps, there are a few stages that must be taken. The following stages will be investigated: 1. Input 2. Convert 3. Transport 4. Correct 5. Amplify 6. Transport 7. Output 8. Feedback Ad1 Input There are two input methods for flaps. The first one is handle, which the pilot can manually control that is located in the cockpit on the centre pedestal. And the second one is the autopilot.

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Ad2 Convert The signal from the handle is signalled via the Command Sensor Unit (CSU). Because the pilot controls the handle manually (Appendix XVIII), only an analogue signal is converted to flux. The analogue signal from the autopilot must be converted to a digital signal. This can be done by an A/D converter. Ad3 Transport The Airbus A320 transport electrical signals with ARINC 429. Ad4 Correct The signals, which are signalled via a CSU, will be corrected by two Slat/Flap Control Computers (SFCC). Each SFFC has two channels, one for the flaps and one for the slats. Ad5 Amplify The converted signal must be amplified, because the value is often too low. A transformer amplifies the signal. Ad6 Transport Electrical signals are transported with an ARINC 429. Ad7 Output The signal is transported to the wings and is converted through an electromotor. The electromotor is connected to the ARINC 429 and a hydraulic actuator. The hydraulic actuator, which is attached to the flaps, ensures that the signal is converted to a mechanical force. This results that the flaps are moving. Ad8 Feedback The Position Pick-off Unit (PPU) is used for feedback of instrumentation and recording. The desired position and the actual position of the flaps are given by a Feedback Position Pick-off Unit (FPPU), which is being compared in the SFFC. A signal will be transmitted to one of the valves after the data comparison and the matching. This ensures that the flaps are in right position.

2.2.2 Airbus fly-by-wire system


The flight controls of the Airbus A320 are controlled by a fly-by-wire system (2.2.2.a). This fly-by-wire system uses hydraulics (2.2.2.b). 2.2.2.a The fly-by-wire system The flight control system of the Airbus exists of eleven air data computers. These computers are divided in three groups; two elevator and aileron computers (ELAC) and three spoiler and elevator computers (SEC). All these computers report to the two flight control data concentrators (FCDC). The FCDC computers transfer the data to the screens. The auto pilot uses the two flight augmentation computers the information from the auto pilot is directly shown on the F/CL screen. The last two computers are slat flap control computers (SFCC). For safety reasons every information and commands are kept separate as much as possible this is why there are all these different groups of computers one more layer of security is using channels these channels keep input for different systems spate for example the SFCC uses two channels one for flaps and one for slats. 2.2.2.b Hydraulics Even though the Airbus A320 uses a full fly-by-wire system there are still hydraulics needed to actually control the different flight controls. The Airbus got three different hydraulic systems. These are coded blue yellow and green. The yellow and green systems are both powered by the engines. Between these systems there is a valve so they can pressurize each other when needed. The yellow system can also be pressurized by a hand or electric pump, where the hand pump is mostly used for Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 28

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls opening the cargo door when power is down on ground. The blue system is totally separated from the rest and is only electrically pressurized. This is done by either the electric pump or the emergency Ram Air Turbine pump. The blue system is the backup system.

2.2.3 Backup Airbus A320


If there is a failure it is important to have backup systems to keep control of the airplane. An Airbus A320 consists a few backup system for different failures; computer failure (2.2.3.a), electric failure (2.2.3.b) and total failure (2.2.3.c). 2.2.3.a Computer failure The Airbus A320 is using two ELAC computers. If one is not working any more than the other will take over control. The pilot cannot use the ailerons if both computers fail. In that case the pilot can still roll the airplane, because the spoilers and elevator are connected to another computer, the SEC (Spoiler and Elevator Computer). The pilot can use his spoilers to roll the airplane. There are two of these computers SEC1 and SEC2. SEC2 will first take the control. If SEC2 fails SEC1 will take over. Also the Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer is connected to the SEC computers. The rudder needs to have a mechanical system as backup. There are three hydraulic systems; all the flight controls are connected to two hydraulic systems. If one of the systems fails the other will take over. If two of the systems failures, there still will be one hydraulic system to take over. 2.2.3.b Electric failure If there is an electric failure the Ram Air Turbine will start automatically or manually as backup. The Ram Air Turbine is a small propeller that is located at the bottom of the airplane. When it is activated it will come out the airplane. The Ram Air Turbine is pointed in the direction of the airflow and it will run by the speed of the airplane. The propeller is connected to a dynamo that will raise electricity. The electricity will be used to the primary instruments in the cockpit and the blue hydraulic system. That is because the blue hydraulic system is used to the most important flight controls, like the ailerons, elevator, rudder and spoilers. 2.2.3.c Total failure At last there is a mechanical backup system in case of a total failure. First of all the rudder always has a mechanical backup. By a failure the rudder is used for the movement about the vertical and longitudinal axis. When the manual trim wheel is used, the pitch movement will be achieved by the horizontal stabilizer.

2.2.4 Flight control law Airbus A320


There are three different levels of law for the movement of an Airbus A320. Normal law (2.2.4.a) will control the airplane in flight mode without problems. Alternate law (2.2.4.b) is used by failure of redundant system, this will revert the flight controls to alternate law. And the last law is direct law (2.2.4.c), this is used as the last law before the backup systems. 2.2.4.a Normal law Normal law is used by normal operating of the system. If just one computer failure occurs, this does not affect the normal law. Normal law covers three axis controls and follows the flight envelope protection (airplane limits) and also controls the load alleviation. Load alleviation is the trim to correct the changes in centre of gravity. Normal law has three different modes of flight: 1. Ground mode 2. Flight mode 3. Flare mode

Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 29

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Ad. 1 Ground mode Ground mode is active when the airplane is on ground. There is a direct control to the flight controls. Shortly after take-off the ground mode will switch to flight mode and reactivates ground mode when the airplane touches the ground again. When the airplane landed the stabilizer will be set to zero again. Ad. 2 Flight mode Flight mode is active when the airplane is in flight and remains active until shortly before the airplane touches the ground. The movement of the flight controls and the load factor are independent from the airspeed. In level flight the system will maintain a 1 G load in pitch. When the airplane needs to ascend or descend the system will maintain maximum load factor for flaps. When the airplane is about to make a roll the computer will generate a roll rate. Airspeed is not used by roll movement by the computers. Turn coordination and yaw damping are computed by the Elevator Aileron Computers and transmitted to the Flight Augmentation Computers (FAC). The flight mode does not give any rudder pedal feedback for the yaw damping and turn coordination functions. Ad. 3 Flare mode Flare Mode will start at 50 feet Radio Altitude during landing. It memorizes pitch attitude and will progressively reduce this attitude. Then it will set the nose more pitch up to land. When a go-around is made the transition to flight mode will occur again at 50 feet Radio Altitude. Protections for the normal law are: Load factor limitation, this will prevent the overstressing of the airplane in all situations. Attitude protection, this sets the limits for pitch up (30 degrees), pitch down (15 degrees) and bank (67 degrees). Bank angles more than 33 deg need constant side stick input. If the inputs is released the airplane returns to and maintains 33 deg of bank. High angle of attack protection (), max will never be exceeded even if the pilot applies full aft deflection. When alpha exceeds alpha protection, the elevator control switches to alpha protection mode. High speed protection will make the airplane not exceed the maximum airspeed, in this case the airplane will pitch up load factor demand. This can never be overridden by the pilot. Low energy warning will produce an audio tone (SPEED SPEED SPEED) when the flight path is changed and is insufficient to regain a positive flight path. This means that the thrust must be increased. 2.2.4.b Alternate law The alternate law uses the following modes: 1. Ground mode 2. Flight mode 3. Flare mode Ad. 1 Ground mode If multiple failures occur, the flight controls revert to alternate law. In alternate law the ground mode is identical to the ground mode in normal law. In flight mode it will reduce the protections of the normal law. Ad. 2 Flight mode Automatic pitch trim and yaw damping is still available, but with limited authority. The Turn coordination will be lost in Alternate law. Roll movement will degrade to direct law, and depends on airspeed.

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Ad. 3 Flare mode Alternate law can never be used in landing (flare), this will result in a direct law when the landing gear is extended. Protections for alternate law are lost, except for load factor manoeuvring. Low speed stability function replaces the normal angle-of-attack protection. The system will introduce a progressive nose down command which attempts to increase the speed. This command can be overridden by side stick input. This means the airplane is capable of stalling. When the airplane is in a stall the system will generate an audio warning. A nose up command is introduced any time the airplane exceeds maximum airspeed to decrease the speed, this can be overridden by the side stick as well. 2.2.4.c Direct law Direct law will occur with certain multiple failures, this is the lowest level of computer flight control. In this case the control inputs are transmitted unmodified to the control surfaces, this means a direct connection between the side stick and control surfaces. The control sensitivity depends on the airspeed and there is no auto trimming possible. In a landing when the landing gear is extended in alternate law, the direct law automatically becomes active when there is no autopilot engaged. If the autopilot is engaged the airplane will remain in alternate law until the autopilot is disconnected. There is no protection in direct law, except over speed and stall aural warnings are still available.

2.3 Advantages and Disadvantages


The conventional and the fly-by-wire system are two entirely different systems. A table for the conventional (2.3.1 and 2.3.3) and the fly-by-wire (2.3.2 and 2.3.4) system is made. There are tables for the elevator and the flaps and then a comparison (2.3.5) is shown.

2.3.1 Conventional elevator system function table


Function Input Convert Correct Amplify Transport Advantages Easier to steer because the hydraulic systems Not dependable on electricity Provides an artificial feeling No human power needed Low signal loss Disadvantages Less feeling with the airplane Wear and weight Uses electricity Sensitive for temperature and pressure changes Heavy
Table2.1

2.3.2 fly-by-wire elevator system function table


Function Input Advantages Easier to make minor deflections, no mechanical feedback which makes it easier to control the elevator Signal transport is easier ELAC Autocorrects the pilot Disadvantages Pilot cannot feel aerodynamic forces on the elevator

Convert Correct

Amplify

The actuator amplifies the force the pilot have to excite ARINC is light, fast and reliable

Transport

If ELAC is provided with wrong information, it will make wrong corrections Somewhat sensitive for changes in temperature and pressure Dependable on electricity
Table2.2

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2.3.3 Conventional flap function table


Function Input Convert Amplify Transport Advantage The system is accurate Less man power needed to control the system Transport is independent of electricity Disadvantage There is no feedback of forces Because of movement the system experiences damage Causes high pressure in hydraulic system The system needs maintenance because of moving parts and friction. And the system is heavy
Table2.3

2.3.4 Fly-by-wire flap function table


Function Input Convert Correct Amplify Transport Advantage Disadvantage There is no feedback of forces Sensitive for failure Uses current for the system By a small failure, the failure increases Sensitive for interference
Table2.4

Digital signal is easy to use at transport Failures are less common to a occur Decreases the change to lose the signal Only electrical cables needed for transport

2.3.5 Comparison
Now that the advantages and the disadvantages of both systems are known, the following conclusions can be made: The fly-by-wire is more sensitive to software errors The fly-by-wire system is lighter than the conventional system The fly-by-wire system makes auto corrections if the pilot exceeds the limitations of the airplane, the conventional system does not The signal transport in the fly-by-wire system is faster and more reliable The fly-by-wire system is very dependable on electricity, unlike the conventional system

2.4 Conclusion
The operation of the flight controls in a Boeing 737 and an Airbus A320 are reviewed. After explaining the operation of the flight controls, in both airplanes, the advantages and disadvantages are explained. After these advantages and disadvantages, a comparison has been made. When comparing the systems the following things can be concluded: There are two ways to control the flight controls, the conventional system (used in a Boeing 737) and the fly-by-wire system (used in the Airbus A320). In an Airbus the pilot uses a side stick to control the flight controls. In a Boeing the pilot uses a steering wheel and pedals to control the flight controls. The movements the pilot makes with the side stick, steering wheel or pedals are amplified by a hydraulic system. In a conventional system the movements with side stick or pedals are transmitted mechanically. In a fly-by-wire system the movements with the side stick are transmitted electrically to the flight controls. After viewing all the advantages and disadvantages, there can be concluded that the fly-by-wire system has more advantages than the conventional system. Technically, it is more rewarding to modify the conventional system to a fly-by-wire system. Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 32

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls

Chapter 3 Modification System


It is necessary to make a modification plan, because this plan describes which components should be modified (3.1). In 3.2 a few design aspects are discussed. The financial aspects (3.3) will describe if the modification is profitable. Finally the conclusion (3.4) and the recommendation (3.5) will be given.

3.1 Modification plan


To modify the Boeing 737 several components will remain, will be installed or removed. The system overview of the modified Boeing 737 can be found in appendix XIV. This is done for a primary flight control (3.1.1), a secondary flight control (3.1.2) and the back-up system (3.1.3).

3.1.1. Primary
If the conventional system of a Boeing 737 is modified to a fly-by-wire system, several components will remain, will be installed or removed. In chapter 2 is investigated which components the Boeing 737 and the Airbus A320 contain for the elevator. This information describes which components are modified for the elevator. In table 3.1 is described which components a Boeing 737 flight control system contains and which parts the modified Boeing 737 contains. In the other table (table 3.2) is showed which components a fly-by-wire system has and what should be modified for the Boeing 737.

Function Input Convert Transport Correct Amplify Output

Boeing 737 system Two control columns Cable conversion and hydraulic pressure Copper cables and hydraulic pipes Elevator Feel Computer and Centering Unit Hydraulic actuator Movement of the elevator

Modification(s) Removed Removed and remained Removed Removed Remained Remained

Table 3.1: Modification overview of the Boeing 737

Function Input Convert Transport Correct Amplify Output Feedback

Fly-by-wire system Two side sticks Side Stick Transducer Unit ARINC 429 ELAC 1 and ELAC 2 Actuator and electro servo valve Movement of the elevator and electro servo valves ECAM F/CTL

Modification(s) Installed Installed Installed Installed Remained and installed Remained and installed Installed

Table 3.2: Modification overview of a fly-by-wire system

Ad 1. Input The Boeing 737 flight control system has two control columns. These are removed and replaced for two side sticks. Ad 2. Convert The cable conversion is removed and replaced for a SSTU (Side Stick Transducer Unit). This converts the motion of the side stick to an electrical signal. The hydraulic pressure remains, because there still is a hydraulic system required. Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 33

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Ad 3. Transport The cables and the hydraulic pipes are removed and replaced by a ARINC 429 data bus. Ad 4. Correct The Elevator Feel Computer (EFC) and Centering Unit are replaced by two computers, the ELAC 1 and ELAC 2. Ad 5. Amplify The actuators in the Boeing 737 stay, because a fly-by-wire system also contains actuators. Besides that, an electro servo valve is installed. Ad 6. Output The movement of the elevator for a Boeing 737 flight control system and fly-by-wire system is the same. They both use hydraulics and actuators. Only a fly-by-wire system using electro servo valves. Ad 7. Feedback A fly-by-wire system uses an ECAM F/CTL for feedback and this must be installed.

3.1.2. Secondary
To modify the secondary flight controls of the Boeing 737 to a fly-by-wire system, just like primary flight controls, components must be changed. In the previous chapter the operation of the flaps were explained for each flight control system. The main differences are the hydraulics of the conventional flight control system, and the Slat/Flap Control Computer (SFCC) in the fly-by-wire system. All the changes that have to be done for the modification are showed in table 3.3 and table 3.4.

Function Input Convert Correct Amplify Transport Output Function Input Convert Correct Amplify Transport Output Feedback

Boeing 737 system Flap handle Hydraulic conversion Actuator Cables and pipes Movement of the flaps Fly-by-wire system Fly-by-wire Autopilot Command Sensor Unit (CSU) and A/D converter Two Slat/Flap Control Computer (SFCC) Transformer ARINC 429 Electromotor and Hydraulic actuator Feedback Position Pick-off Unit (FPPU)

Modification(s) Remained Removed Removed Removed Remained Modification(s) Installed Installed Installed Installed Installed Installed Installed

Table 3.3: Modification overview of the Boeing 737

Table 3.4: Modification overview of a fly-by-wire system

Ad 1. Input The conventional system has flap handle. The flap handle is remained and a fly-by-wire autopilot is installed.

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Ad 2. Convert The hydraulics are replaced by an electric system. The hydraulic system is removed, and a Command Sensor Unit (CSU) is installed instead. For the CSU to work there must be a digital signal. Therefore a digital A/D converter is installed. Ad 3. Correct The conventional system did not have a correcting unit. In the fly-by-wire system two Slat-Flap Control Computers (SFCC) are installed for correcting. Each SFCC has two channels; one for the flaps, and one for the slats. Ad 4. Amplify The actuator from the conventional system is removed, since there is no hydraulic system. However, the electric signal is too weak for the system to work, so a transformer is installed. Ad 5. Transport The cables and pipes of the hydraulic system of the conventional flight controls system are removed, because there is an electric system now. The cables and pipes are replaced by ARINC 429 cables. Ad 6. Output In the conventional system, the output was movement of the flaps. However, in the fly-by-wire system the electric signal must be transformed to be able to move the flaps. Therefore a electromotor is installed, which is connected to a hydraulic actuator. This way there is a mechanical movement, and enough power to move the flaps under different circumstances. Ad 7 Feedback To ensure correct feedback, a Feedback Position Pick-off Unit (FPPU) is installed. This unit sends a signal whether the flaps are in place, need to be adjusted, or are defect.

3.1.3 Backup system


A backup system is a very important requirement in an airplane. The backup system in the modified airplane will be the same as the backup system of the Airbus A320 as described in 2.2.3. The flight controls are controlled by computers. So to ensure that unsafe flight will not endure at a failure of the computer, there are many backup computers. Next to the computer backup there is a backup for electricity failure. At a failure of the electricity a ram air turbine will be start automatically or by the pilots. At last there is a backup system for a total failure. The backup for the total failure is a mechanical system for the rudder. The rudder is then used for the movement around the vertical and longitudinal axis. The pitch movement will be achieved by the horizontal stabilizer when the manual trim wheels are used.

3.2 Design aspects


After the system has been build it still needs to be certificated (3.2.1). After the certification has been done, there will be some changes needed with the maintenance of the airplanes (3.2.2).

3.2.1 Certification
After building in the fly-by-wire system in the Boeing 737, the airplane has to be certificated again. This is done by EASA. During the modification every replacement or modification has to be documented. Only legal approved parts can be used during the modification. The flight limitations will be the same as the flight limitations of the Airbus A320, because the modified Boeing now also has a fly-by-wire system. After the plane has been modified EASA will give a temporary approval, so the modified system can be tested in flight. During this test the fly-by-wire system and back-up system will be tested. When the modified airplane passed these tests, EASA will emit a Supplemental Type Certificate. This means that the airplane is ready for exploitation. This whole process takes time, Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 35

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls certainly if the airplane does not passes all the tests at once. The costs of certifications are for the ALA. The rules that EASA uses during the certification are displayed in the CS-25 Document. The modification of the conventional system is categorized in the major change.

3.2.2 Maintenance
The maintenance procedures will involve a lot more electronic parts. Most of these electronic parts can be monitored by just running computer checks. If the system fails, the broken parts can be found by a computer program and the whole module can be replaced so that it does not need to be repaired on location. This way it will be possible to save time in maintenance checks because the airplane will not be repaired, but the broken modules will be replaced and can be repaired while the airplane is operating. To actually control the flight controls there is still need for a hydraulic system. This still needs to be monitored and maintained by hand. So the actual saved time will be small. The maintenance manuals and schedules need to be rewritten because of the new system will require mechanics to check and replace different parts and modules.

3.3 Financial Aspects


At the modification of a flight controls system it is important to have a look to the costs and benefits that are brought with this project. With the information of the along coming costs (3.3.1) can be decided if it is useful to modify the flight controls system. If there are more benefits (3.3.2) than costs the modification will be achievable. The costs and benefits are analyzed (3.3.3).

3.3.1 Costs
Costs can be split up in two subjects; the fixed costs (3.3.1.a) and the variable costs (3.3.1.b). Fixed costs are paid once and are clearly to calculate. The variable costs are usually related to time. 3.3.1.a Fixed costs Costs that should be paid once are: 1. Staff 2. Location 3. Material/parts 4. Testing 5. Retraining Ad1. Staff Engineers are needed to do the modification of the flight controls system. You need to pay a lot of manpower to modify the system within the achievable time. You also need to pay project designers who lead the project and make up a good project plan so the deadline cannot be broken. Ad2. Location There must be a location to modify the airplanes controls system. A hangar must be hired for the complete deadline. Ad3. Material and parts During the modification several parts and materials are needed. Which parts are needed can be predetermined. So are clearly fixed costs which can be calculated before modifying is started. Ad4. Testing If the modification of the flight controls system is accepted and complete it must be tested and certified to ensure the airplane its safety. This also costs time and money.

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Ad5. Retraining The engineers modifying the airplane must be retrained before they can modify the new system properly. Also every pilot thats normally flying the airplane must be retrained with the new flight controls system. 3.3.1.b Variable costs The variable costs are the airplane on ground costs and the maintenance. Ad1. Airplane on ground costs The airplane on ground costs or the AOG-costs are fixed during the modification but after modifying the airplane there are still AOG-costs made because of a failure of the new flight controls system. The modified flight controls should have system less problems than the conventional system, so it spends less time on the ground and makes less AOG-costs. Ad2. Maintenance Maintenance can be also called a fixed and variable cost because there are different kinds of standard checks that need to be done in a fixed period of time. Next to these checks there is maintenance due failure or malfunction from a part of the flight controls system. If the modified control system is useful it should have less failures and needs less maintenance.

3.3.2 Benefits
Modifying the conventional system to a fly-by-wire system brings many benefits. All of these benefits will reduce the costs in some way. Installing the fly-by-wire system will reduce the required maintenance on the airplane (3.3.2.a). It will also reduce the weight of the airplane (3.3.2.b), and it will make it easier for the pilots to fly multiple types of airplane (3.3.2.c). 3.3.2.a Maintenance After the modification to the fly-by-wire system, the flight control system will consist of much less moving parts. The mechanical parts and hydraulic pipes have (mostly) been replaced by data cables. Less moving parts means less friction and there is less chance that parts get broken. Because of this the fly-by-wire system requires less maintenance. This can greatly reduce the costs. Because there will be less AOG time, there will be no need to hire many personnel and there is no need to buy special equipment since everything lasts longer. 3.3.2.b Weight As stated above, the airplane will have less mechanical parts after the modification. Due to this, the airplane has considerably less weight. This also reduces the costs. Less weight means the airplane requires less fuel to fly the same distance. 3.3.2.c Retraining When the fly-by-wire system is installed, mechanical parts are replaced by computers. These computers can process information instead of the pilots. For example, the computer can watch the stall speed. If airplane is going too slow and is about to stall, the fly-by-wire computer wont allow the airplane to slow down even more. The pilots will have it a bit easier, and they will get a familiar feeling when flying other types of airplane with the fly-by-wire system installed. This will reduce costs in pilot training, and they spend less time practising in flight simulators and more time in the air.

3.3.3 Costs and benefits analysis


To get a better view about the costs to modify the flight control system table 3.5 has been made. In this the costs are described and have a + or a to show the positive or negative views, + means positive and - means negative, for the choice to modify the conventional system of the Boeing 737 to a fly-by-wire system. This is important for the conclusion which is made in the next chapter. Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 37

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls

Maintenance costs Purchase costs Retraining costs Certificating costs Payload Installation costs

Modified Boeing 737 Will be lower because the system is more modern and intelligent so maintenance tasks will be simplified. The purchase of the system will endure more costs than not purchase the costs. The crew needs to be retrained so this will endure costs. The airplane has to be certified which will endure costs Because the system is less heavy, more payload can be added. The system has to be installed which will endure costs. Also, the airplane has to stay on the ground during that time, which means it is not profitable.

+ + -

Table 3.5 Costs Analysis

3.4 Conclusion
Project group 2A1S has researched the possibility to modify the conventional Boeing 737 to a fly-bywire system. The fly-by-wire system requires less maintenance and is less heavy, allowing a bigger payload. However, the fly-by-wire system consists of expensive parts. It has to be installed which takes time. The crew has to be retrained and the airplane has to be certified.

3.5 Recommendation
Considering the high installation costs and the low benefits it is not profitable to modify the conventional system the fly-by-wire system. Therefore project group 2A1S does not recommend ALA to modify the system.

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Bibliography
Books/ others
Laban, Victor Aerodynamica (AER1) 3th edition Amsterdam, 2009 Joint Aviation Authorities, Airline Transport Pilots License Theoretical Knowledge Manual 2nd edition Oxford, 2001 Koninklijke Luchtmacht Gvvs Instructieboek 8th edition Place unknown, 2009 B.H. van Dijk en R.J. van Aalst Stromingsleer (TNA1) 1st edition Amsterdam, 2010 John D. Anderson, Jr Introduction to Flight 6th edition New York, 2008 Boeing Boeing 737NG Maintenance Manual Flight Controls Edition, place and year unknown Federal Aviation Administration Pilot's Encyclopedia of Aeronautical Knowledge 1th may 2007 Airbus Airbus A219/A320/A321 maintenance manual Edition, place and year unknown

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Internet sites
http://www.pilotfriend.com/training/flight_training/fxd_wing/primary.htm Primary flight controls Last update: 2000 Consulted: 14-2-2011 http://www.kwauk.com/Files/FlightLaws.pdf Flight control laws Airbus Version 5.8.8 Last update: unknown Consulted: 3-3-2011 http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/pilot_handbook/ FAA, Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, Chapter 5 Flight Controls Last update: 3 september 2009 Consulted: 21-2-2011 http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/airplane/airplane_handbook/ FAA, Airplane Flying Handbook, Chapter 1-3 Trim Control Last update: unknown Consulted: 22 -2-2011 http://www.dutchops.com/Portfolio_Marcel/Articles/Flight%20Controls/A320_Flight_Controls/A320 _Secondary_Flight_Controls.html Feedback, SFCC, SCU Last update: 2009 Consulted: 6-3-2011 http://www.chipsplace.com/helpful/Airbus/Flight%20Controls.htm Flight Controls Airbus Last update: unknown Consulted: 8-3-2011 http://www.flightlearnings.com/aerodynamics-index/ Flight learnings, Aerodynamics Last update: 2008 Consulted: 22-3-2011 http://www.pilotfriend.com/ Pilot resources and aviation weather for general aviation Last update: 2000 Consulted: February 2011 http://www.dutchops.com/index.html Technical Aviation Database Last Update: 2009 Consulted: February 2011 http://www.b737.org.uk/ Boeing 737 Technical Site. Last Update: Sept 1999 Consulted: February 2011 Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 40

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls https://intra.techniek.hva.nl/AVI/0809/Jaar1/PROJ-3_13/Studiemateriaal/Airbus-Flight-Controls-1Prese ntation.pdf Airbus flight control presentation Last updated: unknown Consulted: February 2011 https://intra.techniek.hva.nl/AVI/0809/Jaar1/PROJ-3_13/Studiemateriaal/Airbus-Flight-Controls-10Side-Stick.pdf Airbus side stick presentation Last updated: unknown Consulted: February 2011 https://intra.techniek.hva.nl/AVI/0809/Jaar1/PROJ-3_13/Studiemateriaal/Airbus-Flight-Controls-3Normal-Law-and-Protections.pdf Airbus Law and protection presentation Last updated: unknown Consulted: February 2011 https://intra.techniek.hva.nl/AVI/0809/Jaar1/PROJ-3_13/Studiemateriaal/Airbus-Hydraulics-1Presentation.pdf Airbus hydraulics presentation Last updated: unknown Consulted: January 2011

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List of Appendixes
Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III Appendix IV Appendix V Appendix VI Appendix VII Appendix VIII Appendix IX Appendix X Appendix XI Appendix XII Appendix XIII Appendix XIV Appendix XV Appendix XVI Appendix XVII Appendix XVIII Appendix XIX Appendix XX Appendix XXI Appendix XXII Appendix XXIII Appendix XXIV Appendix XXV Appendix XXVI Different flap types ..................................................................................................... 1 CL- graph for different flap types ............................................................................. 2 Spoilers ................................................................................................................... 3 Leading edge high lift devices ................................................................................ 4 Airflow fixed slot .................................................................................................... 5 CL- graph of flaps and slats................................................................................... 6 CL- graph of Krueger flaps (L.E. flaps) ................................................................... 7 Servo, balance and adjustable tabs ........................................................................ 8 Used pages of CS-25................................................................................................ 9 Boeing 737 Elevator System Overview ................................................................. 13 Boeing 737 Flap System Overview ........................................................................ 14 Airbus A320 Elevator System Overview ................................................................ 15 Airbus A320 Flap System Overview ....................................................................... 16 Modified Boeing 737 System Overview ................................................................ 17 ECAM F/CTL page .................................................................................................. 18 Hydraulic system Boeing 737 ................................................................................ 19 Hydraulic system Airbus A320 ............................................................................... 20 Location flaps handle Airbus A320 ........................................................................ 21 Process Report ....................................................................................................... 22 Zelfsturende opdracht ........................................................................................... 23 Pyramid model...................................................................................................... 29 Planning and division ............................................................................................. 30 Contact information & group picture .................................................................... 31 Chairman and minutes list ..................................................................................... 32 Standard Operation Procedure ............................................................................. 33 Lay out appointments............................................................................................ 34

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Appendix I

Different flap types

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Appendix II

CL- graph for different flap types

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Appendix III

Spoilers

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Appendix IV

Leading edge high lift devices

Krueger flaps

Cuffs

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Appendix V

Airflow fixed slot

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Appendix VI

CL- graph of flaps and slats

Using flaps, the CL will be increased. Using slats, the CL and the critical angle of attack are increased. This causes the stall speed of the airplane is reduced.

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Appendix VII

CL- graph of Krueger flaps (L.E. flaps)

This graph shows that the CL and critical angle of attack are increased, by using Krueger flaps.

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Appendix VIII

Servo, balance and adjustable tabs

Balance Tabs The control forces may be excessively high in some airplane, and, in order to decrease them, the manufacturer may use balance tabs. They look like trim tabs and are hinged in approximately the same places as trim tabs. The essential difference between the two is that the balancing tab is coupled to the control surface rod so that when the primary control surface is moved in any direction, the tab automatically moves in the opposite direction. The airow striking the tab counterbalances some of the air pressure against the primary control surface, and enables the pilot to move more easily and hold the control surface in position. If the linkage between the balance tab and the xed surface is adjustable from the ight deck, the tab acts as a combination trim and balance tab that can be adjusted to any desired deection. Antiservo Tabs Antiservo tabs work in the same manner as balance tabs except, instead of moving in the opposite direction, they move in the same direction as the trailing edge of the stabilator. In addition to decreasing the sensitivity of the stabilator, an antiservo tab also functions as a trim device to relieve control pressure and maintain the stabilator in the desired position. The xed end of the linkage is on the opposite side of the surface from the horn on the tab; when the trailing edge of thestabilator moves up, the linkage forces the trailing edge of the tab up. When the stabilator moves down, the tab also moves down. Conversely, trim tabs on elevators move opposite of the control surface. Ground Adjustable Tabs Many small airplane have a nonmovable metal trim tab on the rudder. This tab is bent in one direction or the other while on the ground to apply a trim force to the rudder. The correct displacement is determined by trial and error. Usually, small adjustments are necessary until the airplane no longer skids left or right during normal cruising ight

Source: http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/pilot_handbook/media/PHAK%20%20Chapter%2005.pdf

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Appendix IX

Used pages of CS-25

CONTROL SYSTEMS
CS 25.671 General (a) Each control and control system must operate with the ease, smoothness, and positiveness appropriate to its function. (See AMC 25.671 (a).) (b) Each element of each flight control system must be designed, or distinctively and permanently marked, to minimise the probability of incorrect assembly that could result in the malfunctioning of the system. (See AMC 25.671 (b).) (c) The aeroplane must be shown by analysis, test, or both, to be capable of continued safe flight and landing after any of the following failures or jamming in the flight control system and surfaces (including trim, lift, drag, and feel systems) within the normal flight envelope, without requiring exceptional piloting skill or strength. Probable malfunctions must have only minor effects on control system operation and must be capable of being readily counteracted by the pilot. (1) Any single failure not shown to be extremely improbable, excluding jamming, (for example, disconnection or failure of mechanical elements, or structural failure of hydraulic components, such as actuators, control spool housing, and valves). (See AMC 25.671(c)(1).) (2) Any combination of failures not shown to be extremely improbable, excluding jamming (for example, dual electrical or hydraulic system failures, or any single failure in combination with any probable hydraulic or electrical failure). (3) Any jam in a control position normally encountered during take-off, climb, cruise, normal turns, descent and landing unless the jam is shown to be extremely improbable, or can be alleviated. A runaway of a flight control to an adverse position and jam must be accounted for if such runaway and subsequent jamming is not extremely improbable. (d) The aeroplane must be designed so that it is controllable if all engines fail. Compliance with this requirement may be shown by analysis where that method has been shown to be reliable. CS 25.672 Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems If the functioning of stability augmentation or other automatic or power-operated systems is necessary to show compliance with the flight characteristics requirements of this CS-25, such systems must comply with CS 25.671 and the following: (a) A warning, which is clearly distinguishable to the pilot under expected flight conditions without requiring his attention, must be provided for any failure in the stability augmentation system or in any other automatic or power-operated system, which could result in an unsafe condition if the pilot were not aware of the failure. Warning systems must not activate the control systems. (b) The design of the stability augmentation system or of any other automatic or power-operated system must permit initial counteraction of failures of the type specified in CS 25.671 (c) without requiring exceptional pilot skill or strength, by either the deactivation of the system, or a failed portion thereof, or by overriding the failure by movement of the flight controls in the normal sense. (c) It must be shown that after any single failure of the stability augmentation system or any other automatic or power-operated system (1) The aeroplane is safely controllable when the failure or malfunction occurs at any speed or altitude within the approved operating limitations that is critical for the type of failure being considered. (See AMC 25.672 (c) (1).) (2) The controllability and manoeuvrability requirements of this CS-25 are met within a practical operational flight envelope (for example, speed, altitude, normal acceleration, and aeroplane configurations) which is described in the.Aeroplane Flight Manual; and Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 9

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls (3) The trim, stability, and stall characteristics are not impaired below a level needed to permit continued safe flight and landing. CS 25.675 Stops (a) Each control system must have stops that positively limit the range of motion of each movable aerodynamic surface controlled by the system. (b) Each stop must be located so that wear, slackness, or take-up adjustments will not adversely affect the control characteristics of the aeroplane because of a change in the range of surface travel. (c) Each stop must be able to withstand any loads corresponding to the design conditions for the control system. CS 25.677 Trim systems (a) Trim controls must be designed to prevent inadvertent or abrupt operation and to operate in the plane, and the sense of motion, of the aeroplane.
(b) There must be means adjacent to the trim control to indicate the direction of the control movement relative to the aeroplane motion. In addition, there must be clearly visible means to indicate the position of the trim device with respect to the range of adjustment. The indicator must be clearly marked with the range within which it has been demonstrated that take-off is safe for all centre of gravity positions approved for take-off. (c) Trim control systems must be designed to prevent creeping in flight. Trim tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is appropriately balanced and shown to be free from flutter.

(d) If an irreversible tab control system is used, the part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible unit to the aeroplane structure must consist of a rigid connection. CS 25.679 Control system gust locks (a) There must be a device to prevent damage to the control surfaces (including tabs), and to the control system, from gusts striking the aeroplane while it is on the ground. If the device, when engaged, prevents normal operation of the control surfaces by the pilot, it must (1) Automatically disengage when the pilot operates the primary flight controls in a normal manner; or (2) Limit the operation of the aeroplane so that the pilot receives unmistakable warning at the start of take-off. (See AMC 25.679(a)(2).) (b) The device must have means to preclude the possibility of it becoming inadvertently engaged in flight. (See AMC 25.679(b).) CS 25.681 Limit load static tests (a) Compliance with the limit load requirements of this CS25 must be shown by tests in which (1) The direction of the test loads produces the most severe loading in the control system; and (2) Each fitting, pulley, and bracket used in attaching the system to the main structure is included. (b) Compliance must be shown (by analyses or individual load tests) with the special factor requirements for control system joints subject to angular motion. CS 25.683 Operation tests (a) It must be shown by operation tests that when portions of the control system subject to pilot effort loads are loaded to 80% of the limit load specified for the system and the powered portions of the control system are loaded to the maximum load expected in normal operation, the system is free from (1) Jamming; (2) Excessive friction; and (3) Excessive deflection. (b) It must be shown by analysis and, where necessary, by tests that in the presence of deflections of the aeroplane structure due to the separate application of pitch, roll and yaw limit manoeuvre loads,

Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 10

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls the control system, when loaded to obtain these limit loads and operated within its operational range of deflections can be exercised about all control axes and remain free from(1) Jamming; (2) Excessive friction; (3) Disconnection, and (4) Any form of permanent damage. (c) It must be shown that under vibration loads in the normal flight and ground operating conditions, no hazard can result from interference or contact with adjacent elements. CS 25.685 Control system details (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed and installed to prevent jamming, chafing, and interference from cargo, passengers, loose objects or the freezing of moisture. (See AMC 25.685 (a).) (b) There must be means in the cockpit to prevent the entry of foreign objects into places where they would jam the system. (c) There must be means to prevent the slapping of cables or tubes against other parts. (d) CS 25.689 and CS 25.693 apply to cable systems and joints. CS 25.689 Cable systems (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, splice, and pulley must be approved. In addition (1) No cable smaller than 3.2 mm (0125 inch) diameter may be used in the aileron, elevator, or rudder systems; and (2) Each cable system must be designed so that there will be no hazardous change in cable tension throughout the range of travel under operating conditions and temperature variations. (b) Each kind and size of pulley must correspond to the cable with which it is used. Pulleys and sprockets must have closely fitted guards to prevent the cables and chains from being displaced or fouled. Each pulley must lie in the plane passing through the cable so that the cable does not rub against the pulley flange. (c) Fairleads must be installed so that they do not cause a change in cable direction of more than three degrees. (d) Clevis pins subject to load or motion and retained only by cotter pins may not be used in the control system. (e) Turnbuckles must be attached to parts having angular motion in a manner that will positively prevent binding throughout the range of travel. (f) There must be provisions for visual inspection of fairleads, pulleys, terminals, and turnbuckles. CS 25.693 Joints Control system joints (in push-pull systems) that are subject to angular motion, except those in ball and roller bearing systems must have a special factor of safety of not less than 333 with respect to the ultimate bearing strength of the softest material used as a bearing. This factor may be reduced to 20 for joints in cable control systems. For ball or roller bearings, the approved ratings, may not be exceeded. CS 25.697 Lift and drag devices, controls (a) Each lift device control must be designed so that the pilots can place the device in any take-off, en-route, approach, or landing position established under CS 25.101(d). Lift and drag devices must maintain the selected positions, except for movement produced by an automatic positioning or load limiting device, without further attention by the pilots. (b) Each lift and drag device control must be designed and located to make inadvertent operation improbable. Lift and drag devices intended for ground operation only must have means to prevent the inadvertent operation of their controls in flight if that operation could be hazardous. Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 11

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls (c) The rate of motion of the surfaces in response to the operation of the control and the characteristics of the automatic positioning or load limiting device must give satisfactory flight and performance characteristics under steady or changing conditions of airspeed, engine power, and aeroplane attitude. (d) The lift device control must be designed to retract the surfaces from the fully extended position, during steady flight at maximum continuous engine power at any speed below VF + 17 km/hr (90 knots). CS 25.699 Lift and drag device indicator (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position of each lift or drag device having a separate control in the cockpit to adjust its position. In addition, an indication of unsymmetrical operation or other malfunction in the lift or drag device systems must be provided when such indication is necessary to enable the pilots to prevent or counteract an unsafe flight or ground condition, considering the effects on flight characteristics and performance. (b) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the take-off, en-route, approach, and landing lift device positions. (c) If any extension of the lift and drag device beyond the landing position is possible, the control must be clearly marked to identify this range of extension. CS 25.701 Flap and slat interconnection (a) Unless the aeroplane has safe flight characteristics with the flaps or slats retracted on one side and extended on the other, the motion of flaps or slats on opposite sides of the plane of symmetry must be synchronised by a mechanical interconnection or approved equivalent means. (b) If a wing-flap or slat interconnection or equivalent means is used, it must be designed to account for the applicable unsymmetrical loads, including those resulting from flight with the engines on one side of the plane of symmetry inoperative and the remaining engines at take-off power. (c) For aeroplanes with flaps or slats that are not subjected to slipstream conditions, the structure must be designed for the loads imposed when the wing-flaps or slats on one side are carrying the most severe load occurring in the prescribed symmetrical conditions and those on the other side are carrying not more than 80% of that load. (d) The interconnection must be designed for the loads resulting when interconnected flap or slat surfaces on one side of the plane of symmetry are jammed and immovable while the surfaces on the other side are free to move and the full power of the surface actuating system is applied. (See AMC 25.701(d).)

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Appendix X

Boeing 737 Elevator System Overview

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Appendix XI

Boeing 737 Flap System Overview

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Appendix XII

Airbus A320 Elevator System Overview

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Appendix XIII

Airbus A320 Flap System Overview

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Appendix XIV

Modified Boeing 737 System Overview

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Appendix XV

ECAM F/CTL page

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Appendix XVI

Hydraulic system Boeing 737

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Appendix XVII

Hydraulic system Airbus A320

The hydraulic system of the Airbus A320 consists out of three separate systems.

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Appendix XVIII

Location flaps handle Airbus A320

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Appendix XIX

Process Report

During the last seven weeks project group 2A1S has worked on the project Modification Flight Controls. During this period some things went wrong, and some things went right. The start of the project went well overall, the meetings in the beginning went good and we made a clear planning. Because of this planning everything remained on schedule. There were a few problems with chapter one, this caused a delay in the planning. Later on this delay has been corrected and the project was back on schedule, everything was finished before the deadlines. As we neared the end of the project and the final deadline, there were some minor corrections to be made. Because of this we had to invest more time in these corrections, next to all the other things that had to be done. Various warning points have been given to some members of the group, because they did not make the deadline, were late or did not show up at all at meetings. Overall these things went good: SOP-agreements Chairman/secretary performed properly We kept to the planning Cooperation Communication Things that could have been better: Achieving deadlines Concentration during meetings Buddy-system Keeping to the Lay-out

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Appendix XX
Opgave 1.1

Zelfsturende opdracht

De A300 met een actuele massa van 150.000 kg (zie Bijlage I) vliegt met een constante snelheid en hoogte (baanhoek is nul) en zonder rol- en gierhoek. Daarmee bevindt het zich in een evenwichtssituatie (er zijn immers geen versnellingen). In Bijlage II is tevens een overzicht opgenomen van de constructie van het horizontale staartvlak. Teken voor deze situatie een vrijlichaamsschema [hierna: VLS] van het vliegtuig (zijaanzicht) De A300 met een actuele massa van 150.000 kg (zie Bijlage I) vliegt met een constante snelheid en hoogte (baanhoek g is nul) en zonder rol- en gierhoek. Daarmee bevindt het zich in een evenwichtssituatie (er zijn immers geen versnellingen). In Bijlage II is tevens een overzicht opgenomen van de constructie van het horizontale staartvlak. Teken voor deze situatie een vrijlichaamsschema [hierna: VLS] van het vliegtuig (zijaanzicht) met daarin de volgende krachten: -

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Opgave 1.2 Bereken met de drie evenwichtsvergelijkingen de aerodynamische krachten. Neem daarbij voor de actuele totale stuwkracht: T= 100 kN.

F+ = -100.000N + D = 0 F Moment A = (23.5LT) + (2*1471000N) (3*100.000N) = 0 F+ = -1471000N 112426N + L = 0

D= 100.000N (100KN) LT=-112426N (112.4KN) L= 1583426N (1583.4KN)

T=100KN,

D=100KN,

L=1583.4KN,

W=1471KN,

Lt=112.4KN

Opdracht 1.3 Cruise at 30,000ft: bereken de waarden van T, p en volgens ISA (ICAO doc 7488) op die hoogte. Gebruik hiervoor de formules die gelden voor de troposfeer (is dat een isothermal layer of gradient layer?)

30.000FT = 9144M (9.144KM) T=288.15K (9.144*6.5) ( ) T= -44.436C (228.714K) TEMP!

P/1013.25HPA = 228.714K / 288.15K ^ ( -9.81/ (-0.0065 * 287.05287)

P= 300.77HPA DRUK!

30077PA / (287.053 * 228.714K)

=0.458

DICHTHEID!

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Opgave 1.4 Het vliegtuig vliegt met M=0,78. Bereken bij dit Machgetal de vliegsnelheid (TAS) in m/s en kts. TAS M = ---------a

a = k.Rs.T = 1.4*287.05287*228.714 = 303.173571 m/s k= 1.4 Rs= 287,05287 J/kg.K T= 228,714 K TAS = M * a = 0.78*303.173571 = 236.4753854 m/s TAS = 236.4753854/0.514444 = 459.6717726 kts

Opgave 1.5 Bereken met de actuele liftkracht de liftcofficint van de vleugel; lees in Bijlage III af welke invalshoek () de vleugel heeft (verwaarloos hierbij 3D- en samendrukbaarheidseffecten). CL = L _ = 1583425,532 =0,4755727143 **v*S (*0,458*236.4753854*260

Zie bijlage I afmetingen assenstelsel. S= 260m2 CL= 0,4755727143 Bijbehorende alpha: 1,5 Graden. Opgave 1.6 Bereken met de actuele lift op het horizontale staartvlak de liftcofficint van het staartvlak; lees in bijlage IV af welke invalshoek T het staartvlak heeft (verwaarloos hierbij de down wash van de vleugel en de 3D- en samendrukbaarheidseffecten). - Let op: de uitslag van de elevator is in deze situatie gelijk aan nul (=0). - Let op: in de liftformule zijn liftkrachten en liftcofficinten naar boven positief

Lt= CLt * 0,5 * * V2 * S

CLt = Lt / (0,5 * * V2 * S) Lt = 112426 N. Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 25

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls = 0,458 KG/M3 V= 236,4753854 M/s S= 69,5 M2 (bijlage I) CLt= 112426/(0,5 * 0,458 * 236,47538542 * 69,5) CLt= 0,1263 Bijbehorende alpha is: 4 graden. Situatie 2: Cruise at M=0,65 Als eerste moet de nieuwe TAS uitgerekend worden. Gegeven: M = 0,65 T = 228,71

Nieuwe TAS: 196,9 m/s Opgave 2.1 Bereken bij deze nieuwe snelheid wedereom de liftcofficint van de vleugel en lees in bijlage III af, welke invalshoek (w) de vleugel nu moet hebben. Hoeveel graden is de neus van het vliegtuig dus omhoog gegaan? Wat is nu de standhoek () van het vliegtuig? Gegeven: L= 1583425,532 N = 0,458 kg/m^3 v = 196,6 m/s S = 260 m CL CL = = 1583425,532/2308342,579=0,6859= 0,69 Gevraagd: CL = ?

Door CL (0,69) af te lezen in de grafiek van bijlage III kom je op w = 3,3 Om de standhoek te kunnen berekenen, heb je de volgende vergelijking nodig: + = i + = 3,3 =0 i = 1,5 =? 3,3 + 0 = 1,5 + = 1,8 De neus van het vliegtuig is dus 1,8 omhoog gegaan. Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 26

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls Opgave 2.2 Bereken de nieuwe invalshoek van het horizontale staartvlak (r) uit de nieuwe standhoek en de bekende instelhoek (iw). Lees in bijlage IV af welke liftcofficint hierbij zou horen als de elevator nog steeds niet zou zijn uitgeslagen. Gegeven: iw= 1,5 = 1,8 = 0 Gevraagd: r = ?

r = iw + = 1,5 + 1,8 = 3,3 Aflezen in bijlage IV ( = 0) geeft voor invalshoek r=3,3 een Cl van 0,054. De liftcofficint is 0,054 bij de elevator die niet is uitgeslagen. Opgave 2.3 Bereken de nieuwe liftcofficint van het horizontale staartvlak, benodigd voor evenwicht. Bepaal uit de grafiek in bijlage IV hoe groot de uitslag van de elevator () hiervoor moet zijn. Gegeven: L=112426 (N) =0,458 v=196,9 (m/s) S=69,5 (m) CL =

Gevraagd: CL=?

CL= 0,18

Aflezen in bijlage IV (CL= 0,18, r=3,3) geeft een uitslag van =5

Opgave 2.4
Gebruik Bijlage II om een VLS van alleen de elevator te maken in de uitgeslagen toestand. Welke krachten werken er op de elevator in deze toestand? Moet de actuator een druk of trekkracht op de elevator leveren?

De actuator moet in dit geval een druk kracht leveren om de elevator in deze positie te houden.

Opgave 2.5
Leg in eigen woorden kort uit wat een trimmable horizontal stabilizer [THS] is en laat met een

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nette tekening (of VLS) zien hoe een THS werkt. Gebruik ter inspiratie de figuren uit Bijlage II.

De horizontal stabilizer word gebruikt voor het trimmen van de vlucht in de pitch beweging hierbij wordt de aerodynamische vorm zo goed mogelijk behouden. Dit gebeurt door een actuator die beweegt bij elke afwijking van de horizontale vlucht, als de piloot of autopiloot een rechte vlucht wil vliegen. Bij een trimmable horizontal stabilizer is de hoek van de gehele stabilo te veranderen, dit is afhankelijk van de flight load, waardoor het vliegtuig neus- of staartlastig kan zijn. Met de trimmable horizontal stabilizer is dit al een groot deel te voorkomen. Hierbij zijn kleine veranderingen al groot genoeg aangezien het moment van een groot vleugelprofiel groter is dan alleen een verandering van een klein deel van de vleugel. Opgave 2.6 Bepaal de benodigde grootte van de rotatie van de THS om de benodigde elevatoruitslag volledig tot nul te reduceren. Dus hoeveel graden moet de THS worden geroteerd om de bij opgave 2.3 berekende liftcofficint te verkrijgen zonder elevatoruitslag (=0)? Om de benodigde Liftcofficinten te behouden zal de angle of attack moeten worden verhoogt. Zoals af te lezen uit de grafiek moet de Angle of attack ongeveer 3.9 moeten worden. Doordat het vliegtuig al onder een angle of attack van 3,3 vliegt zal de THS 0,6 moeten worden gedraaid

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Appendix XXI

Pyramid model

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Appendix XXII

Planning and division

Projectplanning Flight Controls


Projecttaken Uitvoerder: Weeknr. Datum Plan van Aanpak Zelfsturende Opdracht Groepswerk Groepswerk 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 feb. 1-6 feb. 7-13 feb. 14-20 feb. 21-27 mrt 1-6 mrt 7-13 mrt 14-20 mrt 21-27 9-2-2011 14-2-2011 R E C E S Judie Wouter Groepswerk Groepswerk Groepswerk 14-3-2011 Allard en Duco Iris en Wouter Jotham, Erik en Judie Groepswerk 16-3-2011 7-3-2011 28-2-2011 I N L E V E R D A T U M 5 Stukken af op: DATUM

Hoofdstuk 1 1.1 Theory Flight Controls Jotham en Erik 1.2 Primary Flight Controls Sander 1.3 Secundary Flight Controls Iris 1.4 Requirements Duco 1.5 Comparison small and large airplanes Allard 1.6 Function research Judie Hoofdstuk 2 2.1 Boeing 2.2 Airbus 2.3 Advantages/Disadvantages 2.4 Comparison 2.5 Conclusion Hoofdstuk 3 3.1 Modification plan 3.2 Design aspects 3.3 Financial aspects 3.4 Conclusion/Recommendation

Verslag onderdelen ( bv. Inleiding enz.) Groepswerk Procesverslag Groepswerk EIND CONTROLE

2 1 / 0 3 / 2 0 1 1

18-3-2011 21-3-2011

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Appendix XXIII
Wouter Seignette 06 50627271
woutertje117@hotmail.com

Contact information & group picture

Erik Portman 0620288384


Erik_h_portman@hotmail.com

Judie Ibrahim 0683232117


j.i92@hotmail.com

Iris Prinsen 0612354649


iprinsen90@gmail.com

Sander Mestemaker 0621540472


sander_mestie@hotmail.com

Jotham Hensen 0623385676


Jothamhensen@gmail.com

Allard de Groot 0627288259


allardinio@gmail.com

Duco Golhof 0619502873


Ducogolhof@hotmail.com

From left to right; Allard de groot, Judie Ibrahim, Erik portman, Iris prinsen, Jotham Hensen, Duco golhof, Wouter seignette, Sander Mestemaker.

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Appendix XXIV
Week 5 6 7 9 10 11 12

Chairman and minutes list


Chairman Wouter Erik Duco Allard Jotham Judie Sander Secretary Erik Duco Allard Jotham Judie Sander Iris

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Appendix XXV

Standard Operation Procedure

Team appointments; First of all is everyone in this group responsible for the whole report. And follows the rules we made together. The tasks will be separated, so everyone needs to do as much as everyone else. When someone out of our team gets late at a meeting, with or without a reason, you will report it to the chairman by a text-message. This will be placed in record. When someone gets late at the meeting without a reason you will get a score. A reason to get late is by public passenger transport services, but this cant appear two times or even more. When your score is at two points, well have a conversation about it with our project teacher. When someone out of our team doesnt appear at the meeting without a good reason youll get a point as well. Good reasons are; illness, a visit at the hospital, funeral. This has to be reported to the chairman as well. And by email to the other members of our team. We all have to follow the appointments we make, if you dont follow these youll get a point. The chairman has the function for a complete week. He/she is responsible for all the tasks which should be made by our team. When the chairman gets ill, he/she will send the tasks by email. When a task isnt completed he/she will assign the task to another person or will make it by him/her self. This is depending from the planning. When the tasks is completed before the next lesson the chairman will show all relevant actions which are taken to complete the task. The chairman is obligated to perform to the best of one's abilities. The communication about the report will be businesslike. Communicate about the tasks which should be documented (like changes in appointments, questions about the content and report techniques, but also about conflicts) by email. Always make clear, in a businesslike email, where the message is about. Respect every other team member and dont use reply every time. Criticise about ideas instead of persons. Try not to feel offended when you get criticism. Make your goal clear to everyone about the criticism and dont stick in a pointless discussion about something someone did. Be aware about the fact you work together with people which are different from you. Try to solve conflicts because theyre not the end of the teamwork. And when you finally dont solve the conflict, ask the teacher as soon as possible before there will be fights. A social heading to each other and a constructive setting by mistakes and conflicts is worth a lot. About and also besides school. Report appointments Our team will make a digital space at BSCW where the tasks can be saved in maps. If youre working on a task you have to freeze the file. The files will be saved in a .docx (word 2007) file. The lay-out appointments are shown at the chapter Lay-out (page..). This meets ones obligations of the principal/teacher. The minutes secretary will take care of a objective, concerning content and a clear but elaborate report. Meeting appointments The standard meetings will be at Monday and Friday at project lesson. At Monday you have to show and explain the pieces youve made the last week. The minutes will be at BSCW within 24 hours. The minutes secretary will print the minutes to put them into a dossier. The chairman will take care of a room for the meeting. The items on the agenda have to be announced 24 hours before the meeting starts.

Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 33

Hogeschool van Amsterdam - Aviation Studies | Modification Flight Controls

Appendix XXVI

Lay out appointments

Hoofdtekst: Calibri 11, geen afstand

Kop 1: Titel van nieuw hoofdstuk.


Kop 2: Hoofdstuk aanduiding: 1.1
Calibri 14, dik gedrukt

Kop 3: Hoofdstuk aanduiding: 1.1.1


Calibri 13, dik gedrukt Kop 4: hoofdstuk aanduiding: 1.1.1.a Calibri 11, dik gedrukt Kop 5: Hoofdstuk aanduiding: Ad 1 Calibri 11, cursief
Benaming voor formules en figuren

Calibri 8, cursief en vetgedrukt

Period February 2011 till March 2011 | Group 2A1s | Page 34