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Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS


A Education and training

Margareta: The trouble with graduates, people who've just left university, is that their paper qualifications are good, but they have no work experience. They just don't know how business works. Nils: I disagree. Education should teach people how to think, not prepare them for a particular job. One of last year's recruits had graduated from Oxford in philosophy and she's doing very well! Margareta: Philosophy's an interesting subject, but for our company, it's more useful if you train as a scientist and qualify as a biologist or chemist - training for a specific job is better. Nils: Yes, but we don't just need scientists. We also need good managers, which we can achieve through in-house training courses within the company. You know we have put a lot of money into management development and management training because they are very important. You need to have some management experience for that. It's not the sort of thing you can learn when you're 20!

In AmE, you also say that someone graduates from high school (the school that people usually leave when they are 18). B Skilled and unskilled A skill is the ability to do something well, especially because you have learned how to do it and practised it. Jobs, and the people who do them, can be described as: highly skilled skilled (e.g. car designer) (e.g. car production manager) You can say that someone is: + noun customer care electronics computer software skilled at, or skilled in + -ing communicating using PCs working with large groups You can say that someone is: computers good with ... figures people

semi-skilled (e.g. taxi driver)

unskilled (e.g. car cleaner)

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

C The right person These words are often used in job advertisements. Companies look for people who are: self-starters, proactive, self-motivated, or self-driven: good at working on their own. methodical, systematic and organized: can work in a planned, orderly way. computer-literate: good with computers. numerate: good with numbers. motivated: very keen to do well in their job. talented: naturally very good at what they do. team players: people who work well with other people.

4.1 Correct these sentences about Ravi, using words from A opposite. One word is wrong in each item. 1 2 3 4 5 6 At 18, Ravi decided to stay in full-time training and went to Mumbai University. Ravi qualified three years later with a degree in philosophy and politics. He taught for a while, but didn't like it. He decided to educate as an accountant at evening classes. He qualified for an accountant and joined a big accountancy firm in its Mumbai office. When he started, he needed to develop other skills, which would come through experiments. He received managers' training to help him develop these skills.

4.2 Are these jobs generally considered to be highly skilled, skilled, semi-skilled, or unskilled? Each expression is used twice. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 teacher brain surgeon car worker on a production line airline pilot office cleaner labourer (someone doing basic work on a building site) bus driver office manager

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

4.3 Complete these extracts from job advertisements using words from C opposite.

1. You'll need to be.., as you'll be working on financial budgets.

4.

We need .. journalists who are very good at their job and extremely . to find out as much as they can.

2. As part of our sales team, you'll be working independently, so you have to be self-and self- .. 5. You'll be researching developments on the Internet, so you have to be .. ... You must be ..., able to work on your own initiative, and a But as part of a team of researchers, you need to be a good . ..too.

3. We're looking for someone who can work on ten projects at once. You must be , and .

Over to you
If you work ... What sort of people does your organization look for in its recruitment? What sort of person are you? If you don't work ... Does your educational institution prepare people for specific jobs?

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

THE PAST PERFECT SIMPLE AND CONTINUOUS TENSES


The Past Perfect Simple Forms AFFIRMATIVE I You He / She It We You They NEGATIVE had not met had met INTERROGATIVE had I / you / he / she / it met? NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE had I / you / he / she / it not met ? hadnt I / you / he met ? had we / you / they not met ? hadnt we / you / they met ?

had met

had not met

had we / you / they met ?

The Past Perfect Simple Use 1. Actions completed shortly before a certain point in the past: When I arrived the boss had just left. The show had only just begun but we couldnt enter. I refused his cigarette because I had only just finished mine. 2. Actions completed in an unspecified time before a certain point in the past: I had attended that presentation but I went with Jill to keep her company. Denis had lost his car keys so he had to take a taxi. I was sure we had met. His face was so familiar. 3. With time expressions: The chairmans son reported that the company had had a good year. He had always wanted to do that. for years / months / weeks; ; for two / three / four days / weeks / months / years ...; for ages; for a long time; since; ever since; since before; before; long before; till / until; when; as soon as; after; by the time 4. Other uses: She left ten minutes ago. He told me that she had left ten minutes before. (Indirect Speech) If you had told me, I wouldnt have made that mistake. (Conditional III) They selected me to take over the company. I wish they had chosen somebody else.

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

The Past Perfect Continuous- Forms AFFIRMATIVE I You He / She It We You They NEGATIVE had not been waiting INTERROGATIVE had I / you / he / she / it been waiting ? NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE had I / you / he / she / it not been waiting ? hadnt I / you / he been waiting ? had we / you / they not been waiting ? hadnt we / you / they been waiting?

had been waiting

had been waiting

had not been waiting

had we / you / they been waiting ?

The Past Perfect Con-Use 1. Actions which continued up to a certain point in the past: They had been discussing that question for two hours when the chairman suddenly closed the meeting. Exercises I. Put the verbs in parentheses into the Past Simple or the Past Perfect Continuous: 1. The baby (cry) for half an hour before his mother (wake) up. 2. She (fail) the exam though she (study) German for two years. 3. Obviously the boys (smoke) before I (enter) because the room was full of cigarette smoke. 4. The band (play) for more than an hour before the people (start) to throw rotten tomatoes at them. 5. Although he (try) hard to memorize the poem he (cannot) even remember the first stanza. 6. Professor Evans (lecture) on socialist economy for 15 years before he (decide) to change the subject. 7. He (be) absolutely worn out that morning because he (drink) heavily all night. 8. Samantha (work) as a model for two years before her picture (appear) in The Sun. 9. We have evidence that Mrs. Reynolds (clean) the windows shortly before she (fall) down. 10. The prisoner (saw) the bars for three nights before he finally (make) his escape. 11. Although the girl only (miss) for eight hours the parents (decide) to call the police. 12. The dog (whine) for the whole day before our neighbour finally (throw) him a bone.

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

13. The diver (discover) a pirate ship that (lie) on the sea bed for two centuries. 14. Roy (work) over a math problem for two hours before his sister (come) and (help). 15. The rabbit (be) very tired. He (run) from the dog for hours. 16. I (realize) someone (use) my camera because there were finger marks on the lens. 17. No wonder the engine (break) down yesterday; it (run) for 24 hours. 18. At last the experimenters (find) the vaccine they (try) to develop for three years. 19. The fresco which the artist (paint) since the previous summer (be) ready in August of 1661. 20. It (be) only last year that Joan (finish) the book she (write) since 1981. II. Put the verbs in parentheses into the Past Simple, Present Perfect or Past Perfect 1. When I (arrive) home last night, I discovered that Jane (prepare).a beautiful candle-lit dinner. 2. Since I began acting, I (perform) in two plays, a television commercial and a TV drama. However, I (speak, never even) publicly before I came to Hollywood in 1985. 3. By the time I got to the office, the meeting (begin, already) without me. My boss (be) furious with me and I (be) fired. 4. When I (turn) the radio on yesterday, I (hear) a song that was popular when I was in high school. I (hear, not) the song in years, and it (bring) back some great memories. 5. Last week, I (run) into an ex-girlfriend of mine. We (see, not) each other in years, and both of us (change) a great deal. I (enjoy) talking to her so much that I (ask) her out on a date. We are getting together tonight for dinner. 6. When Jack (enter) the room, I (recognize, not) him because he (lose) so much weight and (grow) a beard. He looked totally different! 7. The Maya established a very advanced civilization in the jungles of the Yucatan; however, their culture (disappear, virtually) by the time Europeans first (arrive) in the New World. 8. I (visit) so many beautiful places since I (come) to Utah. Before moving here, I (hear, never) of Bryce Canyon, Zion, Arches or Canyonlands. III. Put the verbs in parentheses into the Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous I'm sorry I left without you last night, but I told you to meet me early because the show started at 8:00. I (try) to get tickets for that play for months, and I didn't want to miss it. By the time I finally left the coffee shop where we were supposed to meet, I (have) five cups of coffee and I (wait) over an hour. I had to leave because I (arrange) to meet Kathy in front of the theater. When I arrived at the theater, Kathy (pick, already) up the tickets and she was waiting for us near the entrance. She was really angry because she (wait) for more than half an hour. She said she (give, almost) up and (go) into the theater without us.

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

Kathy told me you (be) late several times in the past and that she would not make plans with you again in the future. She mentioned that she (miss) several movies because of your late arrivals. I think you owe her an apology. And in the future, I suggest you be on time! IV. Put the verbs in parentheses into the Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous 1. It is already 9:30 pm and I (wait) here for over an hour. If John does not get here in the next five minutes, I am going to leave. 2. I was really angry at John yesterday. By the time he finally arrived, I (wait) for over an hour. I almost left without him. 3. Did you hear that Ben was fired last month? He (work) for that import company for more than ten years and he (work) in almost every department. Nobody knew the company like he did. 4. I (see) many pictures of the pyramids before I went to Egypt. Pictures of the monuments are very misleading. The pyramids are actually quite small. 5. Sarah (climb) the Matterhorn, (sail) around the world, and (go) on safari in Kenya. She is such an adventurous person. 6. Sarah (climb) the Matterhorn, (sail) around the world and (go) on safari in Kenya by the time she turned twenty-five. She (experience) more by that age than most people do in their entire lives. 7. When Melanie came into the office yesterday, her eyes were red and watery. I think she (cry). V. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: Iberia: the Airline that Hugs the Ground Madrid stockbroker Clive Heathcoate (go) to Barcelona twice a month on business - but he (not, enjoy) it. Why? Because he (have to) fly on Iberia, the stateowned, monopoly airline. "I (pray) for privatization," he (say). "Iberia (be) the most atrocious, badly managed, expensive service I (ever, come across)." So many other frequent fliers (share) Heathcoate's feelings that passenger mutiny (be) fast replacing bullfighting as Spain's national sport. Three weeks ago 100 travelers, infuriated by delays and cancellations, (stage) a sit-in on the runways of Madrid's Barajas Airport. A week earlier another group of stranded passengers (threaten) to force their way onto a grounded jet. And during the municipal elections last May, passengers (take over) a plane to protest the decision of Iberia employees to leave work en masse to vote. "I (not, know) what Iberia's No.1 priority (be)," (say) a Madrid businessman, "but it (not, be) the customer."

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

The economic team under Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez (gain) a reputation abroad for business-oriented socialism. The overwhelming majority of the 50-odd companies directly controlled by the Insituto Nacional de Industria (INI) are unprofitable; many are beyond salvation. But the INI unit that most incenses free marketers (be) Iberia. How is it, they ask, that the carrier (manage) to lose money when it (have) landing rights in more than 100 key cities around the world, excellent historical ties with Latin America and a domestic monopoly in a country that (receive) 50 million tourists a year and (rely) heavily on air travel? Proponents of privatization (say) that Iberia's woes (come) from a lingering distrust of free enterprise within the ruling party. "The Socialist Party is ashamed of privatization," (say) one Spanish free-market advocate. Not surprisingly, Iberia chairman Miguel Aguil (offer) a different view. Though he (concede) that the carrier is overstaffed and that its service (can) be better, he insists that Iberia's $122 million loss last year can all be blamed on the Gulf crisis. The delays, he says, are caused by infrastructural problems at Barajas.

To be fair, an independent study conducted in May by accounting firm KPMG Peat Marwick (find) Barajas to be Europe's most congested airport. And Aguil (sound) like a competition- minded capitalist. Last month, Iberia (persuade) the U.S. Department of Transportation to let it pick up passengers in Miami and fly them to Latin America - a privilege rarely (grant) a non-U.S. airline. Now if it could only do a better job getting passengers from Madrid to Barcelona.

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Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

WRITING A CV According to the European Union framework, a CV should be written as follows: Europass Curriculum Vitae Personal Information First name/Surname Address Telephone Fax E-mail Nationality Date of Birth

Rebecca West 24 Reading Rd, Birmingham, B17 5GT, United Kingdom (44-1189) 58 20 67 (44-1189) 23 98 52 west@gmail.com British 08. 09. 1976

Desired employment/ European Project Manager Occupational field Work Experience Dates Occupation or position held Main activities and responsibilities Name and address of employer Type of business or sector Dates Occupation or position held Main activities and responsibilities Name and address of employer Type of business or sector Education and training Dates 19992001 Title of qualification MSc 11 July 2002 onwards Independent consultant Evaluation of European Commission youth training support measures British Council, 14 Calea Dorobanilor, 71132 Bucharest Independent worker November 2001 July 2002 Researcher/Independent consultant Worked in a research team. Participated in training courses in Prague, Budapest, Bucharest Council of Europe, Prague European institutions

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

awarded Principal International Management, Cultural Diversity subjects/occupational skills covered Name and type of Kings College, Oxford, UK organization providing education and training Level in national or ISCED 6 international classification Dates Title of qualification awarded Principal subjects/occupational skills covered Name and type of organization providing education and training Level in national or international classification Personal skills competences Mother tongue Other language(s) Self-assessment * French Romanian and 19951999 Bachelor of Science in Sociology and Psychology Sociology, Methods E-learning and Psychology, Research

Brunel University, London, UK

ISCED 5

English Understanding Speaking Writing Listening Reading C1 C2 C1 C2 A2 A2 A2 A2 (*)Common European Framework of Reference (CEF) Level

Social skills competences

and - Team work: I have worked in various types of teams from research teams to national league hockey; - Mediating skills: I work on the borders between young people, youth trainers, and researchers; - Intercultural skills: I am experienced at working in the European dimension and working with refugees. Organisational skills - I organised various seminars on research methods and competences while working for the British Council, Bucharest Computer skills and Competent with most Microsoft Office programmes competences Artistic skills competences 12 and Piano player/ Instructor Diploma, Fine Arts School, Birmingham, 1985-1989

Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

Additional information

Hobbies and interests: I enjoy all sports particularly hockey and swimming. Love to travel and experience different cultures. 1. Publications 2. References from: - Dr. Phil Johnson, Senior Lecturer, Dept. Of Business Studies, Kings College, Oxford; - Catherine Flynn, Programme Director, British Council, Bucharest.

Annexes

Instructions for Understanding Listening


A 1: I can understand familiar words and very basic phrases concerning myself, my family and immediate surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly. A 2: I can understand phrases and the highest frequency vocabulary related to areas of most immediate personal relevance (e.g. very basic personal and family information, shopping, local area, employment). I can catch the main points in short, clear, simple messages and announcements. B 1: I can understand the main points of clear standard speech on familiar matters regularly encountered in work, school, leisure, etc. I can understand the main points of many radio or TV programmes on current affairs or topics of personal or professional interest when the delivery is relatively slow and clear. B 2: I can understand extended speech and lectures and follow even complex lines of argument provided the topic is reasonably familiar. I can understand most TV news and current affairs programmes. I can understand the majority of films in standard dialect. C 1: I can understand extended speech even when it is not clearly structured and when relationships are only implied and not signalled explicitly. I can understand television programmes and films without too much effort. C 2: I have no difficulty in understanding any kind of spoken language, whether live or broadcast, even when delivered at fast native speed, provided I have some time to get familiar with the accent.

Reading
A 1: I can understand familiar names, words and very simple sentences, for example on notices and posters or in catalogues. A 2: I can read very short, simple texts. I can find specific, predictable information in simple everyday material such as advertisements, prospectuses, menus and timetables and I can understand short simple personal letters. B 1: I can understand texts that consist mainly of high frequency everyday or job-related language. I can understand the description of events, feelings and wishes in personal letters. B 2: I can read articles and reports concerned with contemporary problems in which the writers adopt particular attitudes or viewpoints. I can understand contemporary literary prose. C 1: I can understand long and complex factual and literary texts, appreciating distinctions of style. I can understand specialised articles and longer technical instructions, even when they do not relate to my field. C 2: I can read with ease virtually all forms of the written language, including abstract, structurally or linguistically complex texts such as manuals, specialised articles and literary works.

Speaking Spoken interaction


A 1: I can interact in a simple way provided the other person is prepared to repeat or rephrase things at a slower rate of speech and help me formulate what Im trying to say. I can ask and answer simple questions in areas of immediate need or on very familiar topics.

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Busimess English Course

Senior Lecturer Adriana Lzrescu, PhD

A 2: I can communicate in simple and routine tasks requiring a simple and direct exchange of information on familiar topics and activities. I can handle very short social exchanges, even though I cant usually understand enough to keep the conversation going myself. B 1: I can deal with most situations likely to arise whilst travelling in an area where the language is spoken. I can enter unprepared into conversation on topics that are familiar, of personal interest or pertinent to everyday life (e.g. family, hobbies, work, travel and current events). B 2: I can interact with a degree of fluency and spontaneity that makes regular interaction with native speakers quite possible. I can take an active part in discussion in familiar contexts, accounting for and sustaining my views. C 1: I can express myself fluently and spontaneously without much obvious searching for expressions. I can use language flexibly and effectively for social and professional purposes. I can formulate ideas and opinions with precision and relate my contribution skillfully to those of other speakers. C 2: I can take part effortlessly in any conversation or discussion and have a good familiarity with idiomatic expressions and colloquialisms. I can express myself fluently and convey finer shades of meaning precisely. If I do have a problem I can backtrack and restructure around the difficulty so smoothly that other people are hardly aware of it.

Spoken production
A 1: I can use simple phrases and sentences to describe where I live and people I know. A 2: I can use a series of phrases and sentences to describe, in simple terms, my family and other people, living conditions, my educational background and my present or most recent job. B 1: I can connect phrases in a simple way in order to describe experiences and events, my dreams, hopes and ambitions. I can briefly give reasons and explanations for opinions and plans. I can narrate a story or relate the plot of a book or film and describe my reactions. B 2: I can present clear, detailed descriptions on a wide range of subjects related to my field of interest. I can explain a viewpoint on a topical issue giving the advantages and disadvantages of various options. C 1: I can present clear, detailed descriptions of complex subjects integrating sub-themes, developing particular points and rounding off with an appropriate conclusion. C 2: I can present a clear, smoothly-flowing description or argument in a style appropriate to the context and with an effective logical structure which helps the recipient to notice and remember significant points.

Writing
A 1: I can write a short, simple postcard, for example sending holiday greetings. I can fill in forms with personal details, for example entering my name, nationality and address on a hotel registration form. A 2: I can write short, simple notes and messages. I can write a very simple personal letter, for example thanking someone for something. B 1: I can write simple connected text on topics which are familiar or of personal interest. I can write personal letters describing experiences and impressions. B 2: I can write clear, detailed text on a wide range of subjects related to my interests. I can write an essay or report, passing on information or giving reasons in support of or against a particular point of view. I can write letters highlighting the personal significance of events and experiences. C 1: I can express myself in clear, well-structured text, expressing points of view at some length. I can write about complex subjects in a letter, an essay or a report, underlining what I consider to be the salient issues. I can select a style appropriate to the reader in mind. C 2: I can write clear, smoothly-flowing text in an appropriate style. I can write complex letters, reports or articles which present a case with an effective logical structure which helps the recipient to notice and remember significant points. I can write summaries and reviews of professional or literary works.

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