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C O L E P O L Y T E C H N I Q U E F DR A L E D E L A U S A N N E

Exercise Set 5

Weekly homework problems, their solutions as well as other general information regarding the course may be found on the course website: http://sma.epfl.ch/~hausel/linalg/ In addition to those given here, doing additional problems from the relevant sections of [David C. Lay, Linear Algebra and Its Applications, Fourth Edition, AddisonWesley, 2012] is recommended. Answers to the odd-numbered questions are given at the back of the book. Exercise 1. 1 Let X = 2 , 3 4 Y = 5 , 0

Z=

1 2

and W =

2 . 1

Calculate XZ T , XW T , Y Z T et Y W T . 1 4 Let M = 2 5 3 0 Calculate M N in two dierent ways: using the row-column rule, using the column-row expansion. Exercise 2. Compute the inverse of the matrix A=

et

N=

1 2

2 . 1

3 6

7 , 13

1. using the formula for the inverse of a 2 2-matrix, 2. and by reducing the augmented matrix [A|I]. Use the result obtained above to solve the system of linear equations 3x 7y 6x + 13y = 4 = 1.

Exercise 3. Find the following elementary 3 3-matrices: E1 , which permutes the second and third row; E2 , which multiplies the second row with 8; E3 , which adds 7 times the rst row to the third. Are the matrices E1 , E2 et E3 invertible? Justify your answer. If yes, nd their inverse and the inverse of the product E1 E2 E3 .

Exercise 4. Determine which matrices of the list below are invertible. keeping explicit computations to a minimum. 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 1 3 0 1 2 5 0 0 5 6 7 0 1 2 1 , B = A= 0 0 8 9 , C = 3 6 8 2 6 3 2 4 7 9 0 0 0 10 3 5 8 3

Exercise 5. 1.) We denote by I the identity matrix of dimension n n and by J an arbitrary n n-matrix. Show that the matrix H= is invertible and nd its inverse. 2.) The matrices A, B, C, X, Y, Z below are understood to be square matrices and to satisfy all necessary assumptions required by the equations stated below. a) Calculate X, Y and Z in terms of A, B and C to satisfy A C B 0 I X 0 0 = Y Z I . 0 I J 0 I

1.) Verify that A2 = I2 . 2.) Use matrix multiplication for block matrices to show that M 2 = I4 . 3.) What can we conclude? Exercise 7. Calculate the LU decomposition of the matrices 2 3 5 , 4 2 B= 6 1 4 9 4 4 7 8 2 3 0 1 1 C= 4 2 3 5 2 4 5 8 5 7 .

A=

and

Exercise 8. [T/F] a) If A and B are m n-matrices then both AB T and AT B are dened. b) If AB = C and C has 2 columns, then A has two columns. c) Multiplying B on the left with a diagonal matrix scales the rows of B. d) If BC = BD then C = D. e) If AC = 0 then either A = 0 or C = 0. 2

f) If A and B are n n matrices then (A + B)(A B) = A2 B 2 . g) An elementary n n matrix has either n or n + 1 non-zero entries. h) The transpose of an elementary matrix is an elementary matrix. i) An elementary matrix must be square. j) Every square matrix is a product of elementary matrices. k) If A is a 3 3 matrix with 3 pivot positions then there exist elementary matrices E1 , . . . , Ep , such that E1 . . . Ep A = I. l) If AB = I then A is invertible. m) If A and B are invertible then A1 B = B 1 A. n) If A is invertible and r = 0, then (rA)1 = rA1 . 1 o) If A is a 3 3 matrix and the equation Ax = 0 has a unique solution, then A is invertible. 0 Exercise 9. [*]We assume that A, B et C are invertible square matrices. Show that ABC is also invertible by nding a matrix D so that (ABC)D = I and D(ABC) = I. a b . Prove that if ad bc = 0, then the equation Ax = 0 admits c d more than one solution. Why does this imply that A is not invertible? [Hint: Assume at rst that b a = b = 0. If a and b are not both zero consider the vector x = ]. a Exercise 10. [*]Let A = Exercise 11. [*]We suppose that A and B are matrices such that the product AB is well-dened. Prove the following assertions: If A and B are two lower (respectively upper) triangular matrices, then the product AB is a lower (respectively upper) triangular matrix as well. If A and B are two lower (respectively upper) triangular matrices with unit diagonal, then their product AB is also a lower (respectively upper) triangular matrix with unit diagonal. If A is a square invertible lower (respectively upper) triangular matrix, then the inverseA1 is also a square lower (respectively upper) triangular matrix.

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