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A PROJECT REPORTON AUTOMATIONOFTOLLBOOTH

SUBMITTEDBY: ARCHANA.A.N DEEPA.B.R PRANAV.P PREETHA.P.L RAHUL.A.R RAJI.K SAJIN SANKER.S.C

VISHNU.V.S

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Firstandforemostwethankalmightyforhisdivinegrace andblessinginmakingthispossible.MayHecontinuetoleadmein theyearstocome. WearethankfultoourrespectedDeputyDirector,IHRD,RCfor hisguidanceandsupport.Weextendourdeepestgratitudetoour projectcoordinatorsMs.Archanamanoj,Mr.Rony.B.Chandran, Manoj.SS,Manekshandwewouldalsoliketothankourdepartment headMr.MS.StanlyJohnMTECH,lectureresMrs.ParvathyBhasker BTECH,Ms.CV.AhilaBTECH,ourparentsandfriendswhosupported uswiththeirloveandencouragementforthecompletionofthis project.

ABSTRACT
AutomationoftolltaxprojectisdesignedbyusingPIC16F877A microcontrolleranddiscretecomponents.Whenthevehiclereach intothetollbooththelengthismeasuredbythePWMultrasound sensorandweightismeasuredbytheweightsensor.Inour suggestiondependinguponthelengthandweightthecorresponding tollrateisdisplayedonthedisplay.Whentherateispay,thenthe tolloperatorpressontheswitchandthegateisopened. Byusingthismethodthetollcontractorcanpreventthelossof collection.Thuswecabavoidthemalpracticeinthisfield.The advantageofoursuggestionisforparticularweightandlengthwecan gettheparticularprofit.Thusthegovernmentcanachieveprofit. Thepresentationshowsautomationofthetolltaxsystembyjust theconceptoffrequency,theautomationtalkedinthispresentation willtakethehelpofPIC16f877a,motordriverL293D,7805voltage regulator,sensorstoautomatethetollsystemswhichrunsthe softwareprogramthatdeducesthemoneyfromtheowners(i.e.of thevehicle)accountandthevehiclewillbeallowedtopassthrough thegate.Thispresentationabouttheautomationhasmanylimitations butitisastepwhichcanbeusedintheautomationofthepresentday tolltaxsystems.

WORKING

InthisprojectconsistofPICIC16F877A,ultrasoundsensorfor lengthmeasurement,andloadcellforweightmeasurement,DC motor,motordrivertoisolateDCmotorwiththePICandLCDto displaytherate. Whenthevehicleenteredintothetollbooth platformitslengthandweightismeasured.Weightismeasuredby theloadcellsensorplacedundertheplatform.Itmeasurestheweight ofthevehicle.Theinputoftheweightsensorisconnectedpinno: 2(RA0/AN0)ofthePIC.Theweightisdisplayed. Thelengthismeasuredbytheultrasonicsensor.It isconnectedonthemotor.ThemotorisconfiguredwithPICthrough motordriverICL293D.DCmotorisused.Theinputpinofthemotor driverICis2&7itisconnectedtothepinno:15&16withthePIC. TheoutputpinofthemotordriverICispinno:3&6,itisconnectedto theDCmotor.TwovoltagesareappliedonthemotordriverIC,they are+5Vand+12V.ThemotordriverICworksunderthreestates, theyare

Input pin 2 High Low Low 7 Low High Low

Output pin 3 +12V GND GND 6 GND +12V GND

State

Forward movement Reverse movement Stop the movement

Whenthevehicleenteredintotheplatformitsweight issensed.AtthattimethemotordriverICgetslowandhighsignal through2&7pinsrespectively.Thereforethemotormovestoward front.Theultrasonicsensorproducesultrasound.Whenthemotor reachthesamepositionofthevehicletheechoisreturnbacktothe sensor.Thetimedelayoftheechomeasuredandlengthiscalculated. Themotormovesataparticulardistance.Afterthatdistancethe motordriverICgetslowandhighsignalthroughpinno:2&7 respectively.Sothemotormoveback.Afterthatparticulardistance themotordriverICgetlowsignalandmotorstopthemovement.The lengthofthevehicleistakenintwodirections.Theaverage measurementistaken.Themeasurementistakenintwodirections, itsaccuracyisincreased. Inourprojectforaparticularlengthandweighta rateisfixed.ItisdisplayedontheLCDdisplay.Itisseebothtoll boothworkerandvehicleowner.Whenthevehicleownerpaysthe rate,thetollboothworkerpressontheswitch,thegateisopened.

CIRCUITDIAGRAMEXPLANATION
Thefigureshowsthecircuitdiagramofautomationoftoll booth.ThecircuitconsistsofPIC16F877A,ultrasonicsensor,weight sensor,motordriver,DCmotor,LM016LCD,etc. InthismicrocontrollercrystaloscillatorX1connectedtopinno: 13and14forclockpulse.CapacitorC1andC2(22pf)areusedfor stabilizationpurpose.Theweightsensorconnectedtothe microcontrollerthroughthepinno:2,formeasuringweightofthe vehicle.Theultrasonicsensorisconnectedtothemicrocontroller throughthepinno:3formeasuringlengthofthevehicle.Thepinno: 2and7ofthemotordriverconnectedtothemicrocontrollerthrough thepinno:15and16respectively.TheDCmotorisconnectedtothe microcontrollerthoughthemotordriver,L293D.Themotordriveris usedtointerfacemicrocontrollerwithDCmotor.DCmotorisusedto movetheultrasoundsensor.TheLCDisinterfacewith microcontrolleritsfunctionistodisplaytherateofthevehiclewith respecttothelengthandweight.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Power

Ultrasonic sensor

16f877A
L293D MOTOR DRIVER
Weight sensor

d.c motor

BLOCKDIAGRAMEXPLANATION
Abovefigureshowstheblockdiagramofautomationoftoll system.ItconsistsofPIC16F877A,motordriverL293D,DCmotor, ultrasonicsensor,weightsensor,LM016LCDandpowersupply. Theultrasonicsensorisusedtomeasurethelengthofthe vehicleandweightsensorisusedtosensetheweight.Bothsensors areconnectedwiththePICIC.ThemotordriverL293Disalso connectedwiththePICICtoconfigurePICICandDCmotor.DC motorisusedtomovetheultrasonicsensor.TheLCDisinterfaced withthePICIC.Whenthevehicleenteredthetollboothplatformits length,weightandratearedisplayedthroughLCD.

L293DMOTORDRIVER

L293DisadualHbridgemotordriverintegratedcircuit(IC).Motor driversactascurrentamplifierssincetheytakealowcurrentcontrol signalandprovideahighercurrentsignal.Thishighercurrentsignal isusedtodrivethemotors.L293DcontainstwoinbuiltHbridgedriver circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward and reverse direction. The motoroperationsoftwomotorscanbecontrolledbyinputlogicat pins 2 & 7 and 10 & 15. Input logic 00 or 11 will stop the correspondingmotor.Logic01and10willrotateitinclockwiseand anticlockwise directions, respectively. Enable pins 1 and 9 (correspondingtothetwomotors)mustbehighformotorstostart operating.Whenanenableinputishigh,theassociateddrivergets enabled.Asaresult,theoutputsbecomeactiveandworkinphase withtheirinputs.Similarly,whentheenableinputislow,thatdriver isdisabled,andtheiroutputsareoffandinthehighimpedancestate.

PIN DESCRIPTION

Pin No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Function Enable pin for Motor 1; active high Input 1 for Motor 1 Output 1 for Motor 1 Ground (0V) Ground (0V) Output 2 for Motor 1 Input 2 for Motor 1 Supply voltage for Motors; 9-12V (up to 36V) Enable pin for Motor 2; active high Input 1 for Motor 1 Output 1 for Motor 1 Ground (0V) Ground (0V) Output 2 for Motor 1 Input2 for Motor 1 Supply voltage; 5V (up to 36V)

Name Enable 1,2 Input 1 Output 1 Ground Ground Output 2 Input 2 Vcc 2 Enable 3,4 Input 3 Output 3 Ground Ground Output 4 Input 4 Vcc 1

ULTRASONIC SENSOR
Bats are wonderful creatures. Blind from the eyes and yet a vision so precise that could distinguish between a moth and a broken leaf even when flying at full speed. No doubt the vision is sharper than ours and is much beyond human capabilities of seeing, but is certainly not beyond our understanding. Ultrasonic ranging is the technique used by bats and many other creatures of the animal kingdom for navigational purposes. In a bid to imitate the ways of nature to obtain an edge over everything, we humans have not only understood it but have successfully imitated some of these manifestations and harnessed their potential to the greatest extent.

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HowUltrasonicSensorswork?
Ultrasonicsensorsaredevicesthatuseelectricalmechanical

energy transformation, themechanicalenergy beingin theform of ultrasonicwaves,tomeasuredistancefromthesensortothetarget object. Ultrasonic waves are longitudinal mechanical waves which travel as a succession of compressions and rarefactions along the directionofwavepropagationthroughthemedium.Anysoundwave abovethehumanauditoryrangeof20,000Hziscalledultrasound. Dependingonthetypeofapplication,therangeoffrequencieshas beenbroadlycategorizedasshowninthefigurebelow:

Whenultrasonicwavesareincidentonanobject,diffusedreflectionof theenergytakesplaceoverawidesolidanglewhichmightbeashigh as180degrees.Thussomefractionoftheincidentenergyisreflected back to the transducer in the form of echoes and is detected. The distancetotheobject(L)canthenbecalculatedthroughthespeedof ultrasonicwaves(v)inthemediumbytherelation

Wheret is the time taken by the wave to reach back to the sensor and is the angle between the horizontalandthepathtakenasshowninthefigure.Iftheobjectisin motion,instrumentsbasedonDopplershiftareused.
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ImportanceofUltrasonicSensors

There are a varietyofsensors basedon otherphysical transductionprinciplesliketheopticalrangefindingsensorsandthe microwave based devices too. Then why should one use ultrasonic transducersinthefirstplace,giventhatthespeedofsoundisvery slowthanthespeedofelectromagneticwaves?Theanswerliesinthe question itself. Because the EM waves based devices are too fast. BeingslowerthattheEMwaves,thetimetakenbyultrasonicwavesis muchlongerthanthattakenbythelatterandhenceitsmeasurement canbedonemoreeasilyandlessexpensively.Becausethesearebased onsoundwavesratherthanEMwaves,thesewouldworkinplaces wherethelatterwouldnot. Forexample,inthecaseofclearobjectdetectionandmeasurementof liquid levelsor highglare environments,light basedsensors would suffer greatly because of the transmittance of the target or the translucenceofthepropagatingmedia.Ultrasonicdevicesbeingbased uponsoundpropagationwouldremainpracticallyunaffected.These also function well in wet environments where optical beams may sufferfromrefractionfromthewaterdropletsintheenvironment.On account of range and accuracy, the ultrasonic sensors may lie in betweentwoEMwavebasedsensors,theInfraredrangefindersonthe

lowerendandtheLIDARsontheupperend.Notasaccurateorlong distanceastheLIDARs,theUltrasonicrangefindersfarebetterthan theIRrangefinderswhicharehighlysusceptibletoambientconditions and require recalibration whenenvironmentchanges.Furtherthese devicesofferadvantageinmedicalimagingascomparedtoMRIorX Rayscansduetoinexpensivenessandportability.Noharmfuleffects ofultrasonicwavesattheintensitylevelsusedhavebeendetectedin contrasttoXraysorradioactivitybasedmethodsandisparticularly suitedforimagingsofttissues.

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Applications
Theapplicationsofultrasonicsensorscanbeclassifiedonthebasis ofthepropertythattheyexploit.Thesecanbesummarizedas:
Domain Time Parameter TileofFlight,Velocity Applications Density, Thickness, Flaw Detection, Anisotropy, Robotics, Remote Sensing etc. Fluctuations in reflected Defect characterization, andTransmittedSignals microstructures, interface analysis UltrasonicSpectroscopy Microstructure, grain size, porosity,phaseanalysis. TimeofFlight, velocity, SurfaceandinternalDefect attenuation mapping in imaging, density, velocity, RasterCScanorSARs 2Dand3Dimaging.

Attenuation Frequency Image

LOADSENSOR
Loadsensorsareelectromechanicaltransducersthattranslateforceor weightintovoltage.Theabilitytomeasureforceorloadisavitalpart ofmanyindustrialprocesses.Inautomaticallycontrolledsystems,itis desirabletomonitortheforcesandmomentsbeinggeneratedatthe worksitebetweenthemotive,ordrivepowerelement,andthedriven elementoftheoperatingunit.Automobilesareequippedwithseat beltdevicesandairbagdevicesasfacilitiesforensuringthesafetyof occupants.Theamountofgasfordeployingtheairbagandtheenergy absorbing(EA)loadoftheseatbeltareadjusteddependingonthe weightoftheoccupant.Forthispurpose,loadsensors(loadcells)are neededformeasuringtheweightoftheoccupantsittingontheseat.A loadsensorforconvertingaforceoraweightintoanelectricalsignal isgenerallyformedbyattachingapluralityofstraingaugestoaload sensitiveelement.Thechangeinvoltageproduces,inthereadout instrumentation,arepeatabledeflectionorindicationthatcanbe calibrateddirectlyintermsoftheloadappliedtotheloadtransducer. Aloadsensorforairbagsystemsincludeasensorcomprisingasensor platewhichisdeflecteddependingonthereceivedloadandastrain gaugeattachedtothesensorplate,andasensorcomprisingaelastic memberwhichisdeflecteddependingonthereceivedloadandan electricalcapacitancesensordetectingthedisplacementoftheelastic member. Theloadorforcecelltakesmanyformstoaccommodatethevariety ofusesthroughoutresearchandindustrialapplications.Themajority oftoday'sdesignsusestraingaugesasthesensingelement,whether foilorsemiconductor.
Foilgaugesofferthelargestchoiceofdifferenttypesandinconsequencetendto bethemostusedinloadcelldesigns.Straingaugepatternsoffermeasurementof tension,compressionandshearforces. Semiconductorstraingaugescomeinasmallerrangeofpatternsbutofferthe advantagesofbeingextremelysmallandhavelargegaugefactors,resultingin muchlargeroutputsforthesamegivenstress.Duetotheseproperties,theytend tobeusedfortheminiatureloadcelldesigns.

Provingringsareusedforloadmeasurement,usingacalibrated metalring,themovementofwhichismeasuredwithaprecision displacementtransducer. Avastnumberofloadcelltypeshavedevelopedovertheyears, thefirstdesignssimplyusingastraingaugetomeasurethedirect stresswhichisintroducedintoametalelementwhenitissubjected toatensileorcompressiveforce.Abendingbeamtypedesign usesstraingaugestomonitorthestressinthesensingelement whensubjectedtoabendingforce.

Morerecentlythemeasurementofshearstresshasbeenadopted asamoreefficientmethodofloaddeterminationasitisless dependentonthewayanddirectioninwhichtheforceisapplied totheloadcell.

PowerSupply
Tomakethingsreallysimpleletsstartwithasimplepowersupply,and itisalsotheonetheyusuallygiveyouinyourfirstelectronics project.Wellthereasonisquiteobviousbecauseallelectroniscircuits requireaDCpowersupplytowork.Youreallydopluginthewiresof yourelectronicitemsinACmainssupplybuttheydohaveACtoDC converterstotoprovideDCtothecircuits.Allthisisdonewitha powersupplyintherightplace. Voltageregulatorsachieve"stiffness"viaafeedbackcontrolloop, where"stiffness"meansthatalargechangeinloadcurrentcausesa smallchangeinvoltage. Bothswitchingandlinearregulatorsincludeacontrolloop (historicallyanalog...someofthenewerswitchersusedigitalcontrol loops)toadjustsomeparameterofthecircuitsothattheoutput voltageremainsconstantinthepresenceofloadcurrentchangesand inputvoltagechanges. Inalinearregulatorthecircuitparameteristhepasstransistordrive circuit(whichproducesbasecurrentforanNPN/PNPpower transistor,gatevoltageforaMOSFET). Inaswitchingregulatorthecircuitparameteristhedutycycleofthe switchingelement(s). Sothere'sreallytwoareasyouneedtounderstandifyouwanttoget intothedetailsofhowregulatorswork: topologydesign(achieverequiredlimitsofcurrent/voltage/etc) controllooptuning+stability

Thiscircuitisasmall+5Vpowersupply.Thecircuitwillprovidea regulatedvoltagetotheexternalcircuitwhichmayalsoIamrequired inanypartoftheexternalcircuitorthewholeexternalcircuit.The bestpartisthatyoucanalsouseittoconvertACvoltagetoDCand thenregulateit,simlpyYouneedatransformertomaketheACmain dropdowntoasafevaluei.e1215voltsandthenusarectifierto convertACintoDC. Thiscircuitcangive+5Voutputatabout150mAcurrent,butitcan beincreasedto1Awhengoodcoolingisaddedto7805regulator chip.Thecircuithasoveroverloadandtherminalprotection.The capacitorsmusthaveenoughhighvoltageratingtosafelyhandlethe inputvoltagefeedtocircuit.Thecircuitisveryeasytobuildfor exampleintoapieceofveroboard. Ifyouneedothervoltagesthan+5V,youcanmodifythecircuitby replacingthe7805chipswithanotherregulatorwithdifferentoutput voltagefromregulator78xxchipfamily.Thelastnumbersinthethe chipcodetellstheoutputvoltage.Rememberthattheinputvoltage mutsbeatleast3Vgreaterthanregulatoroutputvoltageototherwise theregulatordoesnotworkwell. DontforgettocheckthepindiagrambeforeconnectingtheIC.

Pindiagramfor7805

1.Unregulatedvoltagein 2.Ground 3.Regulatedvoltageout

ARCHITECTUREOFPIC16F877A

PINDETAILSOFPIC16F877A

ESTIMATION

Sl.No

Item Name

Specification 16f877A Ultra Sonic Pressure sensitive resistor DC, 6v L293D 16x2 7805 20MHz Red 10k 1k 22pf 1000f,16V Micro switch

Qty 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 3 1 1 TOTAL

Prize 200.00 1300.00 700.00 175.00 75.00 160.00 10.00 10.00 20.00 3.00 1.00 .50 1.00 1.50 15.00 10.00 2682.00

1 PIC IC 2 Sensor 3 Load Sensor 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Motor Motor driver IC LCD Regulator Crystal Photodiode LED Resistor Resistor Capacitor Capacitor Switch DC socket

Advantages
Bythisproject Toavoidmalpracticeorfoolproof. Thecollectionsareinaccountableandrecordable. Moreaccurate. Extrarateispayifthevehiclecarriesoverload. Thenumberofworkersislimited.

FUTUREAPPLICATION

Ifacameraisattachedtothetollbooth,photosofeachvehicle aretakenforthepurposeofintelligentapplication. Itcanbeapplicableinsalestaxcheckpoststocontroltheover loadvehicles. Ifametaldetectorisattachedwiththeweightingplatform,our defensecanprotected. InthissystemETC(ElectronicTollCollection)methodcanbe applicable. Itcanbedevelopasafullyautomatictollsystem.