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University of Brighton School of Environment and Technology

Laboratory Report

Module: CN304 Hydraulics

Auto: Onyemobi Walson Due date: Monday 9th January 2012.

Course: MEng, Civil Engineering.

Module leader: Dr Kaiming She

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 2 3 ABSTRACT:......................................................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION: ................................................................................................ 3 LITERATURE REVIEW: ..................................................................................... 3 3.1 4 Shields Own Experiment ............................................................................... 3

MATERIALS AND METHOD ............................................................................... 4 4.1 Method .......................................................................................................... 5

5 6

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS................................................................................ 5 CALCULATIONS ................................................................................................. 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses and Reynolds number. (3mm grain) ...... 6 Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses and Reynolds Number (6.3mm grain) ..... 7 Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses and Reynolds Number (10mm Grain) ..... 9 Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses and Reynolds Number (14mm Grain) ... 10

7 8

CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 12 REFERENCES .................................................................................................. 12

ABSTRACT:

These report presents an experimental study on incipient motion of sediments under steady uniform flow .Experiments were carried out in a flume using four different grain sizes. Sieve analysis were also conducted to determine the densities of the sediments The characteristics parameters that affects the incipient motion such as shields parameter, Reynolds number, the sediment diameter where determined.

INTRODUCTION:

In fluvial beds, the prediction / determination of erosion and sedimentation are possible if the critical shear stress capable of initiating the bed particle motion is determined accurately [1]. Shields (1936) pioneered the incipient sediment motion. He demonstrated that the dimensionless critical shear stress of grains varies as a function of the Reynolds number. Hence, the Shields Diagram.

LITERATURE REVIEW:
[2][3]

The concept and principles that governs the movement of grains (say cohesion less) on a stream of bed has led to debates among scientists and engineers This includes the amount of shear stress () necessary to move grains of several of sizes, dimensionless variables such as, relatively densities, relative flow depth, Reynolds number and shields number etc. Among notable hydraulics educators, researchers and scientist who worked on sediment/bed load transport were; Osborne Reynolds (1842 1912) Rouse (1906 1996), and A.F Shields (1936) [2]. Shields (1936) discovered that the dimensionless shear stress () also known as shields number, required to move cohesionless grain on a bed depends only on the grains Reynolds number [4]. 3.1 Shields Own Experiment
[1]

, Hunter

Shields (1936) first conducted laboratory flume experiment to determine the incipient motion and bed load transport of cohesionless grains. He used four different grain

types and sizes consisting of; amber cuttings, brown coal, crushed granite and crushed barite
[5]

. The grains densities range from 1060 4300kg/m3.A 14km non -

recirculating wooden flume of 0.81m wide and 0.3m tall was used. After the experiment, Shields extrapolated pair of measurements of shear stress and bed load transport to level zero in order to determine the critical shear stress for the incipient motion of the particle (Vanoni 1964 et al) [5].

Figure 1: Shields Diagram from His Experiment [6]. Kennedy (1995), objects Shields experimental methods, arguing that the he used visual observation of the flume to determine the initial motion of the particles [2]. The claims of shields and Kennedy sparked controversies as to which of the methods (reference or visual) is most accurate, consistent and valid.

MATERIALS AND METHOD

The following materials were provided for use during the experiment 1. Sediments of different sizes 2. Point gauges and meter rule 3. Manometer 4. 9.15m rectangular flume made of glass walls.

4.1

Method

The experiments were performed in a rectangular flume of 9.15m long and 0.46m height. The flume was made of glass walls enabling observation of bed particles movement .Different grain sizes was used for the experiments which includes; 3mm,6.3mm,10mm,and 14mm.before running the experiment through a channel flume, sieve analysis was conducted which helps to determine the size of the sediments as they pass through the sieve meshes. The mass, volume and densities of the grains was also calculated. Each sediment grains were levelled three consecutive times at a distance of 1m along the channel. This was to determine different discharge rates for each sediment motion. The downstream control valve of the flume was closed initially. Water was introduced to the set up by gradually opening the upstream valve. After the bed has submerged completely, the downstream valve was opened gradually. The upstream discharges was also adjusted so that the incipient motion was reached, by then the fractions of the bed particles on the bed surface began to move over a period of time. When the incipient motion of the sediment was reached, the discharge Q was calculated after recording the manometer and the flow depth reading. The flow depth (h) or y is the distance from the free surface of the flow to the virtual bed level. During the experiment, every participated in ensuring that the it comes to a successful end. I helped in weighing the sediments during the sieve analysis also helped in levelling the grains along the channel and in opening the upstream valve.

5 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS. The table shows results of the sieve analysis. Sediment sizes (mm) 3 6.3 10 Sediment mass (kg) 0.258 0.223 0.821 Sediment volumes (m3) 1.210-4 1.110-4 3.2510-4 Sediment densities (kg/m3) 2150 2027.3 2526.2 Table 1: sieve analysis results. 14 0.507 2.210-4 2304.5

3mm Sediment Manometer reading Rhg (mm) Upstream depth (cm) Downstream depth (cm) 1.6 15.5 9.4 1.9 17.1 10.6 2.5 18.5 12.3 6.3mm Sediment 3.3 25.5 25.1 2.1 17.95 16.1 3.1 20.1 19.6 10mm Sediment 2.2 20.9 25.1 5.7 27.61 24.6 3.8 23 21.4 14mm Sediment 4.3 22.1 15.2 3.8 22.41 15.4 3.3 20.75 14.6 Table 2: Experimental Values for the Channel Flume. 6 CALCULATIONS For The 3mm Sediment

Size of the sediment (D) = 0.003m, density of the sediment (s) = 2150kg/m3 Discharge (Q) 2). where is the manometer reading (table

Will be average of the 3mm sediment of the experimental run. =

i.e. = (1.6+1.9+2.5)/3 = 2mm. Therefore m3/s Hence, discharge (Q) for the 3mm sediments = 6.1

m3/s

Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses and Reynolds number. (3mm grain)

For sediment transport to occur, the critical bed shear stress ( ) must be greater than the shields parameter (Fs), i.e. =

where is the actual bed shear stress (N/m2). Is the density of water (1000kg/m3)

Is the

density of the sediment. Hydraulics radius (R) = The channel slope (So)

where b = 0.46m and y = 0.0626m, R = 0.0626m

Actual bed shear stress (N/m2)

Bed shear stress

Bed shear velocity

Sediment Reynolds number (Re) = m2/s. Re = 37. Solving For Non Dimensional Grain Size (Dgr) [ ]

Therefore, given that 20

150 Fs = 0.013

Hence, the critical bed shear stress Therefore according to the theory of incipient motion of sediments; for a given sediment size, sediment transport will take place only if or

.The values above corresponds with the theory. Hence, movement occurred. For The 6.3mm Sediment Size of the sediment (D) = 0.0063m, density of the sediment (s) = 2027.3kg/m3 Discharge (Q) 2). where is the manometer reading (table

Will be average of the 6.3mm sediment of the experimental run. =

i.e. = (3.3 + 2.1 + 3.1)/3 = 2.85mm. Therefore m3/s Hence, discharge (Q) for the 6.3mm sediments =

m3/s

6.2 Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses and Reynolds Number (6.3mm grain) For sediment transport to occur, the critical bed shear stress ( ) must be greater than the shields parameter (Fs),

I.e.

where is the actual bed shear stress (N/m2). Is the density of water (1000kg/m3)

is the

density of the sediment. Hydraulics radius (R) = 0.008809m The channel slope (So)

where b = 0.46m and y = 0.00916m, R =

Actual bed shear stress (N/m2)

Bed shear stress

Bed shear velocity

Sediment Reynolds number (Re) = m2/s. Re = 77.74 Solving For Non Dimensional Grain Size (Dgr) [ ]

Therefore, given that 20

150 Fs = 0.013

Hence, the critical bed shear stress Therefore according to the theory of incipient motion of sediments; for a given sediment size, sediment transport will take place only if or

.The values above corresponds with the theory. Hence the channel was stable. For the 10mm Sediment. Size of the sediment (D) = 0.01m,density of the sediment (s) = 2526.2kg/m3 Discharge (Q) 2). where is the manometer reading (table

will be average of the 10mm sediment of the experimental run.

i.e = (2.2+5.7+3.8)/3 = 3.9mm. Therefore m3/s Hence, discharge (Q) for the 3mm sediments =

m3/s

6.3 Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses and Reynolds Number (10mm Grain) For sediment transport to occur, the critical bed shear stress ( ) must be must be greater than the shields parameter (Fs), i.e. =

where is the actual bed shear stress (N/m2). is the density of water (1000kg/m3)

is the

density of the sediment. Hydraulics radius (R) = The channel slope (So)

where b = 0.46m and y = 0.0476m, R = 0.0394m

Actual bed shear stress (N/m2)

Bed shear stress

Bed shear velocity

Sediment Reynolds number (Re) = m2/s. Re = 541.45 Solving for Non Dimensional Grain Size (Dgr) [ ]

Therefore, given that

150 Fs = 0.056 N/m2

Hence, the critical bed shear stress

Therefore according to the theory of incipient motion of sediments; for a given sediment size, sediment transport will take place only if or

.the values above corresponds with the theory, hence, sediment movement occurred. For the 14mm Sediment Size of the sediment (D) = 0.014m, density of the sediment (s) = 2304.5kg/m3 Discharge (Q) 2). where is the manometer reading (table

will be average of the 3mm sediment of the experimental run. =

i.e = (4.3+3.8+3.3)/3 =3.8 mm. Therefore m3/s Hence, discharge (Q) for the 14mm sediments =

m3/s

6.4 Estimation of Bed Shear Stresses and Reynolds Number (14mm Grain) For sediment transport to occur, the critical bed shear stress ( ) must be must be greater than the shields parameter (Fs), i.e =

where is the actual bed shear stress (N/m2). is the density of water (1000kg/m3)

is the

density of the sediment. Hydraulics radius (R) = The channel slope (So)

where b = 0.46m and y = 0.0669m, R = 0.0518m

Actual bed shear stress (N/m2)

Bed shear stress

Bed shear velocity

Sediment Reynolds number (Re) = m2/s. Re = 1131.56 Solving For Non Dimensional Grain Size (Dgr)

[ Therefore, since

150 Fs N/m2

Hence, the critical bed shear stress

Therefore according to the theory of incipient motion of sediments; for a given sediment size, sediment transport will take place only if or

.the values above corresponds with the theory, hence, sediment motion occurred. 3mm grain 37 0.2831 6.3mm grain 77.74 0.003 10mm grain 541.45 0.0254 14mm grain 1131.56 0.0439

Reynolds Number (Re) Bed shear stress ( N/m2

Table 3: bed shear stress and Reynolds number for each grain size.

Bed Shaer stress Vs Reynolds Number


0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 -0.05 200 400 600 800 6.3mm - 3mm regionlow Re 14mm grains 10mm grains No motion 1000 1200 Motion

Bed shear stress

Reynolds Number (Re) Figure 2: Bed shear stress Vs Reynolds Number (Re) The graph above shows relationship between the bed shear stress and the Reynolds number (Re).the upper layer indicates that sediment movement occurred while the lower boundary indicates when the sediments had not moved. The movement of the sediments was determined by the amount of discharge force in the channel.

7 CONCLUSION The sediments movement occurred in three stages based on their Reynolds number. Thus; the 3mm and 6.3mm grains sediment has a Reynolds number of 37 and 77.74 (Re 75 100).This implies that theres a rough turbulent flow between the sediment thereby resulting to a near constant value of critical shear stress. For the 10mm and 14mm sediment there is a smooth turbulent flow as Reynolds number are greater than 400 (Re400). This implies that the shields diagram cannot be validated for a small Reynolds number, say Re 1.

REFERENCES

[1] [2] [3] 167

http://www.ias.ac.in/sadhana/Pdf2002Oct/Pe1029.pdf accessed 9th Jan 2012. http://myweb.unomaha.edu/~junkeguo/rouse.pdf . Accessed 9th Jan. 2012 Practical Hydraulics by Melvyn Kay 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis 2008, page

[4] http://johndfenton.com/Papers/Fenton77-Initial-movement-of-grains-on-astream-bed.pdf Accessed 9th Jan. 2012. [5] [6] http://www.ias.ac.in/sadhana/Pdf2002Oct/Pe1029.pdf .accessed 9t Jan. 2012. http://vit.bme.hu/targyak/mundus_3rd/vedett/sediment/shields_diagram.jpg.