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A project of Volunteers

in Asia

by: William

E. Heronemus

Published by: United States Aner,cy for International Development Washington, DC IO523 USA Available from: United States Agency Development Washington, DC 20523 for International

USA

Reproduction of this microfiche document form is s;lbject to the same restrictions of Fhe original document.

in any as those

"& SURVEY OF THE POSsIBLE USE OF WINDPOWER THAILAND IN . AND THE 3;iILiPPINES"

Prepared

for

the Department

of State,

AID/TA/OST,

st the Request Director.

of ti. A. Arnold,

*William

E, Heronemus, University

Professor

of Civil

Encineeriny
.

of Massachusetts

(Amherst)

November 1974

Contract

No. AID/ta-c-1143.

2.

Sunnnary This work was performed in an attempt farmer to answer the question: in Thailand or Philippines was being "Could to improve used to a a back-

windpower the quality

be used by the peasant of his life?" extent

It was found that to move water,

windpower

very limited brqaking for fuel

in Thailand task, driven or,

thus relieving out-of-pocket

either

manual labor for engine

a very expensive

expend i ture in use are inexbrought in

pumps.

Some of the windpumpers 1 farmer

pensive

enough that

the individua

can own one; others for private ownership.

from the United of existing

States

are too expensive could

No evidence

windpumping

be found in the Philippines. of the Thai windpower and their resource, current their

Data were gathered irrigation It

descriptive

system and water that

management plans windpower could

agriculture. Thai

has been concluded

be very useful

in expanding

agriculture. happily

There are regions

in which the winds in which irrigation

are most productive: systems are most complete fs well-founded. - Central


.

they are ,the same regions, toward double-cropping of double-cropping windpower

and the urge

and fertilization in the rich

Thus, autmentation Plain region, with using

Chao Phya Oelta farm level, to provide suggested agriculture

at the individual "almost It able"

or carefully water that during the

integrated dry season, could

irrigation

systems

is given maximum emphasis. season-end droughts

is also

windpower areas of the pre-

cope with

in the expanding serve

Northeastern ferrably

Region, other

and perhaps than rice. along

could Then

to irrigate is turned

second crops,

crops

attention

to the possibility water in large engineering

of using windpower quantity, coping

the mighty

Mekong to lift variation.

out that

with

a 1%meter

level

Though little
.

detail

for

such windpumpers discussion better within

is presented,

the concept

is set forth

as worthy

of serious

the Mekong Committee,

at least. brings with '5 the

The need for need for increasjng

management of water, of fertilizer.

year around,

quantities

A moderate-sized as a source

windpower of energy that

system afloat could tion treble

in the Gulf of Thailand Thailand's 1973 fertilizer independent

is proposed consumption,

and which after At i974 fertilizer owners, resource

construc-

would be totally

of foreign

inputs.

prices 5 the system would be an economic Brief richer culture, alone mention

bonanza to its

is made of the Philippines. of Thailand, and the motivation

The windpower toward

there agri-

is

than that

more intensive clear.

doublecroPping could relieve deficit.

and fertilization,

is abundantly

Windpower exchange

the Philippines

considerably

of her foreign

petroleum either

Windpower systems

in the Philippines

must be configured wind storms, ors must

to be housed in the paths of numerous tropical enough to withstand such winds. Either a quick

be strong

is possible. look is taken at the possible solar driven energy in process

For both Thailana

and the Philippines differences

use of the ocean thermal process particular, and could Solar these highly starting of great could interest

process,

another

to the author. economic

Both countries, future on expanding

the Philippines use -of that

base their

become giants energy,

amongst the IDC by sn doing. and ocean thermal economic differences, could give

via windpower poor nations western

two relatively industrialized right now.

advantages nations* if

over any of the more put to use shrewdly

or eastern

. ..-

2.

Table

of Contents

and List

of Illustrations

page
0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Cover Page Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table of Contents Introduction ... and List of Illustrations ........... 1 3 7 ......... ...... 11 21 25 37 52 53 57 .

, ...................... Past and Present

Windpower Use in Thailand, The Winds and.Related

Resource Data for Thailand

Irrigation in the Chao Phya Delta Using Windpower .......... and Commercially Available Windpuq:pers Proposed Irrigation New Wind Puinpers for dry Season in Thailand , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . by Windpower Over Plain . . . . . . . . . . . .

On the Generation of Electricity the Chao Phya Delta and Central

On the Generation of Electricity by Windpower Over the Gulf of Thailand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


.

Irrigation

Via Wi ndpower in the Philippines

. . . . . . :.

Process, Thailand The Ocean Thermal Differences A Major Energy Possibility for and Philippines: the Future I . ,* ,,................... Vertical Axis Wind Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59 62 66 70 73

12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Conclusions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a , . . , . '. . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . e . .

Recommendations References

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Curves, Nakhon Appendix 1: Monthly Velocity-Duration Sawan, plus Energy Calculation Sheets, Showing Energy in6 Meter Diameter Swept Area at 10 Meter Axis Height.

. .

l-l

17.

Curves,.Don Appendix 2: Monthly Velocity-Duration Muanq, Pessimistic Curve Shape Versus Simplistic But Perhaps Optimistic Curve. Shape. :, . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2-l

page
18. of an Improved Appendix 3: Analysis Two-Bladed Thai Windmill Driving, 6 Meter Diameter

(A) A Variible-Throw Crank Thence a Reciprocating Pump of Large Barrel Diameter, . or (b) A Fixed-Throw Crank Thence a Reciprocating Pump of Moderate'to Small Barrel Diameter. ., . . . . _ of Wood Construction Fan Mill 19. Appendix 4: Analysis Irrigation Pumpers Using Reciprocating Pumps. . . . . . . 20. of a Mekong IrrigaAppendix 5: A First Approximation tion Pumper and Eastern Mekong Wind Pumped Irrigation System. . . o . . ..*........... Appendix 6: A Proposed Thai Windpower Resource Appendix and List Program for Development of the and Other Asian Energy Resources. 3-l . 4-1

5-l 6-l ;

21. 22.

7: Chronology of Visit, List of Places Visited, of People Contacted . . . . :. . . . . . , . . .

List 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

of 11 lustrations A Six-Sail Figure 1.' (Bare Poles Condition). Thailand Windmill as Used in the Salt Works in Use in

The Drive Shaft and Gear of a Thai Water Ladder Figure 2. the Salt Works near Samut Songkhram. Figure 3. Don Muang. Figure 4. A Two-Bladed'Thai Aloft Mechanism, Windmill Two-Bladed From in Use for

Water Pumping Near . Thai Windmill, Windmill. Diameter Wind and

Thai Windmill Two-Bladed

Figure 5. Windmill Figure 6.

Lower End of Chain Drive Owner. Thai Water Ladder Driven

by a Two-Bladed An Aermotor

An American Figure 7. Pumper near Petchaburi. Figure 8.

Fan Mill,

12-Foot

The Chao Phya Delta

Wind Line. Curves, the Same on of Thailand. Los Banos,

Figure 9. . A Comparison of Selected Shape, Velocity-Duration Against a Possible Less Energetic Shape, Both Drawn Through Three Points at Wind Speeds 1 kt, 4 kts, and 12 kts. Figure 10. A Comparison of Energy in the Wind at Two Stations Opposite Sides of the Gulf of Thailand. Figure 11. A Proposed Offshore A Two-Oil-Drum Another Windpower System for Axis

10. 11. 12. 13.. 14. 15. 16. 17.

the Gulf

Figu,.e 12. Philippines. Figure 13. Pumper. Fi?. Fig. Fig. Fig. l-l 2-l 2-2 2-3

Vertical

Wind Pumper at IRRI, 'ilertical

View of the IRRI Two-Oil-Drum Duration 9. Curves, Curves, Curves,

Axis Wind +

In App. 1, Velocity . In Apj. 2,

Nakhon Sawan.

Same as Fig. Velocity Velocity

In App. 2, In App. 2,

D::ration Duration

Don Muang (Optimistic) Don Rlang (Pessimistic)

18. 13. QO.'

Fig. Fig. Fig.

3-1 3-2 4-l

In App. 3, Cp vs. Tip Speed Ratio, of Root Pitch, 2-Bladed Design.

Various

Constant

Values

In App:-3, Thrust and Root Bending Moment vs. Tip Speed Ratio for Windspeed = 10 mph, 2-Bladed Thai Windmill. In App. 4, Fan Mill Characteristic

21 e Fig.,4-2 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig. 4-3 4-4 5-l 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5

In App. 4, Profile View, 30 Blade 6 Meter Dia. Fan Mill s In App. 4, Plan View, 30 Blade 6 Meter Dia. Fan Mill * In App. 4, Pole Matcher, In App. 5, The Eastern 30 Blade 6 Meter Dia. Mekong Wind Line Curves, Curves, Curves, Curves, Nakhon Phanom Mukdahan Ubon Ratchatani Mukdahan, Pessimistic Fan Mill

In App. 5, Velocity-Duration In App. 5, Veloci.ty-Duration In App. 5, Velocity-Duration In App. 5, Velocity-Duration Energetics. '

3.

Introduction. Over the past several years it has become clear to many men that the supply in

of energy large

to less

developed

countries

in the form of electricty via national farmers rest. grids, on is still

generated

centra 1 stations,

distributed

many decades and backs

away from providing the economies energy solar

energy

to the peasant squarely

whose

shoulders

of those countries needing it most,

The concept

of supplying

to those energy

the farmers, for

from one or more renewable energy plants, from fossil fueled, new. The

processes,

as a substitute hydroelectric

uranium fueled, oldest

or very large energy

is not at all

of the solar

processes, fuel available wastes,

photosynthesis, to those a resource contributor great

has long provided masses, in the form of today in in

almost all wood, fibre many parts soil erosion

of the energy or burnable of the world and desert windpower

animal

whose recovery to exponential of the solar in most parts

is the greatest expansion.

growth energy

The second oldest has been practiced

processes,

conversion, today

of the worid, There

but is used effectiv2ly is also process cycles, renewed interest for for the heating the production

in rather

limited

areas of the world.

in the practice of water, of shaft

of the low temperature of water,

photo-thermal

distillation work.

and via heat engine

The work reported windpower machines

herein

was accomplished

to answer the question

"can farmer, an annual ~

be used to help the lot be acquired

of the Thai or Philippine farmer within

and can those

machines

by the individual

income of about

150 U.S. dollars?" question is a qualified and Central "yes." Plain * It was found that Regions the

The answer to that Thai farmer of the.Chao

Phya Delta

has been using

wind driven two shores

pumps to lift

water

for

irrigation.

The salt

workers also

along

the

of the upper reaches

of the Gulf of Thailand they recover are acquired salt

use wind driven Those

pumps to move the water wind machines, property, part .

from which

by evaporation.

in both instances,

by individuals, labor

held as personal input on the water and

and do include

a considerable

amount of cottage water

of those who own them. But,


are

both the salt

and the irrigation requiring the skill cities.

pumps of Thailand tools

rather

sophisticated

machines shops located today,


use.

of the millwright

or wheelwright

in the larger

And very few of these machines a number of persons

are operable

so one can not say that The existing inefficient possibly machines part by part,

are profiting function, balanced (though

from their and though

do serve a very useful the entire of thoughtful

grossly

system is well evolution

and exhibits cannot

years, claim

centuries,

the author

to have established

the date when those wind pumpers first The answer to the question present, however. It appears

appeared

in Thailand). simply in term; of past or analysis trade the

must not be stated that these farmers quantitites because about a rice surplus)

are in the last

key to the provision balance

of increased

of food {and favorable one-third necessary of all

in the case of Thailand, by selling growth rate. expansion

the foreign

exchange is earned percent population

to match the three help these farmers*

So, can windpower expected

machines

to meet the productivity Increased Thailand, ) agricultural

of them for

the future? requirements, in

productivity

appears

to have these

at least: There must be better and end of the rainy which control season over the random droughts (April through rice at beginning

November, more or less) loss.

cause random and at times severe

(b)

Ther2 will Varieti2s and those

probably of rice, rice

have to be a steady a change that require is just fertilizer. steady

changeover beginning

to High Yield in Thailand;

varieties

(c)

There will rice

have to be continued

growth

toward

two-crops

of

per year,

.starting . .. . in the parts outward into


less

of Yhail,and

most favorable, Double-cropping

then expanding of rice (1) requires

favorable

regions.

at least

these things: plus ground-water during the ra.iny during

Assured management of rain season plus

management of ground water

in large

quantity

the dry season. (2) (3) Fertilizer Replacement provision (d) The first for

Rain management includes both crops. buffalo by machines, machines.

pumped drainage.

of water of fuel

and the continued

for those

or second crop need not always be'rice. vegetable, fruit

There is mtich production. .

emphasis on increasing Water demand during as that the rainy for rice,

and upland-crop such crops

the dry season for thus water lifting

may not be so great rice during

and management for than rice during

season but for crops other task. to raise

the dry 22ason

may be an easier (e) There is a degire corn) desir2 Windpower

more m2at and to increase to feed meat animals. crops to increase protein

maize (Americ,an There is a supply. could contrielectricity

and.soybean'production to raise more oil

using machines

improved over called for

the existing

machines

but2 to the pumping of water could be used to manufacture

by the above. ferzil iter

Wind generated

nitrogenous

to support

expanded pro-

ductivity.

10

The question reference primarily

stated

above will future

therefore agriculture, farm&s

be addressed an agricultur-e in small status,

in the frame of still based or by

of an expanding on manual labor reduced


sees

by peasant

family

holdings

farm families which gradually from fertilized addressed collect windpower (a)

to tenant those

or share-cropper raising

but an agriculture diversified crops, is to how

farmers fields.

two crops,

and irrigated

Th2 preponderance

of the report

to the Thai situation, and analyze could prevent start data for

because very little the Philippines.

time was available will suggest

The report

be used to: drought or late-planting season. drying of the rice.fields at the end of the rainy in the rice seedling beds at the

of tha rainy premature

(b)

prevent season.

. (c)

increase

2xisting

and planned

gravity

irrigation

capability network

during of streams,

the dry season in the Chao Phya Delta canals, almost drainage (c) provide and ditches acclessible in that for region al ready make large

where a large quantities

of ground water some pumped

dry season irrigation, during the rainy

and provide season.

modest amounts of irrigation Thailand region

during

the dry season in the dug wells meters both rainy might be

Northeastern expected .
(2)

where shallow within three

to provide large

sweet water

of the surface. and dry seasons

provide along inland increase

amounts of irrigation River

during

the &kong

bank, extending depending

perhaps

30 to 50 kilometers of the State to

west of that the water

bank,

upon the ability in that area.

distribution '

systems

(f) manufacture

fertilizkbr;

11

4.

Windpower Use in Thailand, Numbers of six-sail

Past ancl Present -___ in


us2

wind machines are currently

in the salt

works

around the northern 6 meters diameter carries Figure

shore of the Gulf of Thailand. and use bamboo spars, sails,

The machines

are of about

rope and wire

to form a wheel which bamboo. rotating one way monsoon.

6 triangular

each woven from rush or split They are fixed direction in azimuth,

(1) shows such a machine.

in the southwest The windwheel bearing which

monsoon and reversing

in the northeast

axle is timber rests

and each end is rounded to fom, a wood journal No lubri:8tjon tihl~n is used. rides Power is

in a :uood crotch.

transmitted

by a chain of about one inch links of a built-up product, wooden pulley open-link steel

in a vee groove 30 cm diameter. rides

between the sides The cha'n

wheel of about chain.

is a western

The chain also built

in a vee groove wGocien pulley pump drive shaft,

of about 120 cm diameter, 12) foreground.

on one end of a is about

shown in Figure

This wood shaft iron tooth

4 m long and each end is termina.:ed wood a,ld held by an iron year built into it hoop.

in a 3 cm diameter has an eight tradition,

rgd set i nt3 the wooden paddle

The shaft

in the best of wheel-wright the paddles (2).

spoked and banded. ;.ldder type pump as can pump is a very and plastic of the

This gear engages and drives be seen in ?h2 background beautiful washers, Fiqure water

of the water The water

of Figtire

ladder fasten2i.s

wood machine (some very modern metallic including (2) wr:ter cotter ladder) keys, were evident of carefully trough, elevating fitted it

in close-up parts

inspection

which are able to "scrape"


one

up an inclined

not in excess of (per AIT).

meter,

and

doir.3 SC at an efficiency pump is a cottage-industry possessing all the tools

as high as 50 percent product: it must

None of the artisans that

be made by skilled

and knowledge in small

of the wheelwright.

It was said

these pumps are produced

shops in Bangkok. --LI_

12

FIG. 1.

A Six-Sail

Thailand Windmill as Used in the Salt (Bare Poles Condition)

Works

FIG. 2.

The Drive Shaft tiild Gear of a Thai Water Ladder Salt Works Near Samut Songkhram

in Use in the

13

The total is to perform, chain drive the pump with improvements piastic water

system is grossly and apparently

inefficient, something which

admirably

sized

to the task it The of

the owner can afford. in location wind wheel. by addition shaft,

provides

considerable

flexibility orientation

and orientation Remarkable of frictionless but then the

re S pect to the fixed cou 1 d be made in this

system simply

bearings ladder

on the wind wheel and the pump drive turn too fast.

wouI1d probably

The job that

is done by the diameter fan mill

machine system could, driving a reciprocating

however,

be done by a much smaller investment however.

pump, and total this gear,

might be less. Even if land for

There

seems to be no need to improve production flats rather were desired,

more salt exporative

the key would be more flat

than improved pumps. water propeller (3) shows near the Don type of in the

Windpower has also been llsed in the past to pump irrigation Chao Phyha Delta type windscrews rice fields. Both two-b1 aded and four-bladed have been used. ladder in a rice

of about 6 meter diameter machine driving In Figure is whittled a water

Figure field

such a two bladed Mtiang Airport. pumper. thick. half foil A blade

(4) one can see the aloft out of a plank

mechanism of this

about 6 m long x 30 cm wide by 5 cm trailing twist edge is given to each and some semblance of at its center to

A rounded leading of the plank

edge and a sharpened some small The plank

in such a way that

shape is given to the blades. shaft of about 3 cm diameter fitting much like

is fastened

an iron

by 60 cm length, an iron pipe foot This iron

on the blade end of flange snaft through rests which

which is an iron four

nuts and bolts in the fore

hold the blade plank. and aft upright

in two wood A

bearings pair

members of the rotating pole-matcher together

pole-matcher. whereas the

of wood slats

hold the top of this

14

FIG. 3.

A Two-Bladed

Thai Windmill in Use For Water Pumping Near Don Muang

FIG. 4.

Aloft

Mechanism,

Two-Bladed

Thai Windmill

15

bottom is held aft and which

together

by a flat

plank

plus

two long slats

which extend The flat fit

on

are used to train

the windmill

around in azimuth.

plank bottom af the pole-matcher with a reduced diameter section easily:

has a ho?e cut in it which of pole top. indeea this

is a tight

The pole matcher windmill

is not intended

to Iry3ve around

in azimuth, it

is set by hand to the c!!t

oncoming wind before

is started.

The pole

is about 25 cm in diameter,

away at the top to carry tall into shaft fitted, above ground, the earth.

the pole-matcher. with

The poles any preservative,

in use are about 5 IIF :~rs and are set do&;; end of the iron is

are not treated No stays

or braces are provided.

At the aft

a combination a vee pulley

wood and metal vee pulley which drags an open link

of about 20 cm diameter chain to tralrsmit

power to the

pump below. Figure as the local (5) shows the owner of this village chief. wind pump, a man who identified water ladder tooth sprung drive shaft himself fitted gear

The wood and iron

wi trl a 120 cm diameter are also shown. device

vee drive drive Figure

wheel and the eight and a bamboo stick (6) gives the lower another

wooden paddle chain tightener

The chain

are also evident. the chain

view of the drive

shaft,

the chain, ladder walled carried socket this slats

tiyhtener,

end of the pole,

and of the water an earthshaft are

set to lift plot

water

about one meter from a ditch rice. The iron shaft each iron supporting

up into

of growing

ends of the drive rod wearing it. its

in crotches into

cut from trees,

own bearing chief started

the green wood crotch pulling into

The village

machine by first to point

on the lanyard the wind, engine

dropping

down from the training it much like Wylie Post

the blade

then cranking

used to start took off

his aeroplane

by cranking

the propeller. per minute.

The propel1 er It was

and revved up to a counted

150 revoluticns

16

FIG. 5.

Lower End of Chain Drive From Two-Bladed and Windmill Owner

Thai Windmill,

FIG. 6.

Thai Water Ladder Drivsn

by a Two-Eiladed Windmill

17

estimated this it

that

an eight

knot breeze was blowing a tip speed ratio propeller

at the time. of about eleven, type windmill. shaft could

In such a breeze which places

propeller

was achieving

in the realm of a very high-speed All of that windmill

down to the pump drive skills,

be built

by a

man with plane,

reasonable

wood working

a saw, a knife, But,

a spoke shave or a shaft would have

one or more chisels

and one wor,d bit. shop,

the iron pulley

to come from the blacksmith probably water shop. It improved parts that is hard to conceive by inserting carry come from a shop, and its drive

the upper drive chain

and the fasteners store and the

the drive shaft

come from a hardware

ladder

had to come from a wheelwright-blacksmith

of a less expensive plastic

wind wheel.

It could

be

friction-free shaft. to this irrigation

bearings

in the upright

wood

the iron disadvantage

The great starting. If

wind machine by windpower

is that

it

is not selfa self-starting If water out pump,

large-scale self-training)

is desired,

(and probably is to be lifted of a dug well,

wind machine is probably particularly if it

necessary.

more than one meter, the water pump. windmill ladder will

is to be lifted by a different

have to be replaced

perhaps a piston

There are nine other Thailand, towers piggery 12 foot (axis diameter

water

pumpers located

and working tall

in

AERMOTOR water

pumpers on 42 foot

steel at a

height).

Figure

(7) shows one of those

pumpers located

in Petchaburi.

That pumper' has delivered

an average (water

of 86 cubic table about 2 m

meters of water below ground,

per month at a total storage

head of 8 meters

tank head = 6 m). Economics, Hinistry

Miss Maneewan Ama-amon of the Diviof Ayricullure


dud

sion of Agricultural in charge of this

Cooperative,

is

windmill

evaluation

experiment,

and she provided

the pro-

18

FIG. 7.

An American

Fan Mill, An Aermotor lL-Foot Pumper Near Petchaburi

Diameter

Wind

19

ductivity Table

data given 1:

in Table Dia.

1. Aerrrrotor Wind-Pumping Height Above Ground of Delivery 6m 6 m' 6m 6m Experiment Total Head 14.m 8m 8m 14 m Average Monthly Production, Cubic Meters. 33 86 215 150

The 12-Foot

Location and Number of Wind pumpers (a) Noq)Kai (b) Pe;;yaburi (c) Sar--iuri (d) Nat;; Phanon

Average Depth to Water 4 rn. 2m 2m ' 8 m

The variability installations humans). It are ail

in productivity useful for

is large. the provision that

It can be seen that of clean water in the Saraburi ,-

these (and is

to animals region, which

is also easy to speculate boundary

on the western

015"T from Bangkok, working meters 14 rai these at a total per month. (2.2 hectares)

of the Chao Phya Delta rice bowl, about 100 km, . one of these machines could dump water on the ground, 2 meters, at a rate of about 86D cubic rice production in about readings for

head of only

That much water would .irrigate of land. The month-by-month

productivity

pumpers are to be provided for'the

by Miss Maneewan; then the rainy

season/dry

season possibilities that an estimate

machines can be assessed.

Miss Maneewan said windpumper 15,000 baht in

was made of cost to reproduce that

this,Aermotor

Thailand,

and it was thought too much for

each machine would cost to afford.

($750 U.S.),

most farm&s

There is a windpower at the Department

pumping experimental

program underway at this Ministry of Agriculture

time and

of Agriculture'Technology,

Cooperative,

housed at Kasesat Suksri.and

University,

Bangkok.

Mr. Methor Ratratapiti, of that Department, Their are is

Mr. Charlermchui experimenting . focused at this with

Miss Sukumya Kotigal, water

a number of windpowered

pumpers. axis

attention that

time on variants

of the vertical will

machine hoping "native"

they can contrive a sail system that . such as woven rush mat and lumber. In summary, there a totally windmill, to recent pumpers. information than rice) indigenous

use renewable

materials . ranging frum blade

have been and are wind pumpers in Thailand product of "high technology" concept, diameter axis

the propeller Aermotor irrigation

to the American experiments with

fanmills hopefu,lly

of the 12 foot low-cost

variety

vertical pointed crops

Bo,th Miss Maneewan and Miss Kotigal on the water for productive requirements growth Center need provide trees during

out a dearth (indeed,

of good

of upland

any crop other Finkner for at

the dry season.

Professor irrigator

ttie N'. E. Agricultural upland upland crops might

also only

pointed

out a dry-season (2.54

one inch

cm) of water

per week to Aerbe

crops or to fruit

fed by trickle

irrigation.

The existing of wood, might

motor machines, very close

modified.into

a machine made dominantly

to a good answer to the next generation

of windpumpers.

. .

21

5.

The Winds and Related (a) The Winds.

Resource Data for

Thailand of LCDR Surin an introduction General Sangsnit, was obtained Chief to

Through

the good services

Hydrometeorologist Captain Prosert

of the Mekong Committee, Soontarotok, Deputy Director

of the Meteorological Divis ;?n of . of "Climdtological in

l Department,
Data'of Thailand,

and Commander Kasem'Sukapinta, Department. 20 Year Period 1937-1970, (1951-1970)" for From those

Chief,Climatology gentlemen copies

the Meteorological Thailand, Period

(1951-1970),"

"Highest Surface

Wind Velocity

and "Mean Percentage were obtained.

Winds Over Thailand, velocityin

20 Year Period duration turn curves

From those

documents

a number of locations the estimation on.

have been prepared of capability

and those

have been used for described later

of the several

windpower

systems .

The wind pattern warm, moist a hauling northeast tion Plain curves winds

over Thailand

is generally quadrant

that during

of the monsoon, with the rainy winds season, then

from the southwest clockwise

of the wfnds quadrant

to become the dry cocler The construction more energetic season,

from the dura.

during

the dry season. the wind is generally during

of velocity

showed that

in the Central up in the to be more to of the during

and the ChaQ Phya Delta province in the winds

the rainy

whereas

northeast energy

near Mukdahan and Nakhan Phanon, in the dry season when they flow to be a significant of Thailand

there

appears

out of the north intensification and reach Sattaip

east quadrant. southwest the rainy flow across

There also appears

winds as they cross season,

the Gulf

but no where near as marked an intensification toward Ko Samui during reach their the dry season.

in the reverse The rainy season

the Gulf

usually

begins

in May, rains

peak in September,

and are gone by

22

November.

The dry winds

then usually

blow from November until are not strong. and Central

March. The most Plain, which best All of

As a generalization, energetic is also . fitted those winds

the winds over Thailand

are those over the Chao Phya Delta of the rice systems that growing

the most productive with *factors of rice The Soil. -clay ideally diversion

regions

and the region stream water. where doublefirst

irrigation

and abundant

combined suggest

region irrigation

as the place water might

cropping (b) marine

using wind-pumped A very large suited to rice into

1 be attempted. is the soil

percentage culture.

of the soil

of Thailand fall this

When the rains which

is ploughed, are set.

then puddled it

a muddy soup into the soil

the ricesseedlings with with the

Before

has been wetted, currently available.

can not be plo.;;hed sequence disappearing starts

kind of implements flooded land just cycle land,

The entire

and the ideal the harvest

sequence has the water is to begin. rainfall. the flooding

from that this entire the

before

,In much of Thailand In other parts

is tied

directly

to natural

of Thailand

irrigation

system is used to start water

of the land. into

In a few parts system

of the country prior

is removed from the fields In the Northcastcrn rain fall

the irrigation ;It 1~~1.. percent

to the harvest.

rcgicn.

ri(.(x cult UI*V of the tilled

depends totally fields. (c) . canals

upon natural

in over ninety

Ground Water. and diversion

In the Chao Phya Delta ditches, and there of a field. of years (1). by gravity

there

are extensive of water

rivers, within

is seldom a lack Irrigation

a meter or so of the surface ing in Thailand at providing area of 1.375 for hundreds

systems have been buildprojects aimed an ultimate with

The most recent from storage

dry season water

to irrigate

x lo6 Rai* , of which 5 x lo5 Rai would be double-cropped fault with this last project, however, in

rite(2). There is a major "one Rai = 0.4 acres = 0.154 hectares

23

that

the large During

canals

were designed

to carry level

the flood

waters

of the wet many water system, Depart+

season. farm ditch level.

the dry season the flow s turn-outs have entrances'well readily

in them is so low that

above the dry season canal deficiency in the gravity

Pumping could

overcome this

and such pumping should ' ment's efforts rather

probably

best be matched to the Irrigation farmer. underground could nature . water

than to the individual to exist Central

There is also about for 100 feet

thought this

a very large Plain which

supply be pumped it with 100 feet the

beneath purposes

conceivably rechargiilg

irrigation water

during

the dry season, Lifting however. large

runoff

of the rainy

season.

volumes of water

(31 meters)

is not inexpensive,

In the Northeastern from forested

Region where new farm land has been created decades, gravity there

gradually supply

land over the past se*Jeral Nor is there well

is no bountiful

of stream water. An extensive could

an extensive drilling

irrigation

system as yet. ground water could at the of only


one

exploratory

project but water

(3) showed that from shallow

be found throughout in about

the region

wells

be

very saline No thenstern 'or

ten percent Center during

of the region. have produced the critical

Hand dug wells water at a level

Agricultural

two meters below surface Inadequate

beginning

and ending

of the of such para-

ra yy season. we Is, windpower

data were obtained

from which a;i assessment can be made, but later a sizeable is covered Probably

pumped, as a type of irrigation hand dug wells of rSce culture

graDhs will
rate.

assume that topic

would sustain irrigation

withdrawal well in
Ref. (4).

The general (d).

The Mekong River

as an Irrigation -- Su&. under consideration and studied

the most extensive is

water

resource

management project Mekong Project,

in the World today

the proposed

planned

under the sponsorship

of the

Economic Commission through their

for

Asia

and the Far East (ECAFE) of the United The four


riparian

Nations to

Mekong Committee.

states acres

are ultimately and Laos

have enough managed water plus supplemental just initial eastern from the first water

to irrigate to help irrigate of this

5 million 7 million project,

in Thailand

acres

in the Mekong Delta, The

increment

the PaMong Dam (5) .

PaMong Service Thaiiand

Area is shown to cover about one-third Service Area will

of the Northcover that entire gravity all hands.

Region and the ultimate Service acres

Northeastern irrigation The initial

Region. of 7 million capital

is meant to include plus electricity for tht

the above mentioned for

at the home level power plant portion

cost lines

estimated

to the end of of electricity in addition in addiis there heights over canal agria in to

the transmission and all distribution

was $800 million of irrigation water

in 1968: distribution would require capital

the $800 million. Bangkok in obtaining tional in that which electricity river,
522

'In August financing for all year

1974 there for

seemed to be mOre interest power plant PaMong. cnanges to provide The water in river that

a nuclear

Bangkok than in financing long, despite the seasonal

15 meter excursions.

Any system that

could'lift plus

water improved

the banks at a-total and distribution cultural central


some

head of one to 15 meters water

a s*Leadily

system would put that

to work.

The expanding

area in the Northeast starting position:

is moving toward

the river

bank from its be required and those

canals

10 to 25 km long would fringe ground of rice land,

instances

to meet the existing

canals

would have to dodge the elevated region.

in the Nakhon Phanom and Mukdahan

25

6. ' Irrigation Available winds

in the Chao Phya Delta Windpumpers.

Using Windpower and Commercially to examine the energetics the Chao Phya Delta, to see how much irr (8). of the including gation

It was decided

along a generally

NNWto SSE line

through

the stations

Nakhon Sawan, Don Muang and Sattaip, therefrom. This line

cou Id be obtained

is shown on Figure of Surface Duration available

Using the wind data 20 Year Period, at each station

in "Mean Percentage monthly Velocity

Winds Over Tha land, Curves for each month from 2 knots at a

1951-1970,"

were drawn and the energy for

in the wind,

to maximum speed, was calculated 10 meter axis as Appendix 1. height. A typical

a swept area of 6 meter diameter and calculations

set of curves

are appended

Each velocity-duration .that were available: (a) (b) (c) the percentage the percentage the percentage

curve was drawn through

three

data points

--

all

of time wind speed was less of time wind speed was less of time wind speed was less that these curves hyperbola

than 17 knots. than 4 knots, than 1 knot. shapes, and that the and

There is a possibility shape chosen, i.e.,

have incorrect without

a simple estimates effort

an inflection If this other

point,

may have

lead to optimistic carried insure forwward, that

of wind energy

content.

work is to be to detail

must,be

expended to obtain In Figure velocity

data points

curve shape is appropriate. 2, "optimistic" points less and pessimistic" are shown. content.

(9) and in greater duration curves curves

i:r Appendix through tive

the same three

The "pessimistic" There simply

are indica-

of considerably within

energy

was not time enough curve" at

available

the scope of this

work to create

a "minimuir energy

26

- .-.-

Gulf

Ol

.-d
.

---

I. ,*..a ma" nr ,:uaM."bo --PII-. .- ,.,a t .A. -I(

.* c.. .a I LYI . . ...

G. .. , ; \ .

C 1.u /.(I

JC,

\ p-

'THE CHAO PHYA DELTA WIND LINE

'FIG.

(8)

. _

- 1 . +-+ i-i-;.--, i

1--e _ i .

.:I -I s -I -i

1 ___. __A j __ --.; I !------I


: I I --. . ..-

. - ._ _ *.- ._ . .-. _.,-_._.__ ._.. ___. -_ I .-__ _._._.-. . . ._-.I__._. *I__-_-d---- : l._ .-_.. _ .. -_ .~. -. __ _ - _1 . . _ -.-- ___ -^- ---*._ L---~ -. -.ii .-__. --.
. ..._.. . i
i ;I

. ;I

-.-

. ui I I

28

each station, Phya station,

but such competitive Don Muang, and for

curves

were made for Eastern

the central

Chao

the Central

Mekong Wind Line station, optimistic are

Mukdahan, and system productivities, compared. To proceed with Central Plain, it an analysis was decided

pessimistic

versus

,of wind pumped irrigation to first see what.n!ight machine observed no matter how strong

in fhe Chao Phya be accomplished with a

Wind Pumper similar

to the 2-bladed

at work near Don Muang. the wind at that

That pumper was not self-starting station. Its axis was only that

5 meters kind

above ground.

No data were obtainable lift per day, week,

as to how much water month, season,

of wind pumper could basis.

on a continuing

And the data would not be too useful around the clock to restart

anyway because a person would the mill

have to stand watch

each time the wind faded. to estimate the performance type, of one or more existing, are self at ati axis starting. height of 10 modern,

It was decided windpumpers, The first '7.1 meters

including

a propeller

machinesthat

machine placed (and that to which

in the Don Muang wind regine

height

was chosen between 5 meters and the standard curves were drawn simply Model M022-3-6

meter height

the velocity-duration therefore)

bec,~~.c Irriga-

data were available tion

was the German Lubing blades, 5 kts.

Pump. That machine has three at a wind speed.of the productivity

2.215 meter diameter, At a total delivery

tind the blades head of 3.85 2.

self-start meters,

about

of that

pumper was calculated

as shown in Table 30 April, of 109 cubic support this

During

a "Dry Season" of 181 days, 7514 cubic rais,= meters.

1 November through At a daily rate

pumper would deliver per rai culture of land on 2.47 (2.5 rai,

meters rice

1.0 acres),

the one pumper could Chao Phya Delta

Since 'the typical

farm is still

29

ovel aero/ n

^-W&t&power pumping Inslallellon A rype %ar dtamater II. 7.2 Hub helghl - Il. 23
33

30
drive B
TOWS

C Stroke in. 7.9 7.9 7,; Lifting capactty c lb. 88 66 66 Slrokes per mmute mar. ? 55 55 55 Weight (nett) - lb. 276 Pg 342 Volum?
-lXyd

diameter in. 6.7 6.7 6.7

9.4 022-3-G u ua-3-9 M m-3-12

0.524 0.785 10.5

7.2
7.2

43

.
Piston pump
iG -

blade 2 Rotor 3 Crankhouse 4 Ring mounl 5 Tubular lower 6 Piston pump drive 7 Pump lever 6 Oullel rlub 9 Slay tighlener 10 Wirerope slay 11 Hand winch 12 Stopplng mechqnism

1 Rotor

Piston suclion and pressure pumps

jI I:

Deep-well

pumps

31

Ptaton

Pump

for

the

M 622-3

windmill

installahon

lor

draining

and

rrrtgatmg

purposes Delwefy hetght E Water level F Welt depth 0 Pressure he*d --_-_. Pressure lute m G Well dra - tn ____ weayi c tb volume cu -_.. - -~ _ yd o!ms

Wmd stat Type r= 115-26 15-16 ,1%13 pump untt m. p. h. US-gal US gal US gal con~tsls h h h

6.7

R.9

11.2

13.4

15.6

17.9

ft.

n.
6.2 4.9 33 steel PtSton rod

n.

II.

4.3 -2--TS---r5 12.5 9.2 7 7.6 9.2 2 2 -23 23 ----

360 ZGi 360 01 prston

527 527 527 pump

a24 024 624 14. tttter

1296 1296 1290 15 and delivery

1496 1490 1490 pipehne

1710 1710 1710

12.5 12.5 12 5

_. _ _ -- o.oi -62 _-~-.~. 55 0026

The

13, high-grade

Piston

suction

and

pressure pumps
6.7 116 71 6.9 169 IO!,

for

household

water

supply

systems.

pasture Deltvery

drrnhtng K Suchon height 20 20 --2G 31

unrts

ror cattle. n EYre

rrrtgation. L Mm. in. 28 26 26 7R ::

etc

. for M --_-Max. I. 24 24 24 ?r

the

M 022-3 Sucllon prpehne m 1 IT -i--1

windmill. _ ..-_. _. Pressure plprllrlc 6 I,, .. i1-WCiJIl, - lb 155 68 6 II I

Wind -Type P 656 , .I, I m. p stat. h. 11.2 256 .--163 .. 245 I,#-----i!z*PI ., 134 -40 416 15.6 485

. 11. .I?.9 566 332 T-2it ..*

n.

n.
20 1 00 f 1,

herght 66 100 1 I,>

--II---

-. --. -

US gal/h 8 I: ,1.,1 II

, ;,,<i,, I ,a,,,, ,,,,? w .,,, I Il..,l, 0, ,111. w,.,,

. .. i ..,, ,111 I. )LoI,tl.I.tIIy J -

I,

I/,. I. ..I,,, , :, ,, I.,,. .,,.,I: >,l.tt,lc 111 1111~ IUllll IUl low WA.1 lu.ul:. R Uelivery

. . 0 Pressure head It. 31 21 12 2 57 47 36 26 .-___ 16 6 91 61 72 62 52 42 32 22 13 3 121 111 102 92 -i3-62 --72 62 52 43

.\L . . P Well depth n 13 23 33 --------. 43 13 23 33 43 ---53 63 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 . a3 93 -103 13 23 33 53 63 73 ___ 63 --

, . . .* . ---.S Mar. dra rn 3.4 .---.3.4 3.4 3.1 -3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 ---_---_3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 ---___ 3.1 3.1 3.1 -3.1 2.5 -.---. Dehver; hne tn. Ill tv1 1 II 1 I, -_.~-._ iG.sure lute Ill 1 I. Weqht -. tb 44 73 101 130 .--.--_ 130 155ieo 203 211 250 274 ~6 327 346 .--. -._
VOIUIII.,

We P 65 35 P P9565-65 P 65-125 P M-35 P 50-65 FW 95 P 53 125 ---- 59-155 P ----- 66 18s P P 40 35 P 40-65 I-95 Al25 P 40 155 P 40 165 P 40 215 P 40 245 6iti --__-. P 40 P 35 --. P 35 -.P 35 275 305 35 65 95

Wind stat. m. p. h. US gal:h

6.7
116

a.9

11.2

13.4

15.6

17.9 Pght 40

Water level it. 9 19 26 3a 9 19 26 38 46 56 9 19 26 38 48 56 68 76 a7 97 9 19 28 36 -I----4_-.. 56 68 ..76 -67 97 107 -117 -------127 13-

169

256

416

465

566

40 40 66 66 66 66 64 66 166 1W 1M) 100

-_ l,,,--. -. 1 1. -- -.1 /. 1 1 -,---.

_-. -. _.-

-.cu --. 001% 0.039 0 059 Oftltl O.@JT 0 116 o ,3, 0.151 -6.176 0 wti0 215 o,2j6 0.295 -0262-

yd

US gal.h

71

105

. 163

245

290

332

1 I, -._-. 1 I. ,,,, -.-...1 I, --.._ 11. I/. 1 I. 1,,,---___ 1 I. 1 I, 1 I, 1 I. -.-__-_-1 I* - _-__ 1 I. --__ 1 I. __-1 'I. 1 1 -_.. 1

._

.-

.__ 1 ..--_-1 -.-. I _. 1 1 - ---1 1 -.-_-

--

_ _. --.-

US galoh

45

66

105

156

164

. 211

100 100 106 100 100 106 136 136 130

-__-_-.. 1 1 1 -. 1 _.__.---_. . ..I1 1 1 - ~. 1 -_ -._. 1 1 I I t 1 1 _- 1 1


I

.---

_.. 370._395 420 .440' 470 -490 42Ct 440 166 460 sou 5te --

-. . a;261 0.3 0 32 0.34

--

-----

_2.5 .-2.5 2.5 (-.-- ---.2.5 2.5 2.5 - .._.. ..-. 2.5 2.5 2.5 --.25 ___-_ 2.5

036 0 36 04 0.416 0 43H 0 45n 0.411 0.436 0.516 0 5:ili 0.5% * 0 575 0 592 0615 0 6Cli

_.-.

Ficris --P35155 --P 35 165 P 35-215 --P 35 245 _.__---_.-..~_ P 31275 ----~ P 35 305 ~~,31------P --- 35-365 -- 35 395 P The pump unit

---US _--.. --AL-- -.-.-__---. galsh 53 79 121 143 161

136 136 W---.136 136 136 136 136 -. 136 130 pump 20. hlter 21. dellvery pipeline with

-.-_

--.-1 1

--

--

-----

_33 23 .-_3

93 --2.5----_.--103 113 --_--_ 123 133 rod 19 and

.-.-. I---.. .__. 1 _.. 1 --1 1--1 __1 16

l
.

. .

540 56Ll 560 606 617

.-.

COnSiSlS

Of deep-well

high-grade prston steel

surge tank

-.

631 656 --

.-

The LUBING

Wind-power

Pumping

Instailatlon, This deepand water

nance. lever. reservoir

The pump la disengaged An overflow storage valve or.a pressure relief

through valve

a handin the

fh8 lnslatlatlon power wlrerope drive parts stays

as supplied 1.2.3 10 with fittings pump

consists

of wi:ld5. bolt3 6.7

Type M

022-3,

is a new addition mostauitable aupplying

to the LURING

must be fitted

and 4. tower drive

Maachincnlabrik installationis wall pumps, &ining After

range of products. household

on the presis lowered

and anchor units

for powering small areas

sure water by means Piston

tank. The tower

hand winch

11. piston

of a hand winch.

and 8 with stopping @an and erection Piston pump

mechanism instructions.

12. foundation

and irrigating01 many years

01 land. pumps pumps have been developed windmill for the ol in our Spectal delivery. pumps. blades in Type M 022-3

as to index.

of research

and trials profrled rotor

qwn wind-tunnel windmill inkeeping padormance The pump miles miles

we have developed advance

a modern

with aerodynamic with todays and design. output increases

according
suction

Erection: The sail unit should obstructions Suction pumb driving Acomplete l.the within and pressure be higher a distcnce pipetines than surroundin{

to height of

standards

They are simple Seamless when together

and pressure

steel pipes

in lengths

of. say. 200 yard and the piston from frost of:

9 ft. 8 I,n. are bolted to the square of the pipeline veil wind vafocity per hour. up to wind speeds of 13.4 Stat. of 17.9 stat. winds the outErection

to form the delivery as a deepare fitted rods pumps

using lhe installation piston stainless guides. steel piston

unit must be protected wind power pump consists and

unit. The deep-well in plastic

per hour, then linear

to 17.9 stat. miles

with htgh-grade mounted

From wind velocities practically constant.

per hour up to gale force

wind power

pump drive

put remains
Construction Three bearing rotor (urns velocity wind the rotor

and assembly M 0223 can be erected easily by

2. depending ciated

on the intended pumps.

use, the asso-

reciprocating

and method profiled rotorshaft.

of working blades made of a

The windmill pleted house before

one man. Afterthefoundation aerodynamic compound mounted blade becomes the tower and piston being isassembled pump drlvtng libreglass plane are fitted a truncated on a ballcone due to automatically the at 01 the tower. rotor miles blades brakis Is transtransrunning is up of to from The 01 In per hour

has been comand the crankunit fitted. stays

Ordering: When ordering No. M 022-3-g . power output velocity pump it is to be noted P 40-125 with a hub height that the Type wind. ar 0133 ft. giving

The conventlonal

The tower

lo then raised braced

with a hand winch Ihe stay tlghteners. a piston is restricted for this purpose or deep-well pipe and to a crank. is so that

is a complete

wlth three wirerope

angle. The rotor

and set uprtght The pumping pump-is piston house lowered there

by adjusting unit -either

of 105 US gallons of 11.2 stat. mites hclght

per hour at a wlnd per hour from a dcpl 60 It. into a tank.

in the direction

of the wind throug

head of the wtnd leward speed of the three velocities

then lilted rod. Maintenance oil change

to the delivery

of 39 h. Pumping

The turning Is limited ing system. fibsolutely Ierred misston bolted wlrerope

above 17.9 stat.

every

year. The tower

to 500 r. p. m. by a centrlfugat Consequently, stormprool. through with hardened to a tubular stays. tower the installation The wind-power a two-stage gear wheels crankcase b!aced is made togelher unil is lilted.

by hand winch

is no need to climb up the tower.

te a clank

an oil bath. The light metal The tower bolted tower

with % in. dta.

8 ft. 8 in. pipelengths Q 2,3 or 4 section metal torque piston

to which

the tight through pump in the in self-

pump driving rod rurrnlng

on the crank

is transferred

connecting

down the centre parts

the tower driving piston

to a shift lever on the piston carrying and require unit are mounded

unit. All torque pumpdriving bearings

lubrtcattng

no malnte-

33

Table 2.

Monthly

Productivity

of a Lubing

Model M022-3-6 3.85 Meter Total Month Sept Ott Nov Dee

Irrigation Delivery

Pump_ Head. Meters

at Don Muang, 7.1 Meter Axis Height, Month Jan Feb Mar br Cubic Meters 820 1240 1751 1929 Month bY Jun Jul Aug

Cubic Meters 1533 1550 1383 1388

Cubic

1180 960 872 902

about 25 rai

in size,

ten such pumpers would be required. to the same 6 meters

But,

if

the diameter

of the pumper were increased Windpumper, water ladder and the total could handle, (3.85

as the Thai Two-Bladed meters which the

head reduced

to the maximum i.5 would (2.56) easily

then productivity t 1.5) = (7.33) then quite during

be multiplied z 18. keep

by a factor 2.47 = farm of The

of about 44.5 25 rai rai.

(6 + 2.215)2

18 times a family "dry

One modern pumper could rice culture

wet enough for ty during

the second-crop be somewhat better:

season."

productivi have inlet during existing meters receptors suggests available

the wet season would interchanged

the pumper cou Id device the 1.5 a (2)

and discharge

and could'be

used as a drainage

the wet season as well. canal and ditch

Both of the above statements

assume that within

systems would b? able to provide fields during th(! dry season, du:-ing

water

head of the rice for unwanted that the first

and would serve Reference

excess water assumption

the wet season.

may be a good one, but there

is no evidence

to add credence

to the second assumption. a Dempster 14-foot diameter fan mill, was compared At the

A second windpumper, against the estimated

performance

of the Luding

at the Don Muang Site.

upper end of the wind regime , at a wind speed of 15.6 kts,

it was estimated

that

that

pumper would head. and total x (3.85 If

lift that

650 cubic

meters per day against

the same 3.85 to 6 meters

meter total in diameter of

type of machine were increased to 1.5 meters, (2.56) = (4.96)

in size a daily

head were reduced + 1.5) = (1.94)

productivity

(6 + 4.30)2 could during

(650) = 3228 cubic 29.6 rai

meters of rice Still

be expected. a dry season.

3228 cubic

meters per day wou!d sustain

another

check can be made: estimated

the 12 foot

(3.69

m) diameter 14 rai

Aermotor in and

at Saraburi rice

was earlier

to be able to sustain Increasing suggest that that that

of land

at a total that 49 rai

head of 2 meters. head to 1.5 meters of rice during

diameter

to 6 meters

reducing irrigate

type of pumper could

a dry season. a modern propeller 6 meters type windmill with axis or a height could

It would therefore modern fan mill of 10 meters, irrigate season, was'of that

appear that

%ype windmill located

of about

diameter

at Don Muang, or between Don Muang and Sara Buri, of at least 25 rai for. rice culture such that that during total

a family provided the order it

holding could

the dry head in of (2), _

take a suction

from a ditch It fast is possible

of 1.5 to 2.0 meters. might produce water

a dug well that rate

entire

region at that

enough to sustain

withdrawal it

head. On the other to locate

hand, referring wind pumpers along (but assured the ditches ditch

back to reference the main canals

may be more appropriate

where they can draw from the. "trickle" in the canals and use their trickle. lift to fill

trickle

of the dry season) are high

whose turn-outs

and dry above that feed the fields.

The existing

system would

then gravity-

The above estimates against actual results

are for with

Don Muan -

(and,

incidentally, suggests

the comparison that the

an Aeromotor

at Sara Duri

35

assumed "optimistic about the region

' -velocity-duration to the north

curves

might

not be too bad):

what of

of Don Muang up to Nakhon Sawan, a distance a distance quantitatively heights

215 km, and to the south of Don Muang down to Sattaip, The productivity comparing meters, Table 3. at the three energy sites can be estimated

of 150 km? by of 10

the monthly Table 3.

in a 6 meter swept area at axis

Estimated Axis Height

Enerqy Available of 10 Meters

in the Winds in a 6-Meter at Three Chao Don Muang 423 kWh ,798 1234 1460 1074 1080 893 i389 728 55iJ 461 894 Phya Delta

Swept

Area

at

Stations. Sattaip. 868 kWh 945 1251 1113 1465 2552 2446 2120 1471 809 1077 1030 , .
.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Ott Nov Dee Annual Total Table 3 suggests

Nakhon Sawan 368 kWh 705 955 899 780 672 546 480 211 150 236 276 6,278 that kWh

10,484

kWh

17,147

kWh be '

the wind pumpers to the south of Don Muang would those to the north of Don

even more productive Muang could coast be less

than at Don Muang whereas productive. only

Nakhon Sawan is 250 km from the nearest portion of the

and does lie Range.

100 km down wind of the highest

Bilauktung

36

More time could produce quate .

show exactly it

what the Lubing that

or the Aermotor it might still

might edeis be used Chao

at Nakhon Sawan: to serve.a that 25 rai there

is suggested

be quite So, it could

farm with

one 6 m diameter possibil.it,y

windpumper. that windpower

concluded

is an excellent

to spe.ed up the transition Phya Delta. farms, This might

to double-cropping be accomplished

of rice

in the extensive windpumpers

by installing

at individual from a ditch level be approcould Or, to too

as originally

suggested The water region,

by AID. each pump to take suction table is apparently almost

or from a dug well. throughout priate the entire

at ground

but some experiments

would certainly

before

one could

say that

upwards of 2725 cubic a 25 rai

meters of water basis.

be withdrawn perhaps

each day from beneath should

farm on a continuing Irrigation water

windpumpers

be installed

by the Royal

Department level being

overcl,me the apparent low to feed laterals

major problem and farm ditches.

of dry season canal

37

7.

Proposed Now Wind Pumpers for -7.1 An "Improved"

Dry Season Irrigation

in Thailand.

Two-Blad&6-Meter that

Wind Pumping System. any windmill of 6 meter swept diameter

It appears could cost less

somewhat doubtful

or be more adaptable Windmill. ,, The water by a less

to home construction ladder

than the existing hand, could a jackshaft crank.

Thai Two-Biaded possibly

pump, on the other reciprocating pump if

be supplanted

expensive to reduce

were added in the pole-matcher One would also a vertical pole rather performance the following benefit (a, axis have to modify lying

the rpm of a pump driving so that it

the pole-matcher oscillating axis

would yaw around from the And the one or more of for aopted: wood blocks near the were cost-

in a vertically

pump rod offset

than around the vertical

of the pole itself. be improved if

of such a pumper would probably

changes were made, each change to be evaluated prototype tests to which before several could being extra

in model and full-size carve glued the blade so that

from a plank

a larger

angle of twist

be obtained

hub, tapering

to zero twist wood blocks"

at the blade to the'plank

tips. could blade. also It be-used is thought the selfit to aelfto that

b)

Those"extra s provide increased start start

glued for

a tapered

plan-form

the carved

chord and plan-form of this

near the hub could windmill, perhaps

improve

possibilities

allowing

in 5 to 6, knot winds. a jackshaft within the pole-matcher structure aloft by

(4

Provide which shaft belts.

as much as a 6:l might be achieved. A belt tightening eccentric

speed reduction Use simple device bushings could

from windshaft grooved easily pulleys

to jackand flat leather by using

be incorporated

weight-loaded

around the jackshaft.

38

(d)'

Provide aloft will should

slippery gear

teflon-filled

bushings

at all

four

bearings

in the These

(two for

the windshaft, items,

two for

the jackshaft).

have to be imported have very long life.

but they need not cost

much and they

(e)

Provide

a crank at the after the vertical

end of the jackshaft. oscillating motion

This

crank will

be used to impart pump rod. (f) At eight will shaft (g)

to a reciprocating

knots of wind, turn

the windshaft

in improved With a 6:l

low-friction reduction,

bearings the jack-

probably will turn

at about 160 rpm.

at 26.6 rpm, providing

.53.3 strokes

per minute. joint the entire

The upper end of the pump rod will worked aloft rod. wood. into the piece that attaches

have to have a swivel

to the pump rod so that the vertical axis

mechanism can yaw (rotate) That kind of a swivel Some slippery plastic point

about could

of the pump

be made from close-grained in it would crank help. arm


.

rubbing

surfaces

(h)

The "simple" distance, shaft, easily

model of this but the crank,

pumper would primarily that

have a fixed

a wood disc

keyed to the jackcan be changed

should using

be so constructed simple hand tools. or aloft must ride

the crank throw

(i)

The pole-matcher, the point which where it

structure,

has now been complicated

to

around in yaw on a pole-top the yaw axis bearing bearings

platform

overhangs

the pole so that itself.

can be slightly shoes of slippery

away from the pole plastic or wheels (rotatable) or polished could aioft

Sliding

wooden roller

(conical-radially platform

oriented)

be.used

between the pole-tip

and the yawable -,

structure.

39

(j)

The reciprocating and discharge two barrels, .concrete minimize be cast excellent glass-smooth

pump should valves

be a double hinged

acting type.

pump with

suction

df the leather with with wear, part its

The pump, probably could be cast in To could .

complete

valve enclosures, adequate a glazed steel fired

(ferro-cement) piston into packing

mesh reinforcement. tile cylinder The Thais liner

the'working

of the pump barrel. pottery should provide

make

pottery, surface

and glazed

a'n essentially

to the piston. or fired tile. piston The piston packing, in a twoor,

(k)

The piston packing

can be made of wood, concrete

can be the old-fashioned plastic piston

type of leather ring could

a modern slippery part piston,

be retained

thus increasing

time-between-repairs

and further

reducing (1) The piston adjustable

the friction rod should without

of the system. be of wood, and its a wearing piston length should load on be easily either the

throwing

eccentric end.

upper crank (m) The entire

pin end or the lower "concrete pump" should pole,

be fastened so that it

by brackets

to the inside

bottom bf the windmill a well liner while

offset

can be located of the well

the pole

is located

outside

liner. easily on

It should installation from which section lifted cm.

be possible

to raise

and lower

the pump rather of water

and in service it is pumping.

to match the level And there that should

in the well upper the

be a telescoping

to the pump'barrel water spill

can be slSd up and down to let being raised

out on the land without

an unnecessary

40

' (n)

It is assumed that into which cast

this

pumper will well liner

take a suction cylinders will ring

from a dug well be stacked. cast on them, with

concrete

Those liner adequate down into

cylinders

could

have an external that

reinforcement, those rings.

so located

the windmill

pole would slide

Thus, the dug well, entity,

pole and surrounding entity with

earth in itself

all

become a structural would be supported to the well windmill liner. achieve

and the pump as a structural hence located that positively this of 0.31,

from the pole, It

respect

has been estimated

simple

two-bladed

could

a coefficient ciency part-load

of performacne

and that

the pump could

have an effipump is that

as high as 0.70. efficiency analysis

One great

advantage

of a reciprocating

is as good as full of this of its that proposed

load efficiency. pumper is given at Don Muang. job in Appendix 3,

A detailed including

an estimate 3 suggests

performance this

Appendix of water designed

type of pumper would do an excellent Central Plain Region ----- it if analysis require

lifting

in the Chao Phya Delta in ---- a 5 knot proof of that

can be

to self-start

breeze.

The design will

assumed that a full-scale

it would start,'but test of'a prototype. 3 also crank

major assumption

Appendix would adjust actual

points throw,

out how a mechanism added to such a pumper that proportional windshaft) history either to the first or second power of in

jackshaft If

(therefore a complete find

rpm could

lead to enormous increases were available such a "loadlater.

pump delivery.

of windpump engineering attempts to fit

one would probably matcher" device

a quick

lead to earlier More will

to a windpumper.

be'said

about this

41

It native rings

is thought materials

that

this

entire

windpumping for

system could plastic available

be constructed bearings

of

in small

shops except

slippery

and piston

which would have to be imported. with an excellent

The timber

in Thailand as shown in

is of numerous varieties reference (6 ).

range of properties

In Table cially available

4 a summary is given of estimated and "new" wind pumpers for and the pessimistic report section at this wind

performance

of both commerworking 3 and 4, and use of in

the Don Muang region, regimes. Appendices

both the optimistic as well as subsequent it

7.3 add to the understanding point in the discussion

of Table 4: its results

is entered

because part 7.1

tend to summarize the above discussion

in Section

42

Table

4. A Summary of Wind Pumped Irrigation

Possibilities

at Don Muang.

Results

Given in Cubic Meters of Water Delivered in Six "Dry" Months at An Averaqe . Head of 1.5 Meters. All Axis Heights = 10 Meters. . Group A: Existing Wind Pumpers: . (a) a Lubing 712 dia. irrigation pumper: (b) an Aermotor 12'dia. pumper on 42' tower Existing Wind GroupJ: I_Pumpers Extrapolated to 6 Meter Pial:ieter: (4 (d
_-_ -_.--.-. --._-.____---m

Using "Optimistic" Velocity-Duration Curves 22,695 (a) m3

Using "Pessimistic" Velocity-Duration Curves . 16,977 m3 (a) 6,880 m3


-

6,880 m3

a "6M, Lubing" a "SM. Aermotor" An Improved

175,118

m3

124,530

m3

18,167 m3

18,167 m3

GIYYJp c:

(e) 6 Meter diameter Thai 2-bladed fixed throw reciprocator Group D: Proposed Variable Throw Reciprocators: (f) the improved Thai 6 m 2-bladed, variable throw 30-blade throw

69,442 m3

55,891 m3

--B-w

183,148

m3

(g) the proposed 6-m variable

----w

191,493

m3

(a)

Based on reported

Productivity

at Sara Buri.

7.2

A Proposed Small Diamter 7.1 it

Fan Mill

Wind Pumping System 6 m diameter This simple section twoexamines

In Section bladed

is assumed that might self-start self-start

an improved

Thai windmill

in a 5 kt breeze.

a pumper that

would certainly

in a 2 to 3 knot breeze. of seed-bed.drought drying quite at %he beginning out of rice easily piston beds at

It would appear that of the normal rice growing

the problems

season and premature season could type fan mill

the end of the normal rice small, improved American

be handled

by relatively pumps submerged of

pumpers working

in dug wells. cost it of a locally

The Royal Thai Government have already manufactured copy of the Aermotor "12 footer" The blades

made an estimate 12-focter

and have decided proposed. It

would be too expensive. with

A different 16 blades.

is therefore

would be a fan mill

would

be molded plywood, factories, grade and ')nd into C1 ,

made between matched concrete laminated glue.

molds in the existing timber,

Bangkok plywood with into exterior

from veneer cut from native

laminated twist

The molds would impart outward dictate.

a carefully'designed in the exact Each laminated

the blades
theory

they would be tapered wind tunnel proofing

shape which

available

blade would

be inserted

wood spoke and the spokes in turn would be brought The entire artisans ladders. The 12-foot shaft. diameter wheel would be a timber possessing the same skills (plus glue)

to an iron

banded wood hub. by native t . water

product, required

producible to build

and tools

fan would be mounted on a three-inch sleeves would be shrunk or bushings onto that

diameter wood shaft

wood and

Two bronze bearing preferably turn

they should slippery

in bearings

made of one of the materials. This

teflon-filled

permanent .no-wear plastic

bearing

44

- shaft should \

would turn provide all

at no more than 60 rpm, so the bronze-on-plastic long li'fe else at low friction. point Those plastic is indigenous bushings material.

bearings would have to

be imported:

up to this shaft

The fan and its matcher that: (a) Provision belts structure

and bearings to that

would be carried

in a wood poleWindmill except .

similar

of the Thai Two-Bladed

would be made for (indigenous),

a jackshaft,

wood pulleys

and flat 20 rpm.

leather (b)

to reduce jackshaft on a pole-top

rpm to about platform yawing

The pole-matcher could

would ride

ih such a way that around a vertical circle. pin

the mill

yaw around to match wind direction, pump rod that would stay at the center in a crank,

reciprocating (c)

of the yawing a metal

The jackshaft into

would terminate

probably

crank (i.e.,

fastened

a wood disc.

The crank

throw would The crank joint. All

be adjustable

the pump stroke

would be adjustable). a swivel highly

would move a pump rod of this close-grain could be wood,

whose upper end would include turned on the.lathe

as necessary,

polished

teak or

mahogany. A single this with . fields

The pump rod would extend topped off height.

downward along

the back of the pole. platform would carry

pole set in earth,

by a wood pole-top Guy ropes

machine at a 10 meter axis . wood deadeyes, would steady 1eading the pole.

on the pole, buried

set up t ight

to substantial

"deadmen" be about

in the rice long and have

The pole should

12 meters

a 20 to 30 cm small-end The pump could ing steel in it

diameter. concrete with a small amount of reinforcThat liner would

be made from cast

and a smooth plastic

pipe "cyli nder liner."

45

have to be imported. should

Or, it

might

be made of fired

glazed

pottery

clay. into off be

It

be a double-acting

pump and the valve

chambers would be "cast" that it is bracketed hole should

the pump housing. the lower

The pump should and its

be so configured depth into

end of the pole, Thus,

the suction

eas i ly adjustable. adjustabie. A leather ring

the length

of the pump rod must also be easily clay, could concrete be used, or cast bronze.

The pump piston packing

can be wood, fired variety

of the old-fashioned plastic" (imported)

but a square

of "slippery

would be better. adjacent to the concrete to this well or tile

The pole would be set into liners small of the dug well pump, could socket

the earth

from which a suction, Indeed, the cast

adequate concrete

relatively liners might have

be taken. for

a strong well

the bottom of the pole go together as a unit.

integrally

cast onto them so that

and pole all This small

"fan

mill"

type of wind pumper could somewhat better than that by itself

achieve

a coefficient two-bladed Self-startfor any

of performance propeller

of 0.34,

of a low-twist in 2 knot winds. characteristic

type mill,

and -it would start

ing in low wind speeds appears irrigation for this wlmumper

to be a very desirable service.

for Thailand

The coefficient of tip speed rate

of performance is given in

kind of wind machine as a function (4-l). That plot shows how this

Figure rotating relatively speeds.

kind of windmill requirements

attached

pump can be matched to the torque low.wind speeds and still

to a recip* of the pump at wind

be able'to

not run away at higher

As the wind speed increases,

the reciprocating

pump (whose stroke can nrt absorb the

and diameter

were matched to low wind speed capabilities) The partially

work which the wind wheel is producing. therefore, accelerates. The tangential

loaded wind wheel, wind wheel

speed of the accelerating

46

moves the tip

speed ratio

up rapidly speed ratio

until curve. falls

the wheel has gone down the back As the Cp falls which off, the work

slope of the Cp vs. tip

which the wind wheel can do again and the system comes to equilibrium greater fan mill than that corresponding curve

below that

the pump can absorb, speed not very much of'the in variable

at a new rotational to optimum Cp.

The steepness

characteristic simple

is the secret

of safe operation

winds of a rather reciprocating away is, what it

work unit,

the fixed-stroke

fixed-displacement

pump. that

This

same mechanism which grossly reduces

saves the pump from running the output of the pump from shaft

however, could

which

be if

there

were a load matcher

between the wind sheel

and the reciprocating 7.3

pump. Diameter Fan Mill Pumper System for Irrigation

A Proposed 6 Meter Purposes.

For the larger

irrigation

task, a 25 rai

that

of providing

enough water

during. of

the dry season to sustain 6 meter diameter blades,

second crop of rice, would have thirty spokes brought tapering

a "wood" fanmill laminated together

is proposed.

This mill all

plywood

each carried blades

in a wood spoke, would have twist outward

in a hub. of

The laminated

and taper,

from 0.9 feet (1.0 radius).

chord at 0.3 radius This fan mill will

to 3'.0 feet

of chord at the tip

want to ratate will

at 8.3 rpm in a 5 kt wind and at 25 rpm in drive a reciprocating shaft pump. spzed here, There is probably so no jackshaft

a 15 kt wind. no requirement will be fitted.

The fanmill for

a step-down

in windwhee!

47

This like just

larger

diameter

pump could

be fitted

with

a fixed

throw crank

much

the Aermotor, the two-bladed described that

pumper, or the 12-foot

wooden fan mill section for

above. And the estimates one such windpumper rice crop in the could

made back in the previous irrigate part a family

suggest

farm of 25 rai

a dry-season analysis rocating 7.4

richest

of the Thai Rice Bowl. Further fan mill windpumper during a recip-

of the proposed pump is given

6-meter in Appendix

diameter 4.

A Gross Analysis Phya Central

of the Wind Irrigation Region

Possibility

in the Chao-

Plains

In Figure extends into

(8)

one sees the proposed Sattaip at the south

Chao Phya Delta

Wind Line which

from abreast

up between Don Muang and Sara Buri thatline at an axis means,.the first height

Nakhon Sawan. The energetics above surface

of the wind along

of 10 meters of which

have been estimated of monthly

by several

has been a calculation stations,'

energy

in a specified

swept area

at each of three "Optimistic" Table 3,.and A first

Sattaip,

Don Muang and Nakhon Phanom, using Those results were given earlier (see following this line in page) be

velocity-duration are restated approximation

curves. here for of total

ease of reading: productivity along

can then

made by weighting: (a) For the 115 km between Sattaip (1.63 f 1.00 Y---------)(115) 2 (b) = 151. and&Don Muang, average =

For the 110 km between Don Muang and Nakhon Phanom, ave:-age = (1.00 + 0.60 2 )(llO) = 88 239

239 _ -1.06 x Don Mu&g Productivity. 225 -

48

*Table

5.

Month1.y Total

Energy in a 28.31 Square Meter Swept Area, Kilowatt Hours.

Wind

Speeds Between 2 kts and 17 kts, 10 m axis height Sattaip Nov Dee Jan Feb Mar Apr "Dry Season" Subtotal May June July Aw Sept Ott "Wet Season" Subtotal Annual Total -I Annual Energy Normalized Against Don Muang . 1077 KWH 1030 868 945 1251 1113 6284 KWH 1465 2552 2446 2120 1471 809 10,863 17,147 KWH KWH

Don Muang 46) KWH 895 423 T98 1234 1460 5271 .KWH 1073 1080 893 889 728 551 5214 KWH 10,485 KWH . '

Nakhon Sawan 236 KWH 276 368 705 955 899 3439 KWH 780 672 546 480 211 150 2839 KWH 6278 KWH .
.

1.63

1.00

0.60

49

(c)

Assume 6 meter pumpers are placed which total (~w) is 8.5 meters productivity center along

as closely

together

as possible

to center. the line 26.47 these

Then in the 225 Km distance,

would be: x 10' x Don Muang estimates of total.productivity

(Don Muang) =

(d)

Using Table 4, one obtains along the line -shift

now to DON MUANGPESSIMISTIC WIND REGIME:

TOTAL DELIVERY HEAD = 1,.5 METER. (1) For 6 meter Lubings: (26 . 47)(103)(1 . 245)(105)m3 =

3.295 x 10gm3, which during sustain rice culture

the 181 day dry season would = 1.085 x lo6 rai = 4.126 x lo5 acres

in 1.67 x lo5 hectares

(2)

For 6 m:=ter improved Thai self-start in 5 knot wind,

2-bladed

wind machines, reciprocating

capI ble of pump:

fixed-throw,

(26.47)(103)(5.589)(104) 181 day dry season would

= 1.479 x 10gm3, sustain rice culture

which dur ng the in 7.50 x 104 hectares = = 4.87 x lo5 rai 1.85 x lo5 acres capable throw of

(3)

For 6 meter self-start cranks

improved

Thai 2-bladed and fitted pumps: =

wind machines, with variable

in 5 knot wind, and reciprocating . 831)(105)m3

(26 . 47)(103)(1

4 . 84 x 10gm3 which during sustain rice culture in

the 181 day dry season would

2.45 x lo5 hectares = 1.59 x lo6 rai = 6.06 x lo5 acres

50

(4)

For 6-meter

proposed

30 blade

variable

throw

fan mills

and reciprocating (26 47)(103)(1


l .

pump: 915)(105)m3 = 5 055 x 10' m3 which


.

during

the 181 day dry season would sustain . = . = . From the results irrigation shown above, it is suggested rice region

rice

culture

in

2.56 x lo5 hectares 1.66 x lo6 rai 6.32 x lo5 acres that the potential during for windpumped season"

in the most fertile of careful

of Thailand The machines

the "dry

is huge and worthy and the three manufacture could

examination.

proposed to low-cost suggest

are small, in-country not only of

new machines using native

are thought

to be amenable The above results

materials.

that

the individual

farmers the Irrigation

use windpumpers System could

to advantage, be very fruitful

but integration indeed..

wind pumping into 7.5 Irrigation

by Wind Pumper in the Khon Kaen Region 3 an estimate Fixed-Throw, is made of the ability Windpumper with of an Improved.Thai pump, to irrigate at Khon Kaen that of 5 rai
l

In Appendix 2-Bladed for rice 6 Meter, culture family

reciprocating was told

during

the dry season. up in that

The author region

individual rather farmer

land holdings

were of the order Plains.

than the 25 or more rai .down in the Central could perhapS irrigate table for a double close

The individual region during using the which would there of the wind-

crop up in that

power if

the water

remains

enough to the surface into one dug well

dry season and if sustain

the land would drain withdrawal rate.

at a rate

the required

As stated

and referenced

earlier, all

has been proof

of existence

o f substantial

ground water

in almost

51

Northeastern salting

Region,

but wells'must therefore

bored quite

deep in many places cased.

to avoid

and they must also quite expensive.

be adequateiy

Such a bored well

is probably must probably Coupling in that Coupling

So, the use of windpower to flowing streams

in the Khon Kaen region or to dug wells. Irrigation Department .

be coupled

either

or rivers

the windpumping region might

concept.to

the work of the Royal

show the way to considerable to dug wells must have its to productivity considerable

dry season irrigation. feasibility demonstrated, as it and

windpumping

the demonstration windpumper. required, sions It

is as much tied is concluded that

of dug wells additional one could

is to the is

investigation

then considerable

demonstration, of windpumped

before irrigation

draw good conclu-

as to the feasibility 7.6 Irrigation

in the Khon Kaen region.

by Windpumping Along the possibility

the Banks of the Mekong River that windpumping into could be used to Region river, It .

Appendix move irrigation either or, for

5 examines water

out of the Mekong River

the Northeastern hydro works on that

in advance of construction

of the proposed after it

augmentati on of the hydro project that rather extensive irrigation

has been completed. be accomplished

is concluded

could

by windthat the rainy

pumping of the Mekong if water season, are built.

the required storage

delivery

and storage lifted

system for during

With adequate is high,

to hold water lifting

when the river

plus water one-third

during

the dry season, acres might be made

when the winds are most energetic, available for rice double-cropping terms, native

of a million

by such a system.

The machines

to be used to

are described in-country rise

in most simple using

but they are thought materials to a large (7).

to be amenable extent.

manufacture

Data for

and fall

of the river

were'taken

from Reference

52

-8.0

On the Generation and Central Referring.back Plain_-

of Electricity

by Windpower 3ver the Chao Phya Delta

to Section

specifically

to Figure

(8 ) and to generating Assume that 20 meter a cable . diameter

Table

3,

one can make an approximation along the proposed

of the electricity Wind Line. line such that

capability suspension

Chao Phya Delta all along that it

system were built could

wind generators spacing, with

be suspended along height

at 30 meter center The total

to center available at: in

averaqeaxis --..I -..-

at 40 meters.

energy

the wind to one such machine at Don Muang, per year, 2 g, 4D 0.48 (10,485 (-i-d) KWH) = (ll.ll)(l.94)(10,485) factor, and estimating available that

can be approximated

= 2.26 x IO5 KWH wind generators be i nstalled, capable the annual

Using the 1.06 weighting of extracting productivity

25% of the total

energy would

of such a system would be (0.25)(2.26 water and air x 105) KWH = 4.22 x lo8 KWH will produce 2000 lbs of anhydrous 52,750 by weight. ammonia sh.ort This would communithat

(225)i;03) 8,000 (short KWHwith tons).

So, such a system could which

be used to produce content

tons of ammonia per year, carry cation 395,029


.

is 82% nitrogen short

the nitrogen

equivalent

of 100,000

tons of urea.

A recent

from Dr. Riggs at USOM, Bangkok, tons of fertilizer were imported in-country

via Mr. Arnold into Thailand

of AID, reports last year,

and 23,191 raised

ton along

were manufactured that

at Mae Mok.

A three-tiered

windfence

225 km Chao Phya Delta ( 1973 1evel)

Wind Line would enable fertilizer.

Thailand

to become

self-sufficjent

in nitrogenous

53

9.6

On the Generation A first

of Electrictty

by Windpower Over the Gulf

of

Thailand

approximation .

has been made of the probable system placed

productivity

of a

windpower

electricity

generating

at sea in the Gulf of Thailand. swept area, axis height energy that of

The energetics 10 meters, available

of the wind for

in a 6 meter diameter Sattaip and for

were analyz in-the

Ko Samui. (TO).

The monthly

wind is plotted

in Figure as it

There is clear

evidence toward

the southwest Sattaip also during

monsoon intensifies the rainy as it (lo), season,

blows across

the open water that toward the northeast

and some evidence the open fetch

monsoon

intensifies

blows across

Ko Samui. From the in the Wind" value of wind generators as has

data in Figure been selected shown in Figure Table 6.

an assumed Yonthly below, for

Energy Available the proposed line

as tabulated (11).

Assumed Energy Available at 10 Meters

in the Wind, in a Band 6 Meters Along the Proposed

High,

Centered

above Surface, Gulf

Offshore

Wind Line, KWH@ 16 m Heiqht -Jan Feb . Mar Av May June 1200 1200 1300 1300 1500 2500

of Thailand. KWH@ 10 m Heiqht July Aw Sept Ott Nov Dee 2400 2200 1500 1300 1200 1100 = 18,700 KWH = = 5 = = = 1.45 1.80 2.08 2.32 2.54 10.19 .

Annual Total @ a-center height of 22m, Energy multiplier 34 46 58 70 m, m, m, m,

'

r-

*\

--.c \ d

,. ,*

f.., ---L

,-

I , . / /
f / , /

!,

\ \ ;

, \ 5 \ -

-. :/

-*..-, ,c / I

. \ \

__-- - -.

--. \

.__ -.- .-\ \ . . * \ 1.\7 t,

---_
i

. \\

-l,/: !! i

-.--L I

._

.-

! I

_---.

,.

_-;

_-.-

.- -_.-1

*\

Andoma.n Sea

--. . ..-, ., ? ,-. __I-_ b80 fgvj .:+:; Y ...'....A L INE \#

*I 1

-- ..-.--..

..-. . . . .-....,,., .* . - . .._--. , ,. ~.-.

...^. . ._.

1 L..--

-.

*. .-.

6. .. ,I ; I c. ll.1 ,Y. ,I. i , 1 ,*-I

.'

A PROPOSEDOFFSHOREWINDPOWER SYSTEM FOR THE THE GULF OF THAILAND. FIG. (11)

- .--

56

So, the energy surface would

in a band extending amount to: KWH)(10.19)(~*~4,6) . of length along

upward from 6m above surface

to 76m above

(18,700

= 2.426 x lo5 KWHfor that could line. be placed in that band'such would that be: 25% of

each 6 meters Assume that that available

wind generators energy could

be' extracted. =

The annual

yield

($8W)(2.426)(105)(.25) It can be concluded over the Gulf current total of Thailand demand for that

4.85 x 10' KWH is an excellent electricity


(8)

there

opportunity of the order

in he winds of the Kingdom's of Thailand even though and

to extract electricity. or typhoon winds.

The topography

of the Gulf ideal

the absence of hurricane the winds are not strong increase

winds makes the region to about

By going

100 meters

up in the air, Reference -. ( g)

a 50 percent discusses

in the amount estimated systems

above is probable.

offshore

windpower

in some detail. plus water plus air fed into 500,000 equivalent

4.85 x 10 KWHof electricity 'type of ammonia fertilizer ammonia fertilizer plant

an electrolysis tons of tons tons,

would produce

about

short

anhydrous

per year,

the nitrogen fertilizer a major

of 947,867 was 418,220

of urea per year. of which 395,029 Reference in future

The 1973 Thailand tons were imported, in'great detail

consumption drain

on the balance value of

of payments. fertilization

(10)discusses Asian

the probable

agriculture.

57

10.

Irrigation

Via Windpower in the Philippines analysis to a "Mean the author for three of the

Lack of time and lack of data have prevented a careful . A document similar windpower potential in the Philippines. . Percentage did receive 'different curves. are in all then that probably difference fields that of Surface three locations. Winds" was not available. frequency

In mid October charts

sets of monthly With time,

distribution

they can be reduced

to velocity-duration in the Philippines It would follow

It can be said that places

"by inspection," than those

the winds in Thailand.

more energetic

the same kinds be developed

of windpumpers

as proposed

for Thailand

could

and placed

in use in the Philippines. small

One major in the so

would probably

be required: should

wind pumpers located on poles hinged

in the Philippines it would be a relatively

be carried

at the ground

simple

task to disconnect

a pump drive were received each year.

rod and from

lay down the wind pumper whenever PAGASA. One must anticipate There is already it is being improved rice

high wind warnings

a number of such warnings irrigation The desire

an extensive constantly.

system in the Philippines, for assured water during than that driven

and the dry now pumpers could wells, be *

season so that felt in Thailand.

can be double-cropped Large numbers of petrol most or all

is even more acute fueled of that and electric fuel

are pt work in the Philippines: removed by use of windpower. pumped by large 10 kW size could The author daily year. diesel

requirement

A number of large were observed such large

bore deep irrigation in operation.

pumpers, for

Windpumpers of the

be designed did receive

applications. (11), for in which a

at Los Banos a copy of Reference mile" are recorded

"ave,rage wind speed" and a "fastest With time a complete set of stylized

each day of the could be

velocity-duration

curves

58

made from those dataalone, observations curves.

but a number of "typical" in deciding wind velocity

curves

based on hourly shape for those

would be very helpful set of 3-hourly

the proper

A complete

data taken at an instruof Agriculture excellent Weather monthly with effort. included (12), velocity-

ment height Station . duration time. .

of 5.67 meters

at the U.P. College

are in hand, and they could curves Further for that site, require or,

be used to obtain they could

be computer

analyzed

work will

time beyond the scope of this Wind Streamliners

present

The maps of "Prevailing in "Ciimatolqgy suggest Sea might through produce with that

Surface

and Isotachs

and Wind Related windpower

Problems

in the Philippines,"

Reference

systems aligned A line

along the NE to SW axis bisecting the Tablas

of the Sulu passing might competitive

be very productive. the Cuyo electricity Islands all

Strait,

the way down to Cagayan Sulu Island, to Panay, Mindoro or Luron at cost field

delivered electricity,

fossS1 generated

If the Sulu Sea oil any energy source

becomes a reality,

however, petroleum It

i't may be diffjcult based energy can bezoncluded, if

for

to compete against

in the Philippines. generally, that windpower against could be of great storms, irrigation of water. value and
l

to

the Phijippines

systems could be integrated those

be protected into

tropical

if wind pumping could projects, particularly

existing drainage

and planned as well

requiring

as supply

59

11.

The Ocean Thermal Enerqy'Possi The past five

Differences

Process,

Thailand

and Philippines:

A Major

bil i ty for years

the Future. but important renewal of interest difference from that be given

have seen a small which is called

in that process,

solar or,

energy

process

the ocean thermal resulting will

"ocean delta

Tee."

Much has been written more general references

renewed research: here (13), (14).

several.of:the

The Andaman Sea, sixty port of Kapoe, Thailand,

miles

to the west of the Kra peninsula, a site be found. in which a year-round

out of the

provides

temperature and cold water Burma plus Thai-

difference resource land could renewable

of 38" to 40F could in that

Both the hot water than India plus

area are huge, much larger to "use up," free

ever begin and its

so the process

would be absolutely problems. could Power plants out there,

practice electrical

from geopolitical to 400 m\Je size, by direct

of the 100 megawatt tied

be operated

tc the Thai Fainland. If electricity he a d.c. a distance If

either

current prod&t,

cable

or by gas or liquid umbilical would

pipeline. probably.best to Bangkok,

is the desired cable. almost fertilizer That cable

the energy

would come out of the sea, go translltission lir~ IWIII

as long as the planned is the desired pipe-line could

PaMong to Bangkok. probably liquor best

product, (hose line) be continued

the umbilical carrying across

be a pressure-balanced

would * ammonia

to Kapae.

At Kapoe the pipe line of the Gulf fertilizer

the peninsula,

then again

in the sandy bottom

of Tha i land, plants where,

on up the Chao Phya past perhaps, the ammonia

Bangkok to one or more central liquor tributed required would be convert.ed as a solid, to feed this

to ammonium nitrate other

which can be bagged and diswater and air are

Nothing process:

than electricity,

what is described

here is a completely

natural -

fertilizer

operation

which

expends no fossil

resources

and does not under

depend upon the willingness his control. Current power plants, estimates for place

of anyone else

to act or sell

a product

the capital

cost

of ocean thermal

differences near a plant percent would opera-

a regime where 38 to 40 F delta kilowatt. If capitalized a kilowatt for The plants

tee is available, easily state achieve at six

$800 U.S. per installed factor total of 93 percent. fixed charges,

should

by a sovereign

hour of electricity production of 8 mills probably charges plus

from such a plant for

cost at the plant tion

6 mills

no more than 2 mills

and maintenance, machinery

a total will fixed

($.008)

per KWH. The fertilizer $200 per kW capacity, for operation which

manufacturing

cost another plus 1 mill

would add 1.5 mills One could plant for

for

and maintenance.

thus have 8000 kWh of electricity a total cost of (8,000)($.0105) (0.936 metric content, tons) this

fed into = $84.00. of'a

an ammonia production For that which $84. U.S. one is 82% nitroequivalent ton of was at on a mission Mr. Benbo said with shipment

would receive gen.

2000 lbs

product

On the basis

of nitrogen

would be the nitrogen a metric

of 1.79 metric urea for $46.92 IRRI in August, concerning that urea,

tons of urea. U.S., or,

Where today can one purchase per kilogram?

4.7 cents

When the author was there that ton, ton.

1974 a Mr. Benbo of the United of urea fertilizer. It

Nations

the delivery

is thought

fob a U.S. port or Bangkok adding delivered, If

was up to $380 U.S. per metric $120 U.S. or more per metric

to Manila about urea, near future. certainly

He was talking ton in the should of nitrocommuni1374

at costs

as high as $500 to $875 per metric there manufacture

the author

heard those numbers correctly, emphasis given to in-country power plant energy.

be considerable

genous fertilizer

by ocean thermal

A more recent (November)

cation from Dr. Riggs at USOM'Bangkok says that

the current

price ton for

for

urea is $300. ammonium nitrate, given

(U.S.)

per metric

ton and $170.

(U.S.)

per metric

in Bangkok. here are brief and incomplete, required for but factually could representa-

The economics tive of what could Thailand

be accomplished. or the Philippines, easily

The hardware except

not be fabricated assembly, nationals

in either But,

perhaps

shipyard by trained

the plants country.

could

be operated

and maintained

gf either

The ocean delta almost trade-off anywhere along

tee resource her entire

off length,

the eastern is huge.

coast

. of the Philippines,

There is an obvious of deep cold water Co

between proximity

to the equator,

closeness

the beach and proximity have a strong could provide commitment all wa:,.

of market,

in selecting electricity desired

optimum sites. system:

The Philippines tee

to a national

ocean delta

of the generation The Philippines and double

and in a nicely commitment

geographically to accelerated use that

distributed of fertilizer, commitment.

have a strong cropping:

HYV rice

ocean delta

tee could

sustain

Along with a concurrent bed to chill rich

the nitrogenous phosphates.

fertilizer

required

by both countries

there

is .

need for

The cold water

brought

up from near the sea power plants system of the is

the condensers phosphoric

of the ocean thermal acid. It is possible water might

differences that lead for

in dissolved

a degassing

applied world's

to the spent largest

cold circulating bank, bottom

to the tapping the benefit of

phosphate

sea water,

humankind.

62

12,

Vertical

Axis Wind Machines --^ 'and Service

At the Plant Ministry is working

SeCtiOn, Agricultural
Thailand,

Engineering

Fi::fision,

of Agriculture on several

and Cooperative, different vertical within in putting

Mr. Metha RaQatapiti, for water that the Peasant Of mat pumping.

axis wind machines

There is a very keen interest . reaches farmer, metal, sails which Several t0 the King himself
Ratjatapiti's

the Royal Thai Government, the wind to work to help

machines were being constructed mat. will The great be able

from a combination the fibre

wood and fibre Or rotor surfaces

hope, of course , is that to do for a vertical salt sails centuries. axis

machine that
Pumpers.

they do for

the inexpensive w!?re using

but effective the flapping

works wind

of the designs indeed,

of the panemone, a very

old concept

or.t- which has worked for

In the Philippine;, vertical axis machines.

at ~RRI, I was also made aware of a keen interest Figure at IRRI. (12) and (13) are two photographs
The

in

of

in oilto pump
Pump to

drum machine existing water reach,

machine was at that was too low for its

time unable bucket-type

because the canal water

level

That machine user; a home-made gear drive made by welding a star . or spoked drive sprocket attached to the mjll's vertical axis and a large diameter
pump.

'gear'

of horizontal

axis

built

around

the

periphery

of

the

bucket

The strong Marshal feels

interest

in vertical

axis machines the


East-West

was reemphasized
Center in Honolulu.

by

Dr.
Merriam

F. Merriam that the


Vertical

when I reached axis

machine

is probably

the key to low-cost Edward Van Dusen,


axis machine a propeller can

windis
firmly a
I,

p.umpers. convinced coefficient

And back at home, One of my students, that he can demonstrate almost how a
verti&l as that

achieve
type.

of p'erformance

'as high

of

63

FIG. 12

A Two-Oil-Drunl Vertical Axis Wind Pumper at IRRI, Los Banos, Philippines

FIG. 13 Another View of the IRRI Two-CilDrum Vertical Axis Wind Pumper

64

personally, essentially

have a great a vertical type,

interest

in a cross-flow

type of wind generator, problem

axis machine, the cantilever with

because I can see the limiting beam blade forced to live

of the propeller stress field,

in a reversing machine.

disappearing the vertical

a properly

designed

cross-flow

Still, designs

axis machine has not been included report. One could say that

in the proposed come forward as to the

set forth

in this

they will

from others, competitiveness indigenous in the air purposes. the ground, height

anyhow.

But, there

is some genuine close-to-ground put their

reservation rotor

of the smaller,

machine made from machine as high for starting

materials.

The Thai farmers

2-bladed

as they could and still

be able to reach the blade in wind velocity

There is a severe degradation

as one approaches the greatest from ground

coming down in increment s from 8 meters, by the typical Thai 2-bladed machine.

for example, (2 meters

reached

to low tip, highest 0.35. oil tip). It

5 meters

from ground

to machine axis,

8 meters from ground to to achieve a Cp of of the


S

That 2-bladed

propeller that

can be modified

is problematical

the kinds of vertical a Cp of 0.20.

axis machines there

drum, etc.,

type ever achieve

Indeed,

were report

by other

investigators

at Sherbrooke,

Quebec, in May, 1974, in which verti cal Cp's of the 0.15 to 0.18

axis machines of the rotor range. Assuming that a Cp of 0.15, of swept area, a vertical

type were deliverying

axis

machine of the "cheap sail" edge can be 2m above ground,

type can achieve then the amount

and that

the lower

to do the same work that

can be done by the Thai 2-bladed

of 28.31 square meter swept area and C = 0.35 will have to be 2.33 times as P much = 66.06 square meters if it were in the same wind field as that which the 2-bladed sees sweeping between 2 and 8 meters above ground. If the axis

height features

is limited

to the 2-bladed's

5 meters, can't

SO

that

pole and other

structural machine

are comparable biiilt

(and they really

be, because the rotor of the rotor

is not usually

around a pole), That is rather

the diameter large,

would be But, the

66.06 + 3'= 22 meters. aspect height will ratio

but not impossible.

of 22 + 3 = 7.33 is probably machine is allowed

not the most favorable.

If the

of the-rotor reduce:

to go above 5 meters,

the diameter .

rotor

height 3m 5 7 B

rotor

diameter 22 m 13 in 9.4 m 8.25 m

The last propeller from that however, profile profile

machine wiJ1 see a wind field

comparable

to that

felt

by the

machine and the overturning on the 2-bladed a real difference

moment on it

is not much different There is, a 30 cm x 8 meter

machine under normal between a device device which

operations. presents

which

to the wind and another to the wind, a straw-mat potential. larger

presents All

an 8.25 m x 8 meter in all, one must

when the wind starts rotor much larger

to blow.

wonder if survival is mkh

than one or two oil attractive

drums has much herein

And the smallest

wind pumper lcalculated

than one or two oil

drums.

66

13.'

Conclusions I. Thailand A. There are several the y ield situations in which windpumped water 1 operation in Thailand: could alleviate which could

improve 1.

of agricultura

Smell windpumpers

pumping from dug wells and. the end-of-season

the start-of-season reduce 2. rice yields

random droughts rice canals culture.

in the traditional

one-crop

Larger

windpumpers Plain

pumping from irrigation could improve

and ditches such occur.

in the Central that B. rapid

Dry Season irrigation rice culture could

expansion and larger

of double-cropped windpumpers

Both small

can probably materials. farmers their should

be constructed The small if wind-

in-country

essentially

from indigenous

pumper can probably have wells or other

be owned by individual sources on or alongside windpumpers Department dry-season

such farmers to

land adequate probably best be their

feed the pumpers. The larger located by the koyal Irrigation for

+n harmony with

improvements better-be C. Larger

in systems

irrigation,

and may therefore authority. could accelerate '

owned by collectives windpumpers of irrigation

or governmental

pumping from the Mekong River of the large irrigation portions diverted

the process

of the Northeastern by the PaMong is now planned. or existing cculd accelerate in the

Region whose ultimate project D. and subsequent

by water

works of the Mekong Project pump'ing from dug wells from deep bore holes, , upland radiating crops outward

Small or large

windpumpers

streams,

or in some instances

the double-cropping central part

of vegetables

and fruit

of the North-East,

from Khan Kaen.

67

E. Gulf city F. Gulf

Electricity of Thailand

generated could

by windpower

systems placed the supply

out in the of electri-

economically

increase area.

to the Bangkok metropolitan Electricity of Thailand generated could

by windpower

systems placed

out in the of nitro-

economically

take over the supply .

genous fertilizer. G. Electricity generated by the ocean thermal

differences

process sending

out in the Andaman Sea to the West of the Kra Peninsula, electricity overhead sustain area, d.c. all ashore dable via on-sea-bed could deliver d.c. cable thence

to Bangkok via adequate to

economic energy

of the electricity for canal

demands of the Bangkok metropolitan and ditch that irrigation will pumping and the be required to sustain

electricity fertilizer

nitrogenous maximum H.
hubl~

manufacture in Thailand for

cropping required

in future. windpower

The hardware

any of the above suggested probably further

.systems setting tion

needs to be developed, first, then developed

in a U.S. R & D laboratory in-country by perhaps a combina-' Dept. of

of AIT and the Division Technolog;:,

of Agricultural of Agriculture

Engineering,

Agricultural .

Ministry

and Cooperative,

Royal Thai Government. required for any of the windpower systems could be manufactured

The hardware in Thailand. I. .

The hardware differences

required plants

for

the tertilizer

plants

or for

the ocean

thermal

would be developed in that field.

in the U.S. incident Most of that hardware but to

to the current

national

effort

would have to be.manufafctured there is some opportunity

in more industrialized

countries,

for Thai industry

to expand adequately

68

produce some of that J.

hardware. farmer would profit from, eat

Whether or not the indi,vidual or have an easier life if

better

any of the suggested

changes by a

were implemented, techno ogist. nology might would 'round It simply

is a ques?ion

which can not be answered adoption

is possibl e that

of any ef the techin which peasant all farmers year

lead to circumstances

reduce more than they now produce, instead of relaxing individual the nation hardly during material as-a-whole help

work harder

the dry season, well-being

but not really On the of improved

improve their other hand,

at all.

and the hungry

population

the World could agricultural II., The ..-__- Philippines A. Analysis

but profit in Thailand.

from any system which

productivity

from which conclusions has been megzrIt is thought,

might

be drawn relating that

to Windpower to the study Thailand will

and the Philippines Thailand situation.

compared with however, that

devoted

additional above for

show the same kind of conclusions except 1. that: The windpower resource

as those listed

available available

in much of the Philippines i n Thailand.

is

more energetic 2. that

than that

Most any Philippine windwheels could

wind system would have to be so configured be hinclcd or 1owered down to the ground arrival. in cottage-industry manufacture government in urban to in

advance of tropical 3.

windstorm

There is no interest of windpumper

in the Philippines systems: the'ir with

manufacture factory

settings

and distribution

subsidy

69

farmers 4.

would be favored. real need in the Philippines could for large-

There is a possible drainage projects

scale 5.

in which windpumping of electricity to villages

be of value.

The distribution is much farther

and farms via central than in Thailand, more incorporation .

systems
.

advanced in the Philippines direction plus might emphasize

and the momentum in that af wind generated mechanical 6. water electricity

electrical

pumping than direct

pumping by windpower. differences resource available along the

The ocean thermal east coast

extensive

of the Philippines the richest

is enormous and very close natural resource readily so strong industry, available to

to hand, and is probably that into country. the central and into shoulders

Ocean thermal electricity their

power plants network

could

be integrated in that lifting from

thinking

country, their

expanding

fertilizer

the yoke of dependence

upon foreign

petroleum

. resources.

70

14.

Reconnnendations I. Thailand A. their Enlist ' the support excellent of the Royal Thai Government system for wind measurements curves in expansion so that very of

current

accurate

monthly

velocity-duration

can be prepared

for areas

of interest. B. Initiate the development of 4-meter diameter 2-bladed and 6-meter diameter

wind machines proposed C.

of both the improved Thai type.

type and of the

wooden fan miil

Initiate

the development

of variable-throw

crank

mechanisms

for windpumpers. 0. Initiate development materials. with the dooperation of the Mekong Committee could benefits accelerate a study of reciprocating pumps constructed of

indigenous E. Initiate

of how windpumped Mekong water than duplicate F. the irrigation

and augment rather by that cgmmittec.

now planned

Initiate with the Thai Royal Irrigation . how wind pumpers could best be incorporated long term plans Plains. G. 1nitiat.e with the Electricity Generating to improve dry-season

Dcp:lrtlllcnt into their'

a study of currorlt clnll

irrigation

in the Central

Authority

of Thailand, or both, in by

or with a study electricity energy Ii .

the Energy Authority of how Thailand generation, systems that with

of the Royal Thai Government, desired growth

could meet her future particularly

in the Bangkok region,

consume no fuel. AIT and the Thai Ministry development program of Agriculture that and

Organize

Cooperative

a windpower

would move prototypes

71

from a U. S. Laboratory the local manufacturing I the irrigation canals, out in the Gulf

to an AIT open-field economy and into

test

site,

thence

into

use in the Fields, and, perhaps,

along afloat

along the Mekong River,

of Thailand.

72

II.

The Philippines A. Enlist the support reduction into of PAGASA in the collection accurate velocity-duration of additional curves for winddata the various

and their localities generation B. Initiate

and wind regimes could

in which windpowered

pumping or electricity

be of interest. of 4-meter diameter and 6-mete;- diameter wind wooden

the development

machines of both the improved


.

Thai 2-bladed of variable-throw

type and of the proposed

fan mill C.

'type. the development crank mechanisms for wind-

Initiate

pumpers. 0. Initiate development of reciprocating pumps constructed of indigenous materials. E. Initiate with could the Philippines Irrigation into Department their current a study of how

windpumpers

best be incorporated two-season the Central irrigation Electricity either

and long-term

plans to improve F. Initiate with

and drainage Generating

in the country. Board of the Philior ocean

ppines thermal

a study

of what role generated

wind generated could

electricity play

differences

electricity

in the expansion

of the supply G. Initiate

of electricity with

to the Philippines; ministry of the Government differences of fertilizer to the a of the

the appropriate

Philippines process could

a study of what role play

the ocean thermal of the supply

in the expansion

Philippines H. Organize

and an accompanying with

reduction

in petroleum

consumption. and IRRI, out of a and

SEARCA, the University program that field

of the Philippines

a windpower

development

would move prototypes tests

U. S. laboratory thence into

to appropriate manufacture

in the Philippines

quantity

and installation;

73

15.

References "Royal (1)R.I.D.,


(2)

Irrigation Department," Royal Thai Government,

September 28. 1970, a pamphlet Bangkok, Thai'and.

of the A Report 1968,

"FAO/UNDP Survey Mission for the Chao Phya Delta, Thailand," to the United Nations Development Programme, Rome, 30 April WS/74283.

(3)

"Groun4 Water Resources Development of Northeastern Thailand," 1966, by Howard F. Haworth,, Pongpan Na Chiangmai and Charoen Phianchaiwen. Ground Water Bullqtin No. 2, Ground Water Division, Department of Mineral Resources, Ministry of National Development, Thailand. "Lift Irrigation for Rice Production," by Jose Samual, Godofredo Salazar, Vergilio Cueno, internal publication of the Agricultural Engineering Department, The International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines. "To Tame a Rivr-r," 1968, U.S. Government 1968-O-296-181, dashington, D.C. "A Short Tonanon, Ministry Printing Office Publication

(4)

(5)
(6)

Introduction for Some Common Timbers of Thailand," by Narong Forest Products Research Division, Royal Forest Department, of Agriculture and Cooperative, Bangkok, 1974.

(7)

"Lower Mekong Hydrologic Yearbook," 1972, Volume 1, Office of the Executive Agent of the Committee for Coordination of Investigations of the Committee for Coordination of Investigations of the Lower Mekong Basin, c/o. ECAFE, Sala Santitham, Bangkok 2, Thailand. "Thailand Electric Power Study, December 1966," Power Study Teams , under Contract to AID-USOM. by Thailand Electric

(8)

"Pollution-Free (9)Preprints 8th Society,

Energy from Offshore Winds," by Wm. E. Heronemus, Annual Conference and Exposition, Marine Technology September 1972, Washington, 0. C.

"Symposium Fertilizer (10) - Asianon Productivity 1971 "1971-2Surface (11) Vol. Station," of Agriculture,
112)

Economy-Proceedings and Report of the Survey," Organization APO Secretariat, AYOYAMADA1 ICHI MANSIONS, 4-4 Akasaka 8 - Chome Minato-Ku-Tokyo, 107 Japan. Meteorological Observations at the College Weather XIII & XIV, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, College University, of the Philippines.

"Climatology and Wind Related Problems in the Philippines" by Roman I. Kintanar, 1973, published at the.International Workshop on Development of Design Criteria and Methodology for Low-Rise Low-Cost Buildings to Better Resist Extreme Winds, Nov. 1973, N.S.D.B., Herran, Manila, Philippines..

74

(13)

Wm. E. Heronemus, Oceanus, "Using Two Renewables," Summer 1974, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts, pages 20-27.

Vol. XVII, Woods Hole,

(14)

"Ocean Thermal Difference Power Plant Design," by J. G. McGowan W. E. Heronemus, J. W. Connell and P. D. Cloutier, June 1973, published as ASME conference paper.

- ;- -I--L-L..-- .-SW em L .-- 1 -1-L-4

I
- I
I L--

-Le. --be --lo+

s. .

. . l-l

Appc@ix 1: .

Honthly Velocity-Duratbn Content Calculation

Curves, Nakhon Sawan,

Plus Energy

Sheets, Showing Energy in a 6-Heter


Height.

Diameter Swept Area at 10 Heter Axis

---

I I e ,

. I _ _A__ f . - -I----,

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I . _. . ._. -.---.----L --..---, e-.-v.. * _-._-.

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a-

i.

. ..-*-A

2-1

Appendix

2:

Monthly

Velocity-Duration A Simplistic

Curves,

Don Muang, Optimistic

Pessimistic

Curve

Shape versus

But Perhaps

Curve Shape.

I <---~..-2+----.-.-1_.----------I- I~ I~-.---.~----. ,-1.-A-,-----. _]-72Q, ;:.: __._--. --.I! -.i-. A*< -- .--. -- , .--il-.I 1 ,I _-- -_. !I, / ;
1 ---i A I --. .1-4 I --

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I I . 1 -. ; -

I .-*.._

I_! d/

i
* _. _, ! i , !

i_

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-.-.

._

3-1

Appendix

3:

Analysis . Windmill (A)

of an Improved Driving,

6 Meter Diameter

Two-Bladed

Thai

A Variable-Throw Large Barrel

Crank Thence a Reciprocating

Pu-~p of

Diameter

(B)

A Fixed-ihrow Moderate

Crank Thence a Reciprocating Diameter

Pump of

to Small Barrel

. ig;,

3-2

The 6m Z-Bladed

"Thai"

Windpumper 2-bladed propeller driving a


reciprocating pump.

. 1.

Look at the one-plank C = 0.31;+ P = 6.0, 0

and swept area - 28.31 m2 = 304.5 ft*. = &(6.0)

(1) V0
kts 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 2.
.

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)
Q
ft lbs 170.5 124.8 94.4 67.0 54.8 30.4 15.2 6.1

(6)

(7) . rev -s7?c

(8)

(9)
Permissible Crank Arm Length 0.372 0.282 0.200 0.163 0.091 0.045 0.018 .

ills

-I

V0 mph
19.58 17.25 14.95 12.65 10.35 8.05 5.75 3.45 1.92

Q
ft lb ft2 0.56 0.41 0.31 0.22 0.18 0.10 0.05 0.02

rad/sec

Power f;e;bs/kW 3014/4.10 1947/2.64 1276/1.73 766/1.04 513/0.70 221iO.30 79/0.11 19/0.03

8.84 7.80 6.76 5.72 4.68 3.64 2.60 1.56 0.52

17.68 15.60 13.52 11.44 9.36 7.28 5.20 3.12 1.04

2.81 2.48 2.15 1.82 1.43 1.16 0.83 0.50 0.16

Rate the total


. .

machine @ V. = 15kts:
I

Max 1 = 124.8 lb ft P = 1947 qt lbs set a one meter head, H = 3.28'. Assume overall pump

3.

Assume pump works against efficiency (0 . 70)(o-47 = 0.70 ft lbs) set

= 3 . 28 [415 31 set hour.

= water

lifted

per second =

677 cubic

meters.per

3-3 rev 2.48set l.S2YstrZG

4.

415 -- lbs -.-see 415 lbs set

means that

the lbs lifted

p-er --. - stroke

'

' 335 lbs stroke = downward on the pump wi'l be 335 lbs. And the arm may

So, the maximum force maximum Q available be 5.

is 124.8

lb ft.

...

The maximum crank

124.8 = 0.372 feet 335 = (2)(0.372)

= 4.47 inches. = 0.744', and moving a volume of area = $-& . = 7.217 ft*

With a stroke 335 lbs 62.4 Ibs ft3

= 5.37 ft3 -

per stroke,

I need a piston

r2 = 2.2974 3.2 feet 6. diameter. -

r = 1.515 ft

--

We need a pump barrel

1.6 feet

radius

415 3600 --- lbs X -.2.206 set When v. = 15 permissible

= 677,243 hr complete

kg

677 cubic = --v-

meters

7.

cojumn (9): = Available 335 lbs orlgpiston

crank arm length

8.

So,if with

I build a 3.'2 foot

a 6 meter dia. dia.

"improved"

2-Blade

Thai Windmill, acting,

fitted

reciprocating

pump, double will adjust

and can provide to a fmction

a --variable

crank -- throw

mechanism that

the crank

of wind speed, *total

I can achieve

the following = 0.70:

pumping rates

at 1.5 meter

head, and at pump efficiency

3 -4

Power Available From Wind Shaft

Pumping Power

Permissible Crank Arm Length -

Water Delivery Cubic meters/hour 1.5 m&r 18 51 123 177 295 451 in the Don'Muang diameter barrel, head

kts 5 7 9 11 . '13 '15 It will wind. 79 ft 221 513 766 1276 1947 be shown that this lbs per set
55

ft lbs set

0:045 0:091 0:163 ol200 Of282 oI372

155 372 536 893 1363

pumping system is very productive some backing and a lower axis

It would appear that stroke,

away from the 2.3 foot height could

a somewhat longer would still

be injected, cost.

and one

have an atlcquately

productive

system at lower

3- 5
9. The Fixed Throw Reciprocating Now take a different and that fixed it drives Select approach. Pump Assume the 6m Z-bladed length which oscillates for has a6, a piston = 3". pump of

a crank of fixed a design Q available point

size.

at v. = 7 kts, lbs

instance: I .

@ = 7 kts, v.
.

= 30.4 ft

= 7.28, Power = 221 e


overall pump efficiency = (3.28)[47 = 0.70, g]

= 0.30 kW
H = 31.28.

(9.70)(221) =I.16
.

= wate;e;ifted

rev = 2.32 strokes set set lifted per stroke = ,sec

water lbs

47 lbs X

set 2.32 strokes

= 20.25 he

30.4 Fe-.- ft
.

20.25 Jbs

would allow

me to have a crank stroke

arm of 1.50 feet!

With a crank arm of 1.50 feet, 20.25 lbs/ft3 lbs --62.4 r2 = 0.034' $;F;@-) (~~3,)
3GOO

= 3.00 ft

0.324 ft3
r = 0.185 ft

0.325 ft3 3.00 ft


= 2.22 inches

= 0.108

ft2

76. 7 cubic = 76,700 !s = -----_-hr hr

dia 4.44 inches! .-_-- =_ __._. --- - - -m~tyrr; -._

What Qill

happen to this required

pump when Vo increases and pump will

beyond 7 kts?

Q available

wi 11 exceed that speed ratio will

speed up -- as it fall off, until

speeds up, tip

go beyond 6, Cp will is again equal Ideal

speed is such that

power available Assuti should

to power dissipated. power would move to 513 fF,!.bs, J&b g. and mill 9 Pump

V. moves to 9.kts. come to steady state

@ 7.49

strokes B 1.49 rev = 2.98 -set set '

3-6

will

move

20.25 lbs)(2.98 Stroke .

strokes) set = 197.9 ft

= 60.345 lbs set lbs/sec per set to about 513 ft lbs sec.

.(60.345)(3.28) Pump will 513 38 . v

speed up attempting = 156 = (20.25) = (Kg-)

to make enough strokes

n = 7.72 strokes/set

= 15.44 z

97.07 rad set Rr 291~ 9--kts = 4.68


62 .

- f = 291 but cp will so n will

have reached certainly

0.05 @ EC s g-5 g high-in fact will the


hew cp

not go that

will

be

(j$-$9-)(0.3.1) . . . =

= OL12 which means -t

reach 9.0. ,

= 2.23 rps this pump will produce (20.25 lbs)(4.46 strokes) ------set stroke = 90.3 lbs set new tip speed

@ 2.23'rps,

Let v, ratio will

11 kts, be 9.2

New cp will

have to be (~-$$)(0.31)

= 0.80 --

= 2.29 rps. would


.

and productivity
Let

be 92.32 pe$
J

V.

15 kts:

new,cp = ('%7?)(0.31)

= 0.03 --

nek,,ix=
0

9.6,

32.39

rps +

3-7 Productivity = 97 lbs set

+ I ; _
---

. I +.

., !--.

,-i

i..
I

.
.

._--.-i _-- . --t 1b

--t I I

i r , I t

t -. -f .___.._.. f-.+---~~

--.- j

.-....t-

_--4

.-

-.

.-

..

---t-----

..J.

.
L

._

-I

----me

..-

i
/

. 1

What happens at wind speeds less

than 7 kts?

Pump is stalled!

10.

Bring

this

design

way back -allow

to say, a pumper rated it ft to.start

at V, = 3 kts --.

assuming that Q = 6.1 lb ft

blade will

in a 3 kt breeze = 3.12 $j

and power = fislE

h = 3': 28

(0.70)(N) 3.28 @ 0.50 z weight

_ --- 4.05 lbs set = 1 stroke set = 4.05 lbs

per stroke

6.1 lb _-----..-._ ft. 4.05 Ibs 4.05 ibs g2x-,T,w

permits

a crank

arm of 1.506 A = 0.0216

feet ft2

= 3.00 ft '=i-I r2

stroke

= .0.0649 ft 3

r2 = 0.00688

r: = 0.08'

.i,

3-8 For a machine rated at 3 kts

"0

new C P 0.31 .074 .027 .Oll .007

,-

new v 6.0 9.1 9.5 9.6 9.8 9.8 9.9

new sl 3.12 7.&9 31.52 14.98 18.49 22.08

new . w 0.50 1.26 1.84 2.38 2.94 3.51

strokes --?zF1,o 2.52 3.67 4.77 5.88 7.02

Productivity lbs/sec 4.05 10.2 14.9 19.3 23.8 28.4 . 33.1

m3/hr

3 5 - (N/79) 7 9 11 73 15

6.6 16.6 '24.3 31.5 38.8 ' 46.3 54.0 even .

(N/221) (19/513) (19/766) (19/1276)

But this though I $ould it

pump ~411 probably has been rated like at'3

not cut-in

until

wind speed is 5 knots, With this

knot wind speed. yieldat

kind of a pumper, example

to assess the monthly

Khan Kaen, for

I --

. 1 . 1

..\ ., 5 c

-,

c -2.. -t.

I.

I d
L.

-. ,;. I i ).

-i l-l!
l ? i 1

: 2 __at
-.c-

Ii

35

i :

3
i

7 _

.-

.-

-i

I *. i . .. . /I !

3-12

Summary of predicted Rump, 1Om axis height

performance

of the 6m, Z-blade,

3" o, 5KT, Reciprocating

(h Khon Kaen: a t?ead of one meter: *

Water pumped against Nov. . Dec.

7465. 6839

Usual
38,404 33,404 (-m-j-(m) cubic meters . = 1.95 hectares 12.65 rai

Jan.
Feb. Mar. Apr. May

6196 ,_ 181 = 5222 day 6209 'dry season" 6473 1 6956 7662 1 8049 '* 7309 4411 ! \ 6573 ) .pumper during to 3 meters, only -- but it l/2 usual 185 "Rainy Season"

June July Aug.


Sept . Oct. For this lmeter

the dry season: i.e.,

If

the water

table

were to vary from be able

tiead = 2 meter average, rai = 6,325 rai.

the pumper would So, this

to irrigate marginal

of the 12.65 is certainly performance Stoddard,

pumper may be

the most simple characteristics a doctoral

and least of this

expensive. machine were using a strip Those very

The predicted calculated theory

two-bladed at U.Mass.,

by Forrest

candidate

developed

and programmed by him for are given blade, in Figure

the UMass Computer System. They show that plank, inability paddle could this

characteristics simple . effective windmill

3.1 and 3.2. thin

carved

from one rather

be quite

when running. problem could

Its major drawback is its


be solved by using additional

to self-start. blades, a la Lubing,

If that
and if priced

the variable hardware item,

throw crank mechanism can be developed the two-bladcd irrigation mill device. driving

as a reasonably pump would

a reciprocating

be a very cost

effective

.3-13

Cp vs.- tip

speed ratio pitch design chord, 3",

for

various

constant

values

of root P-bladed
0

= 10 MPH untwisted go, ll", blades 15'

constant
BO

= 3, 5',

Forrest

Stoddard 10-74

Locus of Cp max

10

TIP SPEED RATIO Fig. 3-l

sThrust and root bending moment-vs. tip sFeed- ratio for

'3-14

windspeed 2-bladed

= 10 iilPH Thai windmill

3Mft-.lb.
Thru lb 120 bending thrust moment

Cp max

80

-k' 60

bending moment 4 blades


.

40

20 Forrest Stoddard 10-74


I 1 I I I I I I I L I I I I I I I I I t

10

TIP SPEED RATIO-

Fig.

3-2

4-1

Appendix

4:

Analysis

of Wood Construction Pumps

'Fan Mill

Irrfgation

Pumpers

Using Reciprocating 1. From the analyses American cities difficult bladed built Fan Mill of the winds

in Thailand one that could

it

appears

that

a carefully

designed

type of windmill, three knots,

would respond be a good design.

to winds of veloIt will Thai 2.could be be .

as low as two,or

to compete against windpumper, of wood. but it

the very low cost of an improved is thought certainly that an excellent

fan mill

The fan mill

has a much better 2-Biaded water mil


i

chance of being

1.
2.

self-starting

than does an improved

p so the competition go to a more

when based on cost per unit expensive ['he analysis the torque fan mill starts availah!;; with

of delivered productivity

might

greater

in low speed winds. Stoddard who calculated the predicted all as functions of Table (4.1) .

from the work till Forrest 'In foot PO&S per unit

of swept area, power, portion

speed of rotation

and C~HJSthe expected \I,. Those data are given point

wind shaft in the left and historical in Fig.

I
7 J.

of wind speed, which follows.

The assumed design for fan mills

and calculated

characteristics

are given fan mill

(4-l).

Rate the 6 meter variable

throw

pump at 15 knots. = feet), 792 lb ft with the

The Maximum Torque available pump working pump efficiency (0.70)(2060 against

= (Z-65(299)

a 1.5 meter head (4.875

and at an assumed

.of 70%, fielbs) = (4.875 be lifted feet) [296 li:j meters of water

SO, 296
per hour.

lbs of water will

per second = 483 cubic

[296 lbs]. !iiGiii The Q available

[, set 0.,828 stroke

357 lbs stroke Therefore, a rrsr,l throw 1of $$ =

at 15 kts = 792 lb ft.

Table

(4.1)
(6)

Rev per Set

lind(<iafti Power

Crank($!row :for Maximum Productivity

lelivery tn=70% m3/hr. 0.7 4.7 19 51 io4 187 315 483 734

(9)

Win!'$af* Power fSt,;bS/KW 1.69/.002 13.45/.011 54/.07 144/.20 295/0.40 532/0.72 895/1.22 '1371/1.86 2084/2.83

02)

Craiklihrow, for Maximum Productivity . T.O6'=2cm 0!16 =5cm 0:39=12cm 0:75=23cm lIl9=36cm lI75=53cm 2150=75cm 3132=lOlcm 4:44=135cm

Delivery at n=70% m3/hr. 0.4 3.1 12.6 34 69 124 209 321 487

(13) n/Rev per Set 0.25/.042 0.78/0.12 1.30/0.207 1.81/0.29 2.34/0,37 2.86/0.45 3.3&I/0.54 3.90/0.62 4.42,'0.70

1 3 5 7 9 11

0.52

1.92

'0.05 0.13 0.31 0.60

0.17 0.52 0.87 1.21 1.56 1.91

.028 ,083 .138 .193 .248 .303

3/.003 20/.03 81/.11 217/0.30 443/0.60' 799/l.Oi 1345/l.?? 2060/2.iC 3131/4.25

:0.04'=1.27cm iO.ll'-3.3lcm ;0.26'=7.9lcm ':0.50'=15.32cm ;0.80'=24.25cm 1.17'=35.73cm 1.68'=51.05cm 2.21'=67.64cm 2.97'=90.62cm

1.56 3.45 2.60 5.'75 3.64 8.05 4.68 5.72

10.35 0.95 12.65 1.40 14.95 2.00

T3 ,6.76

2.25 .359 2.6C .414 2.95 .46!3

For a 6m Diameter: tip speed ratio=l.O

'or a 6--eter Diameter Fan, 10 bf ades, variable throw, t 1.5 rEc.er total head

For a 4-meter Diameter Fan, 16 blades, variable throw, at 1.5 meter total head, tip speed ratio = 1.0.

4- 3

2.21 feet

could

be used.

.And one pump stroke.would feet per stroke. net cross and allowing

be 4.42

feet

long.

357 1bs per stroke I 5.72 it3 4.42 ft piston. . piston =

= 5.72 cubic

1.294 = the required piston,

sectional for

area of the rod, a

Assuming a circular radius of 8.li inches

the piston .

= 20.6 cm. first approximation, efficiency, = 135 cm 42 cm = 162 kg

So, the pump can be described, reciprocating a) b) c) pump of 70 percent stroke =

as a double

acting

overall

effective

= 4.42 feet

bore diameter

weight of water over piston at start of upward stroke pump from stalling, so that

4.

To keep this

as the wind speed reduces, the available torcjue equals times

the crank weight

arm of Is (8) .

must be made smaller water over piston

a full

at start variable

of upward stroke throw" out frop

the crank

throiti.

This Colurm

the essence in Table

of "the

or varying

crank arm concept.

(4.1) is now filled

the expression: = (0.8375)((4)). as described of 4.7 cubic culture above would meters be pumping which When the of

Column (8) = ~2gg~~;;1um~) 5. The 30 blade water if 6 meter dia. fan mill at the rate for rice

in a 3 knot breeze would provide productivities pump stroke rises

per hour,

sustained

on 6.7 rai

of land.

much greater by increasing could

at higher

wind speeds are taken

advantage that

as the wind freshens, dramatically. device that

the number of rai

be irrigated

The key to that can be built cost. It

augmentation

lies

in the design genous materials

of a control

in Thailand that

of in&such a

and at a reasonable

is thought

4-4

device

could

be constructed

following and other

the general

principles

of the old

Fitchburg "variable 6. A Smaller

Engine Governor, throw

mechanisms which can be called

crank mechanisms." Fan Miil Driving a Variable Throw Reciprocatinq Pump.

Diameter

Examine a 4-meter windspeed, the fan mill

diameter should

pump of the fan mill.type. have a maximum torque pump at 15 kts. feet)

At 15 knots

available,

Q = 528 lb ft. against efficiency

Rate this

smaller

With the pump working pump

a 1.5 meter head (4.875 of 70%. f:eibs)

and at an assumed overall

(0.70)(1371

= (4.875

feet)[l97

k-1 set

197 lbs = 321 cubic set [197 lbs set ][i%strokel The Q aval'lable 528 = 3.32 feet -159

meters per hour de 1ivery

rate

= "'

% Ttierefore, a crank throw of,

at 15 kts = 528 lbs ft. could be used. = 2.54 cubic the required a circular . pump can be described, first

One pump stroke feet per stroke.

would then be 6.64 feet.

159 lbs per stroke 2.54 = 0.383, 6.64 for the piston rod,

net piston piston

area in square

feet.

Allowing =

of 4.42 inches

is required

11.2 cm radius. So, this acting a) b) c)

approximation, overall efficiency,

as a double

reciprocating effective

pump of 70 percent stroke = 6.64 feet = S

202 cm 22.4 -n 72.07kg _I_. cm

pump bore diameter

weight of water on top of.piston = at start of upward stroke

7.

To keep this

pump from stalling so that a full

as the wind speed reduces, weight times of water that

the crank

arm at

must be reduced . the start torque . 8.

on top of the piston

of an upward stroke Column (ll)

crank arm will

not exceed the arm must (4))

available.

in Table

(41) shows how the crank Column (11) =

be varied

as a function

of wind speed.

(199)(Column 159 reciprocating design

T,he C;rc+ I ,,a*

n";m-t+'Am.- vI t&o different appr,,IIll~~iull~ nc type wind pumpers are given It is probable

variable above. that

throw

pump fan mill lies

The desired the better

somewhere in between.

pump would and

be "rated" that

at a wind speed considerably throw

lower

than that

of 16 knots, the full

the variable

crank would not be expected In fact, providing for a crank

to cover

range of wind speeds. astern design of al3 foot

of 4.44 foot

throw

diameter

fan is probably

not practical.

So, the throw and wind-

would probably

be a hertnorphodite with variable

between the variable throw available-

the fixed

throw concept,

at the lower and stroke

speeds to keep the pump from stalling matching .hiqher

out because a piston

wind speeds had been fitted. the variable throw a 1.5 foot respond

Then, above the middle the limit rll

range a

of wind speeds, stroke .there jsay,

crank would reach stroke,

i I.*.

for example,

maximum stroke),

and from to will has

on the pumper would As it

to increased u&r its

wind speeds by trying inadequate load, it

run away.

speeded up, however, speed ratio

soon reach a tip fallen off so that

where the coefficient of the mill

of performance equates

the power ability Equilibrium QR Cp vs v,


0

to the power

.demand of the pump. Mill characteristic, the backside

is established. Fig. curve (4-l) is,

The shape of the Fan shows will

on page App. 4-7 and how quickly

how steep be found.

of that

equilibrium

4-6

The next orde-r of business Three different tion, are given

is examination

of such hermophodite 30 blade fan mill, follow, Ffgures

pumps.

views of a 6 m diameter in the three figures

wood cunstruc(4-2), product, blade (4-3) a

which

and (4-4).

The fan mill into

is conceived each of which show a 4-foot

as a wheel-wright's a molded plywood diameter

wheel of 30 spokes, and pinned. aft

is inserted box-on the

The sketches

cylindrical

end of the windshaft. a good start

Some preliminary "variable throw

sketching

and calculating within to

produced

on that

crank mechanism" to bring

such a box. presentable

Time has not been adequate, form.

however,

the design

30 BLADE 6 METER DIA. FAN MILL PROFILE scale - l/2" = 1 foot -- WEH -- 11/74

/-

THE "ALOFT MECHANISM" - ALL THAT RIDES ON THE YAW FLATFORMOF THE POLE MATCHER I

i
I

l-i-l

IL

--

CHASIS BOTTOMJ

POLE-MATCHERASSEMBLY THE YAW AXIS

FIG. (4-2)

. I

/I-------_. -+i

I I 1 I , I I

I
I I .----

-----

Tcsi.l-++
--

--

----- 3

__-_

w--e

w---s--.

_-

---

-e--m.

30 BLADE 6 METER DIA. FAN MILL POLE MATCHER scale - l/Z"


q

1 foot

-- WEI: --

?I/74

CUT FLATS ON POLE AT TOP TO MATCH BRACE MEMBERS.

I I IA!%PLANK YAW PLATFORMCUT -' TO CIRCULAR SHAPE

\\ s \

SECTION AT
UNUtKSIUt Ok

YAW PLATFORM

CLEATS HOLDING PLANKEU TOGETHER

-# .A - UNDER FRAf!ING BRACES

FIG. (4-4)
. .

5-1

Appendix

5.

A 1.i rst Approximation . Eastern

of d Mekong lrrig(it

ion 1'u111p~~r ,rntl

Mekong Wind Pumped Irrigation that wind driven

System. size, but still

1.

It

is postulated

pumpers of considerable from Thai materials, fitted

no larger on timber reciprocating


.

than can be constructed pole platforms

primarily

can be mounted with hinged

at the edge of the Mekong River, that a suction can be just just able irrigation canals.

pumps so arranged as it rises

beneath

the surface

of the river the river of 3 knots of the river, lead the water

and falls,

and the discharge type,

above the top of to respond water The canals to winds up out would region

bank. velocity

Such pumpers , of the fan mill or greater,

would then deliver bank, into into diversion

over the river

to the west and south Plateau.

the expanding

agricultural

around and on the Khorat 2. This System could

be as large along

as a line a total

of pumpers extending.from distance

Bung to

Kau in the northeast, the confluence Ratchatani. Eastern


.1 .,

the river

of 250 kilometers, due east of Ubon (5.D'as the

of the Mekong and the Mae Nam Mun rivers This line of wind machines

is shown on Figure

Mekong Wind Line. along this line has been estimated Nakhon curves by evaluating the energetics

Productivity

of the wind at three The three (5.9, velocity

stations, duration

Phanom, Mukdahan and Ubon Ratchathni. hereto, labeled Figure as and thereThe first to 17 knots, (5.2),

are attached curves

and (5.4)'respectively. curves

Those three the three

must be recognized data points,

"optimistic" fore

drawn through

available

the projected

amount of pumping might well energy

be optimist;c.

approximation

was made of the total

in the wind,

from 2 knots

5- 2

at an.axis

height

of 10 meters.

'A similar

calcu!ation Region, entire

was

mde

for

Khsn Kaen, as to are at the thinning

back at the "center" the variations given in Table

of the Northeastern across that

to gain some insight region. The results of energy

in wind energy 5.1. a slight They also

The results thinning indicate

indicate

a maximizing

Mukdahan location, out to the north.

out to the south, a signi.ficant

a significant

change in energetics At Khon Kaen the they are stiii

between Khon Kaen site winds are strongest

and the Eastern

Mekong Wind Line. that is,

in the wet winds

season monsoon, from the southwest. northeast

dominated

by the onshore about

But by the time one the Mekong, the winds are That shift to provide in energetics for double-

has traveled stronger

100 kilometers

toward

in the dry season or northeast of an irrigation

monsoon.

works in favor cropping. 4; bility A better

system attempting

approximation

(or at least

a more conservative

one) of the feasi-

of an extensive alternate

Mekong Windpumped Irrigation set of velocity Figure (5.5). duration curves

System has been made by for Mukdahan, labeled

preparing-an

"Mukdahan (Pessimistic)",

Then using one might

those curves, expect The results

estimates

have been mad2 of the amount of irrigation different Table 5.2. 5. Now "design" a larger irrigation irrigation pumpers in that

from several are given in

wind regime.

pumper that in diameter, with

is of the fan mill axis at 30 meters cross bracing

type,

still

constructed

of timber, this

18 meters

above surface. and a mechanism crank

The tower for timber platform

machine would be made of po?es with a turntable carrying

at the top on which

the aloft throw pump.

of the big wheel would be .located. installed, which would drive

.There woul'd be a variable reciprocating

a double-acting

The pump

5- 3 Table 5.1. Cer,tered Energy iO-Meters in the Wind in a 6-Meter --_ Above Surface, (kilowatt Month Nov. Dee Jan . Feb .Mar Apr "Or-y SedSorl Subtotal May June July Au Sept Ott "Wet Season" Subtotal Annual Total -* Relative Energy Normalized Against Mukdahan I, 1699 KWH 299 285 381 298 142 274 *_ 1679 KWH 3378 KWH 6 2059 KWH 93 62 117 T17 81 143 613 KWH 2672 K!JH 4823 KWH 264 256 306 265 232 794 2117 KWH 6940 KYH. 3457 KWH 260 498 556 479 211 643 2647 KWH 6104 KNH . .Khon Kaen 363 331 276 197 267 265 . Diameter _ ISwept _ _ __ _ _ _ __ Area, Region --

in the Northeastern hours) Mukdahan 1296 1225 930 515 498 359

Nakhon Rhanom 313 396 547 402 261 140

Ubon Ratchatani 932 916 625 381 ' 323 280 B

0.49

0.38

'I .OO

0.88

5- 4

Table 5.2.

Estimated

Capabilities "Pessimistic"

of Several

Irrigation

Pumpers at

MUKDAHAN,Using Curves,

Wind Velocity-Duration

Pumping to a 1.5 Meter Head. Nov. Thru' Apr. Dry Season May Thru' Oct. Wet Season 112,952 (36 rai) m3

A.

The 6 meter diameter fan mill crank, with variable reciprocating

30 blade throw pump

146,329 m3 (48 rai)

El. The Lubing M022-3-6,


diameter pumper (2.215m)

7.2 foot

11,932 m3 (4.05 rai)

9,013 m3 (2.9 rai)

irrigation

r 4.

A 6 meter diameter (extrapolated)

Lubing

87,919 m3 (29.5 rai)

66,128 (21.3

m3 rai)
.

5-5

would be hinged surface against

so that

its

suction

end could

ride

up and down with to the tower.

the

river

in a "ditch"

dug in the river

bank adjacent

The head month-by-

which the pump would have to operate Table (5.3) which 1372, Vol.

has been averaged

month per the following Mekong Hydrologic tion that follows

is based on page 187 of "Lower 1, (6). It is assumed in the calcula*

Yearbook," that

pump delivery as the total

will:. head against which water must be lifted,

(a) vary inversely

(b) vary as the square

of the swept area of the wind mill of axis height compared against

(c) vary as the 0.48 power of the ratio the 10 meter standard One can thus estimate mill at 30 meter axis axis height. productivity

the monthly height

of the 18 meter diameter from the calculated height

fan

by extrapolating

productivity

of the 6 meter diameter '1.5 meter he,\d by

fan mill

at 10 meter axis

at a constant

o-48 (1.5 ave. head)] Q18 = (Q6)(15024)(aveLaie head) = aGEr&zQtead

Table

5.3. Estimated

Productivity

of an 18m Mekong Pumper, Axis

Height

30 m., at Mukdahan (pessimistic)

Jan Q6
m3/mo. Average Head m

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sept

Ott

Nov

Dee

22,827

18,356

21;099

18,429

17,831

16,426

18,737

16,973

15,365

,27,620

35,466

30,122

10.93

11.47

11.57

11.62

11.44

9.72

6.61

1.68

5.12

7.25

9.18

9.53

Ql8
m3,ho.

47,763
Nov.

36,600 April, Oct.,

41,706 this this

36.271

35,646

38,648

64,828.231,055 for rice. rice.

68,632

87,126

88,356

72,286

Dry Season,

thru'

would would

irrigate

16.4 hectares 26.1 hectares'for

Wet Season,

May thru'

irrigate

5-7

When the monthly pumper productivity winds, tion

variation analyses,

in river

height

is introduced even with

into the less

the windenergetic

the "Wet Season,"

is found to be much more productive. as to how this or planned If, for kind of a windpumped diversion example, Sept) four irrigation

This irrigation

leads at once to speculasource can be tied significant pumping by into

existing storage. (Jun, Jly,

schemes which

include

months'worth and only

of the wet season's 20% of that possibility were lost

Aug.,

were stored,

evaporation, cubic 6.

then the Dry Season irrigation which would increase

becomes 645,060 to 49 hectares. of 18 meter distance as =

meters better To approximate

the 16.4 hectares possible

the maximum irrigation together

from a line to center

pumpersspaced 25.5 meters) I follows:, (a)

as closely along

as possible

(center

the Eastern

Mekong Wind Line,

one can proceed

Averag,e productivity

along

the 100 km from Mukdahan toward

Ubun

.Ratchatani (b)

1.0 + 0.88 = -= 0.94 x Mukdahan Productivity. 2 along the 5D km from Mukdahan to a point = 0.69 x Mukdahan Productivity. the 100 km from abreast Nakhon Phanom abreast

<Average produictivity

of Nqkhon Phanom =: (c) all

1.00 + 0.38 2 along

Average productivity

the way to Bung Kau will

be the same as at Nakhon Phanom = 0.38%

Mukdahan Productivity; (d) :. Weighted Productivity = = = = 94 34.5 38 166.5 250 = 0.666

(100)(0.94) + (50) (0.69)

+ (100)(0.38)

5-8

(e)

Therefore, [w-)][0.666][49 .

one line

of Mekong Irrigation hectares] = 320,000

pumpers might hectares,

irrigate:

= 8K,OOO acres using which irrigated concept would 9,803 pumper stations, is about one-third of the estimated one million irrigation hectares system. all that would be this

by the PaMong Dam and diversion presented reduce river here does remove water flow. For example, during

Of course, year long and station the average

from the river

at Ban Dan, the metering flow month, April,

due

east of Ubon Ratchatani, minimum discharge

the lowest

(1962-1972)

was 1,410 m3/sec. were each removing the average 0.666 of x

If the 9,803 pumping stations Mukdahan productivity during April,

removal would be at the rate m3 set = m3 13.70 set *

(9.8D3)(103)(0.666)(36.27)(103j (.720)(3.6)(:06)(24) which would be about that 7..

1% of the average is not known. could along

minimum discharge.

Whether or.not

. 1

would be acceptable

The 9,803 pumping stations Bank but also * that

be doubled

or trehlcd.

partially

algnq

the Filzkong Riv.:r 8. It

the banks of tributaries. dry-season irrigation of the Northeastern river water, provided It is I \ i

is concluded

extensive

Region could the necessary thought of that that

be accomplished distribution the capital for

by wind pumping available and water storage required gravity

scheme were availc;ble. would be a very small diversion system, sought but,

investment

fraction of course,

required

the comparable

the wind pumped scheme.would product of the proposed

not provide

the electricit.!, The original

as the primary asked,

hydroelectric

system.

question

5-9

however, Thailand

was, "could while capital

wind pumped Mekong River for the Mekong Project

water

speed up irrigation accumulated?" --

of

is being

and the answer appears 9.

to be "yes." be accomplished has been told on the that the than

The same amount of wind pumping (or more) could side of the river'in that region. The author

Laotian

winds on down the river

in Cambodia and South Vietnam are even stronger Eastern Mekong Wind Line, possibility.

they are up on the proposed collected or analyzed relating

but no data have been

to that

.
I

~-10 . . _-.

5 .

,MUKDAHAF

,.

Andama.n

g,-:

.w.*

i
--

I,, L-I. .

..-

L..w-

SC?, C.h, i-b 1.13 *p-q

THE EASTERN MEKONG WENDLINE

FIG. (

' ,A---

i -4

- i -2 .

t--

--.

---7---

+y~~.j 1

-/-.f

j-:..

f -,

i-r~ j--J.--; -cw-f-j- 1 --p7---;-----i-; --if ---i..-,I.. , I-,-:. i-l..I-. T- ,.-F - ---- , --.. I . . .-.------I-i. -.iLL-,--,-:,. ! I > I 2 : i-1 ; / ! I I 7 t

i- -1.-/,.; ;L
L-2, c

..

.-

. .

-1 *-

:__ . I - -_ _I -_
-_ I _ 0 _, ._.

.---

-1

.____

_ .---! !I

._.__ .

_- -1

---,-1..-

.i--

r .

6-l

Appendix

6:

A Proposed

Program

for

Development

of the

Thai

Windpower

Resource

6.1

and Other Asian Energy Resources " Work should be started in a number of places of this in priority Verify, selected with greater accuracy, report are order to be useful. one or more

if

the

ideas, is

conclusions, to: for . develop-

recommendatizns l.(a) . ment. (b) in (c) (d) than (e) Select

Effort "windpower

required

systems"

the windpower

resource

at sites

involved

windpower the

systems. of water the water at from dug wells at of involved crops other sites.

Determine Start rice

availability to measure is

a program whose culture the

requirements sites. irrigation

desired with

involved

Determine sites.

interaction

planned

schemes

at

involved (f)

Proceed

with

the

invention, for test

development selected

and test windpower site,

and proof systems. perhaps

of

key

hardware (g)

components

required

Create

an in-country proof for skills, U.S. of selected

and demonstration windpower of parts systems.

at

AIT, for

in-country (h) Arrange

manufacture tools, laboratory

and components,

to match

in-country

materials, demonstrated it-yourself 2. The flow (a)

labor,

literally into

a transmutation Thai-built

from AIT commercial or do-

prototypes

products. of action AID via could be: and USOM, Bangkok, policy to the Royal Thai

From U.S.

R.E.D.

Government (b)

and back again,

concerning

and programs. (Amherst) with prototype components

From the University to

of Massachusetts demonstration

and systems,

AIT for

and test.

6-2

(c)

From AIT to the Ministry of Agricultural for replication

of' Agriculture

and Cooperative,

both the

Division

Economics and the Division of components should

of Agricultural

Engineering, 3. The University and test (a) (b) (c) blades (d) (e) (f) of:

and systems. the invention, development, .

of Massachusetts . 2-bladed

start

improved

Thai propeller

windmachines,

several

sizes.

reciprocating the 30-blade for that

pumps 6-meter fan mill. throw throw crank crank for for mill plain adjacent for to the Connecticut test, should River, whose the 2-bladed the 30-blade Thai propeller 6-meter machines fan mill, including the laminated plywood

the variable the variable the smaller site could

fan mill.

4-meter.fan

A test water for

on the Hadley

be moved back and forth

be created

at UMass

4. AIT
should their 5. After . and if start 6.

system tests. . start to build the in-country Plain, test site, on or adjacent level to

grounds

in the Central lifted

instrumented effectiveness

to that

necessary

to measure water review

and relative

of systems. Department, UMass should windpumpers. Nations

by the Mekong Committee and the Royal Irrigation are found to be sound by those groups, of large wooden irrigat'on

the concepts the design

and development either should

Somewhere within program, differences free that electricity should resources

the U.S, AID program or some United be found for a study

of the ocean thermal and pollution-free that fossil-fuel-

process for

as provider tropical

of fertilizer peoples.

Or perhaps

is a program Foundation or

be funded by the World Bank, the Rockefeller

6-3

the Ford Foundation. should be at the center e

It should of it.

be started,

soon,

and the UMass team

7-l

Appendix
1 I.

7:

Chronology

of Visit,

P1--IaLeS

Visited

and People Contacted

Chronols: a. b.
C.

Departed. CONUS 10 August 1974 Arrived 13 Aug.


*

Bangkok 12 August At the R.E.D. Santi tham R.E.D. Office

1974 Bangkok - Mekong Committee . Hdqtrs, Sala

office,

d.

14 Aug.

Meteorology e. 15 Aug.

Department,

R.T.G. Tha Phra, on North to UDORN

To N.E. Agricultural and near Loei

Center,

f.

16 Aug.

Return

to Tha Phra

Khuan Ubon Ratane Dam Seminar at Khon Kaen 9. h. i. 17 Aug. 18 Aug. 19 Aug. , j. 20 Aug. Return to Bangkok spots in Bangkok

Sunday -- Tourist R.E.D. office

Mekong Cotnnittee Kasesat University Engineering Division, Windmills of Forestry of Agricultural Economics, at Pathum

Agricultural . k. 21 Aug. Thani

near Don Muang, Department Division

Farm Management Section, Windmills Windmills at Petchaburi in the Salt

Flats Division:Seminar at R.E.D. office

1. m. n.
0.

22 Aug. 23 Aug. 24 Aug. 25 Aug.

ECAFE, Natural A.I;T. R.E.D. Departed - Lecture Office

Resources

Bangkok,

proceeded

to Manila

7-2

P-

26 Aug.

SEARCA, Los Banos IRRI D of Agricultural Los Banes, Engineering, FAGASA, Manila University of

9.
.

27 Aug.

,Department Philippines,

0. .28 Aug.

Seminar at IRRI SEARCA Return to Makati

S.

29 Aug.

USAID, Manila National Departed Science Manila Development for Honolulu Board, Manila

via Guam

t. U.

29 Aug.

University East-West Departed

of Hawaii Center Honolulu for Mass. home,

30 Aug.

v.

31 Aug.

Back in Amherst,

2.

Places a. b.
C.

Visited Economic Development Mission, Office, Bangkok.

Regional

U.S. Operations

Bangkok Ministry of Agriculture


Center,

Royal Thai Government, (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 'The Northeast The Agricultural The Royal Forest Agriculture Agriculture

and Cooperative:
Khon Kaen

Regional

Agricultural Division

Engineering Department,

at Kasesat

University,

Bangkok.

Bangkok.

Work Unit, Work Unit,

Nong Kai Petchaburi

d. e.

The Mekong'Committee, Royal Thai Government,

ECAFE, Bangkok Ministry of Communications, Meteorolugicai Dept.

7-3

f. 9* h. i.

Natural Asian

Resources Institute

Division, of Technology Manilla

ECAFE, Bangkok

U.S. AID office, Southeast (SEARCA)

Asia Graduate

Research

Center

for

the Study of Agriculture

3.
k.

International Department Los Banos.

Rice Research of Agriculture

Institute
Engineering,

(IRRI)
University of Philippines,

1. m. n.

The Weather Bureau of the Philippines The East-West The School Center, Honolulu University

(PAGASA), Manila

of Engineering,

of Hawaii,

Honolulu

3.

People Contacted (a)

,. cantacts:

at RED, Bangkok: .~Principal (1) (2) (3) '(4) (5) (6) K. Rabin, R. Halligan, incoming

Director * Program Officer Mekong Capital Advisor . Project

Deputy Director Assistant Officer,

C. S. McClusky, J. Hanks, Liaison

L. A. Cohen, Sr. Engineering L. Lucian, Liaison Officer

(b)

at U.S.O.M., (1) (2)

Bang'tok

Dr. Riggs Chane Kalayanamitra Center Director 'guide from DAE Director

(c)

at N. E. Agricultural (1) (2) (3) Khun Porisuthi, Khun Santisuk, Dr. Benjasil,

Associate

7-4

(4) (5) (6) (d)

Dr. Russell

H. Branncrn, Chief U. Ky Party U. Ky. Party of Agricultural

of U. Ky, Party

Verne Finkner, J. Thurston,

at RTG, Department (1) (2) Mr. Sumnao

Engineering

Mr. Metha Ratjatapiti Mr. Chalermchui SukWi

(3) (4) (e)

Miss Sukumya Kotigal of Meteorology Deputy Director-General

at RTG, Department (1) (2) (3) Captain

Soontarotok,

Cornnander Kasem Sunkapinta Lieut. Commander Surin Forest Sangsnit

(f)

at RTG, The'Royal (1) Mr. To Nanon

Department

(9)

at RTG, Department (1). (2) Chacong Meekul,

of Agricultural Chief

Engineering

(2nd day)

of Agricultural

Economics

Miss Maneewan Ama-Amon

(h)

at A.I.T. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Dr. Harold Hoelscher, Pres.

Dr. Shlomo Angel Dr. Peter Dr. Norbert A. Cowell. Ackermann

Dr. Maung Nay Htun Resources Division

(i)

at ECAFE, Natural (1) .(2) (3) Philip

IQaw Myint _

J. A. Callow George Finlinson

7-5

(4) (5) (j)

M. S. Haeri A.,S. Manalac .

at SEARCA, Los Banos, Philippines (1) Dr. Sam-Arng Srinkta, Dr. Drillon - Director Associate Director

1 (k)

(2)

at U. P. Los Banos (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Cielo Marietta Carlos R. Sumayo S. Adrian0 R. de1 Rosario

Harry Van Riuten Cayetano Lamperto Intong Palencia

(1)

at IRRI (1) (2) A. U, Khan Godofredo C. Salazar


,

(3)
(m)

J. Metz

at PAGASA, Manila (1) Mr. Minosa Mr. Bonhoe Mr. Lomotan Dr. Roman Kintanar Prof. Hugo de la Cruz Science Development A. Medina Board, Makati

(2)
. (3)
.

(4) (5) (n)

at National * (1) (2)'

Dr. Florencio Francesco

A. San Juan

(0)

at U.S. AID, Manila (1) R. J. Delaney

7-6

(2) (3)

R. H. Masters Mr. Johnson Cer,ter, Honolulu

at East-West (1) (21 (3)

Dr. Manuel Alba Dr. John Goodman Dr. Marshall Merriam

at University (1) (2) (3) (4)

of Hawaii

Dr. Paul Yuen


I

Dr. John Shtipe Dr. Edmund Cheng Prof. Don Avery

, .