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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1

Introduction

The purpose of the experiment is to achieve the objectives set out in Chapter 1. This study consist of testing for 8 beam reinforced with longitudinal glass fibre reinforced polymer and 8 beam reinforced with conventional beam under reversed cyclic load. All the reinforced beams size are same, 200mm x 400mm except for the long of the beam. The long of the beam divided into two parts, 2000mm and 3000mm. Each long have 4 sets of beam (2 set of 6 longitudinal bars and 2 set of 4 longitudinal bars). Longitudinal bar is place at the top and bottom of the beam because this beam is test under reversed cyclic load. Each beam only has 2 longitudinal bars that already set strain gauge on it. To compare the two behavior of beam reinforced steel and beam reinforced glass fibre, diameter for two type of longitudinal reinforcement is same. Compression tests were also conducted to obtain the compressive strength of the concrete. When concrete is pour into formwork, slump test is conducted to make sure that concrete is quality is good and consistent.

3.2

Flow chart
START

DETERMINATION OF TITLE, OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE

LITERATURE REVIEW REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS DESIGN

PREPARATION OF MOLDS

TENSILE TEST ON REINFORCEMENT

BENDING STIRRUPS

STRAIN GAUGE INSTALLATION AT LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT AND STIRRUPS

BINDING LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT AND STIRRUPS FOR EACH BEAM SLUMP TEST AND CAST RC BEAM CONCRETE COMPRESION TEST OPEN MOLDS AND DO CURING FOR ALL THE BEAMS

BEAM TEST UNDER REVERSED CYCLIC LOAD DATA ANALYSIS

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

END

Figure 3.1: Flow chart of the methodology

3.3

The determination of the experimental study topic

This experimental study topic was proposed by the supervisor as a result of meetings and interviews held before. In this step, the research objectives, research problem statement, background and scope of the study are also discussed.

3.4

Literature review

The literature review is related to the theoretical exposure of the study to be undertaken. It is the result of reading paper books and journals that can assist in understanding and give you an idea of the study will be done.

3.5

Reinforced concrete beam design

Design of reinforced concrete beam is produced according to British Standard (BS8110 :1997-Standard Reference Design Reinforced Concrete Structure) and ACI-440. Reinforced concrete beam design for this study is designed to shear failure under reversed cyclic load. The variables in the design of reinforced concrete beam for this study are: a) Size and length of the beam. b) Beam sizes and strength characteristics of reinforced c) Span to depth ratio d) Number of longitudinal reinforcement and stirrups spacing

Specimen

a/d

Stirrup spacing (dia.8m)

Longitudinal reinforcement (dia. 16mm) Type No. 2

fc (Mpa)

b(mm)

d(mm)

h(mm)

La(mm)

Lm(mm)

L(mm)

Lh(mm)

L Total(m)

Testing

BSR-1 BSR-2 BSR-3 BSR-4 BSR-5 BSR-6 BSR-7 BSR-8 BGR-9 BGR-10 BGR-11 BGR-12 BGR-13 BGR-14 BGR-15 BGR-16 ( > 2.5 ) 3.0 150 50 Steel ( < 2.5 ) 1.5 150 50 Steel ( > 2.5 ) 3.0 150 50 Steel ( < 2.5 ) 1.5 150 50 Steel

3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 1100 400 2600 200 3000 550 400 1500 250 2000 30 200 362 400 1100 400 2600 200 3000 GROUP 2 Test under reversed cyclic load until failure 550 400 1500 250 2000

Note: Beam steel reversed cyclic load (BSR)


: Beam GFRP reversed cyclic load (BGR) Table 3.1: Dimension of reinforced concrete beam

3.5

Preparation of molds

A total of 16 wooden molds use to form concrete beams. Each mold is used for same concrete grade. Figure 3.2 shows 2 sets of the installed molds, 2m and 3m.

Figure 3.2: 2m and 3m mold 3.6 Tensile test on reinforcement

In this study, tensile test will be conducted on 2 types of reinforcement (steel and glass fibre reinforced polymer). The main objectives of tensile tests are to determine the yield stress, Young Modulus and behaviors of steel bar and GFRP bar when subjected to an axial tensile load. These material will applied axial tension force until it fails. The result from this test will use to select for an application, for quality control and to predict how material will react under other types of forces. Ductility is a measurement on how much the material can be deformed before it fractures. Low ductility in a tensile test will give low resistance to fracture under the forms of loading. Tensile properties indicate how material will react to force being applied in tension. It is important to ensure the material quality was included in material specification. GFRP reinforcement has a weak character in the horizontal compressive stress. Therefore, the both end of GFRP is attached to the bandage reinforced epoxy to provide a substantial zone. Figure 3.3(a) show a schematic sample of GFRP reinforced wrapped epoxy at both end. Figure 3.3(b) show the equipment that used for tensile test is universal testing machine.

GFRP

Wrapped epoxy

40d

Figure 3.3(a): schematic sample of GFRP reinforced wrapped epoxy at both end.

Figure 3.3(b): Universal testing machine

3.7

Strain gauge installation at longitudinal reinforcement and stirrups

Each reinforced concrete beam consists of two longitudinal bars that have strain gauge. One longitudinal bar contains 5 strain gauges. To ensure readings from gauges give accurate readings, the surface of the reinforcement being flattened by using a grinder. Before the strain gauges are attached, the reinforcement surface cleaned with acetone to remove dirt. Figure 3.4(a) show a strain gauge glued on the finished surface of the GFRP reinforcement.

Figure 3.4(a): strain gauge glued on the finished surface of GFRP reinforcement. To ensure that all the strain gauges in good condition, each strain gauge is tested by using ohmmeter before the gauge was wrapped with a waterproof material. All gauges must be at 120 Ohm 0.3 Ohm. Figure 3.3(b) shows an ohmmeter that use to check the reading.

Figure 3.3(b): ohmmeter

Stirrups are used as shear reinforcement for this study. Therefore strain gauge needs to install in order to stress strain reading. For each stirrup, only one strain gauge will install on it. Figure 3.3(c) shows an installation process of a strain gauge on a stirrup.

Figure 3.3(c): Installation process of a strain gauge on a stirrup.

3.8

Binding longitudinal reinforcement and stirrups for each beam.

Longitudinal reinforcement and stirrups bind together by using reinforcing bar tieing-up hook. Stirrups spacing is bind according to dimension shown in table 3.1. Figure 3.4(a) shows the reinforcing bar tieing-up hook, figure 3.4(b) shows the binding process of reinforcement.

Figure 3.4(a): reinforcing bar tieing-up hook

Figure 3.4(b): Binding process of reinforcement

3.9

Slump test and cast reinforcement

The purpose of slump test is to determine the workability of the concrete mix. This test must be conducted before concrete is poured into a mold. This test was conducted for each mixture to ensure accurate quantities of materials used, and designed in accordance with the ruins. The instrument used consists of steel cone with a height of 300mm, which has a top opening with 100mm diameter and 200mm diameter of bottom cone. Mixture placed in a cone in three layers and each layer compacted with a rod of 16mm diameter by 25 times. Cast work will only proceed after the slump test is passed. Concrete grade 30 will be used for the two type of reinforced concrete beam. Figure 3.5 show the equipment that use to do slump test.

Figure 3.5: slump test steel cone

3.10

Concrete compression test

Concrete compression test is to test the compressive strength of concrete produced. Concrete will be poured into cube molds and each mold consists of 3 layers. Each layer is compacted 25 times by using 16mm rod diameter. To make sure those cube is hardened, the molds will be opened at the next day. Then those cubes will in a full tank of water. Test will be carried out at day 28 because concrete will reach its highest strength after 28 days. Figure 3.76 show the compression machine use for cube test.

Figure 3.6: compression machine. 3.11 Open mould and do curing for all the beams

As soon as the wet concrete is poured, concrete beams are covered with gunny sack. Next the gunny sack will be watered twice in a day to maintain the moisture of concrete beams. 3.12 Beam test under reversed cyclic load

The repeated cyclic loads will be applied on beam under 4-point bending. A dynamic actuator with 1000 KN capacity will be positioned against string floor as shown in Figure 3.8. for each specimen, six linear variable displacement transducers (LVDTs) will be used to measure the vertical deflection of the beam at mid-span and each point load position. All types of beam will be loaded in both positive and negative directions. Figure 3.7(a) show schematic of test setup.

Figure 3.7(a): Schematic of test-setup

Regarding the previous test result under static load condition, the correspond displacement to be 26mm. Figure 3.7(b) show the position of h and of a beam. This measurement will be used to design the loading step for seismic loading under displacementcontrolled mode at quasi-static rate 0.01 Hz. The correspond of drift ratios was calculated by;

Drift (%) =

vertical displacement of the beam () distance between the point load and support centerline (h)

X 100%

Figure 3.7(b): Position of h and of beam.

Drift (%) =

26 x100 550

= 4.7% Therefore from above calculation, about 5% drifts will be chosen as loading step arrangement in this study. The loading step arrangement and seismic loading with displacement-controlled mode is as shown in figure 3.8(c) and (d).

Figure 3.7(c): Load step arrangement

Figure 3.7(d): seismic loading with displacement-controlled mode.