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6.

002

CIRCUITS AND ELECTRONICS

Inside the Digital Gate

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Review
The Digital Abstraction Discretize value 0, 1 Static discipline meet voltage thresholds sender VOH VOL receiver
VIH VIL
forbidden region

Specifies how gates must be designed

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Review
Combinational gate abstraction outputs function of input alone satisfies static discipline

A B

C NAND

A 0 0 1 1

B 0 1 0 1

C 1 1 1 0

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

For example: a digital circuit


A B C A B

Demo

) D = ( (A B ) C
3 gates here A Pentium III class microprocessor is a circuit with over 4 million gates !! The RAW chip (http://www.cag.lcs.mit.edu/raw) being built at the Lab for Computer Science at MIT has about 3 million gates.
Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

How to build a digital gate


Analogy
l ike power supply

) itches w (like s taps

C
if A=ON AND B=ON C has H20 else C has no H20 Use this insight to build an AND gate.

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

How to build a digital gate

OR gate

A C B

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Electrical Analogy
C V + A B

Bulb C is ON if A AND B are ON, else C is off Key: switch device

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Electrical Analogy
Key: switch device equivalent ckt in

control

in

C =0
out in

out 3-Terminal device if C = 0 else

C=1
out

short circuit between in and out open circuit between in and out

For mechanical switch, control mechanical pressure


Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Consider
RL

VS RL

VOUT
IN

+ VS
VS =

VOUT

C
OUT

VS

VOUT
C =0

Truth table for


C VOUT 0 1 1 0

VS

VOUT
C =1
Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

What about?
VS
VOUT

Truth table for


c1 c2 VO 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0

c1 c2

VS

Truth table for


c1 c2 VO 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0

VOUT
c1 c2

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

What about?
can also build compound gates

VS D A B C D = (A B) + C

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

The MOSFET Device


Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor

drain D

G gate

S source

3 terminal lumped element behaves like a switch

G : control terminal D, S : behave in a symmetric manner (for our needs)


Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

The MOSFET Device


t ck ou book Che ext l the t s interna for it ture. iG r uc st

Understand its operation by viewing it as a two-port element

D G S

iDS

+ vGS D G vGS < VT


off

vDS
D iDS on S

G vGS VT

VT 1V typically

Switch model (S model) of the MOSFET


Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Demo

Check the MOS device on a scope. i


DS

+ + vGS vDS

iDS vGS VT

vGS < VT iDS vs vDS

vDS

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

A MOSFET Inverter
VS = 5V
RL
vOUT

IN

A
Note the power of abstraction.

The abstract inverter gate representation hides the internal details such as power supply connections, RL, GND, etc. (When we build digital circuits, the and are common across all gates!)
Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Example
vOUT

5V

vIN

vOUT

0V V T =1V

v IN

5V

The T1000 model laptop desires gates that satisfy the static discipline with voltage thresholds. Does out inverter qualify?

VOL = 0.5V VOH = 4.5V 1:


sender 5 4.5 V OH

VIL = 0.9V VIH = 4.1V

receiver

5 4.1

1
VIH VIL

0.9 0.5 VOL 0: 0 0 Our inverter satisfies this.


6.002 Fall 2000 Lecture 5

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

E.g.: Does our inverter satisfy the static discipline for these thresholds:
VOL = 0.2V VOH = 4.8V VOL = 0.5V VOH = 4.5V
VIL = 0.5V VIH = 4.5V

yes

x
VIL = 1.5V VIH = 3.5V

no

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Switch resistor (SR) model of MOSFET


more accurate MOS model
D

D G S

D G RON

G
vGS < VT S

vGS VT S
e.g. RON = 5 K

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

SR Model of MOSFET
D G S D D G S RON

G
vGS < VT

vGS VT S

MOSFET S model

MOSFET SR model

vGS VT iDS vGS < VT vDS iDS

vGS VT
1 RON

vGS < VT vDS

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5

Using the SR model


RL

VS RL

vOUT
IN

+ VS
VS =

vOUT

C
OUT

VS RL

Truth table for


vOUT

RON
C =0

C VOUT 0 1 1 0

VS

RL
C =1

Choose RL, RON, VS such that:


V R v = S ON V OL OUT R +R L ON

vOUT

vGS VT

RON

Cite as: Anant Agarwal and Jeffrey Lang, course materials for 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

6.002 Fall 2000

Lecture 5