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saqarTvelos semiotikis sazogadoeba

semiotikis kvlevis centri

semiotika
samecniero Jurnali

VI
SEMIOTICS
SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
2009

2
UDC 8122

saredaqcio sabWo

Editorial Board

mTavari redaqtori
cira barbaqaZe

Editor-in-Chief
Tsira Barbakadze

guCa kvaracxelia
zurab kiknaZe
mixeil qurdiani
merab RaRaniZe
emzar jgerenaia
nodar ladaria
manana kvaWantiraZe
zaza SaTiriSvili
daviT andriaZe
zaal kikviZe
mamuka biWaSvili

Gucha Kvaratskhelia
Zurab Kiknadze
Mikheil Kurdiani
Merab Ghaghanidze
Emzar Jgerenaia
Nodar Ladaria
Manana Kvachantiradze
Zaza Shatirishvili
Davit Andriadze
Zaal Kikvidze
Mamuka Bichashvili

redaqtorebi

Editors

Tamar berekaSvili
Tamar lomiZe
izabela qobalava
xaTuna maisaSvili

Tamar Berekashvili
Tamar Lomidze
Izabela Kobalava
Khatuna Maisashvili

semiotikis kvlevis centri 2009


ISSN 1512-2409

dagvikavSirdiT: E-mail: semiotics_journal@yahoo.com

Sinaarsi

enisa da literaturis semiotika


cira barbaqaZe
mzis semiotika poeziaSi

konstantine bregaZe
galaktioni da novalisi

26

irakli cxvediani
jeimz joisis ulise~: teqsti da struqtura

38

Tamar lomiZe
meoreuli semantika poetur teqstSi

55

kulturis semiotika
xaTuna maisaSvili
samSoblo, eri-saxelmwifo da qarTuli elitebi

66

irakli mWedliSvili
sivrcobrivi forma da ori mTavari metafora

80

izabela petriaSvili
metafora da politikuri diskursis pragmatika

95

mamuka surmava
arawminda gonebis kritikis bunebisTvis, m. fuko _
frankfurtis skola
105
arqiteqturis semiotika
guram yifiani, nodar amaSukeli
mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

120

semiotika da kritika
daviT andriaZe
xelaxali RENDEZ-VOUS (kultursemiologiuri
kontaminaciebi)

140

dalila bedianiZe
lia sturuas Semoqmedeba da folklori

150

mirian ebanoiZe
teqsti da realoba (venis arSia)

157

giorgi kekeliZe
ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

163

nona kupreiSvili
enobrivi orientaciidan kulturis
orientaciamde

186

cira kilanava
qalaqi, sadac ver ipoves adamiani

195

malxaz xarbedia
cinikuri sibrZne

205

nana trapaiZe
teqstis gagebis Tanamedrove problemebi

209

reziumeebi inglisurad

214

CONTENTS
Semiotics of Language and Literature
Tsira Barbakadze
The Sun Semiotics in Poetry

214

Konstantine Bregadze
Galaktion and Novalis

215

Irakli Tskhvediani
James Joyces Ulysses: Texture and Structure

216

Tamar Lomidze
The Second Semantics in Poetic Text

217

Semiotics of Culture
Khatuna Maisashvili
The homeland, the nation-stste, and the Georgian elites

218

Irakli Mchedlishvili
The spatial form and two main metaphors

219

Mamuka Surmava
The Critique of Impure Reason: Foucault and Habermas

220

Izabella Petriashvili
Metaphor and Pragmatics of Political Discourse

221

Mirian Ebanoidze
Text and Reality (Contoure of ,,Wen)

222

Giorgi Kekelidze
Because of the non-existent borders

223

e n i s a

d a
l i t e r a t u r i s
s e m i o t i k a
c
E ira barbaqaZe

mzis semiotika poeziaSi


ori mze
mikrokosmosi makrokosmosi
filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa da
kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli
profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi: monografiebi: poeziis semiotika(2009); qarTuli
mWevrmetyvelebis lingvopragmatika(2003);
qarTuli sakanonmdeblo
stili (1996); poeturi
krebulebi: `dumilis
a(m)bebi(2008); `gamoaReT
sarkmeli~ (2003); `leqsebi~ (1996) .
interesTa sfero: semiotika, ritorika, stilistika, kritika.

`msuris qeba da dideba naTlisa warualisa,


mzeTa-mzis vaxSi Tavs maZes, mmarTebs gardaxda valisa,
Wirs sacnauris mzisaca swored gamarTva Tvalisa,
aramc-Tu ucnaurisa cnoba gzisa da kvalisa~.
daviT guramiSvili
`jer saWiroa, movipovoT Wvretis organo, romelic
msgavsi da analogiuria TviT Wvretis obieqtisa.
Tvali verasdros dainaxavda mzes,
jer TviTon rom ar mieRo mzis forma.~
plotini

War nicht das Auge sonnenhaft,


Wie konnten wir das Licht erblicken?
,
?
e

ori mze sacnauri da ucnauri! ase ganmartavs mas daviT guramiSvili. erTi mze
astronomiuli planeta da meore mze uflis metafora. sacnauri mzisTvis Tvalis
gasworebac ki Wirs, xolo ucnauri mzis
(uflis) gza-kvalis cnoba kidev ufro rTulia: `o! RmerTis simdidreTa da sibrZnisa
da Semecnebis siRrme! rogor Cauwvdomelni arian misni samarTalni da miukvlevelni misi gzebi!~(romaelTa,12, 33).

cira barbaqaZe

sainteresoa marina cvetaevas `ori mzec~: erTi caze romelic anTia da meore mkerdSi...
` , !
, .
poeti TiTqos mikrokosmosia da samyaros analogia... poetisTvis garesamyaro da iq arsebuli movlenebi yovelTvis Sinagan
gancdaTa metaforebia.
m
M z e erT-erTi universaluri koncepti da saxe simboloa,
romelic uamrav konotaciur mniSvnelobas aCens. maT Soris
aris: bibliuri, arqetipuli, miTosuri, astronomiuli, asociaciuri, poeturi da sxva mniSvnelobebi. m
M ainc ras aRniSnavs mze?
aM stronomiulad: mze irmis naxtomis galaqtikaSi, mzis sistemis
centrSi, yviTeli varskvlavia, romlis garSemo, orbitaze, moZraoben sxva ciuri sxeulebi da, maT Soris, dedamiwac. is aris
sinaTlisa da siTbos wyaro...
mze gavlenas axdens adamiansa da bunebaze imiT, rom is gansxvavebuli siCqaris energiebs asxivebs... sinaTle da magnetizmi qmnis miwier formebs.
mze umaRlesi kosmiuri Zalis simboloa, yvelganmWvreti
RvTaebaa, miuxedavad imisa, rom samyaros uZvelesi suraTebi geocentrulia, mze aris simboluri centri, kosmosis guli, yofierebis centri; is aris agreTve simbolo intuiciuri codnisa, gonisa, gasxivosnebisa, didebisa da didebulebis, meufebis...
mze samyaros `Tvalia, RvTaebrivis xiluli xati, sinaTlis transcendentuli arqetipi; mze `samyaros karia~ codnasa da ukvdavebaSi Sesasvleli.
bevr tradiciaSi mze aris mamakacuri sawyisi, zog kulturaSi
qaluri. qarTuli folkloruli tardiciis mixedviT: `mze
dedaa Cemi, mTvare mamaCemi, bRuja-bRuja varskvlavebi da da
Zmaa Cemi!~
mze uZravad myofi caze drois miRmaa. e
E s aris mudmivi `axla~.
alqimikosebisaTvis: mze gonebaa, Sol et Luna oqro da vercxli,
mefe da dedofali, suli da sxeuli...
`mzis Tavgadasavali~ (rogorc Tavad avtori uwodebs mas)
dawvrilebiT aqvs gamokvleuli viqtor nozaZes `vefxistyaosnis mzismetyvelebaSi~. Aam Tavgadasavlis gamokvleva mas sWirdeba imisaTvis, rom Tavisi adgili miuCinos am istoriaSi `vef-

mzis semiotika poeziaSi

xistyaosnis mzes~. Cven ki vixsenebT am Tavgadasavals imisaTvis, rom davinaxoT rogor anaTebs qarTuli `poeturi mze~, ras
aRniSnavs, poetis romel gancdaTa simboloa, risi metaforaa,
ras adareben mzes qarTveli poetebi da sxva.
`vefxistyaosanSi~ mze aris personaJebis metafora, anu: mze
adamiania... es gamomdinareobs ufro didi metaforidan: mze uflis xiluli saxea; gavixsenoT avTandilis mimarTva mzisadmi:
`ityvis: he, mzeo, vin xatad gTqves mzianisa Ramisad, erT-arsebisa erTisa, mis uJamosa Jamisad~... adamiani Seqmnilia RmerTis
saxed da xatad, amitom aris is `mzis wili~ anu: `uflis wili~; miT
ufro, es iTqmis Seyvarebul adamianze (RmerTi siyvaruli ars).
swored amitom: qajeTis cixeSi gamoketili nestani satrfos
wers: `mze uSenod ver iqmnebis, radgan Sen xar misi wili~.
aqac ori mze: mze ufali da mze adamiani.

`mze Tvali~ universaluri semantikuri


formula qarTuli enis leqsikaSi
,
: ,
, , .
, ,
, , , ,
,
. , , ,
,
- ,
. , ,
, ,
, , , . - (. .
) , , ,
, , .

mzis erT-erTi gavrcelebuli metaforaa `mze Tvali~. Aam


wyvils Soris arsebuli semantikuri kanonis mixedviT, es mimarTeba aris mimarTeba: mikrokosmosimakrokosmosi, anu adamianis grZnobis organoebs samyaroSi daeZebneba analogi. b
B evr enasa da kulturaSi es mimarTeba aisaxeba ara mxolod leqsikaSi,
aramed miTebSi, gamosaxulebebSi, poeziaSi...
sainteresoa am mxriv qarTuli enis masala. m
M zeTvalis metaforuli mimarTeba yvelaze kargad Cans sawyisSi `mzera~. qar-

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cira barbaqaZe

Tvel enaTmecnierTa sarwmuno mtkicebiT: mzeraSi swored mz


Ziri (anu mze) dasturdeba. (mz-er-a; amave tipisaa warmoebis
TvalsazrisiT Zg-er-a). maSasadame, Tvalis funqcia yureba, cqera aRiniSneba leqsemiT, romelic semantikurad mzes ukavSirdeba, rac Zalian saintereso da mniSvnelovani movlenaa da rac
adasturebs am universaluri mimarTebis (mzeTvali) qarTul
enaSi arsebobas.
mzeras sulxansaba ase ganmartavs: Wvreta. Mmzeraca esreT
ganiyofebian: xedva ars ra TvaliT keTilad xedvides; Cena ars
ra akldes da mcired xedvides; mzera ars ra SoriT xedvides;
Wvreta ars ra xangrZliT dakvirvebiT umzerdes rasme; cqera
ars garCeviT xilvisaTvis axlore dacqeriT Tvali daapyras;
Wviroba ars ra sarkmliT gare gamoixedvides.
mze arqetipi saerToqarTveluri fuZe-enis donisTvis aRadgina giorgi klimovma.
qarT: mze
megr: mJa/bJa
laz. mJa/bJa
svan. miJ/mgJ
mze, rogorc arqetipuli fuZe, saintereso sityvawarmoebas
qmnis qarTulSi.
iwarmoeba atributebi: mziuri, mzegrZeli, mzebneli, mzedakruli, mzedaleuli, mzedasanbelebeli, mzeTunaxavi, mzeCamqrali, mzisdari, enamze da sxva. sawyisi: mzeoba; zmna: amzianebs,
mzeobs (`mze veRar mzeobs CvenTana, dari ar darobs darulad(SoTa).
adamianis saxelebi: mzia, mzisa, mzeqala, qalTamze, mzevinari,
mzeWabuki;
frinvelis saxeli: mzewvia;
yvavili: pirimze, mzesumzira, mziura;
sofeli: mzeTamzia;
adgili: mzisyuri, samzeo;
sagalobeli: mzeSina da sxva;
`mz~ Ziria agreTve mziralSi, mzirSi, mzveravSi;
mziri qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi ganmartebulia:
Zv. damzveravi, moTvalTvale; mstovari, jaSuSi. (`mun axlos wyaro dioda, masTan tye iyo xSirado, iq mogveparnen, dagvisxdnen
TxuTmeti kaci mzirado~(d.g)).
mzirali vinc an rac umzers, macqerali, mayurebeli,
mWvreteli;

mzis semiotika poeziaSi

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Tanamedrove qarTuli enis sityva zvari momdinareobs Zveli formidan: mzvare, mzvari, rac niSnavs mzian, uCrdilo adgils
(pir-mziTebi anu mzvareebi, male Sreba, iq male iRebs Tovls (vaJa) (qegli, t. V);
gamzirSi agreTve mzir Ziria, romelic, Tavis mxriv, mz-idan
iwarmoeba. sainteresoa agreTve mweveli forma, romelic momdinareobs mzevelidan, da romelSic `mz Ziri dasturdeba. (aRniSnuli forma dasturdeba sulxan-sabasTan, mzeveli mweveli, momwevi).
Zvel qarTulSi mzis-Tuali mzes, mzis diskos aRniSnavda (`gananaTlos yoveli queyanai ufrois mzis-Tualisa~ m. sw. 212, 13
ilia abulaZe, Zveli qarTuli enis leqsikoni). aRniSnul leqsemaSi mze da Tvali erTad aris warmdgenili, rac Tvalisa da
mzis universalur funqciur kavSirze miuTiTebs.
mze qmnis qarTulSi idiomebsa da frazeologizmebs: mze amosdis, mze daubnelda, mzem Sexeda, mze miyurebs, mzem Tvali daxuWa, mzem Tvali gaaxila, mze gauqra, mzis sinaTleze gamoitana,
mze moekida, mzis dakvra, mzis guli, mzeTa-mze... idiomebsa da
frazeologizmebze dakvirveba aRmogvaCeninebs Tvalimzis metaforul urTierTkavSirs, rodesac Tvalis funqcia gadatanilia mzeze da piriqiT, mzis funqcia Tvalze. MmagaliTad: Tvalebi gaubrwyinda, Tvalis sinaTle, Tvalebi gaunaTda, Tvalebis cecxli yvelgan mzis funqcia naTeba, brwyinva, wva aris
gadatanili.
mze Sedis ficis formulebSic, magaliTad: Cemma mzem, Senma
mzem, Cems mzes vficav... `Senman mzeman, uSenosa vervis mihxvdes
mTvare Seni...~ (SoTa); da sxva.
sepiris mixedviT: adamianebi cxovroben ara mxolod saganTa
obieqtur da sazogadoebrivi Semoqmedebis samyaroSi, isini mniSvnelovanwilad imyofebian konkretuli enis gavlenaSi; im enisa, romelic mocemuli sazogadoebis urTierTobis saSualebaa.
Secdoma iqneboda gvefiqra, rom Cven SegviZlia enis gareSe
srulad gavacnobieroT realoba; ena aris damxmare saSualeba
azrovnebisa da urTierTobis zogierTi problemis gadasawyvetad. `realuri samyaro~ mniSvnelovanwilad igeba mocemuli
jgufis enobrivi normebis safuZvelze.
Cven vxedavT, gvesmis da viRebT ama Tu im faqtsa da movlenas
ase Tu ise imis SemweobiT, rom Cveni sazogadoebis enobrivi normebi gvTavazobs mocemul formebs (sepiri 1993:181).

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cira barbaqaZe

qarTuli poeturi mze


`vardTa da nexvTa vineTgan
mze sworad moefinebis~
SoTa rusTaveli

mze RvTaeba, ufali, uzenaesia da amitom poetisaTvis mze


aris orientiri, marad Seucnobeli, mzisken svla mTavari gza!
`mzisken mimafrens faskunji,
faskunjs ufskrulis aqvs kuWi,
mena sagzali var misi,
magram veyofi?!
ar vici!~;
(muxran maWavariani)
`Sen ki, samefo visac gepyra
usazRvrod vrceli,
Senc
ofli visac gaRvrevina
monis uRelma,
aRar xar,
radgan mzis xelTaa
sikvdilis celi!
aRar xar,
radgan sulerTia mzisTvis suyvela!~;
`fexze macvia irmis tyaviT Sekruli xamli,
vaRmerTeb mzesa, vanTeb cecxlsa,
da mzisken midis rZisferi kvamli...
vaRmerTeb mzesa, vanTeb cecxlsa
da vwirav msxverplsa...~;
(ana kalandaZe)
`es simReraa mzis sasalamo,
martispiruli.....~;
`Tavs movikazmav
siraqlemas lamazi frTebiT
da mzes vumRereb
okeaniT mimavals mZimed~;
`mze mTis wveridan amobrialda

mzis semiotika poeziaSi

13

da miriadi Caqra varskvlavi...


swored masaviT daiwye brwyinva
Cems karvis karTan...
o, rogor hgavdi Sen im Zvel RmerTebs,
rom dagyurebdnen mTebidan, cidan,
Sen Zirs dauSvi grZneuli mSvildi,
mzeT udideso!
madli mivage didebul mzesa,
rom dagnaToda yornisfer Tmebze~;
`aq daibada `suliko~,
mzisken gafrinda `merani~...
`miwas swydebian verxvebi maSin
da goliaTur mxrebis SerxeviT
mzisken midian zRapruli raSiT
Cemi verxvebi...~;
`ha, laJvardebi mcxunvare mziTa,
kvlav Sens TaRebSi avardna minda,
usazRvroebav!...~...

mze, rogorc ufali, yvelgan da yvelaferSia:


`iqneb mze Camovarda babilonis godlidan,
Camoimsxvra daxlebze da Rvinod gadmodinda?
anda, devma sazamTro daagora zRapridan
da kldis Ziras miafSvna mtkvris elvare napirTan?
mziT daxoxbda tyeebi, zvrebic mziT moiCiTa,
mze moJonavs leRvidan, mze mowveTavs fiWidan,
mzes yidian doqebiT, woniTa da calobiT,
yelamdea es miwa mzis madliT da wyalobiT.
mzea xmaSi, sityvaSi, mzea gamoxedvaSi,
mzea, Semodgomis mze da surneli zedaSis...~; (SoTa niSnianiZe)
da roca mze Tavdeba sulSi, mTavrdeba yvelaferi...
`exla Sens sulSi yvavilisTvis mze aRar aris,
mze aRar aris da ar aris araraime!~
(galaktioni)

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cira barbaqaZe

`mzis sadRegrZelos maradi WiqiT


vsvam, mixaria cecxlis kdemani...~;
`miuwvdomelo, Sen dageZeb xeliscecebiT,
sxivi xar mzisa...~
(jansuR Carkviani)
`Tu patroni mzes ugalobs,
saqarTvelos ra moklavso!~;
`mzisken mivdevdiT gafrenil mernebs!~;
`mwvane foTlebi, tuCebrZiani,
yviTldebian da mzisken midian...~
`is aTamaSebs burTiviT miwas,
ugzavnis wvimas, Takara sicxes,
puriT da wyaliT Worflavs da winwklavs
da caze xatavs droTa aRmricxvels.
ex, Cveni brali, Sen rom ar gvyavde,
ra gveSveleba, mzeo, maRalo,
iganTiada, nuSi ayvavda,
me kidev Senze fiqrma damRala~;
`he, mzeo, mzeo, xelebgawvdili
me vdgever Sen win...~;
`me vgrZnob, Zvirfaso, mzisa misarqmels,
rogor mivyavar sinaTlisaken...~;
`sul mzisken hqondaT gaWrili kari...~;
`mzeo, nurasdros nu waxval Cvengan.
mze yvelas unda da yvelas uWirs
misi gayofa da darigeba,
radgan yvelafers advilad vitanT,
roca sxeuli mziTaa savse~;

(oTar WilaZe)

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mzis semiotika poeziaSi

mzeadamiani
metaforuli kavSiri `mzeadamiani~ qarTul poeziaSi damaxasiaTebeli movlenaa, da raki mze sulieriviT, adamianiviT ganicdeba poetebis mier, amitom mzes axasiaTebs adamianis Tvisebebi:
`mze icinis, vardfurclobis daria~; (ana kalandaZe)
`mzis Rimili aRaCina caman~;
`Sen mismen ise, viT mze usmens okeaneebs~;
`mze iyo civi da mSvidi~.
`dacemula riyis qvaze,
mzeo, maxsovs Seni sisxli...
Wrilobaze TuTuns gayri,
perangs vxev da gixvev frTxilad,
silaSi ki, rogorc balRi,
aTinaTi amoTxvrila.~
(jansuR Carkviani)
`Tumca gvelebma veli moSxames
da mzis xelebi moigeries...~,

(lado asaTiani)

`mze monadire megona,


saxudars mofarebuli~;
`mze ki kuTxeSi mimjdara mileul dedaberiviT,
abrunebs oqros TiTistars biisfrad gadaferili~;
(SoTa niSnianiZe)
mze satrfo (mzesiyvaruli)
`Sen Camoxvedi, etyoba, mzidan,
rom wamsve cecxlis damwvdnen Rvarebi,
gaqrnen qalebi prospeqtze darCi,
daginaxe da gtace Tvalebi...~;
(murman lebaniZe)
`vaJao, dilis mzis sxivo~;

(ana kalandaZe)

`irgvliv mzis naTeli dasdgomia mTebsa,


caSi gafrenilan nislisni mTebi,

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cira barbaqaZe

mzei SeniT mzeobs,


mzed enTebi, zeobr...
Cemi gulis Zaxils,
o, RaRadiss Cemsas,
Sen arsaiT ismen?....~;
`rac ufro Sors xar, miT ufro vtkbebi,
me SenSi miyvars ocneba Cemi,
xeluxlebeli, rogorc mzis sxivi...~;

(galaktioni )

`wavida, gaqra... ver SevekiTxe,


risTvis gamSorda, risTvis wavida...
gamiqra sulis ocneba wminda...
iluleba mze, iZarcveba tye~;
`usiyvarulod mze ar sufevs cis kamaraze~;
`dRes yvelgan mzea, exla am baRebs
da myinvars, maral zraxvaTa mefes,
maisi aliT aazambaxebs,
viT Seyvarebuls da meocnebes.~;
`rac ca umzeod dedamiwac dRes igivea...
gemic uSenod igivea, rac ca umzeod~;
`TiTqos Sens sxeulSi mzea momwyvdeuli...~; (SoTa niSnianiZe)
`Sen amodixar zRvidan mzesaviT
Tavisufali da moTenTili~;

(oTar WilaZe)

`Seni xeliviT Tbili da mSvidi


Cems sulSi wveba mzis anarekli~;
`Soridan gimzer mzesaviT daRlils~;

(jansuR Carkviani)

mze dro, adgili, individualoba


mzis erT-erTi mTavari funqcia drois aRniSvnaa... metaforulad mze saaTia, amqveynad yvelaferi droSi da droiT cxov-

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mzis semiotika poeziaSi

robs... yvelafers Tavisi dro aqvs... TiToeul adamians cxovrebis garkveuli, Tavisi wili, Tavisi saaTi, poetebi ki ityvian: rom
Tavisi mze aqvs... is dro, romelic mziT aRiricxeba, aris sicocxle, amitom aseT SemTxvevaSi mze droa da es udris sicocxles. swored es semantika Cans ficis formulebSi: Sens mzes vficav... rac niSnavs: Sens sicocxles vficav...
ara marto adamians aqvs Tavisi dro, anu mze... aramed yvela
dRes, Tves, faqtebsa da movlenebs, awmyos, warsulsa da momavals... yvelafers aqvs Tavisi mze (anu sicocxle), Tavisi `sakuTari mze aqvs agreTve adgilsac... mze erTia, romelic dedamiwas anaTebs da aTbobs, magram igi sxvadasxva mxareSi sruliad
gansxvavebulad ganicdeba da aRiqmeba, miTumetes, poetebis mier. Aamitom erTi mze SeiZleba bevric iyos, gaaCnia, ras gulisxmobs poeti. magaliTad, galaktioni wers: `magram Tvalma daTvala bevri mze da cxraTvala... oh, mziT gadanacxaro, cxra muxa
da cxra wyaro!~
`ymawvilqalobam waiRo
mzeebi, oqromfinarni,
neta ki vinme momgondes,
rom umisoba vinano~;

(ana kalandaZe)

`garindebulxar aprilis mzeze...~;


`oqtombris mzeSi
aSoltili verxvebis rigis
da RvTaebrivi askilis xati
dgas gulsa Sigan...~;
`oh, rogor midis axalgazrdoba,
daundobeli survili lomis
da yovelive rogor nazdeba,
roca axloa mze Semodgomis~;
(gakaltioni)
`magram Seni mze sibneles gaxevs
da daadgeba Subls naTeliviT...~;
`mzeo, TibaTvisa, mzeo, TibaTvisa,
locvad muxlmoyrili
graals Sevedrebi...~;

18

cira barbaqaZe

`o, yoveldRe mzeebi qimerebSi vardeba,


qaravani dReebis mZimed miemarTeba;
`Tu gazafxulis mziTa var mTvrali~;

(oTar WilaZe)

`icinis gogo da miabijebs sakuTar mzeSi,


sakuTar mzeSi da puris mtverSi~;
`Cemi wili mtkvari daSra,
Cemi wili mze Cavida...~;
`mamam cecxli damabara,
var Cemi mzis anabara...~;

(jansuR Carkviani)

`Tqveni mzisa var, Tqveni tyisa var~;


`Turme garbodnen lamazi wlebi,
Cven rom gvegona gavrbodiT mzisken~;
`unda gavuZlo dRis garindebas,
qarTlis cxeli mzis naamborebTa...~;
`da xmaSi udgas Tbilisuri mze da yirmizi~;
`Cven isev zeviT mivdivarT
Seni mzis mosagoneblad...~;
`mze aqauri miduRs me sisxlSi~;
(muxran maWavariani)
`ra Seedreba am Cvens mxaresa?!
am Cvens mzesa da am Cvens mTvaresa?!~;
`xval diliT sxva mze amova...~;

(lado asaTiani)

`Sen Cemi wigni saxsovrad gqondes,


me mzis qarTulis miTqvams sicxovle...~
mze saqarTvelo
`Sors ki, mTis Ziras,
sadac mzea, sadac vazia......

(murman lebaniZe)

19

mzis semiotika poeziaSi

mcire defisad Casdgomia did evr-azias


erTi patara, pawawina saqarTveloa~;
(murman lebaniZe)
`saqarTvelo es zRapruli mzea,
ukeTesis bedisaa Rirsi!~;

(galaktioni)

`Sen, romelic marad mzeebr gvinaT,


ara guSin gaCndi Tvalis Cinad,
aramed mziT amoenTe brwyinvad
ocdaeqvsi saukunis winaT...~;
`sxva mze ara mwams, Seni mze
sxeulSi gavinawile...~;

(jansuR Carkviani)

`raic mTavaria, Cveni mze davicvaT,


RmerTo, moumarTe xeli saqarTvelos~;
mze sasmeli
`xonCiT mzis sxivi mogarTvi,
mzis sxivis Camonawuri~;

(jansuR Carkviani)

`bevri mziT vavseb sulis fialas


da vsvam brZolebis did sadRegrZelos;
`Tu gazafxulis mziTa var mTvrali...~

(oTar WilaZe)

mze sicocxlis simbolo


mzeo, daude sazRvari mwuxare fiqrTa qrolasa,
mzeo, amodi, amodi, nu efarebi gorasa!
galaktioni

sainteresoa mzis metafora folklorul teqstebSi. kerZod, `xmiT natirlebSi~. motiralisaTvis saaqao da saiqio cxovreba moTqmis dros upirispideba erTmaneTs. Tu cocxalTaTvis
saaqao cxovreba, es qveyana, erTaderTi realobaa, sikvdiliT gamowveuli mwuxareba adamians im cxovrebis saiqios siaxlovesac ganacdevinebs. motiralis azrovneba ZiriTadad kontrastebze igeba da Sesabamisi enobrivi gamoxatulebiTac formde-

20

cira barbaqaZe

ba. saaqaosaiqios axali sinonimebi uCndeba `xmiT natirlebis~


teqstebSi. saaqaos, amqveynis sinonimebia: samzeo, mzis qveyana:
`Tuki gvaCuqe e qalai,
rad ar didi dRe dauwese,
raad maswyvite samzeosa?!
..................
`Zmao, mamgone geqneboda,
mamgone, Zmao, samzeosa~;
..................
`gamamacxade samzeosao,
Sen amaZraxe samzeurTao~;
................
`Zmao, samzeos gaTaulo,
Zmao, samzeos daleulo~.
xolo saiqios, im qveynis sinonimebia suleTi da SaveTi:
`suleTis RmerTo, madliano,
mame nebai saubrisao~;
...................
`SaveTis kari gamiRodi,
ukven aravin damabrunos~;
...................
`netavi gaumarjvos, RmerTsa,
SaveTsac misca, SaveTs, kari~.... d
D a sxva.
motirali xSirad Sestiris mzes, rogorc sicocxles, misTvis xom es qveyana samzeoa, mzis qveyanaa:
`mzes ver Savxeneb uSenodao,
mzes, uSenobiT daCrdilulsao~;
.....................
`mzeo, dadeg da Camoxeneo,
mova ymawvili umzeurTao~;
.....................
`cocxalT ra gviWirs, mzes vxedavT,
daRamdeba da gaTendeba,
bralia, visac dauRamda,
visTvisac aRar gaTendeba!~
..................

mzis semiotika poeziaSi

21

`dReo, raira gamzianebs,


mzeo, raira gecineba?~
...................
`daica, mzeo, ar dabrZande,
RamiT me versa gavarigeb~;
da ase Semdeg...
sikvdils sicocxle, mze upirispirdeba, SaveTs samzeo, dRes
Rame... adamiani kvdeba, sicocxle grZeldeba: isev Tendeba da
amodis mze, Tumca motirali ityvis: `mwuxarebis mze~ varo.
leqsemebis: mzis da sikvdilis aqtualizeba `xmiT natirlebis~ teqstebSi albaT yvelaze ukeT xsnis motiralis kontrastebze agebul azrovnebas (barbaqaZe 2003:200).
m
M zis individualuri poetika
mzis universaluri poetikis gamokvlevis Semdeg sainteresod gveCveneba mzis individualuri poetika erTi poetis poeziis mixedviT. Aam niSniT sainteresod gvesaxeba SoTa niSnianiZis poezia.
`ficxobda, sxioda mzis cxeli daira,
sicxe ZunZulebda mTlad daTvisnairad~;
`klanWiani agvistos mze miminosebr cerze mizis~;
`mze ki ZnasaviT CaSlili,
mTel saqarTvelos Svenoda~;
`mze ki kuTxeSi mimjdara mileul dedaberiviT~;
`Saib, sayvarelo, mzis oqros maxvili,
mec winapariviT qudze kacs gavyviri~;
`mze sayeloSi xels Camavlebda
da gamiyvanda gakveTilidan~;
`mze mxarze gaido ToxiviT
da mTvare namglad moRuna~;
`gaiRviZa, gaizmora... daixura mzis CaCqani~;
`da mze exveva zebrasaviT yviTel silaSi~;

22

cira barbaqaZe

`mze ki torebs scems arabuli bedauriviT~;


`da mze hgavda cxenis floqviT axrColebul Radars~;
`Cemi mzerisgan mzec yioda yalyze Semdgari~;
monRolTa sisxlSi mze Wixvinebs udabnoebis~;
`Semodgomis uRels mze xariviT ubia~;
`Toxispirebze gamoukravs mze sagzaliviT
da mindormindor saToxarSi midis aprili~;
`sarze mamalma xma Caiwminda,
mze gadaylapa Toxlo kvercxiviT~;
`iqneba Rames es mze CaxCaxa,
uCinmaCinis qudad exura?~
mze, mze, Camobardne, mzian butkoebad~;
`mze aRdgomis kvercxs Sevadare...~;
`es mze, es miTi damxureT qudad~;
`mzis sviringebiT moxatulxar Wreli gveliviT~;
`mze am gorakebs svaviviT kortnis,
mziT CaJangula papis saZvale~;
`da mzec meomar mamaliviT igrZelebs kisers~;
`mze, rogorc didi, wiTeli buSti~;
`sityva macvia jaWvis perangad,
muxis foToli, mze da mtevani~;
`mze gamaZRari glexkaciviT mTlad gazarmacda~;
`jer ki adrea... mze venaxs wamlavs~;

mzis semiotika poeziaSi

23

`samxreTis tilo, mziT adRvebili,


laJvardebiT da mziT ixateba~;
mzis individualuri poetika SoTa niSnianiZesTan kargad xatavs im samyaros, romelSic poeti cxovrobs sulierad. Mmze SoTa niSnianiZisaTvis aris: daTvi, mimino, Zna, dedaberi, mamali,
Toxi, qudi, zebra, bedauri, svavi, xari, sagzali, Toxlo kvercxi, aRdgomis kvercxi, wiTeli buSti, samosi, glexkaci, mevenaxe da sxva...
aRniSnuli metaforebiT, SedarebebiT, hiperbolebiT da sxva
mxatvruli xerxebiT kargad ixateba soflis garemo, romelic
kvebavs poetis fantazias... mze poetisaTvis yvelagan da yvelaferSia... sulier da usulo sagnebSic.

d a s k v n i s T v i s:
maSasadame, qarTuli poeturi mze aris: ufali, RvTaeba, sicocxle, adamiani, satrfo, saqarTvelo... is axdens adgilisa da
drois metaforizebas; qarTul poeziaSi mze aris erTaderTi,
rogorc ufali da amave dros, bevri, rogorc adamiani... yvelas
da yvelafers aqvs Tavisi wili mze, anu sicocxle samzeoSi, anu
dedamiwaze, mzis samyofelSi; mze yvelgan da yvelaferSia, rogorc RmerTi...
mze, rogorc sicocxlis, sinaTlisa da siTbos wyaro, poeziaSi xdeba Semdeg gancdaTa da grZnobaTa aRmniSvneli: siyvaruli, sixaruli, bedniereba, imedi, nugeSi... Tumca, rodesac avtors naRvliani gancda gadaaqvs mzeze, maSin is SeiZleba iyos:
`mkvdris mze~, `daRaluli mze~, `sapyari mze~ (`Rrubelo Savo,
mzeo sapyaro~ (ana);
mzis zemowarmodgenili metaforuli da simboluri mniSvnelobebi qarTul poeziaSi universaluri xasiaTisaa, magram am
mniSvnelobebis garda TiToeuli poeti sakuTari `mzis poetikiT~ gamorCeva, rac poetis individualobis Sesaswavlad saintereso meTodia.
sakvlev masalaze dakvirvebam gviCvena, rom qarTveli poetebi SegviZlia asec davaxasiaToT: mzis poeti, qaris poeti, nislis
poeti, mTvaris poeti, sisxlis poeti, wvimis poeti, Tovlis poeti... zogjer ki ramdenime koncepti Tanabradaa erTi poetis SemoqmedebaSi.

24

cira barbaqaZe

Tanamedrove qarTul poeziaSi gamorCeulad mzis poetebi


arian galaktioni da ana kalandaZe (Tumca anasTan varskvlavebi
da qaric aqtualuria).

Lliteratura

aruTinova 1999: .. . .;
barbaqaZe 2003: cira barbaqaZe, qarTuli mWevrmetyvelebis pragmatika,
Tbilisi.
eko 2004: , , _.
iakobsoni 1975: . , , .
losevi 2008: . . , , , _.
postmodernizmi 2002: : ,
.
barti 1989 , , , ,
;
pirsi 2000 . . , ,
;
morisi 2001 . . , , :
, , ;
uilraiti 1990: . , , :
, ;
rifateri 1984: Michael Riffaterre. Semiotics of Poetry. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press;
lotmani 1972: . . . .;
lotmani 1970: .. .
.;
kristeva 2004: . : .
.;
ivanovi 1985: .. ,
, ( ) //
: , , . - . IV.
- , 1985. - . 254-259.

25

konstantine b
B regaZe

galaktioni da novalisi

filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidati; ivane javaxiSvlis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis asistent-profesori; SoTa rusTavelis
literaturis institutis mecnier-TanamSromeli;
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
novalisis saxismetyvelebis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi, novalisis enis filosofia, literaturuli da enisfilosofiuri narkvevebi (novalisi, goeTe, v. f. humboldti...).
interesTa sfero: germanuli romantizmi, hermenevtika, enis filosofia.

mxatvruli literaturis komparatiuli meTodiT kvlevisas, rodesac ori metnaklebad TanabarmniSvnelovani avtoris
Semoqmedebis SedarebiT-istoriuli
kvleva warmoebs, SesaZloa, rom erTi avtori meoris mimbaZvelad warmoCndes.
amitom, amgvari kvlevisas imTaviTve unda iqnas daSvebuli winapiroba, rom WeSmarit SemoqmedTa SemoqmedebiT procesSi gansxvavebiT saSualo SemoqmedTa SemoqmedebiTi procesisagan, sadac didia
mimbaZvelobisa da gavlenis wili a priori
arsebobs SemoqmedebiTi inspiracia da
ara gavlena da mimbaZveloba. es SemoqmedebiTi inspiracia erTgvari ucilobeli
esTetikuri ontologiaa, rasac verc erTi didi Semoqmedi ver gaeqceva, ramdenadac avtori ar qmnis cariel adgilze, misi mxatvruli teqsti ar aris sagani TavisTavad, aramed konkretuli ontologiuri, ideologiuri da esTetikuri inspiraciis Sedegad warmoqmnili mocemulobaa
(aq CemTvis amosavalia esTetikuri zednaSenis principi). Sesabamisad, aq raime gavlenebze saubari aramarTebulia. am TvalsazrisiT sakmarisia vaxsenoT, rom mTeli
dasavleTevropuli mxatvruli literatura, da zogadad kultura, erTi mxriv
bibliuri, xolo meore mxriv ZvelberZnuli da Zvelgermanuli miTologiuri arqe-

26

konstantine bregaZe

tipebiT sazrdoobs da maTgan iRebs SemoqmedebiT inspiracias.


Sesabamisad, ama Tu im avtoris sidiade da originaloba aRniSnul arqetipTa individualur da unikalur esTetikur gadamuSavebaSi mdgomareobs, ris Sedegadac avtori qmnis sakuTar
TviTmyofad, ganumeorebel poetur saxismetyvelebas (poeturi da tropuli metyvelebis sinTezi), rodesac avtori, fr. Slegelis sityviT rom vTqvaT, afuZnebs sakuTar progresul da universalur poezias (progressive Universalpoesie), xolo novalisis mixedviT transcendentur poezias (transzendentale Poesie); anu, avtori qmnis mxatvrul teqsts, romelic arRvevs da afarToebs
yofierebis sazRvrebs da gadadis droiT da sivrciT ganzomilebaTa miRma (rusTavelis enaze amas saRmrTo siaxle hqvia). rusTavelis, dantes, Seqspiris, goeTes mxatvruli teqstebi swored
SemoqmedebiTi inspiraciis esTetikuri gadamuSavebis Sedegad
Seqmnili teqstebia, romelTa esTetikuri individualoba, originaloba da ganumeorebloba maTs TviTmyofad saxismetyvelebaSia sagulvebeli, isini progresul-universaluri da transcendenturi poeziis nimuSebia.
amdenad, mxatvruli teqstebis komparatiuli kvlevis dros a
priori amosavali da gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos ama Tu im avtoris SemoqmedebiT procesSi imTaviTve impliciturad mocemuli SemoqmedebiTi inspiracia. Sesabamisad, kvleva upirveles
yovlisa (xazs vusvam, upirveles yovlisa) mimarTuli unda iyos
swored imis warmosaCenad, Tu ramdenad maRal xarisxSia ama Tu
im avtoris SemoqmedebaSi esTetikuri inspiraciiT miRebuli
STabeWdilebebis originalur-SemoqmedebiTi, TviTmyofadi
aTviseba-recefcia da ara raRac gavlenebis Cxreka (ra Tqma unda, ama Tu im `meorad~ mweralTan arsebuli gavlenebis warmoCena da dadgenac komparatiuli litmcodneobis sferoa, ris masalasac uxvad iZleva epigonuri mwerloba, magram gavlenebis moZieba komparatiuli litmcodneobis meoradi amocanaa). Sesabamisad, komparatiuli litmcodneobis amosavali debuleba unda
iyos inspiraciis wyaroTa dadgena da mikvleva da ara imTaviTve
ararsebuli gavlenebis gamovlena, ramdenadac litmcodneobisaTvis Rirebulebas warmoadgens swored inspiraciaTa, da ara
gavlenaTa, hermenevtika.
aqedan gamomdinare, komparatiulma litmcodneobam ori metnaklebad TanabarmniSvnelovani avtoris, Sesabamisad, sxvadasxva Tu erTi da imave literaturul mimdinareobaTa warmomadgenlebis Semoqmedeba, erTi mxriv, unda gamoikvlios tipolo-

galaktioni da novalisi

27

giuri TvalsazrisiT (mag. rusTaveli da volfram fon eSenbaxi,


novalisi da baraTaSvili, galaktioni da georg Traqli da a. S.),
xolo, meore mxriv, esTetikuri inspiraciis TvalsazrisiTac
(mag. germaneli romantikosebi da frangi simbolistebi, frangi
simbolistebi da galaktioni da a. S.), rac kvlevis Semdgom fazaze qmnis avtorTa originaluri da TviTmyofadi poeturi saxismetyvelebis interpretaciisa da recefciis winapirobas.
rodesac kvleva warmoebs ama Tu im avtorTan ararsebuli gavlenebis moZiebis, da ara inspiraciebis marTebuli recefciis mimarTulebiT, ai, am `sacTuris~ winaSe dgas mkvlevari, rodesac saqme midgeba galaktionis poeturi teqstebis komparatiul kvlevaze. aq mkvlevari unda ecados, rom galaktioni, misdauneburad, ar
warmoaCinos sxva avtorTa gavlenebis qveS myof epigon Semoqmedad. Sesabamisad, galaktionis poeturi teqstebis komparatiuli
meTodiT interpretaciis procesSi mkvlevaris mizani upirveles
yovlisa unda iyos galaktionis poeturi teqstebis inspiraciis
wyaroTa dadgena da am esTetikur sawyisTa da galaktionis poetur teqstTa tipologiuri kvleva, maTi esTetikuri recefcia galaktionis mier da Semdgom, kvlevis bolo etapze Tavad galaktionis poetur teqstTa hermenevtika da amis safuZvelze maTi TviTmyofadobisa da ganumeoreblobis warmoCena.
dRes galaktionologiaSi aRiarebuli faqtia Sarl bodleris
pre-simbolisturi poeziisa da franguli simbolizmis, rogorc
erT-erTi SemoqmedebiTi inspiratoris, roli galaktionis poeziaSi. magram naklebi yuradReba eTmoba germanuli romantizmis SemoqmedebiT inspiracias galaktionis poeziaSi. marTalia,
am problemis erTi aspeqtis `gaxsnaa~ r. burWulaZis gamokvleva `vagneri da galaktioni~ (burWulaZe 1980: 63-94), magram, Cemi
azriT, germanuli romantizmisa (da zogadad romantizmis) da
galaktionis poeziis urTierTmimarTebis TvalsazrisiT kvleva
unda gaRrmavdes da gaiSalos da mxolod vagneris musikiT ar
unda Semoifarglos.1
rac Seexeba r. burWulaZis gamokvlevas, avtoris mier galaktionis poeturi teqstebi vagneris musikasTan kavSirSi isea gaanalizebuli,
rom warmoCenilia ara am ori Semoqmedis ideuri da
____________________________
1
sainteresoa, rom Tavis mxriv franguli simbolizmi SemoqmedebiT inspiracias iRebda germanuli romantizmisagan. kerZod, aq sakmarisia vaxsenoT Tundac
igive rihard vagneri da misi musikis gavlena bodlersa da malarmeze, anda
germanuli romantizmis usasrulo mogzaurobis motivis poeturi recefcia
artur rembos mier (Sdr. misi leqsi mTvrali xomaldi da vagneris opera mfrinavi holandieli, anda iozef fon aihendorfis romantikuli poeziis usasrulo mogzaurobis motivi) (zafranski 2007: 214, 273-274).

28

konstantine bregaZe

konceptualuri erTianoba yofierebis esTetikuri Semecnebis


TvalsazrisiT (tipologia), avtoris mier galaktionis leqsebi
(`angelozs eWira grZeli pergamenti~, `mzeo TibaTvisa~, `gemi dalandi~, `dabruneba~ da sxv.) warmoCenilia ara rogorc TviTmyofadi poeturi teqstebi, aramed rogorc vagneris operebis (`loengrini~, `mfrinavi holandieli~) Taviseburi poeturi ilustraciebi, ris Sedegadac galaktioni warmoCenilia ara rogorc TviTmyofadi Semoqmedi, aramed rogorc rigiTi, saSualo epigoni poeti. aSkaraa, rom kvleva moikoWlebs meTodologiuri TvalsazrisiT, risi mizezicaa hermenevtikuli meTodis ugulebelyofa.
amitomac, avtoris kvlevis sferoSi ar Semosula Tavad galaktionis leqsebis WeSmariti Sinagani logosis hermenevtika, anu, komparatiuli kvlevis saboloo da umaRlesi faza.
Cemi azriT, Sarl bodleris pre-simbolisturi poeziisa da
franguli simbolizmis garda, galaktionis poeziis erT-erTi
STagonebis wyaroa germanuli romantizmic, kerZod, novalisis
(fridrix fon hardenbergi, 1772-1801) romantikuli poezia, risi aSkara nimuSia galaktionis Tundac Semdegi cnobili leqsi
`aRar aris menestreli~ (ra Tqma unda, sxva leqsebic), sadac igi
pirdapir axsenebs germanuli romantizmis erT-erTi fuZemdeblisa da udidesi romantikosi poetis novalisis romantikuli
poeziis umTavres simbolos lurj yvavils (die blaue Blume). Cemi azriT, mocemul leqsSi novalisis yvavilis (anu lurji yvavilis) poeturi koncepti SemoqmedebiT procesSi warmoqmnili
SemTxveviToba ki ar aris, aramed igi cnobierad Tu aracnobierad gamoxatavs novalisis poeziidan momdinare SemoqmedebiT
inspiraciasa da impulsebs. faqtobrivad, es leqsi unda gaviazroT, erTi mxriv, rogorc Taviseburi poeturi miZRvna novalisisa da misi romantikuli poeziisadmi, xolo, meore mxriv, rogorc germanuli romantizmisa da galaktionis konceptualuresTetikuri Tanamoazreoba.2

____________________________
2
sainteresoa, rom galaktioni Tavissave Jurnalis mowinaveSi (ix. galaktion
tabiZis Jurnali # 2, 1922) axsenebs germanel romantikosebs vilhelm hainrix
vakenrodersa da novaliss, romelTa poezias igi akavSirebs rogorc zogadad
poeziis, ise sakuTari poeziis ontologiur arsTan, rac konceptualurad gulisxmobs poetur teqstebSi da poeturi teqstebiT transcendenturobisadmi
swrafvasa da mis wvdomas, rasac upirispirdeba empiriuli sinamdvilis pragmatizmi, warmavloba da amaoeba: me vicodi, rom adamianebs Soris aRar aris araviTari kavSiri, usulo da ugulo angariSebis garda, rom amaod wyurodaT am
adamianebs ideali da harmonia, rom egoisturma angariSebma sruliad walekes
ltolva araqveyniur ocnebisadmi, gahqra mwuxareba vakenroderis, gahqra zmanebebi novalisis (tabiZe 1975: 20). aq impliciturad mocemulia galaktionisa
da germanuli romantikuli poeziis konceptualur-esTetikuri siaxlove.

galaktioni da novalisi

29

Cemi statia aris galaktionis am leqsisa da misi sxva leqsebis


safuZvelze galaktionis modernistuli poeziisa da novalisis
romantikuli poeziis konceptualur-saxismetyvelebiTi siaxlovis Cvenebisa (tipologia) da germanuli romantizmis, rogorc galaktionis poeturi teqstebis erT-erTi mainspirebeli wyaros, warmoCenis cda.
Tavdapirvelad aq mTlianad moviyvan galaktionis zemoT aRniSnul leqss `aRar aris menestreli~:
`es ocneba aris Wreli
fiqri bneli Ramisa,
aRar aris menestreli
unazesi damisa.
iyo irgvliv zianeba
da yornebis Cxavili,
Tovlma silas mianeba
novalisis yvavili.
magram gulSi dards nu isev,
ocneba nu gSordeba,
yovelive igi isev
ise ganmeordeba~ (tabiZe 1973: 192).
leqsSi ikveTeba Semdegi poetur saxeebi da konceptebi Rame, ocneba, (novalisis) yvavili. marTalia, poeturi saxismetyvelebis TvalsazrisiT, aq gansakuTrebuli araferia, vinaidan nebismier epoqaSi nebismieri poetis `sayvareli~ poeturi saxeebi
da konceptebia Rame, ocneba/sizmari, yvavili. magram Tu gaviTvaliswinebT Tavad leqsis mTel Sinaarsobriv-esTetikur konteqsts, leqsSi es poeturi saxeebi warmoCndeba rogorc konkretuli TviTmyofadi Sinaarsis (Sinagani logosis) Semcveli
poeturi xatebi: kerZod, isini SemoqmedebiT-konceptualurad
ukavSirdebian da mianiSneben novalisis romantikul poeziaze,
ramdenadac leqsSi galaktioni erTi mxriv pirdapir axsenebs novalisis romantikuli poeziis centralur simbolos lurj yvavils (`novalisis yvavili~), xolo meore mxriv leqsSi aris aluziebi novalisis roman `hainrix fon ofterdingenzec~ (sadac
swored lurji yvavilis simbolo gvxvdeba), razec mianiSneben
yvavilisa da menestrelis poeturi saxeebi.
am TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba iTqvas Semdegi: novalisis romanis centraluri simboloa lurji yvavili, romelsac romanis

30

konstantine bregaZe

mTavari gmiri (hainrixi) sizmarSi ixilavs da Semdgom mTels romanSi gmiris personaJismieri ontologia am lurji yvaviliTaa
determinebuli. xolo Tavad romanis mTavari gmiris, hainrixis,
prototipia Suasaukuneebis minezengeri (menesterli), anu raindi-poeti hainrix fon ofterdingeni, volfram fon eSenbaxis
Tanamedrove. Tumca novalisis romanis hainrixi da romanSi asaxuli Suasaukuneobrivi interieri pirobiTi, fiqciuri mocemulobania da isini eqvemdebareba novalisiseuli romantikuli poeziis poetikisa da saxismetyvelebis principebs. Sesabamisad,
novalisis romanis hainrixi aris sakuTriv romanis teqstis hainrixi da ara konkretuli istoriuli piri. aqedan gamomdinare,
galaktionis menestreli erTi mxriv aris swored novalisis romanis personaJze aluzia, xolo meore mxriv am poeturi konceptis qveS galaktioni gulisxmobs Tavad novalissac. amitomac,
SemTxveviTi araa, rom galaktioni menestrelTan erTad iqve axsenebs novalisis yvavilsac, anu novalisis romanis mTavar simbolos, lurj yvavils, rac romanSi aris transcendenturobis,
usasrulobis, saRvTo siyvarulis poeturi simbolo (bregaZe
2009: 28-69). aqedan gamomdianre, galaktionis leqsis teqstSi poeturi konceptebi menestreli da novalisis yvavili erT saxismetyvelebiT sibrtyes qmnis da saerTo poeturi koncefciis
farglebSi jdeba: leqsSi novalisis yvavilis poetur koncepts
igive mxatvruli funqcia akisria, rac novalisis romanSi, kerZod, igi aris transcendenturi saRvTo realobis simbolo, romlis moxmobiTac galaktioni mianiSnebs im egzistencialur Cixze, rac gamowveulia RvTaebrivis, romlis simboloc novalisis
yvavilia, yofierebasa da adamianis sulier cxovrebaSi reducirebiT `Tovlma silas mianeba novalisis yvavili~.
xolo am saxismetyvelebiTi konteqstidan gamomdinare, rogorc novalisis poetur teqstebSi, ise galaktionis aRniSnul
leqsSi ocnebis poeturi koncepti warmoadgens dakargul RvTaebriv yofierebaze ocnebisa da mogonebis aluzias, xolo Ramis
poeturi koncepti mianiSnebs swored im pirvelqmnil, metafizikur Rameze, romlis wiaRSic iSvis Semdgom RvTaebrivi naTeli.
Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT zemoTqmuls, absoluturad aramarTebuli da miuRebelia r. burWulaZis daskvna, TiTqos es leqsi
`dawerilia al. blokis dramis, vardisa da jvaris STabeWdilebiT~, rom TiTqos novalisiseuli lurji yvavilis, da Sesabamisad, galaktioniseuli novalisis yvavilis poeturi simboloebi
sikvdilis poeturi saxeebia (burWulaZe 1980: 117). rogorc zemoT aRvniSne, novalisTan yvavilis poeturi simbolo aris ara

galaktioni da novalisi

31

sikvdilis poturi saxe, aramed transcendenturobis, usasrulobis, sulieri srulyofilebisa da ukvdavebis poeturi simbolo. xolo yvavilis sikvdilis simbolod gageba ukavSirdeba germaneli simbolistis Stefan georges poezias, da misi poeziis saxismetyvelebis centralur simbolos Sav yvavils. savaraudoa,
rom al. blokiseuli Savi vardic swored aqedan iRebs saTaves.
novalisTan ki gvaqvs lurji yvavili, rasac r. burWulaZe aramarTebulad imave simbolur datvirTvas miawers, rasac blokiseul Sav vards (Sesabamisad, georgeseul Sav yvavils) (burWulaZe 1980: 117).
axla mivubrundeT sakiTxs, Tu raSi mdgomareobs galaktionisa da novalisis poeturi teqstebis konceptualur-esTetikuri
da saxismetyvelebiTi Tanamoazreoba da ra formiT vlindeba galaktionis poetur teqstebSi novalisis romantikuli poeziis
SemoqmedebiTi inspiracia. kerZod: Cemi azriT, novalisisa da galaktionis poetur teqstebSi saerToa satrfos poeturi saxis
rogorc transcendenturi saRvTo realobis simbolod gageba,
rac saTaves savaraudod swored novalisis poeturi teqstebidan unda iRebdes (Sdr. galaktionis `aRar aris menestreli~, `vin
aris es qali?~ `qari qris, qari qris...~, aseve meris ciklis leqsebi, xolo novalisis `Ramis himnebis~ poeturi cikli). maT poetur teqstebSi aseve saerToa Ramis rogorc transcendenturobis poetur simbolod gageba, rac saTaves, Cemi azriT, aseve novalisis poeziidan unda iRebdes (Sdr. galaktionis `me da Rame~,
`mTawmindis mTvare~, `aRar aris menestreli~, `lilian frTebiT~;
xolo novalisis `Ramis himnebi~). galaktionisa da novalisis poetur teqstebSi saerToa aseve RvTismSoblis, madonas kultis poeturi recefcia, sadac RvTismSoblis poeturi saxe gvevlineba
saRvTo siyvarulisa da transcendenturobis simbolod. galaktionTan am aspeqtis esTetikuri inspiraciac savaraudod aseve
novalisis poeziaSia sagulvebeli (Sdr. galaktionis `silaJvarde anu vardi silaSi~, `xomalds mihyveba TeTri madona~, `saRamo~,
`damSvidobeba~; xolo novalisis `Ramis himnebisa~ da `sasuliero simRerebis~ poeturi ciklebi).3
____________________________
3
calke kvlevis Temaa lurji feris saxismetyveleba novalisTan da galaktionTan erTi mxriv, lurji yvavilis simbolo novalisis roman hainrix fon
ofterdingenSi, meore mxriv, lurji feris simbolikis vagneriseuli laitmotivi galaktionis poetur teqstebSi (lurja cxenebi, gviani ocneba, sasaflaoni, lilian frTebiT, me araerTxel mqonia frTebi, dgeba TeTri dReebi..., saRamo, Tovli, i. a. da sxva). magram amjerad es problema Cemi kvlevis
sagans ar warmoadgens da mas statiaSi ar ganvixilav. Tumca am sakiTxis hermenevtikas momavalSi uTuod gadmovcem.

32

konstantine bregaZe

novalisTan satrfos poeturi saxis rogorc transcendenturobisa da saRvTo realobis simbolod gageba gvxvdeba mis poetur-mistikur ciklSi `Ramis himnebi~ (bregaZe 2009: 121-123),
rac Semdeg varirebuli saxiT gadadis missave romanSi `hainrix
fon ofterdingeni~ (bregaZe 2009: 53-62). novalisis poetur teqstebSi asaxuli siyvarulis istoria, satrfosadmi gmiris ltolva warmoadgens ara sayofacxovrebo, `biurgeruli~ siyvarulis
ambavs, aramed aq simbolizebulia iniciaciis procesi, anu Semmecnebeli subieqtis swrafva sulieri srulyofis, usasrulobisa da transcendenturobisadmi (bregaZe 2009: 53-62). Sesabamisad, novalisTan satrfos poeturi saxe gvevlineba transcendenturobisa da samoTxiseuli egzistenciis simbolod:
`nislSi STainTqa MmTa da vixile satrfos naTliTmosili
nakvTebi. mis TvalebSi daevana maradisobas. xeli Sevavle
sasurvels da cremlebi iqcnen mbrwyinav uwyvet mZivad.
aTaswleulebi wariltvnen SoreTSi, viT avdris qarebi.
mis yels davadine netarebis cremlebi axali cxovrebisaTvis. da es sizmari erTaderTia. mxolod mas Semdeg Camesaxa maradi, Seuryeveli rwmena Rameuli zecisa da misi
naTlisadmi satrfosadmi~ [Ramis himnebi, III] (novalisi
2007: 18).4
swored amgvari saxismetyvelebiTi funqcia aqvs galaktionis teqstebSi satrfos poetur saxes merisadmi miZRvnili leqsebis ciklSi. (`meri~, `Sen zRvis pirad midiodi, meri~..., `meris
TvalebiT~..., `o, dRes Semodgomaa...~). am SemTxvevaSi, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT galaktionis poeturi teqstebis specifikas,
rac gulisxmobs imas, rom isini warmoadgenen transcendenturi poeziis nimuSebs, anu romelTa poetur-esTetikuri intenciac transcendenturobis `gaxsna~ da wvdomaa (am TvalsazrisiT mxolod `lurja cxenebis~ xsenebac kmara), maSin am WrilSi
galaktionis poetur teqstebSi intencirebuli siyvarulis Temisa da satrfos (meris) poeturi saxis sayofacxovrebo siyvarulis ambavze reducireba imTaviTve gamoricxulia. aqedan gamomdinare, meris ciklis poetur teqstebSi satrfos poeturi
saxe unda gaviazroT rogorc transcendenturobisa da dakarguli RvTaebrivi pirvelsawyisis simbolo. oRond, novalisisagan gansxvavebiT, galaktionTan, satrfos saxiT simbolizebu____________________________
4 statiaSi novalisis citatebis Targmani statiis avtors ekuTvnis

galaktioni da novalisi

33

li RvTaebrivi yofiereba ukve warmoadgens miuwvdomelis sferos, rac ontologiurad galaktionis lirikuli gmirisaTvis
(Sesabamisad galaktionisaTvis) warmoSobs egzistencialur Cixsa da SiSs: kerZod, masSi (zeciuri) satrfosadmi ltolva da misdami trfoba ukve aRar iwvevs da aRar niSnavs sulier srulyofasa da usasrulo transcendenturobaSi ukvdav egzistencias:
mimafrenda napirebze lurja cxeni,
gadviCexe,
ukurneblad daWrili var...
damexseni!
..
Caxmaxis wuTi. bnel sivrceSi aSlili boli,
Savi yvavilis samudamod mkvdari foToli.
luciferi:
vin aris es qali, vin aris es qali
aseTi cisferi?~ [`vin aris es qali?~] (tabiZe 1973: 92).
[...] da Srialebda toti verxvisa,
raze vin icis! vin icis, meri!
bedi, romelic me ar meRirsa
qars mihyveboda, rogorc namqeri.
sTqvi: uecari gasxivosneba
rad Caqra ase? vis vevedrebi?
rad aSrialda Cemi ocneba,
rogorc gafrenil arwivis frTebi?

qari da wvimis wveTebi xSiri


wydebodnen, rogorc mwydeboda guli
da me avtirdi viT mefe liri,
liri, yvelasgan mitovebuli~ [`meri~] (tabiZe 1973:63).
novalisTan da galaktionTan satrfos poetur saxes ukavSirdeba RvTismSoblis (madonas) poeturad gaazrebuli da recifirebuli saxe, romelic, iseve rogorc satrfos poeturi simbolo, ganasaxierebs saRvTo yofierebas. aqac, Tuki, novalisis poetur teqstebSi RvTismSoblisadmi (madonasadmi) lirikuli gmiris mistikuri swrafva simbolurad ganasaxierebs dakarguli
saRvTo yofierebis kvlav mopovebas da amavdroulad impliciturad gulisxmobs am RvTaebrivi yofierebis mopovebis rwme-

34

konstantine bregaZe

nas lirikuli gmiris pirovnuli nebelobidan gamomdinare (fixteanuri nakadi), maSin galaktionis lirikuli me aRar avlens pirovnul nebelobas, igi usaxelo araras winaSe dgas da eqvemdebareba yofierebis mier SemoTavazebul empiriul Tu metafizikur saganTmimarTebebs `rogor SeviZloT uRvTismSobloba?
viT avitanoT umadonoba? gahqra zmaneba, gahqra feria...~ (tabiZe 1973: 274):
novalisi:
mariam gixile aTas xatebSi,
vervin Segicnobs viT suli Cemi.
me vuwyi mxolod, wuTisofeli
mas mere sizmrad ganmiqardeba,
da utkbilesi, uTqmeli zeca
marad Cems sulSi Camesaxeba~
[`sasuliero simRerebi~ XV] (novalisi 1981:
198).
N
dedav RvTisao, satrfov!
tanjuli kaci TqveniT aris ganaTlebuli.
maradi wyaloba Tqvengan mogveca.
oh, vici, matilde, Sen xar,
Cemi ltolvis wminda mizani~
[`hainrix fon ofterdingeni~] (novalisi 1981:
372).
galaktioni:
`dedav RvTisao, mzeo mariam!
rogorc nawvimar silaSi vardi,
Cemi cxovrebis gza sizmaria
da Soreuli cis silaJvarde.
.
sad aris CemTvis samagiero?
sabedniero sad aris suli?
viT samoTxidan aligieri,
me jojoxeTiT var dafaruli!
da roca bediT dawyevlil gzaze
sikvdilis landi momeCveneba,

35

galaktioni da novalisi

gansasvenebel ziarebaze
CemTan ar mova Seni xseneba!
davikref xelebs da grigaliviT
gamaqaneben swrafi cxenebi!
RamenaTevi da namTvralevi
Cems samareSi Cavesvenebi~
[`silaJvarde anu vardi silaSi~] (tabiZe 1973:
141).
rac Seexeba Ramis poetur simbolos, orive avtorTan Rame
gvevlineba saRvTo misteriebisa da sulieri Semecnebis (iniciacia) sferod. amasTanave, rogorc novalisi, ise galaktioni Ramis poetur saxes ukavSireben sikvdilis, sizmrisa (ocnebis) da
satrfos poetur konceptebsa da saxeebs: sikvdilisa da sizmris
poeturi saxeebi rogorc novalisTan, ise galaktionTan aris
iniciaciis Sualeduri, gardamavali safexuri axali saRvTo egzistenciisaken, romlis gavlis Semdgomac xorcieldeba lirikuli gmiris (iniciantis) sulieri srulqmna da RvTaebriv yofierebaSi damkvidreba. sainteresoa, rom am SemTxvevaSi, Ramis poeturi saxis gagebaSi galaktioni diametrulad upirispirdeba
mag. Sarl bodlers, romelTanac Rame apokalifsuri daqcevisa
da aRsasrulis simboloa da ara spiritualuri W
Q vretis (iniciacia) sfero, axali saRvTo egzistenciis dasawyisis wiaRi, rogorc
es galaktionTan da novalisTanaa (zafranski 2007: 121):
bodleri:
Ramea, wvims da Camqrala zeca,
TiTqos daseres samrekloebma.
qalaqis goTur siluets lewavs
ruxi siSoris amaoeba.
saxrCobelebiT savsea veli,
gvamebs yvavebis niskarti kortnis,
sanukvar sakvebs moelis mgeli,
haerSi cekvavs gvamTa eskorti.
ekal-bardebi, buCqebi, xeni
foTolTa yviTel zmanebebs qmnian
da monaxazis pirquSi fskeri
mihyveba qaoss avbediT niavs. [...]
[`Ramis efeqti~, Targmna qeTevan mindaZem] (anTologia...
2004: 393).

36

konstantine bregaZe

novalisi:
`da me veswrafvi iqiT SoreTSi wminda, uTqmel, idumal Rames. [...] keTilSobili balzami iRvreba Sens (Ramis k. b.)
yayaCoTa Taigulidan. damaSvral suls ezidebi zecad. eniTuTqmeli da miuwvdomelia kacTa gonebisaTvis sulis
Cvenis aRtaceba. [...] da ha, lurji SoreTidan eSveba sanatreli mwuxris saburveli. salxenad Cemda gafanta naTeli
dRisa borkili sulisa. gaqra wuTisoflis didebuleba,
naRveli Cemi ganaqarva axalma, eniTuTqmelma samyarom.
Ramem da zecam momivlines maradi Zili. qveyana SenivTda
da zecad afrinda Cemi axladSobili da gamoxsnili suli.
[...] Cemi idumalTmetyveli guli Ramisa da misi asulis
satrfos erTgulia~ [Ramis himnebi I, III, IV] (novalisi 2007:
9-10, 18, 23).
galaktioni:
da mec movkvde simRerebSi tbis sevdian gedad,
oRond vTqva, Tu Ramem sulSi rogor Caixeda,
Tu sizmarma viT Seisxa cidan camde frTebi,
da gaSala ocnebaTa lurji ialqnebi;
Tu sikvdilis siaxlove rogor asxvaferebs
momakvdavi gedis hangTa vardebs da CanCqerebs,
Tu rogor vgrZnob,
rom sulisTvis, am zRvam rom aRzarda,
sikvdilis gza arra aris, vardisfer gzis garda;
rom am gzaze zRaparia mgosanT siTamame,
rom arasdros ar yofila ase Cumi Rame.
rom, aCrdilno, me Tqvens axlo sikvdils vegebebi,
rom mefe var da mgosani da simReriT vkvdebi,
rom wayveba saukunes TqvenTan Cemi qnari...
jer arasdros ar Sobila mTvare ase wynari~
[`mTawmindis mTvare~] (tabiZe 1973: 64).
galaktionisa da novalisis zemoTmoxmobili poeturi teqstebis SedarebiTi analizis safuZvelze SesaZlebelia davaskvnaT, rom galaktionis modernistul poeziaSi mocemulia novalisis romantikuli poeziisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli saxismetyvelebisa da poeturi konceptebis axleburi poeturi gaazreba
da recefcia, ris Sedegadac isini fuZndebian galaktionis unikalur poetur saxismetyvelebaSi da gadaiqcevian mis ganuyrel
da organul Semadgenel elementebad (am SemTxvevaSi ki gvaqvs

37

galaktioni da novalisi

ara gavlenebi, aramed SemoqmedebiTi inspiracia). amitomac, mimaCnia, rom galaktionis poeziis SemoqmedebiTi inspiracia
frangul simbolizmTan erTad Seicavs germanuli romantizmidan momdinare impulsebs.

literatura
anTologia... 2004: frangul-qarTuli anTologia: Sarl bodleri, pol
verleni, stefan malarme, artur rembo; Semdgeneli z. meZvelia,
Tsu gamomcemloba, Tbilisi.
bregaZe 2009: k. bregaZe, novalisis romani `hainrix fon ofterdingeni~
bibliuri arqetipebisa da esqatologiis TvalsazrisiT (gv. 28-75);
wignSi: k. bregaZe, literaturuli da enisfilosofiuri narkvevebi,
gamomc. `meridiani~, Tbilisi.
bregaZe 2009: k. bregaZe, novalisis `Ramis himnebis~ saxismetyveleba (gv.
119-133); wignSi: k. bregaZe, literaturuli da enisfilosofiuri
narkvevebi, gamomc. `meridiani~, Tbilisi.
burWulaZe 1980: r. burWulaZe, vagneri da galaktioni (gv. 63-94); wignSi:
r. burWulaZe, mxolod integralebi, gamomc. `merani~, Tbilisi.
zafranski 2007: R. Safranski, Romantik. Eine deutsche Affre, Hanser, Mnchen.
novalisi 2007: novalisi, Ramis himnebi, germanulidan Targmna da
komentarebi daurTo k. bregaZem, gamomc. meridiani~, Tbilisi.
novalisi 1981: Novalis, Werke in einem Band, hrsg. von H.-J. Mhl, Carl Hanser
Verlag, Mnchen.
tabiZe 1973: g. tabiZe, rCeuli, Semdg. gr. abaSiZe da m. lebaniZe, gamomc.
`sabWoTa saqarTvelo~, Tbilisi.
tabiZe 1975: g. tabiZe, Txzulebani 12 tomad, t. XII, gamomc. `sabWoTa
saqarTvelo~, Tbilisi.

38

irakli cxvediani

jeimz joisis `ulise`:


teqsti da struqtura

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis sruli profesori, amave universitetis dasavleTevropuli da amerikuli literaturis departamentis
koordinatori
ZiriTadi Sromebi: Myth
in J. Joyces Ulysses and W.
Faulkners The Sound and the
Fury (Comparative Study)
(2002); `ulises~ miTopoetika~ (2006); `jeimz joisi da jon dos pasosi:
transatlantikuri literturuli modernizmis poetika~ (2006); `wminda~ romani da `epikuri~
romani: modernistuli
romanis ori SesaZlebloba~ (2006); `Dante, Eliot
and Joyce: Creating Order out
of Chaos~ (2008); `Spatial
Form in James Joyces Ulysses:
`Nausicaa~ Episode~ (2009)

jeimz joisis `ulises~ struqtura SeiZleba pirobiTad orad gaiyos: zedapirul, garegan konstruqciad da internalur struqturad.
romanis zedapiruli konstruqciis
asagebad joisi, erTi SexedviT, tradiciul xerxebs mimarTavs: `uliseSi~ moqmedeba xdeba erT dReSi da erT qalaqSi, ase
rom, garegnulad mainc, daculia sivrcisa da drois erTianobis tradiciuli, klasikuri principi. garda amisa, romani Sedgeba sami nawilisagan, rac Seesatyviseba
klasikuri ritorikis Sesavals, eqspoziciasa da daskvnas. k. sanduleskus azriT,
`ulises~ formalur struqturas naTlad
gamokveTili klasikuri implikacia gaaCnia romani sam nawilad iyofa aristoteleseuli terminebis: dasawyisis, Sua nawilisa da dasasrulis mixedviT, rac aristoteles `poetikaSi~ xazs usvams mizezSedegobrivi kavSirebis mWidro erTobliobas (sandulesku 1979: 82).
`ulises~ TiToeul nawilSi dominirebs
romanis romelime mTavari personaJi Semdegi TanmimdevrobiT: stiveni, blumi, moli. samive nawili simbolurad iwyeba mTavar moqmed pirTa saxelebis inicialebiT:
S stiveni; M moli; P poldi (leo-

jeimz joisis `ulise~: teqsti da struqtura

39

pold blumi). u. Tindalis interpretaciiT, `pirveli nawili, romelic stivens eZRvneba, iwyeba S-iT, rac mianiSnebs mis erTgulebas sakuTari Tavisadmi. meore nawili, romelic blums eZRvneba, iwyeba M-iT, rac aCvenebs mis erTgulebas molisadmi. mesame
nawili, romelic eZRvneba molis, iwyeba P-iT, rac aCvenebs mis
gatacebas poldiT, anu leopoldiT.~ amasTanave, S, M, P silogizmis nawilebis aRmniSvneli tradiciuli niSnebia, rac, u. Tindalis azriT, `ulises~ struqturis logikur `progresze~ miuTiTebs (tindali 1995: 126).
mWidro urTierTkavSiri romanis formalur nawilebsa da
personaJTa ganlagebas Soris mxolod am sam ZiriTad nawilTan
mimarTebaSi rodi mJRavndeba. es nawilebi, Tavis mxriv, epizodebisagan Sedgeba. yoveli epizodi fokusirebulia an erT romelime personaJze, an ori personaJis urTierTobaze, an dublinze (X epizodi), romelic erTgvar meoTxe personaJs warmoadgens. ramdenadac am epizodebs Soris ar arsebobs Txrobis gabmuli Zafi, romanis konstruqcia epizoduria, igi warmoadgens
erTi SexedviT daukavSirebel situaciaTa jams, amitomac gaumarTlebelia, rom zogierTi mkvlevari romanis epizodebs `Tavebs~ uwodebs. garda amisa, isini epizodebs warmoadgenen imdenad, ramdenadac TiToeul maTgans sakuTari struqturuli agebuleba da Txrobis teqnika gaaCnia. rogorc vladimir nabokovi
aRniSnavda kornelis universitetSi `ulises~ Sesaxeb wakiTxul
leqciaSi, `romanis yoveli Tavi gansxvavebuli stiliTaa dawerili, ufro sworad, yovel TavSi garkveuli stili mefobs.~ mwerali iqve dasZens, rom `ar igrZnoba araviTari gansakuTrebuli
mizezi imisa, rom erT TavSi Txroba martivad, yovelgvari oinebis gareSe, meoreSi moCuxCuxe cnobierebis nakadis meSveobiT,
mesameSi ki parodirebis prizmis gavliT miedinebodes~ (16, 83),
magram saqmec is aris, rom `uliseSi~ yvelafers `gansakuTrebuli mizezi~ gaaCnia: romanis epizodebis teqnika, maTi stili, uwinares yovlisa, `homerosul~ saTaurebs ukavSirdeba, rac naTlad Cans Tundac III epizodSi (`protevsi~). mesame zRvis mravalsaxovani RvTaebis, protevsis joisur saxes qmnis am epizodSi
stivenis Sinagani monologis iseTi organuli elementi, rogoric aris gardasaxva, saxecvlileba stivenis cnobierebaSic da
mis mier aRqmul garemoSic. stivenis fiqrTa dineba inglisuridan uceb berZnul, italiur Tu germanul enebze `xorcieldeba~ (25, 356-357). `ulises~ erT-erTi epizodis `lestrigonebis~
saintereso interpretacias am kuTxiT Tavad mwerali gvTava-

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zobs: `lestrigonebSi~ stomaqi dominirebs da epizodis ritmic


peristeruli moZraobis ritmia... sasauzmod rom mieSureba, Cemi gmiri, leopold blumi, fiqrobs mis colze da TavisTvis ambobs: `Molly~s legs are out of plumb.~ dRis sxva monakveTSi mas SeiZleboda, igive azri sakvebze yovelgvari miniSnebis gareSe gamoexata, magram me minda, rom mkiTxvelma yovelTvis miniSnebiT gaigos da ara pirdapiri gadmocemiT~ (65, 21). ase rom, marTebulia
r. miler-budnickaias mosazreba, rom `ulises~ stiluri sistema iqmneba m
M Teli rigi calkeuli stilisagan, romelTagan TiToeuls m
M Tlianad an nawilobriv eTmoba esa Tu is epizodi, mocemuli epizodis ideur-filosofiuri Sinaarsisa da misi emociuri Seferilobis Sesatyvisad; zogjer erTsa da imave epizodSi
ramdenime stili monacvleobs ZiriTad fonze~ (54, 166). Tavad
mwerlis gancxadebiT, misi ganzraxva iyo ara marto `gardameqmna miTi sub specie tempus nostri, aramed TiToeuli TavgadasavlisaTvis mimeca saSualeba, Tavad ganepirobebina da Seeqmna kidec
sakuTari teqnika~ (bajeni 1960: 271).
rogorc vxedavT, TiToeuli epizodis Temas joisma iseTi
teqnika miusadaga, romelic ise Seesatyviseboda mas rogorc, u.
Tindalis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `glove to hand~ (tindali 1995: 132).
amrigad, `ulises~ zedapiruli struqtura sakmaod martivia:
moqmedebis dro mxolod erT dRes moicavs (1904 wlis 16 ivnisi),
adgili mxolod erTi qalaqia (dublini), romanSi warmodgenilia erTaderTi moqmedeba stiven dedalosisa da blumis Sexvedra, romlebic Tavidan simetriulad arian daSorebulni erTmaneTisagan da TandaTanobiT uaxlovdebian erTmaneTs, moli
blumi ki warmoadgens ambis ganviTarebis erT-erTi Zafis sawyissac da sasrulsac.
`ulises~ zedapiruli struqturis simartive ganapirobebs romanis internaluri organizaciis sirTules, magram aqve ar unda
daviviwyoT isic, rom amgvari danawevreba romanis struqturisa
dasaSvebia mxolod pirobiTad, kvlevis miznebidan gamomdinare,
vinaidan struqturis cneba gulisxmobs, upirveles yovlisa, sistemuri mTlianobis arsebobas. rogorc cnobilia, struqturas
sistemuri xasiaTi aqvs. misi Semadgeneli elementebis Tanafardoba imgvaria, rom romelime maTganis cvlileba iwvevs danarCenis Secvlasac. ase rom, ar SeiZleba `ulises~ mravalSriani struqturis komponentebis sruli gamijvna da izolireba erTmaneTi-

jeimz joisis `ulise~: teqsti da struqtura

41

sagan, vinaidan isini urTierTzemoqmedeben da garkveul urTierTmimarTebas amyareben, qmnian erT mTlian sistemas. marTlac,
joisis mier `ulises~ zedapiruli konstruqciis romanis struqturis sxva Sreebisagan izolirebulad ganxilvisas iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom joisi droisa da sivrcis erTianobis klasikuri
principis moTxovnebs icavs, magram, Tuki joisis romanis poetikis ZiriTad Taviseburebebs gaviTvaliswinebT (erTiani siuJeturi xazis, Txrobis gabmuli Zafis ararseboba, avtoris `gaqroba~
teqstidan, Txrobis rakursis ganuwyveteli monacvleoba, erTi
SexedviT erTmaneTTan daukavSirebel detalTa naturalisturi sizustiT gadmocema da sxva), naTlad davinaxavT, rom moqmedebis droisa da sivrcis `SekumSva~ joisTan sruliad axal funqciur datvirTvas iZens1 da, amdenad, mxolod garegnulad ukavSirdeba berZnuli tragediisa Tu klasicisturi dramis (romelTa struqturac sruliad gansxvavebul konstruqciul principebs efuZneba) `sami erTianobis~ kanons da misgan uaRresad gansxvavebuli mxatvruli daniSnulebis Sesrulebas emsaxureba. amrigad, `ulises~ struqturis analizisas mkvlevaris umTavresi
amocana misi Semadgeneli elementebis funqciuri urTierTmimarTebis dadgenaa, rac, bunebrivia, mxolod joisis mxatvruli meTodis specifikis (`cnobierebis nakadis~teqnikis Taviseburebani, literaturul-miTologiuri aluzia-reminiscenciebi, asociaciuri xatovaneba, `epifaniis~ teqnika da sxva), romanis mxatvrul
qsovilSi realizebuli mxatvruli xerxebis kompleqsuri sistemis gaTvaliswinebiTaa SesaZlebeli. aqedan naTlad ikveTeba romanis struqturis analizTan dakavSirebuli meore mniSvnelovani amocanac: teqstisa da struqturis urTierTmimarTebis gansazRvra, struqturuli (sistemuri) da arasistemuri elementebis urTierTgamijvna, vinaidan, iuri lotmanis TvalsazrisiT,
marTalia, struqtura teqstisgan meti sistemurobiT, `sisworiT~, abstraqtulobis siWarbiT gansxvavdeba, magram umarTebulo iqneboda maTi imgvari dapirispireba, rom teqsts realurobis Tviseba mivaweroT, struqtura ki ganvixiloT rogorc raRac
gonebaWvretiTi mocemuloba, romlis arseboba gacilebiT ufro problemuria... struqtura arsebobs teqstis empiriul realobaSi, teqsti da struqtura urTierTs ganapirobebs da mxolod am urTierTTanafardobis meSveobiT iZens realurobas.
TviT teqsti, i. lotmanis mixedviT, struqturasTan mimarTebaSi
gvevlineba, rogorc gansazRvrul doneze misi realizacia da interpretacia. maSasadame, teqsti ierarqiulia. es ierarqiulobac
Sinagani organizaciis, struqturulobis arsebiTi niSania da igi

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organizebulia abstraqtulobis gaZlierebis niSnis mixedviT


(lotmani 1988: 171).
teqstisa da struqturis urTierTmimarTebis es zogadi modeli zedmiwevniT Seesabameba `ulises~ mxatvrul qsovils. `ulises~ struqturis analizisas aucilebelia, erTi mxriv, teqstis
`empiriuli qaosis~ organizebisaTvis gamoyenebuli ierarqiuli Sreebis gansazRvra da, meore mxriv, am Sreebis urTierTganpirobebulobis, maTi mWidro kavSiris warmoCena, rac saSualebas iZleva, romanis konstruqcia gaviazroT rogorc sxvadasxva ierarqiuli Srisagan Semdgari kompleqsuri, mTliani mxatvruli sistema. saamisod saWiroa joisis SemoqmedebiTi meTodis TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswineba, vinaidan misi TiToeuli
komponenti teqstis `empiriuli qaosis~ mowesrigebis funqcias
asrulebs garkveul doneze da, Sesabamisad, abstraqtulobis
gaZlierebis niSnis mixedviT organizebuli struqturis sxva
doneebze `moqmed~ konstruqciul principebsa Tu xerxebs ganuyoflad ukavSirdeba.
rogorc cnobilia, `uliseSi~ joisi uars ambobs romanis formis organizebis klasikuri principebis gamoyenebaze romanSi
ar gvxvdeba e.w. socialuri `tipebi~, empiriul doneze erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli siuJeturi movlenebi, rac qmnis STabeWdilebas, rom romanis garegnuli moqmedeba mxatvrulad aramotivirebuli SemTxveviTobebisagan Sedgeba da qaoturia, magram
am qaoturobis daZleva empiriul doneze, nawilobriv mainc, romanis ZiriTadi personaJebis `cnobierebis nakadis~ saSualebiT
xdeba `cnobierebis nakadi~ mWidrod ukavSirdeba romanSi gamosaxul empiriul realobas urTierTarekvlis xerxiT: garegnuli faqtebi xSirad warmoadgens biZgs garkveuli asociaciebisaTvis, romlebic imavdroulad Sinagan logikas eqvemdebarebian, xanac ki, piriqiT, Sinagani monologi empiriuli faqtebis
`nakadis~ interpretacias iZleva. ase magaliTad, `kalifsos~ epizodSi daglaCis maRaziidan blumis ukan dabrunebisas Rrubeli
mzes faravs. am dros blumi Tvals mohkravs welSi moxril moxucs, es yovelive ki mas misi eris amJamindel savalalo mdgomareobasa da bedkrul istorias agonebs:
`A cloud began to cover the sun slowly, wholly. Grey. Far.
No, not like that. A barren land, bare waste. Volcanic lake, the dead sea, no fish,

jeimz joisis `ulise~: teqsti da struqtura

43

wheedles, sunk deep in the earth. No wind could lift those waves, grey metal, poisonous foggy waters. Brimstone they called it raining down: the cities of the plain: Sodom,
Gomorrah, Edom. All dead names. A dead sea in a dead land, grey and old. Old now.
It bore the oldest, the first race. A bent hag crossed from Cassidy~s clutching, a
nagging bottle by the neck. The oldest people. Wandered away over all the earth,
captivity, multiplying, dying, being born everywhere. It lay there now. Now it could
bear no more Dead: an old woman~s: the grey sunken cunt of the world.
Desolation~ (joisi 1986: 50).
amave dros, personaJis asociaciebis aseTi mdinareba garkveul Sinagan logikas eqvemdebareba: mTeli dilis ganmavlobaSi
blumi fiqrobs aRmosavleTis fantastikur plantaciebze, Semdeg ki misi Tanamemamuleebis citronisa da mastianskis bedze, maTTan erTad gatarebul dReebze, bolos misi asociaciuri
azrovneba citronisa da mastianskidan mTeli eris beds gadaswvdeba. ocneba aRmosavleTze, `aRTqmul miwaze~ (The Promised
Land) mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi Tan sdevs blums, romelic dublinSi Tavs gariyulad, martosulad grZnobs. amdenad, bunebrivia, rom aRmosavleTTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri detali masSi aRmosavleTis asociacias iwvevs. `lotofagebis~ epizodSi misi asociaciebisaTvis amgvari biZgis mimcemad aRmosavluri Cais
kompaniis vitrinaze amokiTxuli reklama gvevlineba:
`In Westland row he halted before the window of the Belfast and Oriental
Tea~s Company and read the legends of leadpapered packets: choice blend, finest
quality, family tea. Rather warm...
The far east. Lovely spot it must be: the garden of the world, big lazy leaves to
float about on, cactuses, flowery meads, snaky lianas they call them. Wonder is it
like that. Those Chinghalese lobbing about in the sun... not doing a hand~s turn all
day. Sleep six months out of the climate. Lethargy. Flowers of idleness. The air
feeds most. Azotes Hothouse in Botanic gardens. Sensitive plants. Waterlilies.
Petals too tired to. Sleeping sickness in the air~ (joisi 1986: 59).
ase rom, `cnobierebis nakadis~ doneze asociaciaTa erTi SexedviT qaoturi `dinebis~ kompoziciuri kavSiris xarisxi mkveTrad izrdeba. swored Sinagani monologi warmoadgens `Txrobis~
umniSvnelovanes mamoZravebels. romanis teqstis `sintagmaturi~ gaSlis kvaldakval xdeba calkeuli fragmentuli, empiriuli faqtebis `CamontaJeba~ saerTo suraTSi da maTi konceptu-

44

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aluri naTelyofa.
amrigad, romanSi `Txrobis~ ori plani realuri (skrupulozuri, naturalisturi xasiaTisa) da warmosaxviTi (personaJTa subieqturi asociaciebi, refleqsiebi da sxva), romlebic `kontrapunqtulad~ viTardeba, organulad ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs, rac
personaJTa asociaciebis iracionaluri dinebis mowesrigebisa
da empiriuli faqtebis qaosis mxatvrul mTlianobad Sekvris amocanas emsaxureba, magram `uliseSi~ uamravi iseTi naturalisturi detalia, romelic TiTqosda aferxebs `ambis~ ganviTarebas da
mkiTxvelisaTvis arTulebs rogorc personaJTa cnobierebaSi
mimdinare procesebis, aseve avtoris saTqmelis gagebas, Tumca
es mxolod erTi SexedviTaa ase am detalebis mxatvruli daniSnulebis garkveva mxolod mwerlis ideur-esTetikuri koncefciisa (pirvel rigSi `epifaniis Teoriis~) da misi mxatvruli meTodis TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT xerxdeba.
amgvari daintereseba yofiTi wvrilmanebiT, SemTxveviTi JestebiT, ganuzraxveli impulsuri saqcieliT, erTi sityviT, garegnulad umniSvnelosaTvis gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis miniWeba niSandoblivia ara marto joisisaTvis, aramed sazogadod,
misi epoqis mecnieruli Tu mxatvruli azrovnebisaTvis, vinaidan swored es impulsuri qmedebani da Jestebi, romlebic, Cveulebriv, SeumCneveli rCeba, warmoaCens adamianis WeSmarit bunebas, maT `represirebul~ namdvil `me~-s, radganac isini ar arian
marTulni cnobierebis `cenzuris~ mier. yuradRebis gamaxvileba garegnulad umniSvnelo wvrilmanebze Tanabrad axasiaTebT
joissa da, vTqvaT, zigmund froids, magram es ar niSnavs imas,
rom joisi froidis uSualo gavlenas ganicdis da misi fsiqoanalitikuri koncefciebis mxatvrul ilustrirebas axdens. ufro
safiqrebelia, rom, rogorc klaus raiherti aRniSnavs, `uwvrilmanesi detalebis fokusSi moqceva ` haerSi trialebda~ sxvadasxva sferoSi saukunis dasawyisSi~ (`...an approach valorizing a focus on
the minutest details was `in the air~ in various fields at the turn of the century.~)
(raiherti 1997: 60)). swored trivialuri sagnebis zedapiruli,
garegnuli mxaris miRma dafaruli arsis Ziebas efuZneba joisis
`epifaniis~ Teoria, romelsac mwerali jer kidev Tavisi Semoqmedebis adreul etapze ayalibebs romanSi `xelovanis portreti axalgazrdobisas~. am Teoriis mixedviT, saTanado analizis
Sedegad miiRweva `gasxivosneba~ sagnisa Tu movlenis WeSmariti, siRrmiseuli arsis wvdoma.

jeimz joisis `ulise~: teqsti da struqtura

45

amrigad, joisi, erTi mxriv, uaRresad did yuradRebas iCenda


eqsternaluri detalebis mimarT, meore mxriv ki, iyenebda maT
raRac Sinaganisa da zogadis warmosaCenad da am gziT simbolur
datvirTvas aniWebda maT. joisis mxatvruli meTodis es Tavisebureba davis sagnad aris qceuli `ulises~ kritikosebs Soris:
maTi nawili `ulises~ naturalistur nawarmoebad miiCnevs, sxvani
ki fiqroben, rom igi `simbolisturi~ romania. ase magaliTad, rezo yaralaSvili joisis teqnikas naturalizmis gagrZelebas, ufro metic, `eqstremul naturalizms~ uwodebs, eqstremuls imitom, rom `mwerali kidev ufro aRrmavebs da adamianis Sinasulier procesebzec avrcelebs naturalizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebel
skrupulozulad zusti aRweris tendencias~ (yaralaSvili 1984:
74). sruliad sapirispiro poziciaze dgas deklan kiberdi, romelic miiCnevs, rom Tanamedrove mwerlebis gatacebas primitiuli, naivuri xelovnebiT Tan axlda XIX s-is realizmis uaryofa da sinamdvilis asaxvaze uaris Tqma, vinaidan modernistebs
ar hqondaT imedi, rom SesZlebdnen, gasjibrebodnen fotoaparats an xmis Camwers am TvalsazrisiT. aqedan wers d. kiberdi,
maTi aRtaceba Zveli, primitiuli xelovnebiT, romelic realuri samyaros zedapirul, garegnul mxares ki ar asaxavda, aramed sakuTar samyaros qmnida. mkvlevari imowmebs goeTes aforizms `Art was art because it was not nature~ da askvnis:
`Farewell Zola, goodbye Flaubert~ (kiberdi 1992: 31).
Sualeduri pozicia uWiravs uiliam Tindals, romelic, erTi
mxriv, aRiarebs, rom joisi naturalistiviT akvirdeboda Tavis
qalaqs (`Joyce observed his city as naturalist would~), meore mxriv ki, miiCnevs, rom misi meTodi, arsebiTad, naturalisturi ki ara, simbolisturia, magram deklan kiberdisagan gansxvavebiT, mas swored floberisa da bodleris weris maneras unaTesavebs (tindali 1995: 127). msgavs Tavlsazriss gamoTqvams sidni botic, romelic realizmisa da simbolizmis Serwymas miiCnevs joisis SemoqmedebiTi niWis gansakuTrebul niSnad (bolti 1992: 133). r.
miler-budnickaiac fiqrobs, rom romanis enciklopediur mravalferovnebaSi gamoikveTeba ori ZiriTadi urTierTgamsWvalavi stiluri xazi joisis Semoqmedebis Suasaukuneobriv-sqolastikuri nakadiT ganpirobebuli simbolika da froidistuli
msoflaRqmiT gamsWvaluli naturalizmi. `ulises~ simboluri
plani, miiCnevs mkvlevari, dafarulia naturalisturi saxeebis

46

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feniT, romelic joisis eposis ZiriTad fons qmnis. amgvari naturalizmis genetikur Zirebs igi garkveulwilad XIX saukunis
frangul naturalistur romanSi xedavs, romlisganac joisma
imemkvidra miswrafeba sityvis sizustisa da socialur urTierTobaTa biologizebisaken. joisiseuli naturalizmis genetikuri kavSiri am tipis romanTan uSualod ki ar mJRavndeba, aramed dekadentobis (hiuismansi, mirbo) saSualebiT. XIX saukunis
miwurulis frangul dekadentobasTan joiss anaTesavebs midrekileba paTologiis, simaxinjis, Rrma pesimizmisa da sicocxlisadmi siZulvilisagan gamomdinare tanjvis gamosaxvisaken,
kavSiri mistikasTan, neokaTolicizmTan, aseve mibruneba cnobierebis Suasaukunoebrivi formebisaken, im epoqis xelovnebisa da filosofiisaken (miler-budnickaia 1934: 166-167, 171). rogorc vxedavT, miler-budnickaia `uliseSi~ or, marTalia, erTmaneTTan dakavSirebul, magram mainc damoukidebel stilur
nakads Sua saukuneebis cnobierebis sqolastikuri, feodalursaeklesio formisagan namemkvidrev simbolikasa da froidistul msoflaRqmasTan dakavSirebul naturalizms gamohyofs,
magram joisis mxatvruli meTodis amgvari danawevreba gaumarTlebeli unda iyos, vinaidan igi mwerlis erTiani ideur-esTetikuri koncefciis gamoxatulebaa da ara misi msoflmxedvelobis winaaRmdegobrivi aspeqtebis gansxeuleba. am TvalsazrisiT,
uaRresad sainteresoa emil zolasa da rihard vagneris Semoqmedebis Tomas maniseuli Sedareba: miuxedavad maT Soris arsebuli uzarmazari sxvaobisa, miiCnevs mwerali, am SemoqmedTa qmnilebebi saerTo epoqaluri niSniTaa aRbeWdili. adarebs ra erTmaneTs `rugon-makarebsa~ da `nibelungebis beWeds~, igi aRniSnavs, rom maT akavSirebs ara marto miswrafeba uzarmazari masStabebisaken, SemoqmedebiTi ltolva grandiozulisa da masiurisaken da ara marto (teqnikis TvalsazrisiT) epikuri laitmotivebi. mTavari, rac maT anaTesavebs, naturalizmia, romelic
simbolomde maRldeba da miTSi gadaizrdeba:
`vis SeuZlia, uaryos zolas epikaSi simbolizmi da miswrafeba
miTiurobisaken, mis mier Seqmnil saxeebs sinamdvileze rom aRamaRleben? gana meore imperiis astarta, igi rom nanas uwodebs,
simbolo, miTi ar aris? saidanaa aRebuli misi saxeli?.. nana babiloneli iSTaris zedsaxelTagania. icoda Tu ara zolam amis Sesaxeb? Tu ara, es Tanxvedra kidev ufro gansacvifrebelia da
mravlismTqmeli~ (mani 1974: 104).

jeimz joisis `ulise~: teqsti da struqtura

47

zolas Semoqmedebis T. maniseuli daxasiaTeba, garkveuli modifikaciiT, SeiZleba, joisis romansac mivusadagoT: `ulises~
simbolizmi da naturalizmi or calkeul stilur nakadad ki ar
gvevlineba, aramed naturalizmi `maRldeba simbolomde~ da miTSi gadaizrdeba. cxadia, es ar niSnavs imas, rom joisis mxatvruli meTodi zolasas enaTesaveba, vinaidan `simbolizmi da miTiurobisaken miswrafeba~ am ukanasknelis epikaSi, rogorc Cans, gaucnobierebeli rCeba, maSin, rodesac joisis `miTologizmi~
mwerlis mier gamoyenebuli savsebiT gacnobierebuli xerxia. es
bunebrivicaa: zolas romanebi tradiciuli, klasikuri kompoziciuri principebis mixedviTaa agebuli, joisis qmnileba ki yvela klasikur normas arRvevs da mwerals `miTosuri meTodi~ maT
sakompensaciod romanis struqturis organizebisaTvis sWirdeba. aseTi funqciuri midgomisas arsebiTi mniSvneloba arca
aqvs imas, icoda Tu ara zolam, rom nana babiloneli iSTaris saxelTagania, vinaidan joisis `ulisesagan~ gansxvavebiT, mis nawarmoebSi miTologiur Tu sxva saxis simbolikas (gacnobierebuls Tu gaucnobierebels) kompoziciuri funqciebi ar daekisreboda.
aqve unda aRiniSnos isic, rom terminSi `simbolizmi~ vgulisxmob ara konkretul literaturul mimdinareobas bodleridan
aleqsandr blokamde, aramed simbolizms rogorc azrovnebis,
logikuri operirebis meTods, romelic Tavisi bunebiT ar warmoadgens Semoqmedebas. marTalia, isini erTmaneTs ukavSirdebian, magram literaturuli `simbolizmi~ logistikas SemoqmedebiTad gadaamuSavebs, mxatvrul SemoqmedebasTan mimarTebaSi igi centriskenulia, modernizmSi ki kultivirebulia sakuTriv simboluri azrovneba, is centridanuli Zala, romelsac modernistebTan swrafad `gavyavarT~ periferiaSi, Semdeg ki Semoqmedebis farglebs gareTac.
`ulisesadmi~ amgvari midgomisas umTavresi mniSvneloba eniWeba imas, rogor axerxebs mwerali `naturalizmis simbolomde
amaRlebas~, anu, sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, ra xerxebs mimarTavs
igi imisaTvis, rom umniSvnelo, trivialur detals simboluri
datvirTva, epifaniuri `gasxivosneba~ SesZinos da gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba mianiWos mas mkiTxvelis TvalSi, Tanac es ise
moaxerxos, rom empiriuli masalis qaosis mowesrigebas, swored,
simbolikis saSualebiT miaRwios? joisi saamisod or erTmaneT-

48

irakli cxvediani

Tan mWidrod dakavSirebul xerxs mimarTavs: asociaciuri paralelis gavlebas TxrobiT detalsa da romelime movlenasa Tu
obieqts Soris (e. w. coincidental detail Tanmxvedri detali, sidni
boltis terminia (bolti 1992: 113)) da laitmotivis teqnikas.
pirveli xerxis mkafio nimuSs warmoadgens xomaldi, romelsac `ulises~ erT-erTi mTavari personaJi, stiven dedalosi xedavs `protevsis~ epizodSi:
`Moving through the air high spars of a threemaster, her sails brailed up on the
crosstrees, homing, upstream, silently moving, a silent ship~ (joisi 1986: 42).
Sinisaken dinebis sawinaaRmdegod mcuravi xomaldi, rasakvirvelia, ulises Sin dabrunebaze mianiSnebs, magram joisis xerxis
specifika, uwinares yovlisa, mJRavndeba sityvaSi `crosstrees~. am
sityvam mkiTxvels jvarcmis asociacia unda aRuZras, vinaidan,
wesiT da rigiT, `jvaredini salingebis~ aRsaniSnad joiss unda
gamoeyenebina sazRvao termini `yards~; mis nacvlad sityvis
`crosstrees~ gamoyenebiT ki mwerali mkiTxvels mianiSnebs, rom igi
am detals gansakuTrebul datvirTvas aniWebs. jvarcmasTan
asociacias unda ganamtkicebdes ricxvi `samic~~ xomaldi samanZiania (`threemaster~). miuxedavad amisa, imdenad didia gansxvaveba TxrobiT detalsa da masTan Sedarebul obieqts Soris, rom
mkiTxvelma, SeiZleba, mainc ver aRiqvas analogia. garda amisa,
gaurkveveli rCeba, es asociacia personaJis cnobierebis mimarT
internaluria Tu eqsternaluri, magram es sityva meordeba `biblioTekis~ epizodSi, sadac stiveni RmerTs moixseniebs rogorc
`starved to crosstrees~. aqedan naTeli xdeba, xomaldis asocireba
jvarcmasTan stivenis cnobierebaSi xdeba da amave dros mkiTxvelsac uadvildeba am asociaciis aRqma. amasTan, calkeuli asociaciuri detalebis amgvari ganmeorebiT mwerali maT erTgvar
`niSansvetebad~, personaJis asociaciaTa `dinebis qaosis~ momwesrigeblad aqcevs. meore mxriv, es xerxi mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi auqmebs romanis Sinagan mxatvrul dros da uzrunvelyofs mis simultanur, meyvseul aRqmas. swored amas gulisxmobs
jozef frenki, roca wers:
`joisis wakiTxva SeuZlebelia misi mxolod xelmeored wakiTxvaa SesaZlebeli~ (frenki 1988: 90).
aviRoT kidev erTi magaliTi, oRond amjerad saxe-simbolo

jeimz joisis `ulise~: teqsti da struqtura

49

romanSi Tavidan eqsternaluria personaJis cnobierebis mimarT


da mxolod Semdeg iqceva misi Sinagani monologis organul nawilad. es aris stivenis ifnis joxi (ashplant). joisi misTvis simboluri datvirTvis misaniWeblad aqac imave xerxebs mimarTavs:
nacvlad imisa, rom daewera ubralod `ash stick~, igi iyenebs sityvas `ashplant~( ifnis mcenare), riTac migvaniSnebs, rom es Cveulebrivi ki ara, simboluri joxia. igi mravalgzis gvxvdeba lamis mTeli romanis manZilze da uamrav metamorfozas ganicdis:
`protevsis~ epizodSi igi stivenis cnobierebaSi xan `ifnis
xmlad~ (`ash sword~) iqceva, xanac avgurebisa Tu piligrimis kverTxad. `biblioTekis~ epizodSi stiveni mas moixseniebs, rogorc
mis muzaradsa da maxvils ( `My casque and my sword~), da bolos,
`saroskipos~ epizodSi SeZaxiliT `Nothung!~ igi am joxiT amsxvrevs Sandals (joisi 1986: 475).
rogorc vxedavT, stivenis `ashplant~ sxvadasxvagvar asociaciebs iwvevs: ifani skandinaviuri miTologiidan cnobilia, rogorc sicocxlis xe, simbolo samyaros erTianobisa, romelic,
Tavisi mravalferovnebis miuxedavad, ganuyofelia da mTliani. amave dros, `ufrosi edas~ mixedviT, swored ifnis xis igdrasilis fesvebidan moedineba msoflio sibrZnis wyaro urdi. am xis totebze CamoixrCo Tavi da cxra dRe da Rame iyo Camokidebuli odini Crdilouri warmarTuli panTeonis umaRlesi
RvTaeba, raTa Caswvdomoda runebis saidumloebas. aRsaniSnavia, rom `saroskipos~ epizodSi stiveni Tavadve xsnis am saxesimbolos: saroskipoSi ayalmayalSi gareuli stivenis dayoliebasa da Sin wayvanas cdilobs leopold blumi da eubneba mas:
`Bloom: (Runs to Stephen): Come along with me now before worse happens.
Heres your stick.
Stephen: Stick, no. This feast of pure reason~ (joisi 1986: 490).
am pasaJze dayrdnobiT, SeiZleba, vivaraudoT, rom stivenis
ifnis joxiT `wminda gonebacaa~ (pure reason) simbolizebuli. amave dros stiveni Sandlis damsxvrevisas mas `noTungTan~ zigfridis maxvilTan aigivebs. am moqmedebis joisiseuli komentaria: `ruin of all space~ (joisi 1986: 475), mTeli es pasaJi ki vagneriseuli zigfridis mizandasaxulobis parodiuli reinterpretaciis efeqts qmnis. garda amisa, `ulise~ aq `Ria~ teqstad, erTgvar

50

irakli cxvediani

`interteqstadac~ gvevlineba da am pasaJis asociaciur-azrobrivi simdidre kidev ufro Rrmavdeba, Tu imasac gavixsenebT, rom
`xelovanis portretSi axalgazrdobisas~ joisi stivens nawilobriv zigfridTan aigivebs. marTalia, mas zigfridiviT axali
xmali Nothung ar gamouWedavs, magram, samagierod, miznad isaxavs `to forge in the smithy of his soul the uncreated conscience of his race~
(joisi 1996: 288), anu, faqtobrivad, imasve, risi miRwevac surda
zigfrids sakuTari xmliT vagneris musikalur dramaSi. `portretSi~ zigfridisa da stivenis erTmaneTTan parodiuli asocirebis mizniT joisi erT detals iyenebs: stivens esmis `The bird
call from Siegfried whistled softly~ (joisi 1996: 270), rac masSi garkveuli fiqrebis aRmZvrel impulsad gvevlineba:
`How could he hit their conscience (i.e. of Irish patricians) or how cast his
shadow over the imaginations of their daughters, before their squires begot upon
them, that they might breed a race less ignoble than their own?~ (joisi 1996:
271).
`ulises~ zemoTganxilul pasaJSi ki stivenis joxsa da zigfridis maxvils Soris paralelis gavlebiT joisi parodiul
planSi gvixatavs rogorc zigfridis, aseve stivenis ganzraxvebsac.
amrigad, ama Tu im sagnisa Tu detalisaTvis simboluri datvirTvis miniWebas joisi ori xerxis asociaciuri paralelisa
da ama Tu im detalis garkveuli sixSiriT ganmeorebis laitmotivis teqnikis kombinirebis saSualebiT aRwevs. Tanac, es
ori xerxi mWidrodaa erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli: joisi ama Tu
im TxrobiT detalsa da romelime eqstrateqstur obieqts Soris asociaciuri kavSiris damyarebisas sruliad ugulebelyofs
im garemoebas, Tu ramdenad iZleva amgvari kavSiris damyarebis
safuZvels Tavad Sesadarebeli obieqtebi ra SeiZleba saerTo
hqondes, magaliTad, xomaldsa da jvarcmas? mwerlis meTodis
am Taviseburebas e. paundi joisis `mediavelizms~ uwodebs. `laitmotivis~ teqnika joiss swored naturalistur faqtebsa da
maT uaRresad `TviTnebur~ simbolur Tu fsiqologiur mniSvnelobas Soris kavSiris dasamyareblad sWirdeba: calkeuli frazis, sityvisa Tu detalis ganmeorebiT an varirebiT sxvadasxva
konteqstSi mwerali misi simboluri mniSvnelobis `vizualizebas~ axdens. saerTod, unda iTqvas, rom enigmaTa umravlesoba

jeimz joisis `ulise~: teqsti da struqtura

51

`uliseSi~ teqstSivea dekodirebuli swored laitmotivis teqnikis saSualebiT. meore mxriv, laitmotivebi gvevlineba kompoziciur meqanizmad, romelic erTmaneTTan daukavSirebel
faqtebsa Tu SemTxveviT asociaciebs erT mTelad hkravs da maT
konceptualizacias axdens.
amrigad, laitmotivebi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben cxovrebiseuli masalis fragmentulobis, qaoturobis daZlevaSi.
isini erTgvar `gamWol Temebad~ gvevlineba. sayuradReboa isic,
rom joisi musikaluri teqnikis sxva principebsac iyenebs romanSi (mag., mwerlis mcdeloba sityvieri xerxebiT musikaluri
formis imitirebisa `ulises~ erT-erT epizodSi (barSi simReris scena), misi miswrafeba kontrapunqtis teqnikis gamoyenebisaken romanis kompoziciaSi). musikis aseTi kulti romantikosebisa da Sopenhauerisagan, uwinares yovlisa ki vagnerisagan
literaturisa da musikis sinTezirebis miseuli mcdelobisagan
momdinareobs. wminda teqnikuri TvalsazrisiT, swored vagneris musikaluri drama axdens yvelaze did gavlenas joisis mxatvrul meTodze: vagneri calkeul musikalur erTeulebs melodia iqneboda es, akordi, ritmi Tu instrumentebi Tavisi
operis ama Tu im Temasa da personaJebs ukavSirebda ise, rom msmeneli garkveuli sayviris signalis gagonebisas xvdeboda, romeli personaJi unda Semosuliyo scenaze. swored amas uwodebda
vagneri `laitmotivs~. es SedarebiT martivi xerxi mas uaRresad
rTuli, amouwuravi kombinaciebis Seqmnis saSualebas aZlevda.
am gziT mas SeeZlo, Temebisa da personaJebis ganviTarebis rTuli safexurebi gamoexata. ase magaliTad, roca personaJi mReris erT romelime simReras, orkestris ama Tu im akords, melodias, ritms SeuZlia acnobos msmenels, rom am dros personaJi
sul sxva rameze fiqrobs, an raRac iseTi ikveTeba, yalibdeba
mis aracnobierSi, ris Sesaxebac man jer kidev araferi icis, an
raRac Tu viRac iseTi arsebobs misi `me~-s romelime SreSi, romelic man manamde gandevna Tavisi cnobierebidan. am gziT vagners eZleva saSualeba, simultanurad warmoadginos misi personaJebis cnobierebis mravalSriani `totaloba~ (froidis terminebiT, maTi aracnobieri, cnobieri da super ego) nebismier mocemul momentSi, Tanac personaJis sulis moZraobis swrafi Tu
TandaTanobiTi gradaciebic aRnusxos orkestrirebaSi, tonSi,
dinamikaSi niuansuri cvlilebebis SetaniT. misi mizani iyo Seeqmna erTgvari Gesamtkunstwerk `A Total Artwork~, vinaidan misi per-

52

irakli cxvediani

sonaJebis Sinagani samyaros amgvari Rrma wvdoma SeuZlebeli iqneboda enis, kognituri qmedebis gareSe, mxolod abstraqtuli
musikis saSualebiT. swored erTgvari Gesamtkunstwerk-is Seqmna
hqonda ganzraxuli joissac. `uliseSi~ is mimarTavs ara marto
yvela literaturul Janrs prozasa Tu dramas, satirasa Tu
parodias, Txrobis sxvadasxva stils, aramed ise iyenebs enas, rom
udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba mis JReradobas, ritms, erTi sityviT, musikalur aspeqts. amasTanave, mas surda moecva grZnobadi aRqmis totaloba, Tanac ise, rom ama Tu im grZnobadi aRqmis
procesi deskripciuli terminebiT ki ar gadmoeca, aramed moexdina misi sruli transponireba enis iseT niSnebSi, rogoricaa, vTqvaT, sintaqsuri procedurebi. swored amitomaa, rom sara daniusma `ulises~ uwoda `Tvalisa da yuris modernistuli
monumenti~ (`A modernist monument to the eye and the ear~ (71, 250). Tavad
joisic Tavis romans frenk bajenTan saubarSi `adamianis sxeulis eposs~ uwodebs (`the cycle of human body~) (65, 21). daaxloebiT
imave terminebiT axasiaTebs igi `ulises~ karlo linatisadmi miweril werilSi: `adamianis sxeulis cikli~ (`the epos of the human
body~) (102, 146). rogorc cnobilia, joisma Tavisi romanis TiToeul epizods sxeulis romelime organo Seusabama, tviniT dawyebuli, sqesobrivi organoebis, Tvalisa da yuris CaTvliT. erTad aRebulni, epizodebi qmnian adamianis sxeulis `enciklopedias~. Tanac, am SemTxvevaSi joiss marto SesabamisobaTa formaluri sqema ar hqonia mxedvelobaSi. rogorc Tavad ganumarta
frenk bajens, mis wignSi sxeuli cocxlobs da moZraobs sivrceSi da adamianis mTliani pirovnebis saxlia, xolo sityvebs ise
iyenebs, rom maT gamoxaton sxeulis funqciebi (bajeni 1960: 21).
amave dros, vagneris darad, joissac surda, Caswvdomoda misi personaJebis koleqtiur aracnobiers blumi, misi CanafiqriT, `evrimeni~ unda yofiliyo, moli ki `sayovelTaod qaluris~ (`all women~) gansaxiereba. yvelaze didi gavlena joisze mainc vagneris teqnikam iqonia. rogorc klaus raiherti aRniSnavs, laitmotivis teqnika mwerals saSualebas aZlevda, teqstSi
Seetana enis SedarebiT mcire erTeulebi da maTi ganvrcobiT
Seeqmna mimarTebebisa da gadakveTebis mzardi sistema (raiherti
1997: 77).
swored vagneris teqnikisagan iswavla joisma, Tu rogor warmoedgina personaJis cnobierebis sxvadasxva Sre simultanurad

jeimz joisis `ulise~: teqsti da struqtura

53

rogor moexdina fokusireba erTdroulad `cnobieris~, `aracnobierisa~ da `qvecnobieris~ Sreebze. amgvari laitmotivis nimuSad gvevlineba fraza `jaunty jingle~, romelic mravalgzis meordeba romanSi: `kalifsos~ epizodSi molis sawolis spilenZis
rgolebi Wrialeben:
`He heard then a warm heavy sigh, softer, as she turned over and the loose
brass quoits of the bedstead jingled. Must get those settled really~ (joisi 1986:
46).
`sirinozebis~ epizodSi amgvarsave xmas gamoscems molis sayvarlis bleizes boilanis etli:
`He (Bloom-i.c.) eyed and saw afar on Essey bridge a gay hat riding on a
jaunting car...
Jingling on supple rubbers it jaunted from the bridge to Ormond quay... Jingle
jaunted by the curb and stopped~ (joisi 1986: 217).
blumis cnobierebaSi es xma adiulteris asociacias iwvevs:
`By Bachelor~s walk jog jaunty jingled Blazes Boylan, bachelor, in sun in heat,
mare~s glossy rump a trot... Horn. Have you the? Horn. Have you the? Haw
horn~ (joisi 1986: 222).
igive xma `jaunty jingle~ ismis bleizes boilanis gamgzavrebisas, romelic molisTan Sesaxvedrad mieSureba. es fraza mravalgzis amotivtivdeba blumis cnobierebaSi, riTac mwerali
migvaniSnebs, rom mas ar Sordeba colis Ralatis mtanjveli eWvi:
`Piano again. Cowley it is. Way he sits into it like one together, mutual understandings. Her high, long snore. Night we were in the box. Trombone, under blowing like a grampus, between. He acts, other brass chap unscrewing, emptying
spittle. Conductor~s legs too, bagstrouses, jiggedy jiggedy. Do right to hide them.
Jiggedly jingle jaunty jaunty~ (joisi 1986: 223).
igive fraza gaielvebs blumis cnobierebaSi musikis mosmenisas:
`Which air is that? asked Leopold Bloom.

54

irakli cxvediani

All is lost now.


Bloom bent leopold ear, turning a furnin of doyley down under the vase order...
In sleep she went to him. Innocence in the moon. Don~t know their danger. Still
hold her back. Call name. Touch water. Jingle jaunty. Too late. She longed to go...
Yes: all is lost~ (joisi 1986: 224).
amrigad, ama Tu im frazisa Tu detalis ganmeoreba personaJTa fsiqikis sxvadasxva SreSi mimdinare procesebis simultanurad gadmocemas emsaxureba.
amave dros vagneris musikalur dramebSi, iseve, rogorc joisis `uliseSi~, laitmotivebi ubralod ideis ilustracia ki ar
aris, aramed ideis melodiuri Wvreta, cxadia, im esTetikuri da
funqciuri aspeqtiT, romliTac `melosi~ literaturuli Semoqmedebis nawilad SeiZleba iqces. am TvalsazrisiT, uaRresad sainteresoa z. qarumiZis Sexeduleba melosis `musikis sulis~,
romlis obieqtivizacia ritualSi xdeba ritmul-procesualur bunebaze da mis msgavsebaze epifaniis bunebasTan: `melosis ritmul-procesualuri buneba enaTesaveba ritualis meore
mniSvnelovani sawyisis epifaniis bunebas, romelic iseve, rogorc melosi, ukavSirdeba dafarulis daufaraobis gancdas,
magram, moklebulia vrceulobas da warmoadgens wamier afeTqebas, `gansxivosnebas~. epifaniisagan gansxvavebiT, melosi, musika ara marto Tan axlavs rituals, aramed (haidegeris terminologiiT) `sruldeba~, `mimdinareobs~ ritualSi dafarulis
daufaraobis gancdis ritmulobisa da procesualobis saxiT~
(qarumiZe 1986: 191). es ori sawyisi `melosi~ da `epifania~ ukve
romanis mxatvrul qsovilSi realizebuli konkretuli xerxiT
`laitmotivebis~ teqnikis saSualebiT uaRresad mWidrod
ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs da romanis teqstis organizebaSi mniSvnelovan rols asrulebs. miuxedavad amisa, musikaluri struqtura ar aris literaturisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT ki romanisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli specifikuri niSani. rogorc marTebulad
miuTiTebs e. meletinski, `musikaluri saSualebebiT SeuZlebelia danakargebis sruli kompensireba romanis masalis Sinagani
organizaciis sferoSi~ (meletinski 1976: 307). meore mxriv, `Sinaarsis~ organizebis Tavisufali musikaluri principebis mibaZva gzas uxsnis miTis simboluri enis gamoyenebas, magram es ukve
calke kvlevis Temaa.

jeimz joisis `ulise~: teqsti da struqtura

55

literatura
bajeni 1960: Budgen F., James Joyce and Making of Ulysses. Bloomington,
1960.
bolti 1992: Bolt S., A Preface to James Joyce, NY: Logman, 1992.
daniusi 1997: Danius S., The Senses of Modernism: Technology, Perception
and Modernist Aesthetics. Durcham: Duke University Press, 1997.
elmani 1975: Ellman R. (ed.), Selected Letters of Joyce. London: Faber and
Faber, 1975
kiberdi 1992: Kiberd D., Introduction. In: James Joyce, Ulysses. London:
Penguin Books, 1992.
lotmani 1988: lotmani i., poeturi teqstis struqturuli analizis amocanebi da meTodebi. rusulidan Targmna T. lomiZem, `axali paradigmebi, 1988, #1
mani 1974: ., . .:
. 10- . .,
. 1974, . 10.
meletinski 1976: . ., , 1976.
miler-budnickaia 1934: - .,
. , 1934, 1.
nabokovi 1999: nabokovi v., fragmenti leqciidan `ulises Sesaxeb. kornelis universitetSi wakiTxuli kursi (1948-1958 ww),
`mnaTobi, 1999, ##11-12.
raiherti 1997: Reichert K., The European Background of Joyces~s Writing.
In: Cambridge Companion to James Joyce. Ed. By Derek Attridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
sandulesku 1979: Sandulescu C., The Joycean Monologue, Colchester: University of Essex, 1979
tindali 1995: Tindall W., A Reader~s Guide to James Joyce, Syracuse University Press 1995
frenki 1988: Frank J., Spatial Form of Modern Literature. In: Essentials of the
Theory of Fiction. Ed: by Michael Hoffman and Patrick Murphy. Durham
and London: Duke University Press, 1988.
qarumiZe 1986: ., . ` ~, 1986, 6.
yaralaSvili 1984: yaralaSvili r., drois gauqmeba. j. joisisa
da h. heses TxrobaSi. j. joisi 100 (saiubileo krebuli), n.
yaisaSvilis redaqciiT. Tbilisi: Tbilisis universitetis
gam., 1984.

56

irakli cxvediani

yiasaSvili 1983: yiasaSvili n., komentarebi. j. joisi `ulise, t.


I Targmani n. yiasaSvilisa. Tbilisi: `merani, 1983
joisi 1986: Joyce J., Ulysses. Ed by W. W. Gabler, London: Penguin Books,
1986
joisi 1996: Joyce J., A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, London: Penguin
Books, 1996.

57

Tamar lomiZe

meoreuli semantika
poetur teqstSi

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, ilia


WavWavaZis saxelmwifo
universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa
da kulturis kvlevebis fakultetis asocirebuli profesori;
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`qarTuli riTmis istoriidan~, `feris mxatvruli gaazrebis Taviseburebebi n. baraTaSvilis poeziaSi~, `Teoriuli
dafuZnebis
problema poetikaSi,
`me~-s koncefcia qarTvel romantikosTa SemoqmedebaSi~.
interesTa sfero: semiotika, leqsmcodneoba, literaturis istoria da Teoria, mxatvruli Semoqmedebis
fsiqologia.

qarTul mwerlobaSi riTmis saxesxvaobebis (zusti, arazusti) gamoyenebis mixedviT erTmaneTisgan mkveTrad gansxvavdeba winareromantikuli da romantikuli poezia. kerZod, Tu pirvel maTganSi arazusti riTma mxolod sporadulad gvxvdeba, romantikul poeziaSi misi
gamoyeneba sistemur xasiaTs iRebs da ganpirobebulia romantikosTa mier Cveuli,
avtomatizebuli~ fonikuri asociaciebisa da sariTmo sityvaTa paradigmatuli
kavSirebis ugulebelyofiT. arazusti
riTma ganapirobebs sityvaTa TavisTavadi mniSvnelobebis xazgasmas, TiToeuli
sariTmo sityvis semantikur damoukideblobas (zust riTmaSi ki sityvaTa bgeriTi
Tanxvedra maTi sinonimiis iluzias warmoqmnis). amitom SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
qarTvel romantikosTa poeziaSi aqcentirebulia sariTmo sityvaTa semantikuri aspeqti, da ara maTi keTilxmovaneba.
amgvari sariTmo sityvebis urTierTmimarTeba warmoadgens, ZiriTadad, gansxvavebul da ara msgavs (rogorc es zusti riTmis SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs) elementTa
sintagmatur kavSirs.
amasTan, qarTvel romantikosTa, da,
gansakuTrebiT, nikoloz baraTaSvilis
poetur teqstebSi vlindeba is fenomeni,
romelsac, Cveni azriT, uSualo kavSiri
aqvs arazust riTmasTan da ganpirobebu-

58

Tamar lomiZe

lia imave faqtorebiT, romlebmac gansazRvres tradiciuli


zusti riTmis Canacvleba arazusti riTmiT. esaa e. w. paronimuli atraqcia.
qarTul literaturaTmcodneobaSi paronimuli atraqciis
problema saerTod ar aris Seswavlili, arc Teoriulad da arc
konkretuli mxatvruli teqstebis magaliTze.
paronimuli atraqcia specifikuri enobrivi movlenaa. erTmaneTisgan ganasxvaveben paronimebsa da paronimias, anu paronimul atraqcias. Tu paronimebad miiCneva, zogadad, msgavsi
KJReradobis, magram gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis mqone sityvebi (e.w. omofonebi), paronimuli atraqcia warmoiSoba maSin, rodesac bgeriTi Tanxvedra akavSirebs sityvaTa Semadgeneli morfemebis nawilebs da ara am morfemebs mTlianad.1
paronimebs erTmaneTTan akavSirebs paradigmatuli mimarTebebi, anu isini mocemulia enaSi, xolo paronimuli atraqcia
axasiaTebs sityvaTa sintagmatur mimarTebebs, warmoiSoba metyvelebiT jaWvSi da aucileblad anawevrebs paronimuli urTierTmimarTebiT SekavSirebul sityvebs. am dros xorcieldeba
sityvaTa erTgvari semantikuri deformacia, razec qvemoT visaubrebT.
amgvarad, paronimuli atraqcia gulisxmobs sityvaTa garkveuli elementebis fonetikur msgavsebas, im pirobiT, rom es
elementebi aucileblad warmoadgens sityvaTa Semadgeneli ama
Tu im morfemis nawils, an, sxvagvarad, esaa sityvaTa (ZiriTadad,
ori sityvis) konsonanturi Semadgenlebis omofonuri urTierTmimarTeba. paronimuli atraqciis Sedegad sityvebSi gamoiyofa ara is morfemebi, romlebic konvenciurad ukavSirdeba
am sityvebis mniSvnelobebs, aramed e.w. kvazimorfemebi (kvazifuZeebi).
paronimuli atraqcia akavSirebs erTsa da imave, da, aseve,
sxvadasxva gramatikuli kategoriebisadmi mikuTvnebul sityvebs. davakvirdeT Sesabamis nimuSebs nikoloz baraTaSvilis
lirikul nawarmoebebSi:
arsebiTi saxeli arsebiTi saxeli: velsa yvavilni (vl

______________________________

1
`Tu ori fonetikuri sityvis Tanxvedra imgvaria, rom Tanmxvedri nawilebis
zRvari emTxveva winsarTis, Ziris, sufiqsis zRvars, maSin amis wyalobiT
gamoiyofa maTi saerTo winsarTi, Ziri, sufiqsi, magram aq paronimia jer ar
arsebobs... magram Tu Tanmxvedri nawilebis zRvari gadis winsarTis, Ziris,
sufiqsis, daboloebis SigniT, kveTs Tundac erT-erTs sityvis am elementTagan,
maSin warmoiqmneba pirobebi paronimiisaTvis~ [stepanovi 1975 : 35].

meoreuli semantika poetur teqstSi

59

vl); gulisTqma sadgurs (Tq dg); mTovares varskvlavi (vrs


vrs); mWmunvareba mwuxri (mW mw); aremare kamaras (mr mr)
(SemoRameba mTawmindazed~); naTeli Tvalsa (Tl Tvl) (Rame
yabaxzed~); gvamSi gvirgvinsa (gv gv) (napoleon~); sasufevlis sofeli (fvl fl) (Cvili~); sadguri myudroebisa (dg
yd); navsa vnebisa (nv vn) (Cemi locva~); sulis wadilsac (sl
ls); usxiv ucecxlod (sx cx) (***ar ukiJino, satrfoo~);
sevda wyvdiadi (vd vd) (***vhpove taZari~); wyali kldeni
Rreni (yl kl Rr); mdeloTa mindvris (md mnd); moZmesa
siZnele (Zm Zn) (***mirbis, mimafrens...~); aCrdilsa qarTlsa
(rdl rTl) (saflavi mefis iraklisa~); vardT velad (vr
vl); sikvdilSi ukvdavebas (kvd kvd) (***miyvars Tvalebi..~);
soflad Tavisuflebas (fl fl); jojoxeTs samoTxeda (xT
Tx) (***sulo boroto~); SrialiTa Cinarsa (Sr Cnr) (Cinari~);
arsebiTi saxeli zmna: xelmwifebam SemiZina (mw mZ) (napoleon~); naberwkalni momayare (kl yr) (Cems varskvlavs~);
gulisa ganigrilebdes (gl gr) (sayure~); RimiliT suldgmulobs (Rml gml) (CCvili~); sakravisa ganaxarebs (kr
xr); mkerdzed emuqmkebodnen (mk mk) (..na fortopianozed
momRerali~); Rrubels vumRerde (Rr Rr) (***aRmohxda mnaTi~); niavmanc moCnda (mnc mCn~) (Rame yabaxzed~); vardica
gardaiSalos (rd rd) (ar ukiJino, satrfoo~); netareba asadarebs (tr dr); ukvdavebiT agvirgvinebs (kv gv) ) (***rad
hyvedri kacsa~).
zmna arsebiTi saxeli: movSorde mSobelTa (mvS mS)
(***mirbis. mimafrens...~); wagarTo Semogareni (gr gr);(`Zia
g...s~); amxanagad myavs (mx my) (***madli Sens gamCens~); gardmoavlo Tvali (vl vl); ixila msxverpli (xl xv) (napoleon~); miyvars yrmis (yvr yrm); ganicdis sawuTros (cd wT);
xar yrmao (xr yr); xar momRerali (xr Rr) (CCvili~); ganmasvene vnebaTagan (vn vn) (Cemi locva~); ganacocxlo sicxiTa (cx cx) (*** ar ukiJino, satrfoo~); ikroda qnari (kr
qnr) (vhpove taZari~); Sevswiravdi siyvaruls (rv vr) (vhpove taZari~); ikrZalvis grZnoba (krZ grZ) (suli oboli~); gakurcxle sicxesa (cx cx); damitiros satrfom (tr tr)
(***mirbis, mimafrens...~); damqrola qarman (qr qr) (***damqrola qarman sastikman~); gafrindi merano (rn rn) (***mir-

60

Tamar lomiZe

bis, mimafrens~); aRsrulda azri (sr zr) (saflavi mefis iraklisa~); daitanjebis mijnuri (nj jn) (Cinari~); movediT sevdiT (vd vd); giqarvoT gulisa (qr gl) (***vlocav dRes
Cemis gaCenis~);
zmna zmna: gaTendeba gananaTlebs (Tn nT) (SemoRameba
mTawmidazed~); modi gamomedare (md md) (Cems varskvlavs~);
daawyluleb esalbunebi (lb lb) (Tavadis W....Zis asuls,
ek...nas~); Searxevs oxravs (rx xr) (Cinari~); vWvretdi Sevetrfodi (vrt vtr) (...na fortopianozed momRerali~);
hyvedri emduri (dr dr) (***rad hyvedri kacsa...~).
arsebiTi saxeli zmnizeda: fiqrT gasarTvelad (rT rT)
(fiqrni mtkvris piras~); idayv-dayrdnobil (dyv dyr); mcenareT ganmacxovleblad (mc mc); soflisa gansaTaveblad (fl
bl) siyvaruli sxvaTaebr (syv sxv) (***ar ukiJino, satrfoo~).
zedsarTavi (mimReoba) zedsarTavi (mimReoba): damafiqrvelni veranani (rvln vrn); guldaxurulTa Rrubliano
(xr Rr); mcinaro cremliano (cnr crml) (SemoRameba mTawmindazed~); sanatri damdnari (ntr dnr) (***cisa fers~);
mdgari uqrobeli (gr qr) (*** vhpove taZari...~); SenamsWvalebi cvalebadia warmavali (vl cvl wrmvl ) (***rad hyvedri kacsa~); macTuro boroto (Tr rt) (***sulo boroto~);
warmwymedi macxonebeli (wy cx) (***SeviSrob cremlsa~); mraval-Stovani haerovani (rv rv) (Cinari~); sworTa TanzrdilTa (wr zr) (xma idumali~).
zmnizeda arsebiTi saxeli: krZalviT qurciki (krZ qrc)
(Rame yabaxzed~); zvirTebSi laJvardi (zv Jv) (fiqrni
mtkvris piras~); SerxeviT sicxes (Srx scx) (sayure~); pirvelad fers (pr fr) (*** cisa fers~); upatronod mteri (tr
tr) (***mirbis, mimafrens...~).
zedsarTavi (mimReoba) arsebiTi saxeli: macxovlebeli
sicocxlis (cx cx) (***damqrola qarman sastikman~); wrfelni
zraxvani (wr zr) (sulo boroto~); cremlsa ciurs (cr
cr) (***cisa fers~); sakvirveli naRveli (kvr Rvl) (xma idumali~); tkbilis bulbuls (bl bl) (Tavadis W..Zis asuls,

meoreuli semantika poetur teqstSi

61

...eknas~); mSvenierisa cvari (Sv cv); uxrwneli grZnobaT (xrw


grZ) (***ar ukiJino, satrfoo~); warsrulTa droTa (rlT
rT) (Congurs~); cremli ucnauri (cr cnr) (***satrfov, maxsovs~); ciurTa cvarTagan (cr cvr) (***damqrola qarman
sastikman...~); mwiri wrfeliTa (wr wr) (***vhpove taZari~);
xelT mosalxino (xl lx) (***vlocav dRes Cemis gaCenis..~);
qveyniers siyrmiTgan (ynr yrm) (***cisa fers~); Sav-Tvalebiano mTovarev (Tvl Tvr) (***madli Sens gamCens~).
zedsarTavi (mimReoba) zmna: uZlevelni aRiZvrian (Zlv
Zvr) (fiqrni mtkvris piras~); haerovano aronineb (rvn rn)
(Tavadis W..Zis asuls, ek...nas~); wrfeli rbioda (rf rb) (suli oboli~); mSvenieris amiSlis (mSv mSn) (..na fortepianozed momRerali~); miyruebulni ganmiaxlo (yr xl) (***aRmohxda mnaTi~).
zmna zedsarTavi: meCveno mSvenieris (Cvn Svn) (Cems varskvlavs~).
nacvalsaxeli zedsarTavi: Senni mSvenierni (Sn Svn)
(***satrfov, maxsovs~).
mimReoba arsebiTi saxeli: axrils sayure (xr yr) (sayure~); moklulis gulis (kl gl) (Congurs~);
arsebiTi saxeli mimReoba: Rawvni damwvelni (wvn wvln)
(..na fortopianozed momRerali~); gulsa moklulsa (gl kl)
(***vhpove taZari~).
zmnizeda zmna: mecnierad xelmwifebdes (mc mw) (napoleon~); vardebr mohberven (br br) (..na fortopianozed momRerali~); Seupovrad mWvretelobs
(rd rt) (CCvili~); gulamoskvniT vigoneb (kvn vgn) (***satrfov, maxsovs~).
zmna zmnizeda: Sevmose saSvenad (Sv Sv) (napoleon~).
zmna mimReoba: arxevs axrils (rx xr) (sayure~); dakargos moklebuli
(kr kl) (suli oboli~); gaciebuli vficav
(cb fc) (***cisa fers ~).

62

Tamar lomiZe

mimReoba arsebiTi saxeli: mWvreti satrfo (rt tr)


(***ros bednier var..~).
zmna nacvalsaxeli: moeRos viRam (mR Rm) (fiqrni
mtkvris piras~); aRmiCndi Cemis (mC Cm) (***aRmohxda mnaTi~).
zedsarTavi (Sedgenili Semasmenlis wevrad) zmna: sasaciloa ymawvilobdes (cl wvl); sabraloa berikacobdes (br
br) (CemT megobarT~).
zedsarTavi zmnizeda: boroto aRmaSfoTrad (brt fTr)
(sulo boroto~).
zmnizeda zedsarTavi: esreT sazari (sr zr) (***aRmohxda mnaTi~).
sawyisi zmna: lodiniT vsuldgmulvar (ld ld) (madli
Sens gamCens~). RrialiT momayris (Rr yr) (merani~); siSuriT
Semusravs (sSr Smsr) (Cinari~).
nacvalsaxeli zmnizeda: bevri uebrod (bvr br) (napoleon~).
nawilaki arsebiTi saxeli: nacvlad cvars (cvl cvr)
(***cisa fers~).
zedsarTavi kavSiri: morbedi rom (mr rm) (***ar ukiJino, satrfoo~).
zmna kavSiri: mrwams rome (mr rm) (~napoleon~).
zmnizeda arsebiTi saxeli: gare fiqriT (gr qr) (Rame
yabaxzed~).
sawyisi zedsarTavi: daqanculobiT Tavganwirulsa (qncl
gnwr) (***mirbis, mimafrens~).
sawyisi arsebiTi saxeli: Relva gulsa (Rl gl) (napoleon~).

meoreuli semantika poetur teqstSi

63

mimReoba sawyisi: damaSvrali RelviT (vrl lv) (***vhpove taZari~).


kanonzomierebebi, romlebic SeimCneva paronimuli atraqciis zemomoyvanil nimuSebSi, SeiZleba, ase davaxasiaToT:
1. Tu ori kvazifuZidan erT-erTi wyvilTanxmovniania (CC),
maSin, rogorc wesi, meore maTgani CVC tipisaa (magaliTad, mw
miZ, xr yur, lodld da sxv.), iSviaTi gamonaklisebis garda.
2. erTi kvazifuZis mJRer Tanxmovnebs Seesabameba meore kvazifuZis yru Tanxmovnebi (magaliTad, krZ - qrc, fl bl, qncl
gnwr, xr Rr, Tq dg da sxv.), anda mkveTr yru Tanxmovnebs Seesabameba fSvinvieri yru Tanxmovnebi (mc mw, kr qnr, cd wT
da sxv.).
3. xSirad gvxvdeba TanxmovanTa gadaadgilebebi kvazifuZeebSi: sl ls, xT Tx, vrt vtr da a.S.
vfiqrobT, yovelive es mowmobs, rom paronimuli atraqciis
mravalricxovani nimuSebi nikoloz baraTaSvilis poeziaSi sityvaTa SemTxveviT bgeriT Tanxvdenad ar unda miviCnioT.
ra kavSiri SeiZleba arsebobdes paronimuli atraqciis sistemur gamoyenebasa da arazusti riTmis aseve sistemur gamoyenebas Soris nikoloz baraTaSvilis poeziaSi?
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, arazust riTmaSi sariTmo sityvebis urTierTmimarTeba warmoadgens gansxvavebul (da ara
msgavs) elementTa sintagmatur kavSirs. analogiurad, paronimuli atraqciis gavleniT erTsa da imave sityvaSi erTmaneTTan
sintagmatur mimarTebas amyarebs ori gansxvavebuli morfema
erTi maTgani aris sityvis fuZe, romelTanac tradiciis ZaliT
dakavSirebulia sityvis uzualuri mniSvneloba, meore ki gamoiyofa am sityvis garkveuli elementebis sxva sityvis elementebTan sintagmaturi urTierTmoqmedebis wyalobiT. amgvari
sityva semantikurad TviTkmaricaa (radgan is arsebobs calke
aRebul sityvaSi) da, imavdroulad, Tavisi sxvadyofnis saxiTac
gvevlineba (sintagmaturi mimarTebebis garkveuli saxeobis, anu
paronimuli atraqciis zegavleniT).
aSkaraa, rom aseT SemTxvevaSi SeiniSneba sityvisTvis ormagi semantikis miniWebis tendencia, romelic misi orgvari wakiTxvis SesaZleblobas gulisxmobs. Sesabamisad, konkretul teqstSic, sadac gvxvdeba paronimuli atraqcia, warmoiqmneba am
teqstis orgvari wakiTxvis SesaZlebloba, anu teqstis konkretuli mniSvneloba TviTkmari aRaraa da amitom daumTavreblo-

64

Tamar lomiZe

bis, semantikuri bundovanebis, erTgvari orazrovnebis STabeWdilebas warmoqmnis.


SesaZlebelia, es meore teqsti~ davaxasiaToT, rogorc interteqstualobis Taviseburi gamovlineba. i.kristevas mixedviT, nebismieri teqsti aigeba, rogorc citaciaTa mozaika, nebismieri teqsti esaa romeliRac sxva teqstis SeTviseba da
transformacia. amis meSveobiT intersubieqturobis cnebis adgils ikavebs interteqstualobis cneba da SesaZlebeli xdeba
poeturi teqstis, minimum, ormagi wakiTxva~ [kristeva 2004: 167].
magram rogoria es meore teqsti, romelic Tavs iCens nikoloz baraTaSvilis lirikul nawarmoebebSi? Seesabameba Tu ara
is interteqstualobis kristevaseul koncefcias?
aSkaraa, rom es teqsti ar warmoadgens citaciis nimuSs, am
terminis zusti gagebiT, vinaidan is araa sxva konkretuli teqstis (an teqstebis) fragmentTa mozaikuri erToblioba. is arc
mkafiod gamoxatuli semantikiT xasiaTdeba. am SemTxvevaSi ucxo, meoreuli teqsti, romelic warmoiSoba paronimuli atraqciis Sedegad, Sedgeba sityvebisgan~ (kvazifuZeebisgan), romelTac SeiZleba hqondes nebismieri semantika, ise, rogorc es xorcieldeboda enis ganviTarebis sawyis etapebze, rodesac nebismieri mniSvneloba SeiZleboda dakavSireboda nebismier bgeriT
kompleqss. amgvarad, am sxva~ teqstSi Tavs iCens aracnobieris
SreebSi Caleqili winare~ metyvelebis niSan-Tvisebebi. misi yoveli sityva, romelic monawileobs paronimul atraqciaSi, TavisTavSi inaxavs winamorbedi elementis nakvalevs da saSualebas aZlevs momaval elementTan Tavisi mimarTebis nakvalevs,
rom am ukanasknelma Ziri gamouTxaros mas~ [derida 1967: 42]
cxadia, enobrivi niSnebis konvenciur mniSvnelobaTa destruqcia baraTaSvilis poetur teqstebSi xorcieldeba sagangebo daniSnulebiT. misi Sedegia teqstis semantikis gaoreba,
dialoguroba~, rac uSualo kavSirSia baraTaSvilis poeziis
iseT TaviseburebebTan, rogorebicaa lirikuli gmiris me~-s gaorebuli struqtura, erTsa da imave movlenis ori urTierTsapirispiro daxasiaTeba da gansxvavebul TvalsazrisTa Tanabaruflebianoba erTsa da imave teqstSi. amitom paronimuli atraqciis gamoyeneba baraTaSvilis poetur teqstebSi misi SemoqmedebiTi maneris organul nawilad unda miviCnioT. TviT is faqti, rom teqstis bgeriTi organizaciis am xerxs esoden mniSvnelovani roli ganekuTvneba baraTaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi, adasturebs poetis sagangebo yuradRebas enobrivi saSualebebis mi-

meoreuli semantika poetur teqstSi

65

marT. iseT mxatvrul fenomens, rogoricaa nikoloz baraTaSvilis poezia, zustad axasiaTebs m. m. baxtinis sityvebi: mxolod
poeziaSi aaSkaravebs ena mTel Tavis SesaZleblobebs, vinaidan
am SemTxvevaSi mas maqsimaluri moTxovnebi waeyeneba,...da ena aq
Tavis SesaZleblobebs aWarbebs~ [baxtini 1986 : 65].

literatura
baxtini 1986: .. - . .,
` ~.
derida 1968: Derrida, J. Thorie densemble. P., Seuile.
kristeva 2004: , . , :
, ., .
stepanovi 1975: .. .
.,.

66

k u l t u r i s

s e m i o t i k a

xaTuna maisaSvili

samSoblo, eri-saxelmwifo
da qarTuli elitebi

ilia WavWavaZis saxelobis saxelmwifo universitetis filosofiisa


da socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis doqtoranti, gazeT axali 7
dRisa da Jurnal sityvis damfuZnebeli da
Tanaredaqtori.
ZiriTadi
Sromebi:
erovnuli identobisa
da erovnuli ideologiis reprezentacia qarTul beWdur mediaSi.
19901991 wlebi (The
Representation of National Identity and National Ideology in the
Georgian Printed Press. 19901991). narkvevebi qarTuli mediis uaxlesi istoriis Sesaxeb; sad midian
propis adamianebi?, anu
erTi meToduri eqsperimentis Sesaxeb; saxelmZRvanelos proeqti Sesavali komunikaciaTmcodneobaSi.
interesTa sfero: mediuri kvlevebi, sainformacio struqturebi, komunikaciuri procesis
modelebi

erovnuli identobis reprezentacia


1990-1991 wlebis qarTul presaSi

Sesavali
am statiis mizania mTavlitis cenzurisagan gaTavisuflebuli qarTuli beWduri mediis rolis Cveneba erovnuli identobis SeqmnaSi saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis mopovebis pirvel wlebSi.
kvleva Seexeba: a) mediuri reprezentaciis mniSvnelobas gaziarebuli koleqtiuri identobis Seqmna-ganviTarebaSi saerTo teritoriis gaziarebuli gancdis safuZvelze, da b) wyaros tipis mniSvnelobasa da gavlenas mediaSi erovnuli identobis damamkvidrebeli enis, diskursis
SeqmnaSi.
kvlevis mignebebs warmoadgens: a) saxelisuflebo elita da inteligencia iyvnen
is ZiriTadi aqtantebi, romlebic qmnidnen
erovnuli identobis gamamyarebel enas
mediaSi; b) rom Jurnalistebi mxolod ukan
an paralelurad mihyvebodnen maT am enisa da diskursis SeqmnaSi.
statiis idea eyrdnoba 1990-iani wlebSi Sobil, ernest renanis, benediqt andersonis, maikl biligis da sxvaTa mier gamoTqmul konceptualur mosazrebebs mediis

samSoblo, eri-saxelmwifo da qarTuli elitebi

67

rolis Sesaxeb erovnuli identobis reproducirebasa da evolucionirebaSi. ernest renanma eris arsebobas yoveldRiuri plebisciti1 uwoda. renaniseul plebiscitis metaforaSi
mocemulia kavSiri erad yofnis fsiqologiur ganzomilebasa
(erad yofnis neba da survili) da mis yoveldRiur mediur manifestacias Soris. renanis gacnobierebuli nebis fsiqologia
warmosaxvis fsiqologiis ZaliT benediqt andersonma (1991) gaamyara. andersoni Tavis yvelaze gavlenian naSromSi warmosaxviTi erToba gansakuTrebulad warmoaCenda mediis dominantur
rols eris, rogorc warmosaxviTi erTobis, SeqmnaSi. medias
erovnuli identobis yvelaze gavleniani Semxseneblis funqcia maikl biligma ganusazRvra 1995 wels gamoqveynebul naSromSi Banal Nationalism2 . SekiTxvas: ratom ar iviwyeben adamianebi Tanamedrove msoflioSi TavianT erovnul identobas, britanelma mecnierma ase upasuxa: imitom, rom maT hyavT Semxsenebeli - media, Tavisi rutinuli simboloebiTa da enobrivi CvevebiT.

ramdenime mniSvnelovani cvlilebis Sesaxeb


gulubryviloba iqneba imis mtkiceba, rom axali qarTuli saxelmwifos SeqmnisTanave Seiqmna axali qarTuli media. 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi mimdinare formaciuli cvlilebebis fonze iqmneboda molodini, rom qarTul mediaSi, rogorc Ria sistemaSi, mzaddeboda niadagi axali mediis socialuri, kulturuli, normatiuli, operaciuli safuZvlebisTvis.
Zalian mniSvnelovania imis aRniSvna, rom im periodis qarTuli media arsebobda post-glasnosturi sabWoTa mediis paralelurad, romelic mniSvnelovan rols asrulebda mTlianad
post-sabWoTa sivrceSi da romelic uzrunvelyofda anti-sabWoTa (anti-stalinistur) diskurss. am kvlevaSi aRvniSnav mxolod damdgar da ara mosalodnel cvlilebebs, romlebic jer
kidev glasnostis periodidan iReben saTaves da grZeldebian
post-glasnostur periodSic. upirvelesad Seicvala sivrce.
igi daviwrovda - sabWoTa samSoblos masStabebidan - axal ersaxelmwifomde, saqarTvelomde. sivrce sabWoTa samSoblo
sxvadasxva komponentad daiSala qarTul sazogadoebriv cnobierebaSi da identobiT binarulobaSi aisaxa: aq da iq, Cveni
____________________________
1
Renan, E. (1990) What is a nation? in H.K. Bhabha (ed.), Nation and Narration. London: Routledge
2
Billig, M. (1995) Banal Nationalism. Thousand Oaks, London: SAGE Publications

68

xaTuna maisaSvili

da maTi... media iqca ideologiuri Sromis im nairsaxeobad, romelsac Tavisi mkiTxvelebisaTvis unda Seeqmna erisa da erovnulobis, nacionalizmis, rogorc ideologiisa da rogorc identobiTi fenomenis, gansazRvreba; unda uzrunveleyo nacionalisturi diskursis ritorikuli sivrce da erovnulobis damkvidreba yoveldRiuri cxovrebis praqtikaSi. cxadia, amgvari
ideologiuri Sroma mimarTuli iyo `axali mkiTxvelisadmi.
1990-iani wlebis media mkiTxvels mimarTavda, rogorc eris
wevrs. socialur-politikurma konteqstma radikalurad Secvala mediaSi is predikati, romlis mimarTac identobis gaziarebuli gancdis Seqmna socialurad moTxovnadi iqneboda. mediaSi asaxul koleqtiur identobaSi aqcentma klasobrivi
(mSromelTa) solidarobidan erovnul solidarobaze gadainacvla.
e. w. eqskoloniuri qveynebisTvis saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis mopovebis pirvel wlebSi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens oficialuri da araoficialuri istoriebis urTierTCanacvlebis procesis asaxva mediaSi. istoriis sabWoTa versiebi adgils uTmoben alternatiul istorias, warsuli movlenebisa da procesebis sabWoTa versiisagan radikalurad gansxvavebuli rakursiT asaxvas.

Teoriuli argumentebi sakvlevi sakiTxis Camosayalibeblad


erT-erTi yvelaze cxadi cvlileba mediaSi komunikatorebis,
adresantebis, wyaroebis struqturaze aisaxa. is garemoeba, rom
partiuli (komunisturi) nomenklatura aRar qmnida mediur Sinaarss, ar niSnavda qarTuli mediis ideologiuri dominaciisagan gaTavisuflebas. 1990-iani wlebis qarTuli media namdvilad
iyo komunisturi ideologiisgan Tavisufali, magram masSi axali, nacionalisturi ideologia mkvidrdeboda, da am ideologias Tavisi damamkvidrebeli da gamxmovanebeli Zalebi hyavda.
2008 wlis oqtomber-noemberSi Cems mier Catarebuli saeqsperto gamokiTxvis dros, 1990-1991 wlebSi qarTul beWdur mediaSi
moRvawe sxvadasxva Tanamdebobrivi cenzis mqone pirovnebebs
mivmarTeT SekiTxviT: wyaros romeli tipi migaCndaT upiratesad erovnul-identobiTi enis SeqmnaSi 1990-1991 wlebis qarTul
beWdur mediaSi? gamokiTxvaSi monawileobda 18 respondenti. p
P asuxebi amgvarad ganawilda:

69

samSoblo, eri-saxelmwifo da qarTuli elitebi

cxrili 1. ZiriTadi wyaroebi erovnul-identobiTi diskursis SeqmnaSi mediaSi


saqarTvelos prezidenti
inteligencia
saxelisuflebo oficialuri pirebi
Jurnalistebi
sazogadoebrivi azri
sazogadoebriv/politikuri gaerTianebebi

procentebSi
22,2%
33,3%
5,6%
16,7%
16,7%
5,6%

zemoT Tqmulze dayrdnobiT, marTebulia sakvlevi sakiTxis


Semdegnairad Camoyalibeba kontent-analizis meTodiT gasaanalizebeli empiriuli masalisTvis (1736 erTeulisTvis):
1990-1991 wlebis qarTul beWdur mediaSi warmodgenili romeli tipis wyaro iyo dominanturi komunikatori erovnuli
identobis gamamyarebeli diskursis SeqmnaSi?

meTodi
Kkonstruqtis erovnuli identobis diskursis sifarTovis
gamo me virCev mis specifikur versias `diskursi, romelic warmoaCens mediaSi samSoblosa da er-saxelmwifos. 1990-1991 wlebis qarTuli beWduri media, rogorc cneba, amgvarad SeiZleba
iyos operaciulad gansazRvrebuli: 1990-1991 wlebSi gamomavali beWduri gamocemebis simravle, romelic aerTianebs: a) sxvadasxva komunikaciuri funqciebisa da miznebis gamocemebs; b)
romlebsac axasiaTebT damoukideblobis sxvadasxva xarisxi; g)
gaaCniaT sxvadasxva socialuri damokidebulebebis struqtura. sakvlev populaciad SeirCa Semdegi gamocemebi: komunisti, saqarTvelos respublika, mamuli, 7 dRe, droni. TiToeuli maTganis sruli kompleqtis mkvlevarebisTvis xelmisawvdomobam ganapiroba empiriuli masalis Seswavlis uwyvetoba. mTlianad gaanalizda 1736 sazrisiseuli erTeuli: 142 komunistidan, 998 saqarTvelos respublikidan, 231 7 dRidan, 194 dronidan, 171 mamulidan.
kontent-analizis sazrisiseul erTeulad aRebul iqna Setyobinebis wyaros tipi, vinaidan Cems sakvlev interess warmoadgenda prioritetulobisa da gansxvavebulobis identificireba wyaros tipebs Soris, raTa gamomecada maTi Setyobinebebis
erovnul-identobiTi ena da valentobebi. gamoiyo yvelaze ti-

70

xaTuna maisaSvili

puri da validuri wyaroebis 5 kategoria: a saqarTvelos uzenaesi sabWos Tavmjdomare/saqarTvelos prezidenti; b saxelisuflebo elita, romelic moicavs: premierministrs, ministrTa kabinetis wevrebs, saministroebis umaRlesi rangis moxeleebs, uzenaesi sabWos wevrebs, adgilobrivi mmarTvelobebis
moxeleebs; c arasaxelisuflebo elita, romelic moicavs: inteligenciis warmomadgenlebs; erovnuli kongresis wevrebs; d
Jurnalistebi, TiToeuli relevanturi mediuri ambis avtorebi, mikuTvnebul iqnen erovnul-identobiTi diskursis matareblebs; e - moqalaqeebi: wyaroebis kategoria, romelic ar akmayofilebs zemoT CamoTvlil arcerT kategorias da moiazrebs
saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs, romlebic Cndebian an koleqtiur werilebSi, an axali ambebis gaSuqebisas.
wyaroebis gancxadebebi da komentarebi kodirebul iqna maTSi erovnul-identobiTi diskursis Semcvelobis niSniT saqarTvelos teritoriis mediuri reprezentaciisas.
Aatribucia samSoblos miwa-wyali da saxelmwifos teritoria: am cvladisTvis kodi 1 mieniWa wyaroebs, romelTa SetyobinebebSi saqarTvelos teritoria warmoCenili iyo rogorc
eTnikur qarTvelTa samSoblo; kodi 2 mieniWa wyaroebs, romelTa gancxadebebiTac saqarTvelo warmoCenili iyo rogorc
saqarTvelos yvela moqalaqis saxli. am jgufisTvis kodirebul
iqna 565 sazrisiseuli erTeuli.
aA tribucia saqarTvelos teritoriu;li mTlianoba: am cvladisTvis kodi 1 mieniWa wyaroebs, romelTa gancxadebebsa da
komentarebSi saqarTvelos teritoria warmoCenilia rogorc
erTiani da ganuyofeli; kodi 2 mieniWa wyaroebs, romelTa gancxadebebSi saqarTvelos miwa warmoCenil iyo rogorc danawevrebuli an mosalodnelad danawevrebuli - arsebuli, an mosalodneli eTno-politikuri konfliqtebis Sedegad. Aam jgufSi
mTlianad kodirebul iqna 621 sazrisiseuli erTeuli.
aA tribucia ras ambobs msoflio Cvens Sesaxeb: am cvladis mixedviT, kodi 1 mieniWa wyaroebs, romlebic TavianT gancxadebebsa da komentarebSi saqarTvelos warmoaCenen rogorc Seqebis Rirss Tavisi istoriuli daniSnulebis Sesrulebis gamo. kodi 2 mieniWa wyaroebs, romelTa g
G ancxadebebsa da komentarebSi saqarTvelo warmoCenilia, rogorc ugulebelyofisa da gakicxvis Rirsi, Tavisi misiis Seusruleblobis gamo. am mimarTebis mxriv kodirebul iqna 550 erTeuli.
k
K odirebis proceduris dasrulebis Semdeg wyaroebis tipebi

71

samSoblo, eri-saxelmwifo da qarTuli elitebi

gaanalizda faqtoruli analizis meTodiT, raTa gamokveTiliyo TiToeuli faqtoris mniSvneloba da misi gavlena sxva faqtorebze.
Sedegebi. wyaroebis tipebi da Sinaarsobrivi kategoriebi.
raodenobrivi da Tvisobrivi analizi
raodenobrivi analizi warmodgenilia or etapad. P p irvel
etapze kontent-analizis teqnikiT gamoicdeba erovnul-identobiTi diskursis yalibebi SerCeuli wyaros tipebis mixedviT.
Mmeore etapze ki moxdeba maTi mniSvnelobisa da gavlenis gansazRvra faqtoruli analizis teqnikiT.
sakvlevi sakiTxis testirebis pirvel moqmedebad mivmarTavT
kros-tabis proceduras wyaros tipebsa da maT SetyobinebebSi
erovnul-identobiT valentobebs Soris.
cxrili 2. wyaroebi mediaSinaarsSi. erovnuli identobis diskursis valentoba
#
samSoblo Tu saxelmwifo?
1.eTnikuri qarTvelebis samSoblo
2.saqarTvelos yvela
moqalaqis saxelmwifo
mTlianad
Aatribucia saqarTvelos teritoriuli
mTlianobisadmi
1.erTiani
2. danawevrebuli
mTlianad
aA tribucia ras ambobs msoflio Cvenze
1.gvafasebs/gvaqebs
2.gvarcxvens/gulgrilia
mTlianad

saqarTvelos prezidenti (%)

saxelisuflebo elita (%)

Aarasaxelisuflebo
elita (%)

Jurnalistebi
(%)

moqalaqeebi (%)

48

41

46

34

58

52

59

54

66

42

N=98
45

N=64
58

N=158
37

N=188
39

N=57
34

42

63

61

66

N=109

N=167

N=199

N=139

N=7

36
64

48
52

39
61

46
54

0
0

N=313

N=24

N=196

N=17

N=0

55

x2, df, p

x2=20.3;
df=4;
P<.05

x2=18.97;
df=4;
P<.05

x2=1.43;
df=4;
p<.02

am Sedegebis mixedviT, diskursis maRali erovnul-identobiTi buneba yvela tipis wyarosTvis met-naklebad damaxasiaTebelia. saqarTvelos prezidenti, saxelisuflebo da arasaxelisuflebo elitebi daaxloebiT msgavs sxvaobas avlenen samSoblos cnebis gamamyarebel da saxelmwifos cnebis gamamyarebel
diskursebs Soris. y
Y velaze didi amplituda pirveli atribuciis mixedviT aRiniSneba JurnalistTa diskursSi: 32%-iani sxvaoba saxelmwifos cnebis gamyarebis sasargeblod. Ees garemoeba
Zalian mniSvnelovania im TvalsazrisiT, rom, miuxedavad ideologiuri dominaciis arsebobisa indroindel qarTul mediaSi,

72

xaTuna maisaSvili

Jurnalistebi cdiloben, win aRudgnen eTnikuri nacionalizmis aRzevebas sazogadoebaSi. samSoblos gamamyarebeli ena da
diskursi gvxvdeba moqalaqeTa werilebsa da komentarebSi, rac,
Cemi azriT, ganpirobebulia: a) erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebebli
moZraobis quCis ritorikis gavleniTa da inerciiT, da es diskursi mis dagvianebul eqos warmoadgens; b) garkveuli politikuri Zalebis mier daSvebiT, rom pirveli signalebi arsebuli an
moaxloebuli eTno-politikuri konfliqtebis Sesaxeb yvelaze stereotipuli da primitiuli, e.w. xalxuri narativiT, swored, moqalaqeTa mier gaJRerdes. Tumca, niSandoblivia, rom
1990-1991 wlebis qarTul beWdur mediaSi es mimarTeba ar aris
sworxazovani. igi or qvemimarTebas Seicavs: a) qarTvelis, rogorc dominanti eris warmomadgenlis, warmoCena da misi upiratesoba missave erovnul teritoriaze; da b) qarTvelis diskriminacia saqarTveloSi, rogorc sabWoTa internacionalizmis
praqtika. pirveli qvemimarTebis nimuSebia: saqarTvelo aris
saxelmwifo, qarTvelebisagan Semdgari3 ; mxolod qarTulma
jiSma... unda ixsnas qarTuli miwa iavarqmnisagan4 . diskursi eTnifikaciuria, Tumca ara agresiuli, ara SedarebiTi - ar xdeba
dapirispireba sxva eTnosisa Tu erovnebebis warmomadgenlebTan, erTis, dominantis, upiratesobis mtkiceba meoresTan, aradominantTan, SedarebiT. am mimarTebis nimuSebi raodenobrivad bevrad Camouvardeba meore qvemimarTebis nimuSebs. meore
qvemimarTebaSi, - sxvadasxva wyaroze dayrdnobiT an uSualod
maT mier - iqmneba saqarTvelos saxe, romelSic qarTvelebi diskriminaciul mdgomareobaSi imyofebian, Seviwroebulebi sxva
erovnebis warmomadgenlebis mier. magaliTad: Tu aqamde saqarTveloSi qarTveli mosaxleobis diskriminacia iyo, amJamad qarTveli mosaxleobis interesebi unda iyos daculi uwinares yovlisa, magram Cven amiT ar gamovricxavT zrunvas erovnul umciresobaTa uflebebze 5 ; an: gaZlierda internacionalisturi
kursi: araqarTvelTa arnaxuli eqspansia saqarTveloSi, drakonuli kanonebi qarTvelTa winaaRmdeg6 .
moqalaqeobriv-saxelmwifoebrivi mimarTebebis nimuSebis
analizma sakmaod bevri orazrovani nimuSi warmoaCina, - nimuSebi, romlebsac ar SeeZloT eTnifikaciuri diskursis dramatuli simZafris dabalanseba da romlebSic SenarCunebuli iyo iden____________________________
3
Kkomunisti, 1990, 8 noemberi
4
saqarTvelos respublika, 1990, 16 dekemberi
5
saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, 1 ianvari
6
saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, 22 Tebervali

samSoblo, eri-saxelmwifo da qarTuli elitebi

73

tobiTi binaruloba - Cven da isini: saqarTvelo maTTvis [araqarTuli mosaxleobisTvis - x.m.] mSobliuri saxli gaxda, Tavisi
mziT gaaTbo, Tavisi wyaroTi daarwyula, Tavisi puriT gamozarda7 (tipuri urTierToba stumarsa da maspinZels Soris, roca
maspinZeli stumrisTvis mudmivi donori xdeba). erovnuli erTobis, rogorc politikuri principis, realizaciis perspeqtiva mediaSi warmoCenilia winapirobebisa da daTqmebis mTeli wyebis fonze. eTnikurad araqarTvelebis mimarT qveteqstebSi
ikiTxeba eWvebisa da varaudebis jaWvi: arian Tu ara isini saqarTvelos axali saxelmwifos Senebis srulfasovani monawileebi?
Tqves Tu ara maT eTnikur qarTvelebTan erTad da Tanabrad:
ar gvinda ruseTis imperiaSi yofna? ra gaiRes maT, eTnikuri
qarTvelebis Tanasworad, qarTuli saxelmwifos damoukideblobisaTvis?
niSandobliv saxelmwifoebriv-moqalaqeobriv diskurss
vxvdebiT mamulis mediur nimuSSi; damoukidebel saqarTvelos qmnis ara qarTuli eTnosi, aramed mTeli qarTveli eri, nacia, sruliad saqarTvelos mosaxleoba, yoveli eTnosisa da moqalaqis saxiT. ... afxazisa da osis samSoblo ifargleba ara stalinis mier moxazuli sazRvrebiT, aramed moicavs mTels respublikas fsoudan alaznamde, liaxvis saTaveebidan - Woroxamde 8 (wyaro inteligenciis warmomadgeneli). safrTxe erovnuli erTobisaTvis, am mediuri nimuSis mixedviT, mdgomareobs
imaSi, rom Tavad osma da afxazma TavianT samSoblod stalinis
mier moxazuli teritoriebi airCies da ara mTeli saqarTvelos
teritoria. saqarTvelos momavali eri-saxelmwifo maT axali
saxelmwifoebrivi reintegraciisaken mouwodebs.
m
M ediur nimuSebSi mocemuli ganwyoba xsnis wyaroebis mier gamoCenil tendencias saqarTvelos teritoria ufro metad fragmentirebulad, danawevrebulad warmoaCinon, vidre erTianad
da ganuyoflad. SeiaraRebuli eTnopolitikuri konfliqtis dasawyisi samxreT oseTis avtonomiur olqSi da momavali konfliqtis dizainis Camoyalibeba afxazeTSi, separatistuli ganwyobebis gaZliereba ufro metad amZafrebs samSoblosadmi mibmulobis grZnobis reprezentacias mediaSi. aq mediacia xorcieldeba
im mizniT, rom mkiTxvels Seaxsenos: qarTvelisaTvis samSoblos
Tundac erTi gojis dakargva ukve eris arsebobas ayenebs safrTxis qveS. roca qarTveli dakargavda isedac mcire mamapapeul
teritorias, mis did nawils, roca mas odnavac gamoeclebo____________________________
7
8

saqarTvelos respublika, 1990, 16 dekemberi


Mmamuli, 1991, aprili

74

xaTuna maisaSvili

da fexqveSidan saqarTvelos miwa-wyali da niadagi, misi, rogorc


erovnebis, arseboba SeuZlebeli iyo9 ; an: es miwa qarTulia, xolo osebs swadiaT, wagvarTvan10 .
saqarTvelos teritoriaze Riad Tu farulad mimdinare eTnopolitikuri konfliqtebis mediuri refraqcia miuTiTebs,
rom gansakuTrebiT mtkivneulia ara zogadad teritoriis dakargva, aramed im teritoriisa, romelic warmosaxviTi samSoblos SigniT mdebareobs.
rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, oficialuri da araofiaciluri istoriebis urTierTCanacvlebis tendencia damaxasiaTebelia
MmTeli postkomunisturi sivrcisaTvis. saqarTvelos gasabWoebis, samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri olqis Seqmnis, afxazeTSi
aparteiduli reJimis Camoyalibebis, osTa da afxazTa warmoSobis Sesaxeb istoriuli versiebi qarTul mediaSi jer kidev 1988
wlidan acxadebdnen pretenzias istoriul sinamdvileze. operatiuli bunebis gamo masmedia gaxda ganaTlebis is ubani, romelsac axali, namdvili istoriebi unda warmoeCina. istoriebi bevr qveyanaSi, mravalgvarad cvalebad socialur-politikur garemoSi xelaxla iwereba. es formaciuli cvlilebis Cveulebrivi niSania. mTavari aq aris is, rom istoriis xelaxla dawera asaxavs hegemonis cvlilebis mimdinare balanss. axal hegemons SeuZlia, imperatiuli toniT ganacxados: saswrafod unda Sedges da ganxorcieldes saqarTvelos istoriisa da mimdinare politikuri problemebis ucxoeTsa Tu sabWoTa kavSirSi
sistemuri da obieqturi gaSuqebis programa; an: saswrafod
momzaddes da ramdenime enaze gamoices saqarTvelos istoria,
rogorc qarTvel, ise ucxoel istorikosTa avtorobiT; saswrafod momzaddes da ramdenime enaze gamoices saqarTvelos kuTxeebisa da iq mcxovrebTa istoria popularuli gadmocemiT; agreTve, ilustrirebuli feradi albomi qarTuli civilizacia11 . es imperatiuli diskursi, rogorc zeviT aRvniSneT, axali hegemonis diskursia. mediacias eweva ara Jurnalisti, aramed mowveuli avtori samecniero, kulturuli elitis warmomadgeneli, profesionali, romelic, statusidan gamomdinare,
Jurnalistze metad avtoritetul da prestiJul komunikatorad aRiqmeba.
rac Seexeba mesame atribucias ras ambobs msoflio Cvens Sesaxeb, misi reprezentacia xdeba dafaruli mimarTebis fonze, ro____________________________
9
Mmoambe, citirebuli mamulis mier, 1990, dekemberi
10
saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, marti
11
Mmamuli, 1991, ianvari

samSoblo, eri-saxelmwifo da qarTuli elitebi

75

melsac pirobiTad, SeiZleba, vuwodoT SiSi damonebuli momavlis winaSe. magaliTad: saqarTvelos mkurnaloba sWirdeba... saqarTvelo mxolod gadava cixidan fsiqiatriulSi da veRar moeswreba karebis gaxsnas12 (wyaro inteligenciis warmomadgeneli); an: Tavisuflebis gzidan gadaxveva samSoblos Ralatia da
STamomavloba amas ar gvapatiebs13 (wyaro saxelisuflebo elitis warmomadgeneli). es SigniT mimarTuli veqtori uCvenebs, rom
Tavisuflebis gzidan gadaxveva reprezentirebulia, rogorc
sulieri misiis Seusrulebloba. sityvaTSexameba sulieri misia
xSirad Cndeba rogorc politikosebis, ise samecniero-kulturuli elitis warmomadgenelTa citatebSi, maT saavtoro statiebSi. Tu saqarTvelos sulieri misia sulieri ganviTarebis, iniciaciis, sulieri azrovnebis aRorZinebaa, qarTvelma erma (qarTvelur modgmasTan erTad) kacobriobis sulieri moZRvris pozicia unda daibrunos14 (wyaro arasaxelisuflebo elitis warmomadgeneli). saqarTvelos misia, am mediuri teqstiT, - es aris
moZRvris misia sxva erebis winaSe; rom mas istoriulad hqonda es
misia da asrulebda kidec (unda daibrunos). am misiis gansaxorcieleblad man ar unda gadauxvios Tavisuflebis gzas, da es sxva
erebma unda dainaxon da moiwonon.
Tomas Sefi (1995) miuTiTebs sircxvilisa da bralis gancdaze, romelsac nacionalizmis ritorika axelebs: Tu davmarcxdiT, Tu uari vTqviT Cvens erovnul Rirsebaze, maSin Cven Segvarcxvenen; Cven veRar SevZlebT imis keTebas, risTvisac odiTgan viyaviT mowodebulebi; maSin Cven uarvyofT Cvens aTaswlovan memkvidreobas; Cven veRar viqnebiT Suqura erebisaTvis15 .
amgvari patriotuli ritorika axelebs sircxvils, Semdeg ki
mrisxanebas maT winaaRmdeg, vinc gvadanaSaulebs Cven Cveni
memkvidreobis, Cveni daniSnulebis uaryofaSi... iqnebian isini
mtrebi sazRvargareT Tu mtrebi qveynis SigniT... Cveni mtrebi
sawinaaRmdego xmebs avrceleben, TiTqos saqarTvelodan maTi
[araqarTuli mosaxleobis x. m.] gasaxleba gvindodes16 ; an: xmebi dadis, rom mand [saqarTveloSi x. m.] xalxs xocaveno, Tanac
rusebso, Semzaravi qaosi da samoqalaqo omiao. yvelaferi es ganzrax keTdeba. am Worebs suki da sakdesi avrceleben. sruli sainformacio blokadaa presaSi. protests vacxadebT, werilebs
____________________________
12
Mmamuli, 1990, dekemberi
13
saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, 18 dekemberi
14
m
M amuli, 1991, marti
15
Scheff, T. (1995) Bloody Revenge : Nationalism, War and Emotion. Boulder CO: Westview Press
16
saqarTvelos respublika, 1990, 14 dekemberi

76

xaTuna maisaSvili

vugzavniT, magram ar aqveyneben. ai, maTi sindisi da maTi simarTle 17 ; (orive Setyobinebis wyaro saqarTvelos prezidenti
zviad gamsaxurdiaa).
gamsaxurdia Tavis mravalricxovan interviuebSi ucxoel da
rus JurnalistebTan araerTxel aRniSnavs saqarTvelos uRiareblobas msoflios mier, rogorc problemas, vinaidan, misi azriT, obieqturi wanamZRvrebi saqarTvelos aRiarebisaTvis arsebobs: nuTu oriaTaswlovani eri, romelmac qristianoba meoTxe saukuneSi miiRo da romelic icavda samarTlianobasa da
samarTals, unda gminavdes monobis yulfSi kisergayofili da
rCebodes samokavSireo xelSekrulebis uRelqveS?!18 . xelisuflebis paToss iziarebs arasaxelisuflebo elita: Cven
RvTismSoblis wilxvedr miwas vicavT da amiT uzenaes vals vixdiT19 ; an: sawyenia, rom baltiispireTis respublikebi ayovneben am saqmes [saqarTvelos aRiarebas x. m]... 9 aprilis ambebi
rom ara, verc aRmosavleT evropa miiRebda damoukideblobas20 .
saqarTvelos rolis warmoCena sxva erebis winaSe ar iyo mxolod ararealuri warmodgenebiT nakvebi, spontanuri da usistemo Sexedulebebis krebuli. igi sakmaod Zlier, sayvareli
erovnuli xatebiT Seqmnil edeologiur saZirkvelze idga,
romlis erT-erTi burji samSoblos RvTiTrCeulad warmodgena iyo.
saqarTvelo RvTismSoblis wilxvedria21 , riT mokirwylavs
[saqarTvelo] axali taZris gzas?22 , salocavi mamuli, - samSoblos RvTivrCeulad warmosaxva ar aris unikaluri saqarTvelosTvis. TiToeuli samSoblo, - wers biligi, - unda ganixilebodes, rogorc gansakuTrebuli adgili, fizikurad da metaforulad gamocalkevebuli sxva samSobloebisagan.23 axali taZris mediuri saxeebi da xatebi warsuli saqarTvelos saxidan
proecirdeba momavalze: mogecemaT rusTavelis saqarTvelo
ekonomikurad Zlieri, amaRlebuli qveyana24 (Setyobinebis
wyaro inteligenciis warmomadgeneli). Tumca ufro xSiria
daRmavali valentobis mqone sazrisiseuli erTeulebi: waqceuli mxedari25 (wyaro Jurnalisti); saqarTvelos mravaltan____________________________
17

saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, 19 marti


saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, 31 agvisto
19
saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, 31 marti
20
saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, 2 dekemberi
21
saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, 31 marti
22
saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, 27 Tebervali
23
Billig, M. (1995) : 75
24
mamuli, 1990, oqtomberi
25
saqarTvelos respublika, 1991, 31 marti
18

samSoblo, eri-saxelmwifo da qarTuli elitebi

77

jul miwas mravali wyluli aqvs mourCeneli26 , Teoriulad cnobilia, rom erovnuli identobis SenarCunebisaTvis aucilebelia, rom TiToeuli eri aviTarebdes pozitiur miTs sxva erebisagan Tavis gamosarCevad, sakuTari arsebobis gasamarTleblad.
es miTebi, mimarTuli eris koleqtiuri raobisadmi, istoriuli movlenebis pozitiur WrilSi moqceviT da sxva erebze upiratesobis grZnobis CamoyalibebiT27 , propagandirebulni arian upiratesad mediaSi28 . TiTqos paradoqsulia, rom qarTuli
media, rogorc Semxsenebeli, mkiTxvelis yuradRebas mimarTavs
warsuli uaryofiTi gamocdilebis yalibze.
faqtoruli analizi
aRweriTi analiziTa da kros-tabiT gamoikveTili wyaroebis
erovnul-identobiTi diskursis moculoba da valentoba ar
gvaZlevs saSualebas, vimsjeloT wyaroebis tipebis, rogorc
faqtorebis, mniSvnelobasa da gavlenaze, anu zusti pasuxi gavceT sakvlev SekiTxvas. analizis momdevno etapad arCeuli faqtoruli analizi miznad isaxavs, saxelisuflebo wyaroebis mimarT davadginoT sxva wyaroebis mniSvneloba da TiToeuli faqtoris gavlena. amisTvis saWiroa warmovadginoT TiToeuli atribuciis SigniT wyaros tipebis struqtura da maTi sixSire (raodenobrivi monacemebi ix. cxrilSi 2)
faqtoruli analiziT warmoCenilia faqtorebis (wyaroebis):
c arasaxelisuflebo elita; d - Jurnalisti; e - moqalaqe, mniSvneloba da gavlena raodenobrivad yvelaze reprezentirebuli wyaros (ab - saxelisuflebo wyaroebi) mimarT.
cxrili 1 gviCvenebs cvladebis aRweriT statistikas.
Descriptive Statistics

C
D
E
Ab

Mean
197,5
78,0
28,5
306,5

Std.
Deviation
2,12132
86,26703
40,30509
43,13351

Analysis
N
2
2
2
2

____________________________
26

saqarTvelos respublika, 1990, 16 dekemberi


Niebuhr, R. (1967) The Social Myths of the Cold War, in J. Farrel and A. Smith (eds), Image and
Reality in World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press: 40-67
28
Deutch, K. W. (1953)
27

78

xaTuna maisaSvili

korelaciis matricidan Cans, rom cvladebs Soris gvaqvs 1-s


toli, maRali korelacia.
Correlation Matrix
Correlati C
on
D
E
Ab

g
1,000
1,000
1,000
-1,000

d
1,000
1,000
1,000
-1,000

E
1,000
1,000
1,000
-1,000

ab
-1,000
-1,000
-1,000
1,000

naxazi gviCvenebs funqciis Factor Analysis: Extraction grafikis Sedegs. aq grafikulad aris warmodgenili TiToeuli faqtoris mniSvneloba. faqtorebis mier ganpirobebuli variacia mkveTrad ecema
faqtorebis amoRebasTan erTad.
wertili, romelSic mrudi swori
xdeba, mdebareobs sivrceSi pirvel
da meore faqtors Soris. funqciis
grafikuli konstruqcia uCvenebs,
rom meore faqtors pirvelze naklebi mniSvneloba, gavlena gaaCnia. aA nu, gavlenisa da mniSvnelobis mixedviT, arasaxelisuflebo elita, rogorc Setyobinebis
wyaro, dominanturi komunikatoria. Semdegi mniSvnelobis aris
Jurnalisti.
rogorc vxedavT, analizma gamokveTa ori gavleniani da mniSvnelovani wyaros tipi: saxelisuflebo wyaroebi (prezidenti
da saxelisuflebo oficialuri pirebi, moxeleebi) da arasaxelisuflebo elita (inteligenciis dominanturi mdgomareobiT).
qarTveli inteligentebis gancxadebebi erovnuli identobis
Sesaxeb avlenen cnobier komunikaciur miswrafebebs sazogadoebrivi azris mobilizaciisa da sazogadoebrivi sentimentebis
mxardaWeris mizniT. maT dominanturi mdgomareoba adasturebs
gviandel sabWoTa periodis inercias, roca inteligencia qveynis sulieri da inteleqtualuri cxovrebis ukonkurento lideri iyo. Tuki saxelisuflebo wyaroebi erovnul-identobiTi
sakiTxebis warmoCenisas ufro metad mimarTaven misi dacvis diskurss, arasaxelisuflebo elitis warmomadgenlebis gancxadebebSi sWarbobs analizi. Jurnalistebi, miuxedavad raodenobrivi reprezentaciulobisa aRweriT statistikaSi, faqtorulma analizma mniSvnelobisa da gavlenis mixedviT arasaxelisuf-

samSoblo, eri-saxelmwifo da qarTuli elitebi

79

lebo elitis Semdeg safexurze ganaTavsa. Jurnalisturi gancxadebebisa da komentarebis umravlesoba, mcire gamonaklisiT,
ufro metad mihyveba da imeorebs saxelisuflebo da arasaxelisuflebo elitis enas, vidre qmnis sakuTars. zogadad, media da
Jurnalistebi sakuTar gavlenas avlenen respondentebisa da gasaSuqebeli sakiTxebis SerCevaSi da ar iyeneben am gavlenas sakuTari azris sajarod gamoxatviT. Mmagram im konkretul periodSi Temebi, dakavSirebuli qarTvelobasTan, qarTvelTa
RvTiTrCeulobasTan, apokalipsuri SiSebiTa da keTilisa da borotis apokalipsuri brZolis JiniT SepyrobilobasTan, sxvebis gaSavebasa da demonizebasTan, Jurnalistebma ideologiis
mkeTeblebs dauTmes. sabWoTa ideologiuri wesi: adamianebi TavianTi identobis gaazrebiTac ki mTavrobasa da inteligenciaze unda iyvnen damokidebuli kvlav ZalaSi rCeboda.

daskvna
erovnul-identobiTi diskursi, gamoxatuli erovnuli adgilisadmi mijaWvulobaSi, iyo is Tema, sakiTxi, romlis irgvlivac razmavdnen im periodis axali politikuri da tradiciuli
kulturul-samecniero elitebi qarTul sazogadoebas saxelmwifo damoukideblobisa da Tavisuflebis ideis irgvliv.
axali politikuri elitaca da inteligenciac irCevda strategiuli politikuri komunikaciis taqtikas, roca mediuri resursi politikuri garemos zedmiwevniT efeqturad samarTavad
gamoiyeneba. am strategiis ZaliT guSindeli araformalebi da
guSindeli disidenturi an kabineturi inteligencia, cdilobda, warmoeCina, rom swored igi iyo is Zala, romelsac hqonda axali qarTvelis sulieri lideris Tvisebebi. f
K aqtobrivad,
es komunikacia asaxavda ori fenomenis: sabWoTa inteligenciisa da axali elitebis dapirispirebas da erTianobas.
konceptualurad, im periodis qarTuli beWduri media iyo nacionalisturi/patriotuli tipis media, radgan misTvis centraluri sakiTxi iyo eri, am fenomenis yvelaze mniSvnelovani
maxasiaTeblebiT - eniT, teritoriiT, warsuliT, religiiT, kulturiT, memkvidreobiT, eTnifikacia/moqalaqeobriobis dilemiT, momavlis perspeqtiviT, warsuli gamocdilebis SiSis proecirebiT momavalze.
erovnuli identobis reprezentacia warmoaCenda nacionalisturi ideologiis dominantur mdgomareobas im periodis mediaSi,1990-iani wlebis dasawyisis qarTuli beWduri mediis dominanturi wyaroebis struqtura asaxavda axali elitebis struqturas, mniSvnelobasa da gavlenas, agreTve axali hegemonis balanss
erovnuli identobis gamamyarebeli diskursis meSveobiT.

80

irakli mWedliSvili

sivrcobrivi forma da ori


mTavari metafora
filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, kinomcodne, inJiner-fizikosi.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
`cifruli gamosaxuleba da eidosuri xati~,
`kosmosi, sivrce-dro
da virtualuri realoba~, `perspeqtiva aRorZinebidan cifrul gamosaxulebamde...~...
samecniero interesebi:
amJamad ori mimarTulebiT vmuSaob: pirveli, xmelTaSua zRvis
kulturaTa da civilizaciaTa safuZvlebSi
ganmsazRvreli da dReisaTvisac sagulisxmo
msoflSegrZnebiTi, anu
dro-sivrciTi xasiaTis
konceptebis gamovlenaSepirispireba; da meore
`arTroni, anu elinuri azrovnebis is simboluri winaforma,
romelmac Semdgomi, dasavluri
kulturis
msoflSegrZnebiTi
mimarTeba ganapiroba.

dResac, XXI saukuneSic, zogierT adamiansa da, zogjer, erTian sazogadoebriv


warmodgenasac miaCnia, rom `dids~ an `diads~ yovelTvis `metis~ mniSvnelobac
aqvs. gasuli saukunis Sua xanamde am movlenis cxovelmyofeloba evropul sivrceSi im dromde SemorCenil imperiul
konteqstSic vlindeboda. amjerad, imperiuli periodis mraval avtorTagan erTi, Cestertoni, gamovarCioT.
`sadRac, tibetSi, Calis qoxSi mcxovrebi adamiani SeiZleba, advilad daajero,
rom is CineTis imperiis qveSevrdomia da
rom es, farTod gadaSlili imperia, marTlac, diadi da STambeWdavi ram aris. anda, SeiZleba daarwmunoT, rom is britaneTis imperiis qveSevrdomia ara uSavs, mainc aRfrTovandeba. magram, raoden saocradac unda mogveCvenos, aseT mentalur
mdgomareobaSi am adamianisaTvis imperia,
romelsac ver xedavs, ufro sarwmuno SeiZleba iyos, vidre qoxi, romelsac xedavs.~ 1
______________________________
1
Cestertonis es citata perifrazaa ioane
mociqulis epistoles gamonaTqvamisa: radgan Tu ar
uyvars Tavisi Zma, romelsac xedavs, rogorRa
Seiyvarebs RmerTs, romelsac ver xedavs?~(1 ioan., 4,
20). ix. G. K. Chesterton. The Everlasting Man. Part 1, Chapter 3.
The Antiquiti of Civilisation. http://www.worldinvisible.com/library/chesterton/everlasting/part1c3.htm.

sivrcobrivi forma da ori mTavari metafora

81

hoda, Tu diadi imperiis uSualod uxilavi, magram cnobierad,


goniT danaxuli xati aseT jadosnur mimzidvelobas flobs, maSin, igive Tviseba iqneb sxva, Tundac samarTliani sazogadoebis
sadRac, warmosaxul adgilas arsebul, anda drois myobad ganzomilebaSi moazrebul modelsac SeiZleba hqondes?
SeiZlebao! mxatvruli warmosaxvis, utopiuri modelebis
Semqneli meocnebeni Tanadrouli sazogadoebis amgvar SesaZleblobaSi darwmunebas axali evropis adreuli xanidan cdilobdnen. XIX saukunidan ki maTi mimdevarni sarwmuno varaudis
mecnierul dasabuTebasac gvTavazoben.
Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom adreuli utopiisa da Semdgomi,
socialuri gardaqmnis mecnieruli moZRvrebis TiTqos uSualo,
TavisTavadi da Tanmimdevruli kavSiri erT mniSvnelovan moments qronologiuri bmulobis gareT Tu miRma tovebs. kerZod,
TiToeulis xedva Tu Wvreta gansxvavebul qrono-toposur pozicias gulisxmobs.
erTgan, adreul utopistebTan, `samarTlianobis~ amqveyniuri gamovlena sinamdvileSi ararsebul, u-toposur, magram, mainc sivrculi ganzomilebis struqturis Tanad, warmosaxviT
adgilas xdeba. meoregan socialuri samarTlianobis mecnieruli modelis SemqmnelebTan ki, amgvari `xsnis adgili~ winaswarmetyvelur perspeqtivaSi, anu droiT ganzomilebaSi moiazreba.
RvTis rwmenis sanacvlod obieqtur-mecnierul mrwamss mindobil socializmis Teoretikosebs sxva gamosavali arc unda
hqonodaT. materialisturi da aTeisturi msoflxedva WeSmariti Tanasworobisa da samarTlianobisken svlis orientirs an mizidulobis mizanwarmarTvel centrs verc aramiwier, zeganzomilebaSi ganaTavsebda, verc gardamaval, emanaciur ierarqiaSi
moiazrebda da mas verc Teologiur, `RvTis qalaqisa~ da `miwieri qalaqis~ topologias moargebda. utopia, anu warmosaxviTi
`utoposi~ ki, TavisTavad imis gamo, rom mas realobis materialur-obieqturi kriteriumebi ar esadageba, mecnierulobis
pretenziis mqone modelisaTvis gamousadegari iyo.
sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis kanonzomierebaTa ganazrebis
Tu gagebis mizniT Seqmnili bolo saukuneebis yvela relevanturi ieris mqone socialuri Teoria, pirdapir Tu iribad, axalevropuli mecnieruli xedvis arsobriv, sabunebismetyvelo
principebs Tu meTodebs imeorebs. amis gamo, obieqturobis
principi, romelic fizikuri garemos an bunebis (berZ. physis

82

irakli mWedliSvili

buneba) TavisTavad, Cvengan damoukidebel kanonzomierebaTa gagebisa da kvlevis postulirebul pirobas warmoadgens, socialur sferoSic gadmodis. sazogadoebrivi sivrcis dakvirveba
da Seswavla mecnierulad, anu, swored obieqturi damkvirveblis poziciidan xdeba.
WeSmariti codnis kriteriumis Tanaxmad ki, mocemul, sakvlev areSi, dadgenili mecnieruli kanonzomiereba yvelgan da
yovelTvis erTnairi unda iyos. es ki gulisxmobs, rom arsebobs
dakvirvebisa da Semowmebis meqanizmi, erTgvari aRmqmeli organo, romelic bunebis kanonebis obieqtur Semecnebas axdens. magram, aseTad, Tu RmerTi gamoricxulia, mxolod adamiani, ufro sworad, abstraqtuli adamiani SeiZleba warmovidginoT. Tu
asea, maSin gamodis, rom materialur-sagnobrivi samyaros kanonzomierebas iseTi arseba xedavs Tu Wvrets, romlis aRqmiTi SesaZlebloba yovelTvis obieqtur, anu adgilisa da drois kerZo, SemTxveviT poziciur xdomilobaTgan damoukidebel, absolutur ganzomilebaSi moiazreba.
obieqturi damkvirvebelis, `abstraqtuli adamianis~ mecnieruli daSveba bunebis materialur-sagnobriv erTgvarovnebas
ar arRvevs. amgvari calsaxa warmodgenis farglebSi, obieqturi damkvirvebeli Tavadac sagnobriv warmonaqmnad an erTgvar,
aRmqmel Tu aRmricxvel meqanizmad warmodgeba. magram mecnieruli Sexeduleba fiqciad, arakoreqtul xedvad maSinve gadaiqceva, rogorc ki samyaroSi, TavisTavad arsebuli sagnebis garda, cocxali adamianuri organizmis, anu sxeulovani garsiT gamocalkevebuli cnobierebis Tu sulis arsebobac daiSveba.
dasabamidan misjili gvamis (an guamis) jurRmulSi gamoketiloba da bolovaduri arseboba adamianma Zireul, egzistenciur problemad mxolod pirveladi, ganmamxoloebeli ganazrebis Tu refleqsiis Semdeg gaacnobiera. aqedan moyolebuli, sayovelTao erTianobisa da bedisweris dakargul, miTosur gancdas gandegilisa da mdgmuris, mwirisa da xiznis mdgomareobaSi Cavardnili adamianis TviTSegrZneba da Wmunva cvlis.
`vinaidan mdgmurni da xizanni varT Sens winaSe...~ (1 neSt. 29,
15). religia erTianobis aRdgenis sasoebas absoluturi instanciis `winaSe~ Tu mis yovlismomcvel wiaRSi eZiebs da xsnis gzasac amave ganzomilebaSi moiazrebs. filosofia ki iseT universalur, WvretiT modelebs agebs, sadac saTanadod SerCeuli
msoflaRqmiTi pozicia da Sesabamisi xedva yvela danarCen arsebaTagan gamijnul, sxeulSi gamoketil adamianur `me~-s samya-

sivrcobrivi forma da ori mTavari metafora

83

ros erTian suraTTan garkveuli wesiT morgebas apirobebs.


mecnieruli midgoma warmoiSva ukve Semdgom, im dros, roca
religuri da msoflaRqmiTi, sulieri Tu cnobieri safuZvlis
warmodgenidan momdinare xedvam adamians samyaroSi gansakuTrebuli adgili `miuCina~. renesansidan moyolebuli, RvTis xatad da msgavsebad Seqmnili, samyaros centrSi mdgomi adamiani
Semomqmed-gardamqnelis aqtiur poziciasac ikavebs. aqedan wamosuli, gviandeli, racionalizmsa da mecnierul xedvaze dafuZnebuli progresuli ganviTarebis calsaxa modeli, miuxedavad obieqtur-TviTkmaruli ierisa, mainc Zireul, samyaros
erTianad momcvel aRqmiT Tu gancdiT warmodgenazea mibmuli.
amitomac, adamianTa samarTliani Tu swori Tanacxovrebis,
anu, arsobrivad imave, aTaswleulebis win gacnobierebuli ganmxoloebisa da martoobis Zireuli problemidan momdinare, XIX
saukuneSi warmoSobili moZRvrebis, komunisturi sazogadoebis
an, Tundac, `socialuri fizikis~ programis Tu modelis mecnieruli dasabuTebis mcdeloba, sinamdvileSi, mTelis nawiliT
Secvlis, SeiZleba iTqvas, Cveuli da saxasiaTo cdomis ganmeorebaa.
mecnieruli diskursi swored Zireul, egzistenciur problemaTa religiuri Tu filosofiuri ganazrebis Sedegad warmoSobil koreqtul saazrovno formaTa artikulirebuli erTianobis, kulturuli velis Semadgenelia. amgvari, ganmapirobebeli konteqstis mravalmxriv mimarTebaTa ugulvebelyofa
da misi calmxrivi, obieqtur-meqanikuri kanonzomierebiT Canacvlebis mesianisturi elferis moZRvrebaTa miswrafeba TviT
kulturis safuZvelSi Cadebul principTa sisworesa da vargisianobas eWvis qveS ayenebs.
Tavad Zireul principTa pirveli monaxazi ki adreul, jer
kidev im etapze warmoCnda, roca miTosuri cnobierebis adamiani sakuTari SezRuduli arsebobis sakiTxs mxolod gumaniT
swvdeboda Tu xvdeboda. adamianuri samyaros mowesrigebis ukve sakmaod naTlad gamovlenili, qrono-toposuri xasiaTis mimarTebani pirveladi dayofis, nomaduridan dafuZnebul cxovrebis wesze gadasvlis Sedegad warmoSobil, `abelur~ da `kaenur~ tradiciebSic SeiZleba moiniSnos2 . Tumca, amjerad, ufro
mniSvnelovani, albaT, isev Tanamedrove dasavluri civilizaciis sawyisebis kvlavmoxilva unda iyos.
______________________________
2

Kvrclad es sakiTxi ganxilulia: irakli mWedliSvili abelur da kaenur


tradiciaTa dro-sivrciTi simbolizmi~ kreb. semiotika~, 1, Tb. 2007, gv. 142-163.

84

irakli mWedliSvili

Sma sma sxeuli saflavia, sxeuli jurRmulia piTagorelebi adamianur, egzistenciur sevdas xumrobanarevi CiviliT,
kalamburuli formiT amosTqvamen. `sxeulovani ricxvebi~ piTagorelebma swored sxeulSi Caketili adamianuri `me~-s samyarosTan, kosmiur harmoniasTan morgebis mizniTac moigones. da
aseTi, ganmxoloebis problemis sivrcul-sxeulovani gadawyvetis piTagorul-platonuri modeli Tu mcdeloba dasavluri
kulturisa da saazrovno sivrcis erT-erT damaxasiaTebel,
formiseul Tu struqturul prototipad iqca.
amasTan, unda aRiniSnos, rom antikuri, sxeulovan-sivrculi winaforma aSkarad, ra Tqma unda, renesansis kulturul sivrceSi warmoCnda, magram simboluri Tu analogiuri saxiT iqamdisac, sulierebaze orientirebul adreul-qristianul konteqstSic Tanaarsebobda. ase rom, ara mxolod bolo saukuneebis axalevropul msoflxedvas, aramed, rogorc Spengleri aRniSnavs, `dasavleli adamianis religiur Sexedulebasac ki sivrcobrivi formebisken swrafvis mudmivi tendencia aqvs.~3
sawyiss Tu dasabams es tendencia kvlav adamianis Zireuli problemis araerTgvarovnebidan iRebs. arsebobis ormagi,
sxeulebrivad da bolovadurad SemzRudavi piroba-mocemulobis wvdoma Tu ganazreba adamians modalurad gansxvavebul mimarTebaTa mixedviT uwevs. sxeuli, garda imisa, rom adamianur
`me~-s sxva yvelafrisagan ganacalkevebs, amasTan, erTaderTia,
romelic mas, am `me~-s gare samyarosTan uSualod akavSirebs.
da es kavSiri kvlav ormagi bunebisaa. erTi mxriv, SegrZnebis
organoebi (upirvelesad ki taqtiluri aRqma) gare samyaros sagnobriv `Seyra-Sexebas~ asaxaven, xolo, meore mxriv, am asaxvebs
Tu anabeWdebs Tavad sxeulSi arsebuli koordinaciis intuicia
Tu grZnoba garkveul mdebareobas aniWebs anu, sxeuli maT Tavissave nawevarTa mimarTulebis mixedviT, marjvniv an marcxniv,
win an ukan, zemoT an qvemoT aRiqvavs da ganalagebs. amitomac,
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom gare, sagnobrivi samyaros asaxvis garda
Cvens sxeulSi sivrcis SegrZneba, gancda Tu intuiciac arsebobs.
drosTan mimarTeba ki sruliad sxvagvaria. samyaroSi gamosulT, drois naRvawTan, uZlurebasTan, siberesTan da sikvdilTan yoveli Seyra mamis sasaxlidan gamoparul princ gautamasaviT gvaZrwunebs 4 . da es Zrwola sruliad `bunebrivia~, radgan
______________________________
3

K . . --, , 1998, . 271

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Cven verc dabadeba-sikvdilis saidumlos vflobT da verc daudgromeli qmnadobis ganuzRvreli, Tavbrudamxvevi wiaRis
siRrmes an kides vwvdebiT. yovlis mimrqmel da yovlis gamqarvebel droTa yovelwamieri qmnadobis moziare mgrZnobeloba
Cvens sxeulovan `me~-Si ar aris.
droTa dinebis Tu svlis mier motanil, auridebel da sastik
SedegTan Sejaxebisas adamians umweobis gancdasTan erTad SiSisa da krZalvis grZnobac eufleba (`sikvdili yvelas gvaSinebs,
/ sxvas Tu hkvlen, cqera gvwadian~...). da amgvari, krZalviTi Tu
mowiwebiTi, damokidebulebis arealSi gaugebari, TviTneburi,
TavisTavadi da, amave dros, kanonzomieri movlenis miRma nagulisxmev, gangebis magiur, numinozur an RvTaebriv ZalebTan erTad, gandobil Tu saidumlos naziarev, gamorCeul adamianTa
figurebic xvdebian. aseT mentalur mimarTebaTa velSi myofi
adamiani winaswarmetyvelTa, SamanTa, mmarTvelTa Tu beladTa
momadlebul, mistiur unars Tu qarizmas brmad endoba da maTsave nebas udrtvinvelad mihyveba.
elinebma ki dauSves, rom samyaros kanonzomieri wyobis moxilva adamians Suamavlis gareSe, Tavadac SeuZlia. Tu gare samyaroSi mimdinare movlenaTa ueWveli da namdvili aRqma Cvens
sxeulovan `me~-s kvlav Sejaxeba-Seyris formiT eZleva, maSin,
`SegrZnebadi awmyos~ calkeul `anabeWdTa~ Tanmimdevrul rigi
swored droiTi xangrZliobis asaxvad SeiZleba miviCnioT. anu,
drois problema antikurma azrovnebam kvlav sxeulovan sinamdviles, sivrcul koordinaciasa da sivrceSi Zvradobas daukavSira. martivad rom vTqvaT, dro, antikuri xedviT, ~aq~ arsebul
sxeulSi gamoketili `me~-s sxvagan, dasaxul `iq~ adgilas miRwevis, anu sivrculi SezRudvis gadalaxvis SesaZlebeli aqtis sazomia.
aqve, SeniSvnis saxiT, unda iTqvas, rom bolo gamonaTqvami
sxeulis taqtilur SegrZnebasTan dakavSirebul sivrcul-mimarTulebiTi orientaciis optikur siRrmeSi Tu siSoreSi ganfenasac gulisxmobs. es momenti, garda imisa, rom elinuri msoflgancdis vizualur-taqtilur, anu skulpturul xasiaTs migvaniSnebs, mniSvnelovani imiTac aris, rom drois fenomenis optikasTan, sinaTlis sxivTan `mibmasac~ asaxavs. ase rom, axalev______________________________
4

Kgautama, ukanaskneli budas gvarovnuli saxeli. moixsenieba aseve, sidxarTxad


(sakuTari saxeli) da Sakiamunad. legendis mixedviT, budad gaxdomis gzaze
Sedgomas axalgazrda gautama sami sabediswero Sexvedris siberesTan,
avadmyofobasTan da sikvdilTan Semdeg gadawyvets.

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ropuli droiTi ganazreba swored berZenTa mier xeldasmuli


principidan modis...
axla ki, aseTi, sakmaod zedapiruli Teoriuli Semzadebisa
da dasavluri azrovnebis sivrcul formebze orientirebulobis moniSvnis Semdeg mesianuri muxtis socialur TeoriaTa arakoreqtuloba da xinji ukve sakmaod naTlad SeiZleba warmoCndes. Tu sivrcobrivi forma antikuri azrovnebisaTvis erTgvar, gardamaval warmonaqmns, operators warmoadgens, romelic gare samyaros movlenaTa da cocxali, sxeulovani `me~-s
urTierTmorgebas apirobebs, axalevropul mecnierul warmodgenaSi, igive forma mxolod obieqtur-sagnobrivi samyaros upirovno, abstraqtuli wesrigisa da kanonzomierebis gamovlenis
daniSnulebas iZens.
amitomac, mowesrigebuli samyaros mecnieruli modeli,
gind materialuri bunebis TavisTavadi kanonzomierebisa da
gind yovlis sawyisad absoluturi instanciis aRiarebidan amodiodes, movlenaTa mizezobriv, meqanikuri saxis kavSirs yovelTvis gulisxmobs. amgvari, wminda sabunebismetyvelo xasiaTis
principebis sazogadoebriv sivrceSi gadatanisas adamianTa
`Seyra-Sejaxebis~, anu socialur qmedebaTa bunebis gamartiveba, misi sqematur, mizez-Sedegobriv warmodgenamde dayvana xdeba.
miT ufro maSin, roca materiis pirveladobis aRiarebidan
momdinare msoflxedva pirovnul-mentalur miswrafebasa da Sinagan, sulier aqtebs meoreul movlenad, fizikur-biologiuri
procesebis Warbul danamatad miiCnevs. amitomac, obieqtur kanonzomierebas mindobili moZRvreba adamianis samyarosTan mimarTebis yovelTvis Tavidan dasadgeni aqtebisa da Sesabamisi,
dasaxsruli sivrcobrivi formebis Tu ideebis kulturuli velis topologiis nacvlad, aRmavali, mizezobrivi Tanmimdevrobis TavisTavadi svlis warmodgenas efuZneba.
es ki niSnavs, rom Tu materiis TviTganviTarebis procesi gonisa da cnobierebis Carevis gareSe mimdinareobs da, amasTan, Tu
adamianis aRqma, swored SezRudulobis gamo am process ver moicavs, maSin, igulisxmeba, rom bunebis obieqtur da WeSmarit movlenaTa gageba, mizezobriobis calsaxa logikis gaziareba mxolod sadRac arsebuli an Tundac, sadRac dagrovili, faruli
Tu gandobili codnis saSualebiT SeiZleba xdebodes. magram,
yofierebis pirveladobis aRmsarebeli msoflxedvis farglebSi, obieqturi codna, Tu is arc usulo da ugono materiaSi `bu-

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dobs~ da arc absoluturi gonidan modis, subieqtur da meoreul movlenas, cnobierebas isev adreulis, refleqsiamdeli
msoflgancdisaTvis saxasiaTo da misi msgavsi magiuri gziT unda gadaecemodes.
marTalia, aseT magiur moments racionalurad `gawyobili~
samarTliani sazogadoebis modeli Tu koncepcia, calsaxad da
gadaWriT uaryofs, magram, iqve gacxadebuli, yovlismomcveli
da yovlisamxsneli codnis, anu kacobriobis ganviTarebis iqamde cTomili svlisgan gansxvavebuli, marTebuli perspeqtivis
Tu xedvis flobis pretenzia swored aRniSnuli, winacivilizaciuri xasiaTis momentis wiaRidan unda modiodes.
amitomac aris, rom TiTqosda modernuli, uaxlesi ieris XIX
saukuneSi warmoSobili socialuri moZRvreba, swored aRniSnuli momentis gamo codnasa da misi lokaciis (davanebis) nagulisxmev adgils, anu religiuri `wminda nawerebis~ Camnacvlebel,
yovlismomcveli moZRvrebis saTao wigns pieteturi Tu sakraluri Tayvaniscemis kvarcxlbekze aTavsebs. amasTan, amgvari,
calsaxa RirebulebiTi damokidebulebis TavisTavadi logika
WeSmariti kanonzomierebis mWvreteli, gamorCeuli pirovnebis
an/da ukeTesTa Soris saukeTeso gamgebis, beladis Tu winaswarmetyvelis Seuryevel avtoritetsac afuZnebs.
ase da amgvarad, mokle Sejamebis saxiT, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom
obieqturi samyaros mizezobrivi kavSirebidan momdinare mecnieruli ieris mqone msoflxedva antikuri periodidan momdinare, adamianur `me~-s mier samyaros Secnobis sivrcobriv formebze dafuZnebul daSvebas droiT mimdevrobasTan asocirebul, bedisweris msgavs, mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiris sakraluri
codnis formiT cvlis, rac, kulturis Tu civilizaciis pragmatul-utilitarul saburvels miRma, arsobriv safuZvlebSi,
SeuTavseblobisa da mourgeblobis destruqciul energiaTa
dagrovebas pirobas qmnis.
amgvar energiaTa farTo masStabis feTqebadi ganmuxtva gasul saukuneSic xdeboda da, samwuxarod, alag-alag, axlac xdeba. globalurad daZabuli situacia, mravlad ganbneul, aalebad lokalur keraTa arseboba mxolod wina periodis inercia
an bolomde ganumuxtav destruqciul energiaTa `kudis moqneva~ ar unda iyos. bolo dros aqtualurad ganxilvadi kulturaTa an civilizaciaTa dapirispirebis konteqsti imas unda migvaniSnebdes, rom marqsistuli moZRvreba cariel adgilas ar warmoSobila, rom is, swored rom kulturaTa safuZvelSi Cadebul,

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irakli mWedliSvili

gansxvavebul msoflaRqmiT tradiciaTa aRrevis Sedegia. da albaT, droa, naklul socialur moZRvrebaTa `gadasworebisa~ da
maTi teqnologiuri modificirebis mcdelobidan yuradReba
Tavad Zireul kulturwarmomqmnel koncefciaTa Tavidan gadaazrebisken iyos mimarTuli.
SeiZleba, mTeli wina msjeloba yoveldRiurobisgan Zalze
daSorebulis, sruliad ganyenebulis, Zalze xelovnurisa da Zalad Tavsmomxvevis STabeWdilebasac ki tovebdes. anda, SeiZleba mocemuli werili e. w. postepoqisaTvis saxasiaTo ganbneulobis, inteleqtualur teqstTa Tu narativTa `gaTamaSebis~
Cveul nimuSadac iyos aRqmuli. SeiZleba, SeiZleba... , magram, sinamdvileSi, yvelaferi, an yvela gamoTqmuli mosazreba, adre
naxseneb, sruliad martiv, adamianuri `me~-s sivrculi SezRudulobis princips didad ar daSorebia.
tibetisa Tu sxva, nebismier mTaTa masivis rac unda maRal adgilas mcxovrebi adamianis Tvalsawieri umravlesobis Cveul
xedvasTan SedarebiT ufro farTo da Sors mwvdomi SeiZleba
iyos, magram is mainc yovelTvis SemosazRvrulia. horizonti,
~gvam-jurRmulis~ Semdeg meore zRudea, romlis miRma adamianuri SegrZnebis unari (am SemTxvevaSi, vizualuri) veRar vrceldeba. amitomac, imperiis, zogadad ki samyaros, erTianad momcveli xedva mxolod cnobierebaSi SeiZleba Camoyalibdes. goniTi
TvaliT danaxuli erTianoba iseTi mentaluri warmonaqmnia, romelic horizontis xaziT Tu sxva zRudeTi SemosazRvrul calkeul da lokalur vizualur `anabeWdTa~, anu toposur formaTa SeTavsebis Sedegad iqmneba. xolo, SeTavseba-morgeba kvlav
uSualo, sxeulovan-taqtiluri SegrZnebidan momdinare sivrculi koordinaciis modelis mixedviT Tu Sesabamisad xdeba.
aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom SeTavseba-artikulirebis aseTi,
topologiuri modeli, ara mxolod vrculi ganzomilebis, misi
wyobis ganazrebis ganmsazRvreli, aramed antikurobidan wamosuli dasavluri azrovnebis zogadi da ZiriTadi maxasiaTebelic aris. jer kidev saukuneze meti xnis win, anri bergsoni aRniSnavda, rom berZnuli xedva samyaros maradmedini qmnadobidan calkeul, uZrav da ucvlel momentebs gamohyofs da Semdgom, amgvar, gamyarebul formaTa mwkrivad da gverdigverd
ganTavsebiT uwyvet droiT xangrZliobas (Dure-s) sivrcobrivi
xasiaTis TanamimdevrobiT cvlis.
bolo drois sakmaod gaxmaurebuli filosofiuri ganazrebanic dasavluri saazrovno sivrcis msgavs, arsobriv da kriti-

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kul gadaxedvas efuZneba (mag.: deridas `dekonstruqcia~ da


sxva). magram, saazrovno koncefciaTa WeSmaritoba-mcdarobis
kriteriumiT gadafasebis mcdelobaTa gaqaneba mocemuli werilis mizandasaxulobis sferos scildeba. sakmarisi da mniSvnelovani amjerad imis moniSvna unda iyos, rom SemoTavazebul da
ganxilvad diskursis areSi sivrcobriv formas dasavluri kulturis organuli erTianobis ganmapirobebeli principis Tu damsaxsravi rgolis funqcia SeiZleba miekuTvnos.
Tu asea, Tu kulturuli sivrce morgebul da dasaxsrul fenomenTa erTobas Tu vels Seadgens, maSin, gasagebi xdeba, rom
amgvari erTianobis gamWoli principisgan gansxvavebuli mimarTebis nebismieri xdomiloba mas, am vels, ver moergeba. Tumca,
xSirad, dasavluri kulturis sistemur vels Cveuli, praqtikuli saRi azri (common sense) istoriul-qronologiuri an raime
sxva racionaluri principiT (vTqvaT, nominaciuri CamonaTvalTa sia, arqivi, muzeumi, monacemTa baza da sxva) Sedgenil sistemur aRwerasTan aigivebs, rac calsaxa, pragmatul-momxmareblur mimarTebaTa donis moTxovnilebas SeiZleba srulad pasuxobdes, magram, amasTan erTad, aseTi midgoma arsobriv wiaRsa
da sulier ganzomilebaSi mourgebel swrafvaTa, gauziarebel
mentalur energiaTa muxtis dagrovebis pirobasac qmnis...
SeiZleba, vinmem morgebul da dasaxsrul erTobad warmodgenili kulturuli veli warmosaxvis nayofad, ganyenebul abstraqciad miiCnios da arcTu usafuZvlod is, aseTi veli, arc
bunebaSi Tavsdeba da srulad arc obieqtur faqtTa istoriul
sivrces ganekuTvneba. diax, albaT, asec aris amgvar warmodgenaSi warmosaxvas, pirobiTobas anda, SeiZleba iTqvas, fiqciasac ki, saTanado datvirTva Tu funqcia eniWeba. magram aq, am abstraqciaSi, arsebobs kidev raRac, rac ufro mniSvnelovani da
gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri Sedegis momtania.
kerZod, warmodgenil velSi, yvelaferi, rac adamians pirveladi refleqsiis Semdeg Seuqmnia, artikulirebuli Tu asxmuli iseTi nawevaris an saxsrul rgolTa Zewkvis mixedviT aris,
romelic pirovnuli `me~-s samyarosTan mimarTebis yovelTvis
Tavidan dasadgen, cocxal da ueWvel egzistenciur aqts moicavs. es ki niSnavs, rom elinebidan wamosuli ZiriTadi daSveba
Tu principi miuxedavad SezRudulobisa, adamians samyaros
Secnoba Tavad SeuZlia da aseve, aqedanve momdinare, Semoqmedgardaqmneli miswrafeba, yovelTvis ZalaSi rCeba.
marTalia, zogjer, erTgvar adamianur cdunebas Tu ampar-

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tavnebas, yovlismomcveli ganzomilebis wvdomis faustur survilsa da absolutur vertikalze svlis, `babilonis godolis~
Tu `iakobis kibis~ sindroms swored am pirovnul aqts ukavSireben, magram, es kvlav SexedulebaTa cTomis Sedegia.
Tu obieqtur-mecnierul princips mindobili xedva pirovnul-egzistenciur aqts meoreul mniSvnelobas aniWebs da amiT,
faqtobrivad, mis Rirebulebas ugulvebelhyofs, `babilonis
godolis~ Tu `iakobis kibis~ sindromis SemTxvevaSi, piriqiT
Tavad am aqtidan aRZrul, misgan momdinare srulyofisaken maradiul swrafvas TavisTavadi Rirebuleba eniWeba. amitomac,
aseT SemTxvevaSi, absoluturi codnisken mswrafi sulis cdomis Tu (faustur) codvaTa gzaze dgoma swored warmomSob, sawyis da Zireul SemzRudav pirobaTa argaTvaliwinebis, maTi gadalaxvis yovelTvis Tavidan ganxorcielebadi Zalisxmevis `miviwyebis~ gamo xdeba.
xose ortega-i-gaseti erTgan aRniSnavs, rom adamianis azrovneba iZulebis Sedegiao. diax, es `iZuleba~ mudmivia, is araxelsayreli sasicocxlo garemos gamowvevaTa da swored arsobrivi, bolovaduri da sivrculi SezRudvis pirobaTa gamo da maTsave gadasalaxavad xorcieldeba. Tavad gadalaxva ki, arc erTjeradi aqtia da arc obieqtur kanonzomierebaze, sxva raime
meqanizmze Tu vinmeze gadabarebadi Zalisxmevaa. sulis warmaval, xorciel vnebaTgan ganTavisuflebis rwmeniTi aqtis msgavsad da, albaT, Sesabamisadac, amgvari nebelobiTi Zalisxmevis
arc sityvieri dasturisa da arc ritualuri wabaZvis usicocxlo niSnebze dayvana SeiZleba. nakluli adamianuri bunebis Zlevis aqti, yovelTvis Tavidan, cocxali gancdis sivrceSi unda
xorcieldebodes, ~vinaidan RmerTis sasufeveli sityviT ki ar
aris, aramed ZaliT~ (1 kor. 4, 20).
sulis an gonis mier substanciurad gansxvavebuli sinamdvilis, anu miuwdomlis miwdoma Tu wvdoma, Zireuli SezRudulobis gadalaxva mxolod warmosaxvis, nicSeseuli fantaziis droebiTi sayrdenebis, metaforuli miaxloebis saSualebiT SeiZleba. amitomac, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, fantaziis Tu fiqciis momenti amgvar modelSi yovelTvis Tanaarsebobs (laT. fictio ara
rogorc siyalbis an sicruis, aramed Seqmna, Sedgena, gamogoneba, Txzvis mniSvnelobiT). Tundac imitom, rom sinamdvilis vizualur anabeWdTa, sivrcul formaTa SeTavseba-morgebisas
droiTi biji, romelic amgvar warmonaqmnTa Soris devs, yovelTvis ugulvebelyofilia.

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erTdroulad ramdenime obieqtis aqtualur aRqmas verc Cveni SegrZneba da verc Cveni cnobiereba axerxebs. meore mxriv,
adamiani verc erTsa da imave dinebaSi Seva orjer da verc erTsa
da imave sinamdviles dainaxavs. imitom, rom yvelaferi cvalebadobas eqvemdebareba. warmodgena vaSlze, romelic Cvens win
devs, cnobierebaSi ori xedis SeTavsebiT iqmneba vaSlis am wams,
am wuTas xiluli nawili da meore am wams, am wuTas uxilavi, magram adre danaxuli. Tu droiT bijs an qmnadobas gaviTvaliswinebT, vaSlis ori nawilis erTianobad warmodgena sinamdvileSi
arakoreqtuli aqtia, radgan adre danaxuli nawili am wams, am wuTas Secvlili an ararsebulic ki SeiZleba iyos...
warmosaxva, fiqciuri daSveba ki Tvlis, rom sxvadasxva adgilidan da sxvadasxva dros danaxul xatTa SeTavseba samyaros
struqturis koreqtul warmodgenas ar ewinaaRmdegeba. amgvari daSvebis gareSe samyaros wyobis veraviTari modeli iarsebebs, radgan, maradmedini qmnadobis miyolis, cvalebad, mouxelTebel da efemerul formaTa `daWeris~ mcdeloba cnobierebas
dausrulebeli devnis absurdul da unayofo reJimSi amyofebs.
gamodis, rom gamouval CixSi vimyofebiT ucvlel formaTa
modeli fiqciaa, xolo, maradmedini qmnadobis devna uazroba.
absolutur, ucvlel da WeSmarit formaTa (ideaTa) zeganzomileba, romelic berZnebma SemoiRes, swored amgvari Cixidan gamosvlis mcdelobas warmoadgens. maradmedini da mouxelTebeli cvalebadobis ganivi, anu miwieri donis paralelurad ucvlel, WeSmarit da absolutur formaTa zedonis daSveba da maT,
am doneebs, Soris aqsialuri mimarTebis dadgena aRniSnuli, ganbnevis usasrulo ciklis Tavidan aridebis SesaZleblobas Tu
pirobas qmnis.
cvalebad formaTa devnasa da `samyaros trialis~ uZiro morevSi CaTrevas an usasrulo traeqtoriaze Slegur srbolas azrma Tu `goniTma Tvalma~ Tavi mxolod uSualo, grZnobadi sinamdvilidan gasvliT, anu TviTamaRlebiT SeiZleba daaRwios
(daaxloebiT imgvarad, rogorc saxaliso literaturuli gmiri, baroni miunhauzeni Waobidan sakuTari Tavis cxenianad amowevas axerxebs...). absolutur da idealur formaTa ufro maRali wesrigis doneze gadasvla, Tvalsawieris gafarToebasTan
erTad, `goniT Tvals~ im formebTanac mieaxlebs, romelTac
cvalebadi da warmavali qmnadoba verafers aklebs.
anu, sxvanairad, ufro ki pirobiTad da simbolurad, zeganzomileba iseT, tibetis Tu sxva, nebismier mTaTa masivze ufro

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maRal, zRvrul doned SeiZleba warmovidginoT, sadac horizonti Tvalsawiers ki aRar sazRvravs, aramed, Tavad sinamdvilis
ukidegano cvalebadobis dinebas calkeul, ucvlel momentebad, usxeulo warmonaqmnebad anawevrebs (berZ. horizontos damsazRvravi, ganmacalkevebeli). amasTan, igulisxmeba, rom miwieri sinamdvilis SegrZnebad-sxeulovani modelisa da uZrav da
ucvlel idealur formaTa gundis Tu konstelaciis, anu zeganzomilebis struqtura urTierTanalogiuria.
ganzomilebaTa Soris garkveuli mimarTebis arsebobasa da
analogias swored orivegan uflebamosili Tu relevanturi
sivrcobriv formaTa aRnagoba, anu adamianur `me~-sTan mibmuli
topologia ganapirobebs. Tumca, Sida mimarTebaTa mixedviT,
es ori ganzomileba, rogorc Cans, erTgvar, urTierTSebrunebul, inversiul sivrceebs unda warmoadgendes. amitomac, miwieri sinamdvilis donidan ganTavisuflebis, anu zeganzomilebaSi gasvlis saTanado goniT Zalisxmevas grZnobadi aRqmis sapirispiro, Sebrunebuli aqtis saxe da mimarTuleba unda hqondes.
Tavad CaRrmavebis Tu gadasvlis aqti ki, rogorc Cans, uaRresad Zlieri sulieri gancdis, mentalur warmonaqmnTa erTianad mocvis mcdelobis daZabul velSi xorcieldeba da zRvrul,
genialuri Wvretis SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom titanuri
Zalisxmevis Sedegadac miiRweva. amitomacaa, rom dante aligieris mxatvruli warmosaxva, daRmaval-ganbnevadi grZnobadi sinamdvilidan gasvlis, aRmasvlisken Setrialebis inversiul wertils samyaros centrad, iseT adgilad miiCnevs, sadac yvela simZimeTa dawolis Seyra Tu Serwyma xdeba.
literaturuli fiqciis, `RvTaebrivi komediis~ simbolizmi
swored rom zustia xiluli, grZnobadi sinamdvilis miRma gasvlis, anu goniTi CaRrmavebis mcdeloba mxolod sxeulovanxorciel vnebaTa Tu amqveyniur, warmaval miswrafebaTa ukiduresi wvdomis, jojoxeTuri wiaRis gavlis Sedegad da Semdeg SeiZleba ganxorcieldes. jojoxeTi ki iseTi adgilia, sadac codvaTa horizontiT Semofarglul gauRwevel wreTa da sartyelTa SigniT sxeulovani tanjva-wamebis usasrulo cikli batonobs.
sivrcobriv formaTa mixedviT, saintereso da sagulisxmo
dantes simbolizmSi isic aris, rom jojoxeTis wreebic, zecaTa
rigica da empireac absolutur, sferul simetrias ukavSirdeba. jojoxeTuri wreebi da sartylebi naxevarsferuli gumbaTis
miwier-sxeulovani kveTa, anu horizontebia, zecaTa rigi, igive
piTagorul sferoTa harmonia da musikaa, xolo JRerad-fera-

sivrcobrivi forma da ori mTavari metafora

93

dovani `samoTxis vardi~ ki, kvlav sferuli simetriis Tanad,


platonur akustikur harmonias unda eTanxmebodes.
dante, ra Tqma unda, antikurobidan momdinare, im periodSi
miRebul samyaros wyobis xedvas miyveba (ptolemeusis sistema,
platonizmi Tu neoplatonizmi, Sua saukuneebis Teologia...).
magram gansakuTrebuli da saniadago mniSvnelobis mis nawarmoebSi sxva ram aris `RvTaebrivma komediam~ im droisaTvis sruliad axali sulieri wvdomis magaliTi gamoavlina. miTiuri da
legendaruli siuJetebi (orfeosis micvalebulTa samefoSi,
hadesSi Casvla, uSualo `dasesxebiT~ ki, vergiliusis mier aCrdilTa samefoSi eneosisaTvis megzurobis gaweva) man, aligierim, ara raime saocari ambis Txrobis Tu didaqtikuri damoZRvris, codvaTa sazRauris, saukuno tanjva-wamebis an sasufevlis mopovebisa da netarebis simboluri aRweris, aramed, adreulisgan gansxvavebuli, gansakuTrebuli mizniT gamoiyena.
cdomaTa usieri tyis bind-bundidan saiqios wiaRSi Casvlis
simboloTi dantem sakuTari da, rogorc Cans, imdroindeli italiis sazogadoebis gzaabneulobidan Tavis daRwevis, sulieri
Zalisxmevisa da zneobrivi amaRlebisken svlis mimarTuleba da
gza moniSna. man erTdroulad samyaros Secnobis pirovnul `me~sTan dakavSirebuli antikuri xedvac ganaaxla da samyaros Suasaukuneobriv, emanaciur-ierarqiauli wyobis warmodgenaSi pirovnuli nebisa Tu Zalixmevis aqtis, anu adamianuri ganzomilebis arsebobac dauSva.
iqamde, e. i. dantemde da ufro ki renesansul azrovnebamde,
antikur da aseve, Sua saukuneebis warmodgenaSi cocxal, adamianur `me~-sa da garemocvel samyaros Soris mimarTeba sxeulovani `Seyra-Sejaxebis~, anu anabeWdis modelis mixedviT, moiazreboda. cnobierebas sokrate cvilis dafas adarebs, cvilze
anabeWdisa da carieli dafis metaforas aristotelec mimarTavs
(imaves imeorebs Toma aqvineli tabula rasa). grZnobadi anabeWdi
elinTa Tanaxmad: an materiisgan gamocalkevebuli Tvisebrioba, anu logosuri formaa (aristotele) an iseTi xati, romelsac
sulis ukvdav nawilSi ukve arsebuli, gaxsenebadi, WeSmariti
forma, anu idea eTanadeba (platoni).
axalevroOpul azrovnebaSi anabeWdis modeli Tu Sedareba
WurWlis an Semcvelobis metaforiT icvleba. magram gadasvla
ucbad da erTbaSad ar momxdara Zireul metaforaTa cvlileba jer sqolastikosTa azrovnebaSi Semzadda da ukve sacnaurad,
SeiZleba iTqvas, xilulad, vizualuradac ki, Semdgom, renesan-

94

irakli mWedliSvili

suli kulturis sivrceSi warmoCnda.


aRorZinebis saazrovno sivrceSi Casaxulma modernulma
(devotio moderna) msoflgancdam, `anabeWdis~ Semcvlelma adamianurma ganzomilebam da misma ganfenam, anu proeqciam, `axalevropul proeqts~ daudo dasabami. xolo XIX saukunis socialur
moZRvrebaTa mecnierulma miswrafebam ki aRniSnuli proeqtis
sivrcobrividan droiTi ganfenis modelze gadayvana ganapiroba. Tumca, saubari am da sxva Tanamedrove problemaTa Sesaxeb,
albaT, Semdgom werilebSi gagrZeldeba...

95

izabela petriaSvili

metafora da politikuri
diskursis pragmatika
filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis sax. Tbilisis
saxelmwifo universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis asocirebuli
profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
avtoriseuli wiaRsvlebis semantikuri da pragmatikuli Taviseburebebi (monografia); konteqstisa da vokabularis
roli reklamaSi; deiqsisis kategoriebis realizacia avtoriseul wiaRsvlebSi; avtoriseuli
wiaRsvlebis lingvistur-stilisturi Taviseburebani (inglisuri
romanis masalaze); referencia da implikacia avtoriseul wiaRsvlebSi;
sametyvelo aqtebis Teoria avtoriseuli wiaRsvlebis pragmatuli analizis WrilSi.
interesTa sfero:
lingvisturi pragmatika, stilistika, sociolingvistika.

statia eZRvneba politikuri diskursis


analizs da metaforis pragmatikul rols
amerikeli da qarTveli politikosebis sajaro gamosvlebis magaliTze. adamianebis
umravlesobisTvis metafora aris mxatvruli warmosaxvis xerxi da ritorikuli
maRalfardovneba da, aqedan gamomdinare,
TiTqos scildeba Cveulebrivi/normaluri enis farglebs. ufro metic, metafora
tipurad ganixileba rogorc mxolod enis
maxasiaTebeli, rogorc sityvebi, da ara
azrovneba an qmedeba. am mizeziT umetesoba adamianebisa fiqrobs, rom maT SeuZliaT mSvenivrad iarsebon metaforis gareSec. viziareb j. lakofis da m. jonsonis
azrs imis Sesaxeb, rom realurad sruliad sapirispiro SemTxvevasTan gvaqvs saqme, rom metafora vrceldeba Cvens yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi da ara mxolod enaSi,
aramed Cvens azrovnebasa da moqmedebaSi,
da, rom mTlianad Cveni cnebaTa sistema
Tavisi bunebiT fundamenturad metaforulia (lakofi ... 1980).
miCneulia, rom metafora efeqturia maSin, rodesac is aris kognituri TvalsazrisiT damajerebeli da, amasTanave, emociuri reaqciis gamomwvevi. metaforas
aqvs damarwmunebeli Zala, radgan is Tavis TavSi aerTianebs pragmatikul, kogni-

96

izabela petriaSvili

tur da lingvistur codnas kulturis, ideologiisa da istoriis gaTvaliswinebiT (Carteris-bleki 2004).


tradiciuli gagebiT aRiarebulia, rom metafora semantikis
sferos miekuTvneba da sruliadac ar aris pragmatikis sakiTxi.
s. levinsonis azriT, `nebismieri metaforis mniSvnelovani nawili, rogorc Cans, moicavs e.w. `konotaciur bundovanebas~,
sityvebis ramdenadme SemTxveviT, da ara ganmsazRvrel maxasiaTeblebs, referentebis faqtobriv Tvisebebs da, aqedan gamomdinare, zogad codnas samyaros Sesaxeb. yovelive es ki cdeba
semantikis sferos~ (levinsoni 1983: 150).
metaforisadmi pragmatikuli midgoma emyareba im mosazrebas, rom gamonaTqvamis metaforuli Sinaarsi gamomdinareobs
ara semantikuri interpretaciidan, aramed, semantika uzrunvelyofs gamonaTqvamis pirdapiri/sityvasityviTi mniSvnelobisa Tu tradiciuli Sinaarsis daxasiaTebas, xolo amis Semdeg,
konteqstTan erTad, pragmatikam unda uzrunvelyos metaforuli interpretacia (levinsoni 1983: 156).
j. lakofi Tavis naSromSi metaforis Tanamedrove Teoria
(lakofi 1992) aRniSnavs, rom sityva metafora ganisazRvreboda
rogorc axali (novel), an poeturi/mxatvruli lingvisturi gamonaTqvami, romelSic raime cnebis gamomxatveli erTi an meti sityva gamoiyeneba misi normaluri, tradiciuli mniSvnelobis gareT msgavsi cnebis gamosaxatavad. mTavar gansxvavebad Tanamedrove da klasikur Teoriebs Soris mas miaCnia gansxvaveba pirdapir/sityvasityviT da figuralur mniSvnelobebs Soris. me20 saukunis 70-ian wlebSi metaforaSi igulisxmeboda axali, adre ar arsebuli metafora (novel metaphor), anu SemoqmedebiTi
(creative) metafora, radgan tradiciuli (conventional) metaforis
uzarmazari sistema TiTqmis SeumCneveli rCeboda. misi azriT,
arsebobs lingvisturi gamoTqmebis axal metaforad interpretirebis sami ZiriTadi meqanizmi: tradiciuli metaforis ganvrcoba; zogadi metaforebi; da imij-metaforebi, anu xatovani
metaforebi. yvelaze saintereso poeturi metafora samive am
meqanizms iyenebs (lakofi... 1989).
cnobilia j. oruelis uaryofiTi damokidebuleba zogadad
politikis enis mimarT, Tumca sainteresoa misi azri metaforasTan mimarTebaSi: `axlad Seqmnili metafora azrovnebas exmareba vizualuri xatis aRZvris gziT, maSin, rodesac metafora praqtikulad `mkvdaria~ (mag. iron resolution), faqtobrivad, is gadaiq-

metafora da politikuri diskursis pragmatika

97

ceva Cveulebriv sityvad da SeiZleba, gamoiyenebodes ise, rom


ar dakargos sicxade. magram, metaforis am or klass Sua arsebobs gacveTili metaforebis uzarmazari nagavsayreli, romlebmac dakarges emociebis aRmZvreli Zala da mxolod imitom gamoiyeneba, rom adamianebs aTavisuflebs axali frazebis Tavad
SeTxzvis saWiroebisagan~ (orveli 1968: 130)
s. levinsonis azriT, metaforis interpretacia unda eyrdnobodes Cvens zogad unar-Tvisebebs, viazrovnoT analogiebiT.
(levinsoni 1983: 161). p. fridrixi ki Tvlis, rom metafora aris
analogiis mxolod erTi saxeoba da gacilebiT ufro didi konteqstis analogiuri xerxebisa da asociaciuri azrovnebis nawili (fridrixi 1986: 4).
Cveni goneba ergeba realobas freimebis, metaforebis, stereotipebis, prototipebis meSveobiT, radgan adamianebi azrovneben swored maTi meSveobiT, rac xSirad ar jdeba racionalur
aqtiur modelSi. metafora aerTebs erTi sferos `freimebs~ meore sferos `freimebTan~.
enis gamoyeneba politikur diskursSi SeiZleba aRviqvaT, rogorc konkurencia politikur aqtorTa Soris, romelTac surT
sakuTari samyaros `promocireba~. `politika moicavs gansxvavebaTa Sejerebas diskusiisa da darwmunebis gziT. aqedan gamomdinare, komunikacia mTavaria politikisTvis~ (heigi... 1998: 3-4).
cxadia, rom politikuri aqtivoba ar arsebobs enis gamoyenebis
gareSe, xolo enis gamoyenebas politikur diskursSi aqvs Tavisi gansazRvruli pragmatikuli daniSnuleba, anu is, Tu ras isaxavs miznad enis esa Tu is gamoyeneba. politikosTa metyvelebaSi enis (sxvadasxva verbaluri formulirebebis) mniSvnelovneba aRiarebulia Tavad politikosebis mier. amitomacaa, rom mikro doneze isini sul ufro met mniSvnelobas aniWeben enis formulirebis da frazeologiis (e.w. wording and phrasing) dizains maT
winaSe mdgar gamowvevebze saTanadod reagirebisaTvis da amisTvis, xSirad, profesional speech-maker-ebs da oratorebsac ki
(dRevandeli terminologiiT, PR-s) mimarTaven daxmarebisTvis.
mikro doneze (politikosTa interaqciisas) politikosebi
iyeneben sxvadasxva meTodebs TavianTi miznis misaRwevad: darwmunebas, racionalur argumentacias, iracionalur strategias, muqaras, qrTams, manipulacias nebismier rames rac, maTi azriT, sasurvel Sedegs moitans. yvela am meTodis warmatebiT gamoyeneba ki gulisxmobs enaSi arsebuli struqturebis, maT Soris, metaforis, warmatebiT gamoyenebas.

98

izabela petriaSvili

sakvlevi korpusi (rogorc qarTuli, ise inglisuri) gvaZlevs


SesaZleblobas, gavaanalizoT kolokaciebi, raTa CavwvdeT metaforis kognitur motivaciasa da eqspresiul konotacias.
`tradiciuli da kognituri semantikis pragmatikul midgomebTan gaerTianebiT kidev ufro naTeli xdeba metaforis mniSvneloba darwmunebis enaSi~ (Carteris-bleki 2004).
politikur diskursSi darwmunebis erT-erTi mTavari instrumenti, SeiZleba iTqvas, aris metafora, xolo erT-erTi yvelaze sayvareli Tema politikuri ritorikis mkvlevarTaTvis
aris swored imis gaanalizeba, Tu ratom ver moipova gamarjveba
am Tu im kandidatma. pasuxic mzadaa - imitom, rom sworad ver
gamoiyena ritorikuli xerxebi amomrCevelTa misamxrobad.
politikuri kuTxiT, mniSvneloba aqvs mosaubris/mTqmelis
sandoobas. daejereba Tu ara mTqmels, savaraudod, es mTeli rigi socialur-fsiqologiur garemoebaTa kompleqsuri jaWvia.
imis gamo, rom xSirad fizikuri resursebi, romlebic mxars umagrebs ama Tu im pragmatikul mizandasaxulebas, yovelTvis ar aris
vizualurad warmodgenili, verbalur komunikacias sakvanZo
mniSvneloba eniWeba politikur diskursSi.
Sesadareblad aviRoT barak obamasa da jon makkeinis gamosvlebi. Tu daviwyebT mosazrebiT, rom warmatebuli ritorika
metwilad damokidebulia metaforis efeqtur gamoyenebaze, maSin Sedarebisas kiTxva ase unda daisvas: visi metaforaa ufro
efeqturi da ratom? sainteresoa, rom orive amerikuli politikuri diskursis erTsa da imave metaforebis (mag., `hard work~,
`faith~, `dream~, `family~) gansxvavebul interpretacias axdenen.
obamas warmateba ganapiroba iman, rom igi laparakobs faseulobebze da ara politikaze. is aris avTenturi, adamianebi endobian mas. misi strategia emyareba faseulobebs, avTenturobas, komunikacias, ndobas da identobas. politika Tu pirovnuloba? mTavari aqcenti gakeTebulia adamianebze, da ara politikaze. misi gamosvlebi savsea adamianebis Sesaxeb moTxrobili
ambebiT, romlis miRmac ikiTxeba politika.1 sagareo politika
obamasTvis aris adamianebi, SimSili, garemos dacva, ltolvilebi, qalTa ganaTleba, bavSvTa Sroma, rac mis mier moTxrobil ambebSi
naTqvamia Riad.
______________________________
1
Tu SevadarebT m. saakaSvilis winasaarCevno gamosvlebs, davinaxavT, rom igive
aqcentebia gakeTebuli, rac kidev erTxel migvaniSnebs imaze, rom am `saqmes~
profesionali (albaT, amerikuli) PR kompaniebi emsaxurebian.

metafora da politikuri diskursis pragmatika

99

obama Zalas ar iSurebs, rom gauZRves marSs `a march for a more


just, more equal, more free, more caring, and more prosperous America~. politikur metyvelebaSi xSiria metafora, romelic eyrdnoba qveynis, rogorc `mzrunveli mamis~, konkretul `freims~ nurturing
parent empathy caring about others. mis am gamosvlaSic uxvadaa ojaxis metaforebi: qveyana aris ojaxi, qveynis momavali aris misi/
Cveni Svilebi da Cven unda movuaroT Cvens Svilebs, misi (qveynis) warsuli aris asakovani moqalaqeebi, romelTac warsuli naklovanebebis daRi asviaT: `The children of America are not those kids, they
are our kids ...~
`America is a family and its future is our children to be nurtured and
attuned to nature; fed and housed well; educated to their capacities; kept healthy
and helped to prosper; made whole through music and the arts; and provided with
institutions that bring them together in these ongoing responsibilities~.
gavrcelebulia iseTi metaforebi, romlebSic dawesebuleba
danaxulia, rogorc adamiani, xolo eri/qveyana gaigivebulia mis
liderTan. obama aris `amerikuli ocnebis~ gansaxiereba. amerikeli xalxi axdens identificirebas masTan da qveyanasTan erTdroulad. rodesac is ambobs: `I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and cousins, of every race and every hue, scattered across three
continents...~ is akeTebs gancxadebas sagareo politikis Sesaxeb,
rom sagareo politika aris ara mxolod qveynebisa da interesebis Sesaxeb, aramed adamianebisa da msoflio ojaxis Sesaxeb.
TiTqmis yvela gamosvlaSi obama uars ambobs Cveuli sportis
da omis metaforebze da irCevs kulinariis enas, rogorc, magaliTad am SemTxvevaSi, rodesac igi xumrobiT pasuxobs anonimur figurebs istebliSmentidan, romlebic akritikeben mis gamoucdelobas da gulubryvilobas: `They say Obama has not been in
Washington long enough. He needs to be seasoned and stewed to boil all that
hope out of him~.
rasakvirvelia, obama iyenebs rogorc axal/kreatiul metaforebs, ise tradiciul metaforebs, rogoricaa magaliTad, The
business you built your dreams upon thats now hanging by a thread; The
cost of health care eats up more and more of our savings each year; A charter
expanded by the blood of generations. Those ideals still light the world;
Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again
the work of remaking America da sxv.

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izabela petriaSvili

axla gadavxedoT makkeinis metaforebs: aq ufro tradiciuli metaforebi Warbobs (gmirebi borotmoqmedebi - tipisa (Heroes - Villains), Tumca axal, kreatiul metaforebsac SexvdebiT. magaliTad, tradiciuli metaforebia to reach out our hand to; get
this country back on the road to prosperity and peace; someone who marches to
the beat of his own drum; I learned an important lesson; rewarding hard
work; keep the fruits of their labour; to shake up failed school bureaucracies; remove barriers; the engine of our future prosperity; the Cold War;
cant turn a blind eye to aggression and international lawlessness; exhausted
from the burdens he had borne; to build the foundations for a stable and
enduring peace; We have to catch up to history; with hard work, strong
faith; We have come to the end of a long journey.
kreatiuli metaforis magaliTebia: a government that unleashes
the creativity and initiative of Americans; the old, big-spending, do-nothing, me-first, country-second Washington crowd, da sxv.
rogorc vxedavT, orive am politikosis gamosvlebSi tradiciuli metaforis gamoyenebis sixSiris indeqsi gacilebiT maRalia (SeiZleba iTqvas, daaxloebiT aTjer metia) vidre kreatiuli metaforis. amasTanave, Warbobs e.w. imij-metaforebi.
aucilebelia, politikur metyvelebaSi aisaxos SemoqmedebiTi midgoma axali gamowvevebis mimarT. swored metafora aris
axal socialur gamowvevebze kreatiulad reagirebis erT-erTi gza. aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom metafora markirebulia socialurad da kulturulad, rac gansakuTrebiT kargad Cans qarTul politikur metyvelebaSi. tradiciuli, Tu SeiZleba iTqvas, globaluri metaforebis gverdiT, rogoricaa, mag. xelis
gawodeba, gakveTilis swavla, mzrunveli saxelmwifo, xangrZlivi mogzauroba, mZime/didi samuSao, Sromis nayofi da sxv., xSiria dRevandeli rTuli politikuri situaciisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli axali, kreatiuli metaforebi, romlebic Semdeg qvetipebad SeiZleba davyoT: imij-metaforebi, sasaubro metaforebi, metaforuli aluziebi da andaza-metaforebi.
imij-metaforebi, ZiriTadad, tradiciuli xasiaTisaa da maT
globaluri mniSvneloba aqvT, Tumca xSirad am tipis erTsa da
imave metaforas sxvadasxva implikacia aqvs, Tundac lokalur
konteqstSi, magaliTad, demokratiis Suqura/ Beacon of Democracy j. buSis mier gamoyenebuli iyo saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi, Semdegac ara erTxel iqna es metafora sxvadasxva qarTveli
politikosis mier sxvadasxva konteqstSi (umetesad, ironiulad) naTqvami, magaliTad, kaxa TargamaZis mimarT. am rigis metaforebs miekuTvneba, aseve am bolo xans Zalian xSirad gamo-

metafora da politikuri diskursis pragmatika

101

yenebuli Semdegi imij-metaforebi:


kedeli/berlinis kedeli: mag., dRes ukve mivediT kedelTan
da am kedels an davangrevT, an erTad daviRupebiT. (amave konteqstSi xSirad ixmareba `ufskrulis piras vdgavarT da gadaviCexebiT~); msoflio aravis miscems axali berlinis kedlis
aSenebis uflebas (separatistul regionebTan mimarTebaSi);
Ria kari: es karebi mudmivad Ria ar aris da axtoma ufro Znelia, vidre kibeze asvla; kari Riaa opoziciisTvis; kari Ria datoveT afxazebisa da osebisTvis (j. baideni).
matarebeli: es Cavlili matarebelia; Cveni matarebeli ukve
gavida da moaswariT Cajdoma am matarebelSi; (opoziciis misamarTiT) sanam matarebeli nela moZraobs, jobia exla Semoaxtnen.
gza, mogzauroba/journey: saqarTvelos gza; am gzaze dgeba
mTeli saqarTvelo; Cven, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, vdgavarT saqarTvelos gverdiT mTeli am grZel gzis manZilze (j.
baideni).
sisxli: xelebi aqvs sisxlSi gasvrili; sisxli undaT? sisxlsac miiReben. Tu patriotebisa da tiranebis sisxliT unda
moirwyas Tavisuflebis xe dro da dro, da es misi bunebrivi sasuqia...
skami: es skami da skamebi ar aris saakaSvilis da burjanaZis.
politikosi qveyana tipisa: Tu eqimma dauSva Secdoma, amas
mosdevs pacientis sikvdili; Senoba rom iwvodes da Cven arqiteqturul proeqts vixilavdeT; es (SeTavazeba dialogze) imas
hgavs, momakvdavs rom grimi (Tu makiaJi) gaukeToT. aqve SegviZlia gavaerTianoT metaforebi, romlebSic saxelmwifo/dawesebuleba gaigivebulia adamianTan: mzrunveli saxelmwifo; sufTa saxelmwifo; xangrZlivi, mZime avadmyofobis Sedegad gardaicvala saqarTvelos parlamenti.
am tipis tradiciuli imij-metaforebia, agreTve: laxvari
Casca qarTul ekonomikas; xalxi, vinc talaxs gvesvris, saakaSvili talaxs aitans; burjanaZe TamaSobs yvelaze binZur TamaSs
dRes; Cven varT yoveldRiur brZolaSi; gasaRebi qarTuli saxelmwifos fexze dayenebis; gveqneba didi berketi da sxv.
imij-metaforebis xmarebisas xSiria cxovelebis saxelebis
gamoyeneba, rogoricaa, mag., lomis wili msoflio ekonomikuri krizisis mixeil saakaSvilisgan modis; politikuri giena;
daZleva am urCxulis da gayvana TamaSidan; Zalian undodaT rom
eTqvaT, aqlemi xaro, magram ar gamouvidaT (l. gaCeCilaZis komentari narkologiur Semowmebaze).

102

izabela petriaSvili

SedarebiT axali, kreatiuli imij-metaforebis magaliTebia:


26 maiss iq (stadionze) esvena saqarTvelos cxeli guli; mamisoni simaRle ki ara, samyaros Weri iyo everestis Semdeg; es (svaneTi) aris samoTxe, romelic haerSia gamokidebuli... es gza daakavSirebs mas miwier samoTxesTan (svaneTTan); qvemo qarTli aris
beReli, romliTac ikvebeba xelisuflebis xmebi da sxv. am tipis
metaforebs ufro is politikosebi mimarTaven, romlebic TviTon arian SemoqmedebiTi bunebis da romlebic did mniSvnelobas
aniWeben maT mier naTqvam sityvebs, da metadre, metaforebis gamoyenebas TavianTi politikuri mesijis ukeT misawodeblad.
sasaubro metaforebSi gavaerTiane is metaforebi, romlebic Cveulebrivi, sasaubro metyvelebisas gamoiyeneba, Tumca
yvela es metafora maRali tribunidan aris naTqvami: jibeSi rom
gvizis (oqruaSvilze); mircxulavam yofa utira mTel energetikas; es ryeva (ruseTidan) SeiZleba exla iyos moferebiT da
Tavze xelis gadasmiT; gaeroSi iseTi brZola iyo, rom deda
Svils ar aiyvanda; nadavlis gayofis momentSi tortis tkbili
naWeri daakldaT; 3D (tri-de ludis brendi): davketav, davblokav, davamTavreb. es sami ukanaskneli metafora, imavdroulad,
imij-metaforebicaa.
saintereso suraTi gamoikveTa metaforuli aluziebis gamoyenebisas, rodesac politikosebi mimarTaven aluziebs, rogorc qarTuli, ise ucxouri literaturidan, istoriidan, miTologiidan da a.S. qvemoT minda am tipis ramdenime metafora
moviyvano magaliTad: Cven varT mindias eri; jayo (koleqtiuri jayo); Tu ebrZviT putins, unda gaxdeT antiputini; liberaluri politikis flagmanebi qarTul politikaSi, Cven (respublikelebi) ar varT raimes Semqmneli an damfuZnebeli mamebi; j.
baidenTan Sexvedris Semdeg warmovidgine rogorebi unda yofiliyvnen amerikis damfuZnebeli mamebi; qajebi midian, qajebi ar modian (am metaforis avtoris, s. zurabiSvilis ganmartebiT, aluziaa `vefxistyaosanze~, amitomac gavaerTiane am jgufSi); mzad varT saqarTvelos siyvarulSi gavuSvaT xeli patara
miSikos2 ; neronia saakaSvili, rom Tavisi cxeni daniSnos senatorad?
saqarTvelo ganxeTqilebis vaSlia amerikasa da ruseTs
______________________________
2
aluzia `kavkasiuri carcis wris personaJze, Tumca, politikuri TvalsazrisiT,
Zalian saxifaTo metaforaa mmarTveli gundis erT-erTi lideris, m. maWavarianis
mxridan, rodesac igi am metaforas xmarobs mixeil saakaSvilis gadadgomis
moTxovniT gamarTuli opoziciis masobrivi saprotesto aqciebis fonze.

metafora da politikuri diskursis pragmatika

103

Soris; respublikuri saavadmyofo aris tipiuri potiomkinis


sofeli; aha, Zmao, saRebavi, aH , funji, Sen TviTon SearCie kolori da Sen TviTon gadaRebe da gaakeTe3 .
da bolos, andaza-metaforebi, rogoricaa: cixis Signidan gatexvis mcdeloba; qars Tu daTesav, qariSxals moimki; rac ar unda sakenki gadmoyaron, qarTveli xalxi mas ar SeWams; yvavma yvavs
uTxra Cemze Savi xaro da sxv.
ratom aris metafora warmatebuli xerxi politikur diskursSi? lingvistTa interess yovelTvis iwvevda iseTi lingvisturi struqturebis gamoyeneba, romlebic adresats politikurad relevantur mesijs miawvdis konkretuli funqciis Sesrulebis mizniT. am mxriv metaforas Zalian didi pragmatikuli mniSvneloba eniWeba. is ara mxolod `alamazebs~ umetes SemTxvevebSi uSinaarso da arafrismTqmel politikur teqstebs, aramed,
sxvadasxva pragmatikul miznebs emsaxureba. Catarebulma kvlevam gviCvena, rom garda darwmunebis funqciisa, metaforas SeuZlia:
gadmogvces is, risi pirdapir, sityvasityviTi mniSvnelobiT gamoxatva rTulia;
dagvexmaros im situaciebSi, rodesac arsebobs saxisTvis
safrTxis Seqmnis saSiSroeba, rodesac ufro marTebulia saTqmelis arapirdapiri gziT gamoxatva;
ufro meti sicxade da xatovaneba Sehmatos metyvelebas;
dagvexmaros argumentis struqturirebaSi;
axali TvalTaxedva warmogvidginos sagansa Tu movlenaze.
am statiaSi Sevecade warmomeCina tradiciuli da kreatiuli
metaforis politikur diskursSi gamoyenebis is ZiriTadi tendenciebi, rac saerToa rogorc amerikeli, ise qarTveli politikosebisaTvis. kreatiuli, anu axali metafora, imavdroulad,
moiTxovs SemoqmedebiT reaqcias da misi miRebis mzaobas auditoriis mxridan warmatebuli komunikaciis dasamyareblad. Tuki metafora ar aris saTanadod aRqmuli, an ar/ver xdeba misi
interpretireba auditoriis mier, Sesabamisad, ver xorcieldeba misi politikur-komunikaciuri funqcia.
______________________________
3

K m . saakaSvili policiis manqanebze warwerebis Sesaxeb universitetis


studentebTan Sexvedrisas; aluzia erT-erT epizodze qarTuli mxatvruli
filmidan mimino

104

izabela petriaSvili

literatura
lakofi 2008: G. Lakoff, How to Make Friends and Manipulate Irrational Voters, a paper
presented at New America Foundation, June 03, 2008
http://election2008ucdenver.wordpress.com/2008/09/16/lakoff-metaphors-and-08-campaign-oh-my/
lakofi 2008: G. Lakoff, Much More Than Race: what makes a great speech great,
24.03.2008
lakofi 1992: G. Lakoff, The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor, in Ortony, Andrew
(ed.), Metaphor and Thought (2nd edition), Cambridge University Press.
lakofi ...1989: G. Lakoff, M. Turner, More Than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic
Metaphor, University of Chicago Press.
levinsoni 1983: S. Levinson, Pragmatics, Cambridge University Press
miuleri 2005: Ralph Mller, Creative Metaphors in Political Discourse. Theoretical
considerations on the basis of Swiss Speeches, Amsterdam http://www.metaphorik.de/
09/mueller.pdf
orueli 1968: George Orwell, Politics and the English Language, in: George Orwell: The
Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell. In Front of Your Nose.
1945-1950, Sonia Orwell/Ian Angus (ed.), vol. 4, London, 127-140.
fridrixi 1986: P. Friedrich, The Language Parallax, Linguistic Relativism and Poetic
Intermediacy, Austin, TX, University of Texas Press.
Carteris-bleki 2004: J. Charteris-Black, Corpus Approach to Critical Metaphor Analysis, Palgrave MacMillan
Ciltoni 2004: Paul Chilton, Analysing Political Discourse, Theory and Practice.
Routledge
heigi... 1998: Rod Hague et al., Comparative Government and Politics: An Introduction
(5th ed.)
sailustracio masala
obama 2008: Barack Obamas March 18, 2008 Speech
obama 2008: Barack Obamas first address to a joint session of Congress on Tuesday, Feb.
24. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/25/us/politics/25obama.html?_r=1
makkeini 2008: McCains September 04, 2008 speech http://
portal.gopconvention2008.com/speech/details.aspx?id=84
j. baidenis gamosvla saqarTvelos parlamentSi 23.07.09
qarTveli politikosebis: m. saakaSvilis, S. naTelaSvilis, l. gaCeCilaZis, g. TargamaZis, n. burjanaZis, d. usufaSvilis, s. zurabiSvilis, k.
daviTaSvilis, g. cagareiSvilis, g. maisaSvilis, l. vefxvaZis, v. kublaSvilis, m. maWavarianis, v. rCeuliSvilis, aseve, g. gaCeCilaZis gamosvlebi: www. myvideo.ge

105

mamuka surmava

arawminda gonebis
kritikis bunebisaTvis,
m. fuko frankfurtis
skola
filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis
ivane javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitaruli fakultetis asocirebuli
profesori (kulturis
mimarTulebiT).
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
monograph - Collingwoods Philosophy, articles:
Decline of Subject; Positivism, Science and Politics;
Ontological Meaning of
Information Technology
etc. Translation: `Morality of
Freedom~, by Josef Ratze;
Iorst Mller, Historical
Memory and National Identity. Fields of Interest: Continental philosophy, history of philosophy, social and
political philosophy, aesthetics, Cultural studies.
Memberships and Professional Activities: Member of
Society for Phenomenology,
Member of Society for
Philosophy,
Scienific
Editor of Selected Works,
By Karl Popper, Tbilisi,
1999.
interesTa sfero:
kulturis filosofia.

Sesavali
cnobierebis (da cnobierebis filosofiis) radikaluri kritika Tanamedrove
filosofiuri azrovnebis fundamenturi
niSania. statiaSi es tendencia arawminda
gonebis kritikis saxeliT aris dafiqsirebuli. aRniSnuli kritika azrovnebis sxvadasxva sistemaSi sxvadasxvanairad avlens
Tavs (m. haidegeri, k. levi-strosi, r. barti, J. derida da sxv.). moxsenebis mizani ara
mxolod cnobierebis kritikis zogadi maxasiaTeblebis gamovlenaa, aramed kritikis sxvadasxva strategias Soris arsebuli gansxvavebisac. es fukos kritikuli genealogiis analizis gziT xorcieldeba.
Cveni mizani iqneba, davaxasiaToT fukos
kritikul-Teoriuli kvlevebis rogorc
adreuli, ise gviandeli konceptualuri
sqema, amis bazaze ki arawminda gonebis
kritikis farglebSi Tanamedrove kritikuli Teoriis perspeqtiva. Cven SevecdebiT, vuCvenoT fukos rogorc erT-, ise
mravalganzomilebiani ontologiisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli winaaRmdegobebi da ZiriTadi Sedegebi, romlebic misdami Tanamedrove kritikuli Teoriis ambivalen-

106

mamuka surmava

turi damokidebulebis winapirobaa. magram, vidre dasaxuli miznis ganxorcielebas SevudgebodeT, amocanis gasaadvileblad
mokled mimovixiloT arawminda gonebis kritikis saxeliT cnobili strategiis ZiriTadi indikatorebi. maTi gamovlena, vfiqrobT, fukos genealogiuri midgomisa da frankfurtelTa kritikuli Teoriis SedarebiTi daxasiaTebis gziT aris upriani.
deskrifcia Semdeg ZiriTad momentebs moicavs:
a. rogorc frankfurtis skola, ise Tavad fuko kantiseuli
kritikis radikalizacias axorcielebs. isini, adamianuri gonebis bunebisa da sazRvrebis Seswavlas, misi istoriuli, politikuri da sxva realiebiT gansazRvrulobis pirobebSi, fenomenologiisa da lingvisturi idealizmis sapirispirod mxolod
sociokulturuli konteqstis farglebSi miiCneven SesaZleblad;
b. orive, fukoca da frankfurtis skolac, uaryofs avtonomiuri, racionaluri subieqtis kartezianul ideas. maTi konceptualuri midgomis Tanaxmad, Semmecnebeli da moqmedi subieqti socialuri arsebaa, romelic garemoebebiTa da interesebiT aris gansazRvruli;
g. tradiciuli ierarqiis sapirispirod, orive mxare iziarebs
Teoriulze praqtikulis upiratesobas. Sesabamisad, konceptualuri maxvili cnobierebidan sociumsa da kulturaze gadadis;
d. orive mxare moiTxovs cnobierebis monacemebisagan distancirebas da socialuri praqtikis konteqstSi ganxilvas, maTi
ideebis erTmaneTis konteqstSi ganxilvis nacvlad;
e. rogorc fukos genealogia, ise frankfurtelTa kritikuli Teoria socialuri praqtikis transformaciis mizniT TviTSemecnebis Secvlisken aris orientirebuli (maT Soris, institutebis, racionaluri ideebisa Tu praqtikebis socioistoriuli analizis gziT, rac kritikuli distancirebis erT-erTi aucilebeli pirobaa);
d. marTalia, orive mxares gonebis kritika socialuri praqtikis safexurze `gadmoaqvs~, magram sxvadasxva SedegebiT: fuko, nicSes msgavsad, racionalizmis radikalur kritikas axorcielebs maSin, rodesac frankfurtelTa samizne tradiciulTan SedarebiT gonebis ufro adekvaturi cnebis dafuZnebaa;
e. gansxvaveba Tavs iCens subieqtis cnebasTan mimarTebaSic.
Tu misi gadalaxva fukos esmis rogorc `adamianis dasasruli~,
frankfurtelebi subieqtisa da avtonomiurobis cnebebis mxolod dekonceptualizacias cdiloben;

arawminda gonebis kritikis bunebisaTvis, m. fuko _ frankfurtis skola

107

v. fukosagan gansxvavebiT, frankfurtelebi ar Tvlian SeuTavseblad iseT principebs, rogorebic aris konteqstualizmi
da universalizmi;
z. dabolos, gansxvaveba kritikis funqciis gagebaSic iCens
Tavs. fukosaTvis genealogia ar emsaxureba WeSmaritebas, Tavisuflebasa da samarTlianobas, radgan igi, absoluturi distancirebis azriT, Zalauflebis mxridan gavlenas Tavs ver aRwevs. amis sapirispirod, frankfurtelebs ideologiis kritika
misgan Tavis daRwevis da arsebuli socialuri wesrigis ufro
racionaluri wesrigiT Secvlis saSualebad warmoudgebaT.
2
warmodgenil zogad SeniSvnebze dayrdnobiT, Cven ufro gamowvlilviT SegviZlia, gavaanalizoT fukos mier (Zalaufleba/codnis konteqstSi) gonebisa da racionaluri subieqtis radikaluri kritika, romelic frangma moazrovnem Tavisi inteleqtualuri ganviTarebis adreul etapze (1970-ian wlebSi) ganaxorciela. am gzaze, upirveles yovlisa, aucilebelia, gavixsenoT, rom fukos `genealogiuri proeqti~ gonebis kritikis nairsaxeobaa. igi Tavis TavSi gulisxmobs garkveul msgavsebas moderniTis (Modernity) epoqis kritikul proeqtebTan. magram Tu
moderniTis filosofia gonebis, misi wanamZRvrebis, sazRvrebisa da produqtebis Sesaxeb (`wminda~) refleqsias warmoadgens,
romelic mxolod da mxolod cnobierebis terminebSi xorcieldeboda, Tanamedrove filosofiisaTvis amgvari midgoma arasakmarisi, metic, araadekvaturia. mis fundamentur niSnad gvevlineba e. w. `socioistoriuli Semobruneba~, rac imas niSnavs,
rom nebismieri racionaluri praqtikis Semecneba (e. i. `kritika~) aucileblobiT moiTxovs im socialur-istoriuli konteqstis gaTvaliswinebas, romelSic igi warmoiqmneba da funqcionirebs. swored es `imperativi~ ganapirobebs m. fukosTan Zalauflebis Temis aqtualizebas. fukos Tanaxmad, Zalaufleba
msWvalavs racionaluri praqtikis konteqstsac da Tavad praqtikasac. rogorc igi gamudmebiT Segvaxsenebs xolme, `WeSmariteba ar aris Tavisufal sulTa jildo~, aramed igi aris `am samyaros sagani~, romelic `iZulebis mravalgvargvari formis Sedegad iSoba~1 . aseT pirobebSi logikuria, rom fukos yuradRebis
centrSi eqceva ara ubralod goneba da misi `wminda~ monace______________________________
1

KFoucault M. Power/Knowledge, New-York, 1980, gv. 131.

108

mamuka surmava

mebi, aramed racionaluri praqtikisaTvis konstituciuri mniSvnelobis mqone wesebi da procedurebi, agreTve, masSi2 kodirebuli ierarqia da asimetriuli mimarTebebi. es mkafio niSania
imisa, rom analizis obieqti xdeba WeSmaritebisa da codnis erTgvari politika (misTvis niSandoblivi stigmatizaciiT, waxalisebiT, dasjiT, an kidev sxva saSualebebiT, raTa erTmaneTisagan iqnas gamijnuli, erTi mxriv, iracionaluroba, deviantoba, usazrisoba da, meore mxriv, TiToeuli am fenomenis opoziciuri elementi). magram genealogiuri analizi ar Semoifargleba mxolod diskursiuli praqtikebis `Sinagani~ wesebisa da
regulaciebis politikuri aspeqtebis analiziT. igi ikvlevs, agreTve, Teoriuli diskursebis `gare~ mimarTebebsac, ufro konkretulad ki, `adamianis Sesaxeb mecnierebaTa~ diskursebis mimarTebas im praqtikul diskursebTan, romlebSic isini arian gamoyenebuli da integrirebuli.3 sxva sityvebiT, fukos genealogiuri midgomis farglebSi racionaluri praqtik(eb)is safuZvlad mdebare wesebisa da procedurebis analizi gardauvalad
moiTxovs sociokulturuli konteqstis gaTvaliswinebas.
fukos Tanaxmad, `nebismier sazogadoebas WeSmaritebis sakuTari reJimi aqvs~.4 aseT pirobebSi genealogiisaTvis saintereso xdeba mimarTeba, romelic, erTi mxriv, WeSmaritebis producirebasa da, meore mxriv, adamianis marTvasa da kontrols Soris arsebobs. kerZod, humanitarul mecnierebebze dayrdnobiT,
fuko ikvlevs sxvadasxva gzas, romliTac ZalauflebiTi mimarTebebi adamianis Sesaxeb WeSmaritebis producirebis erTdroulad winapirobacaa da Sedegic. adamianze orientirebul kvlevevebis sferoSi, fsiqiatriidan da medicinidan dawyebuli, demografiuli kvlevebiT damTavrebuli, fuko naTels xdis im kavSirebs, romlebic Zalauflebasa da mis codnas Soris arsebobs.
amasTan, adamianis Sesaxeb mecnierebebi ara marto warmoiSobian
Zalauflebis ierarqiuli mimarTebebiT struqturirebul instituciur kalapotSi, aramed funqcionireben kidec masSi. misi azriT, is, rac specifikuria Tanamedrove disciplinuri reJimisaTvis, sxva araferia, Tu ara iZulebis ufro sastiki formebidan administrirebis ufro daxvewil formebze gadasvla,
romelsac mecnierulad gawvrTnili eqspertebi axorcieleben.
e. i. axal pirobebSi sazogadoeba iZulebas detalur codnaze
______________________________
2

Ke. i. racionalur praqtikaSi


aq igulisxmeba eqimebis, mosamarTleebis, administratorebis, socialuri
muSakebis, ganaTlebis muSakebis da sxvaTa diskursebi.
4
Foucault M. Power/Knowledge, New-York, 1980, gv. 131.
3

arawminda gonebis kritikis bunebisaTvis, m. fuko _ frankfurtis skola

109

damyarebuli teqnikis gamoyenebiT axorcielebs. aqedan gamomdinare, fukos mixedviT, humanitaruli mecnierebebi mTavari Zalaa ganmanaTlebluri azrovnebis triumfis saqmeSi, xolo panoptikuri mecnier-damkvirvebeli yvelaze aSkara gamoxatulebaa universaluri gonebisa, romelsac amgvari azrovneba afuZnebs. adamianis Sesaxeb mecnierebaTa `mdabali~ fesvebis ilustrirebis fonze genealogia `WeSmaritebisaTvis nebaSi~ im konstituciur urTierTkavSirs usvams xazs, romelic adamianis Sesaxeb mecnierebebsa da Zalauflebis istoriulad cvalebad sistemebs Soris arsebobs (`Zalaufleba da kontroli pirdapir gulisxmoben erTmaneTs... subieqti, romelic imecnebs, obieqti,
romelic am codnis obieqtia, unda ganvixiloT rogorc codnaZalauflebis fundamenturi implikaciebisa da maTi istoriuli
transformaciebis Sedegebi~).
marTalia, habermasi eTanxmeba fukos, rom WeSmariteba `am
samyaros fenomenia~, magram igi erTmaneTisagan mijnavs `fundamenturad ganasxvavebul kognitur midgomebs, romlebic moqmedebis, gamocdilebisa da enis urTierTgansxvavebuli konstelaciiTa aRbeWdili~. amas igi imisaTvis akeTebs, rom daupirispirdes instrumentalisturi da strategiuli racionalurobis
gaigivebas saerTod racionalurobasTan. sociokulturuli racionalizaciis interpretireba Zalauflebis instrumentebisa
da kontrolis, agreTve, dominirebisa da administrirebis
mzard hegemoniad imdenad araswori ar aris, ramdenadac arasruli. amgvari interpretaciisaTvis SeumCneveli rCeba kapitalisturi sazogadoebis uunarobaa, balansirebis dacviT ganaviTaros racionalurobis sxvadasxva ganzomileba, ris SesaZleblobasac iZleva samyaros axali gageba. vinaidan Cven arsobrivad iseve varT enis momxmareblebi, rogorc iaraRisa, gonebis warmodgena mxolod instrumentalisturi da strategiuli
fenomenis saxiT arasworia. meore mxriv, isic aSkaraa, rom racionalurobis aRniSnuli tipebi, marTlac, aRweven garkveul dominirebul mdgomareobas Cvens kulturaSi. qvesistemebi, romlebSic isini arian institucionalizebuli (magaliTad, ekonomika da samTavrobo administracia), sul ufro da ufro msWvalaven da imsgavseben cxovrebis sxva formebs. swored amitom,
sicocxlis `monetarizaciisa~ da `biurokratizaciis~ fonze `sasicocxlo samyaros kolonizaciis~ saxeliT cnobilma viTarebam habermasis komunikaciuri moqmedebis TeoriaSi mniSvnelovani adgili daikava.

110

mamuka surmava

sabazro da administraciuli ZalebiT kolonizebuli sazogadoebis suraTi disciplinebuli sazogadoebis fukoseuli suraTisagan, sxva aspeqtebis garda, im TvalsazrisiTac gansxvavdeba, rom kritikis samizne xdeba ara cxovrebis (gonebasTan dakavSirebuli) ganmanaTlebluri idea, aramed am ideisagan gandgoma da gonebis iseTi modalobebis gauTvaliswinebloba (Tu
dafuZneba), romlebic principulad iqnebodnen gansxvavebuli
subieqtze orientirebuli instrumentalisturi gonebisagan.
marTalia, es ori suraTi cxovrebis mraval sferosTan mimarTebaSi nawilobriv emTxveva kidec erTmaneTs, rogorc, magaliTad, adamianis Sesaxeb mecnierebebSi codnisa da Zalauflebis
urTierTmimarTebis mxriv, magram Tu fuko codnisa da Zalauflebis interaqcias absolutur mniSvnelobas aniWebs nebismier
humanitarul mecnierebasTan mimarTebaSi maSin, rodesac habermasi erTmaneTisagan mijnavs obieqtivizebad (bihevioristul)
midgomebs interpretaciuli (hermenevtikuli) da kritikuli
(genealogiuri, anu dialeqtikuri) midgomebisagan. interesebi,
romlebic maT gansazRvraven, amtkicebs habermasi, fundamenturad gansxvavebulia, risi Sedegicaa, jer erTi, maTi orientirebuloba obieqtebis sxvadasxva sferoebze da, meorec,
kvlevis urTierTgansxvavebuli logika. am gadasaxedidan mxolod pirwmindad obieqtivizebadi midgomebia imanenturad mimarTuli adamianebze kontrolis ganvrcobisaken maSin, rodesac sxva midgomebi mowodebuli arian, gaafarToon urTierTgagebis intersubieqturoba da miaRwion refleqsur distancirebas ukritikod miRebuli Sexedulebebisa da praqtikebisagan.
fukosa da habermass Soris arsebobs principuli Tanxmoba
imasTan dakavSirebiTac, rom socialuri keTildReobis saxelmwifos gaZliereba-gafarToeba sul ufro da ufro damokidebuli xdeba sxvadasxva saxis saeqsperto codnis warmoebasa da
gamoyenebaze. am aspeqtiT, kerZod, fukos Tvalsazrisi normalizaciaze orientirebuli socialuri institutebisa da am miznebisaTvis aucilebeli codnis zrdis urTierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb enaTesaveba habermasis Sexedulebas im kavSir-urTierTobaze, romelic arsebobs sasicocxlo samyaros administraciul
kolonizaciasa da obieqtivizirebadi socialuri mecnierebis
warmoqmnas Soris. Tumca isic cxadia, rom aucilebelia maT Soris gansxvavebis danaxvac, kerZod, im mxriv, Tu ramdenad Sors
midis maTi kritikuli xedva. fuko represiuli xasiaTis sistemaSi Sobili codnis analizidan amodis da kritikas saerTod

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mTel humanitarul codnaze avrcelebs, risi erT-erTi Sedegic


aris hermenevtikisadmi araadekvaturi midgoma. aqedan iRebs saTaves misi adreuli genealogiuri proeqtisaTvis fundamenturi Sinagani winaaRmdegobac. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs is Teoriuli
uxerxuloba, rom genealogiuri analizi Tavadac ZalauflebiT
RonisZiebad gadaiqceva, riTac Ralatobs Tavis emansipaciur
funqcias. qvemoT Cven SevecdebiT fukos adreuli doqtrinis
swored am aspeqtis da, konkretulad, genealogiuri praqtikis
metaTeoriiis iseTi arsebiTi elementebis ganxilvas, rogoric
aris Zalauflebis ontologia da subieqtis rogorc Zalauflebis rezultatis reprezentacia.

Zalaufleba: ontologia socialuri Teoriis winaaRmdeg


fukosa da habermass Soris arsebuli gansxvavebebi iCqmaleba
im gavrcelebuli midgomis farglebSi, romelic erTmaneTs upirispirebs pirvelis nominalistur partikularizms da meoris
abstraqtul universalizms. Tavis nicSeanur pasaJebSi fuko
iseTive universalistia, rogorc habermasi. miuxedavad imisa,
rom igi gaurbis fundamentalistebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel midgomas, mainc bejiTad miiswrafvis socialuris ontologiisaken,
romelic ikvlevs da ganixilavs daqvemdebarebulobas, homogenizacias rogorc socialuri praqtikis gardauval wanamZRvarsa da Sedegs. da marTalia, genealogiuri analizisaTvis misi mTavari samizne Zalauflebis ierarqiiT aRbeWdili socialuri institutebia, Zalauflebis misi sakuTari koncefcia umniSvnelod aqcevs kiTxvebs imis Sesaxeb, vin flobs Zalauflebas, ris
safuZvelze da sxv. erTaderTi, rasac am koncefciiT viRebT,
aris is, rom nebismier socialur sistemaSi, racionalur praqtikasa Tu socializaciis procesSi mocemuli iZulebebisa da
Tavsmoxveuli wesebis mimarT gamaxvilebuli mgrZnobelobaa.
terminis mniSvnelobis ukiduresad gafarToebis pirobebSi, Zalaufleba im `produqtiul sistemad gadaiqceva, romelic mTel
socialur sxeuls msWvalavs~. Zalaufleba socialur-ontologiuri totalobaa, romelic `qmnis realobas, ...obieqtebis sferosac da WeSmaritebis ritualebsac~. `WeSmariteba ar aris Tavisufali sulis produqti, aramed Seqmnilia iZulebis mravalferovani formebis mier~ ambobs fuko. `WeSmaritebis nebismieri reJimi~ gulisxmobs diskursis garkveul privilegirebul

112

mamuka surmava

tipebs, sanqcias aZlevs WeSmaritebis mcdarobisagan ganmasxvavebel kriteriumebs, uzrunvelyofs WeSmaritebis miRwevis
sxvadasxva teqnologiebs im statusis meSveobiT, romlebsac mianiWebs garkveul adamianebs (am teqnologiebis gamomyenebelT).
aqedan gamomdinare, naTelia, fukosTan mocemuli gvaqvs WeSmaritebis (da ara mxolod WeSmaritebis, aramed nebismieri organizebuli socialuri aqtivobis) `politikuri ekonomia~, rac Zalauflebis cnebis ontologizebis principuli Sedegia.
TvalsaCinoa siZneleebic. iZulebasTan SenivTebuli Zlaufleba im ukun sibneles emsgavseba, romelSic yvela sagani Savi
ferisaa. mavanis braldebis obieqtad qceva an, piriqiT, waxaliseba, misTvis komfortis Seqmna an dapatimreba, masTan kooperireba, an SewinaaRmdegeba yovelive es, fukos adreuli Teoriis
farglebSi, Zalauflebis gamoyenebis Tanabari formebia. SeiZleba, vifiqroT, rom misi mizani modelebze dafuZnebuli interaqciis safuZvlad mdebare normatiuli molodinebisa da sanqciebis gamovlenaa, magram am ganzomilebis gaabsolutureba,
rac TvalsaCinoa, socialuri TeoriisaTvis aunazRaurebeli
danakargis momaswavebelia. gansxvaveba samarTlian da arasamarTlian socialur wesrigs, politikuri Zalauflebis legitimur
da aralegitimur gamoyenebas, kooperaciul da strategiul, Zaladobasa da konsensusze damyarebul urTierTobebs Soris marginalizebuli da ugulebelyofilia. cxadia, SegviZlia daveTanxmoT fukos, rom socialuri moqmedeba yvelgan da yovelTvis
Zireuli molodinebis mier aris konstruirebuli, maT safuZvelze Cven pasuxismgeblad vTvliT erTmaneTs, nebismieri deviacia isjeba uaryofiTi reaqciiT, pasuxismgeblobis gacnobiereba mTavari wyaroa `normaluri~ interaqciisa, ganviTarebis
Tanamedrove etapze gamravlda cxovrebis sferoebi, romlebSic dominirebs socialuri urTierTmimarTebis instrumentalisturi, strategiuli da biurokratiuli formebi, magram yovelive es araviTar safuZvels ar iZleva im sociologiurad da
politikurad mniSvnelovani distinqciebis ugulebelsayofad,
romelic ase fundamenturia kritikuli socialuri TeoriisaTvis. nensi frezeri am problemas sasurveli sicxadiT exmaureba: `problema imaSi mdgomareobs, rom fuko uamrav sagans ubralod erT saxels Zalauflebas uwodebs da amaze Sors ar midis.
... nebismieri kulturuli praqtika Seicavs iZulebebs. magram
isini uamravi saxisaa da moiTxovs sxvadasxva normatiul pasuxs...
fuko ise msjelobs, TiTqos saerTod aRar axsovdes veberianu-

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li socialuri Teoriis arseboba misi skrupulozuri distinqciebiT iseT cnebebs Soris, rogorebic aris: xelisufleba, Zala, Zaladoba, dominireba da legitimacia. masTan fenomenebi,
romlebic mxolod am cnebebis saSualebiT SeiZleba, iqnes diferencirebuli, maT Soris arsebuli gansxvavebis gauTvaliswineblad, ubralod, erT jgufSi arian Cayrili. Sedegad, normatiuli niuansebis farTo ranJireba ugulebelyofilia da rezultati normatiuli erTganzomilebianobaa~.

subieqti: dekonstruqcia rekonstruqciis winaaRmdeg


rogorc erTgan fuko aRniSnavs, socialuri mkvlevarebi analizis ori formidan upiratesobas erT-erTs aniWebdnen: an im
formas, romelic subieqtze iyo orientirebuli, an kidev imas,
romelic, saboloo jamSi, ekonomikidan amodioda. Tavad igi erTsac da meoresac uaryofda. analizis meore formis sawinaaRmdegod, frangi moazrovne Tavis nicSeanur koncefciaSi Zalauflebis socialurTan gaigivebas axorcielebda. rac Seexeba subieqtze orientirebul analizs, masTan mimarTebaSi Tu adreul
etapze struqturalisturi semiotikis miRwevebs iSveliebda,
romelic individualur aqtebze signifikaciis sistemis dominirebas cxadyofda, struqturalizmisagan distancirebis Semdeg, roca enisa da niSnis modelis nacvlad omisa da brZolis
modelidan amovida, individualur qmedebebTan mimarTebaSi
ganmsazRvreli roli diskursebis, praqtikebisa da institutebis urTierTdakavSirebul sistemebs mianiWa. genealogiis gadasaxedidan fenomenologiis mier amosavlad miCneuli subieqti makonstituirebeli instancia ki ar aris, aramed Tavad aris
istoriisa da sazogadoebis mxridan konstituirebis Sedegi, fenomenologia ki ubralod, dasavluri subieqtivizmis istoriis axali Tavi. aRniSnuli tradiciis Ziri istoriuli procesis
SemTxveviTi Sedegis istoriuli procesis wyarod da mis erTgvar mamoZraveblad hipostazirebaa, amasTan, ara cnobierebis, aramed subieqturi Zalebis obieqtivirebis saxiT, romelic
SemdgomSi ukve cnobierad unda iqnas dauflebuli. fuko amgvar
midgomas evropuli humanisturi proeqtis mTavar maxasiaTeblad Tvlis. proeqti im Zalebis damorCilebas iTvaliswinebs,
romlebic blokaven adamianis avtonomiurobas da, maSasadame,
mis WeSmarit TviTrealizacias. fukos, adornosa da horkhaime-

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mamuka surmava

ris msgavsad, es proeqti, Tavisi arsiT, dominirebis proeqtad


miaCnia, romelic gansazRvravs dasavleTis adamianis Zalauflebriv mimarTebas yovelive sxvagvarobasTan. aseT viTarebaze
fukos reaqcia metismetad radikaluri Cans. nawilobriv struqturalisturi strategiis gavleniT, rac genealogiuri kvlevebis adreul etapze jer kidev sagrZnobi gaxldaT, igi meore
ukiduresobisaken ixreba da maxvili sistemaze gadaaqvs. Sesabamisad, masTan abstraqtuli individualizmis mxolod da mxolod
aranakleb abstraqtuli holizmiT Canacvleba xdeba. magram, albaT, Zneli ar aris, daveTanxmoT im azrs, rom mtkiceba `individualoba SuZlebelia SevimecnoT rogorc... martivi atomi~ aucileblobiT ar gulisxmobs imis mtkicebasac, rom `igi erT-erTi mTavari Sedegia Zalauflebrivi mimarTebebisa~. amis nacvlad
SeiZleba sxva, naklebad radikaluri Tezisis dacva, rom individualoba Sinaganad aris dakavSirebuli socializaciasTan, anu
individi socializaciis procesis gziT imTaviTve mocemul socialuri urTierTobebis sistemaSi yalibdeba. Tu sakiTxs ase
SevxedavT, SeiZleba, mogveCvenos, rom fuko, roca individis Zalauflebis rezultatad gamocxadebis paralelurad amtkicebs, rom individi, amave dros, Zalauflebis artikulirebis
elementi da iaraRia, ubralod, gavrcelebuli sociologiuri
azris damcvelia. kerZod, im azrisa, romlis Tanaxmadac socialuri struqturebi arseboben da transformacias ganicdian
mxolod da mxolod individualuri agentebis situaciuri qmedebebis gziT. magram, sinamdvileSi, es ar aris fukos Tvalsazrisi. amas asabuTebs is garemoeba, rom aseTi midgomis pirobebSi
Tanabari mniSvneloba eniWeba agentsac da struqturasac (socialuri praqtikis gagebisaTvis) maSin, rodesac fukosaTvis misaRebia analizis sxva forma. am formis farglebSi ki subieqti
sxva araferia, Tu ara istoriuli sistemis mxridan konstituirebis Sedegi. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom fuko uaryofs ara
mxolod transcendentur (makonstituirebel) subieqts. igi analizidan gamoricxavs saerTod raime apelirebas individualur
Sexedulebebze, intenciebsa da qmedebebze. amitom miiCnevs igi,
rom genealogiuri kvleva unda moeridos Zalauflebis cnobieri intenciebisa da gadawyvetilebebis safexurze ganxilvas.
kritikis saxiT unda aRniSnos, rom fukos genealogiis farglebSi socialuri kvlevebi mravali gadauwyveteli problemis
winaSe dgeba. ase magaliTad, SeuZlebelia socialuri integraciis Sesaxeb adekvaturi warmodgenis SemuSaveba, Tu socialu-

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115

ri interaqciis erTaderTi modeli asimetriuli ZalauflebiTi mimarTebebi iqneba; aseve gaugebari darCeba socializaciis
buneba, Tu igi sxeulisaTvis disciplinaruli Zalebis Tavze moxvevasTan iqneba gaigivebuli. aranakleb problemur saxes miiRebs socialuri interaqciis mravali formac, Tuki agentebs
mxolod sajarod sanqcirebuli modelebis safuZvelze moqmed
agentebad ganvixilavT. sxva sityvebiT, aRniSnuli fenomenebis
adekvaturi SemecnebisaTvis aucilebelia agentebis mxridan socialuri struqturebis gagebisa da kulturuli resursebis
refleqsuri gamoyenebis mxedvelobaSi miRebac. rogorc gofmani, Siuci da mravali sxva socialuri mkvlevari uCvenebs, agentebis mxridan socialuri situaciebis interpretireba, movlenaTa mosalodneli ganviTarebisa da savaraudo reaqciebis winaswar warmodgena nebismieri interaqciis fundamenturi elementebia, risi gauTvaliswineblobac socialuri kvlevis winaSe gadaulaxav problemebs badebs. maTi gauTvaliswineblobis
SemTxvevaSi, elementarulad, gaugebari rCeba agentis nebismieri moqmedeba, romelic sxvadasxva alternativas Soris arCevans gulisxmobs da konkretuli situaciisaTvis wesebis miyenebis Sedegs warmoadgens. fuko swored aseTi problemebis winaSe
dgeba. radikaluri desubieqtivizacia, romelsac ver arbilebs
Zalauflebisa da SewinaaRmdegebis cnebebis urTierTdamokidebulebaze fragmentuli apelireba, faqtobrivad, safuZvels aclis genealogiisaTvis iseT fundamentur cnebebs, rogoric
aris disciplina, reJimi da sxv. aranaklebi safrTxis Semcvelia
igi genealogiuri praqtikisTvisac. vin unda gamoiyenos genealogiuri analizis Sedegebi? ra moTxovnebi unda dauyenos am
analizma mis momxmareblebs? ra imeds tovebs igi situaciidan
Tavis daRwevis TvalsazrisiT? es kiTxvebi fukos adreuli genealogiuri midgomis pirobebSi pasuxgaucemel kiTxvebad rCeba, rac misi Teoriis problemur mxareebze miuTiTebs. aqve samarTlianoba moiTxovs aRiniSnos, rom fukos SeumCneveli ar
darCenia Tavisi Teoriis es uxerxulobani. mogvianebiT, 80-ian
wlebSi igi aqtiurad Seecada genealogiuri midgomis koreqtirebas. am gzaze misTvis amosavali gaxda kantis mier ganmanaTleblobisa da kritikis erTmaneTTan dakavSireba, anu gonebis
gamoyenebis gzaze misi wanamZRvrebisa da sazRvrebis kritikuli Sefasebis aucileblobis xazgasma. amieridan genealogiac amgvari kritikuli refleqsiis statuss iRebs. fukos axali midgomis Tanaxmad, `racionalurobis praqtikuli sistemebis~ kri-

116

mamuka surmava

tikuli istoria sxva araferia, Tu ara am racionaluri praqtikebis subieqtebis genealogia, im gzebis kvleva, romliTac Cven
sakuTari Tavis rogorc racionaluri agentebis konstituirebas vaxorcielebT. es ki fukos gviandel SemoqmedebaSi desubieqtivizaciis tendenciis Serbilebasa da genealogiis rogorc
praqtikuli kritikis proeqtis potencialis zrdaze miuTiTebs.
am fonze modiT, davubrundeT subieqtisa da Zalauflebis cnebebs. maT bazaze ufro naTlad warmoCndeba zemoT daxasiaTebuli Teoriuli mobrunebis namdvili buneba, rac dagvexmareba saboloo daskvnebis gamotanaSi.
kvlav Zalaufleba:
strategiuli da komunikaciuri qmedeba
Cveni adrindeli kritika fukos erTganzomilebian ontologiaze iyo mimarTuli. rogorc aRvniSnavdiT, frangi moazrovne
socialur sinamdviles, WeSmaritebasa da subieqts Zalauflebis Sedegad Tvlida. aRvniSneT isic, rom amgvari reduqcionizmisagan Tavis daRwevas igi 1980-ian wlebSi Seecada, risTvisac
mravalganzomilebiani ontologia ganaviTara. fukom sami tipis `teqnika~ ganasxvava: 1. warmoebis teqnika, 2. signifikaciis
teqnika da 3. dominirebis teqnika. SemdgomSi man maT kidev erTi,
TviTobis teqnikac daumata, romelic skrupulozuri analizis
sagani gaxda `seqsualobis istoriis~ meore da mesame tomSi. swored es gvaZlevs safuZvels, vimsjeloT mis mier mravalganzomilebiani ontologiis dafuZnebaze. axali ontologiisaTvis
niSandoblivi xdeba diskursuli praqtikebis, ZalauflebiTi mimarTebebisa da im formebis distinqcia, romlebSic individebi
TavianT Tavs subieqtebad acnobiereben. am oTxi ontologiuri
ganzomilebis SemotaniT fukosTan yuradReba dominirebis mimarTebebidan strategiul mimarTebebze gadadis. metic, fuko
socialuri interaqciis strategiul interaqciasTan gaigivebisaken ixreba. garkveul transformacias ganicdis Zalauflebis cnebac. Zalauflebis gamoyeneba kvalificirdeba rogorc
`gza, romliTac garkveuli qmedebebi saxes ucvlian sxva qmedebebs~. ZalauflebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mimarTeba arc Zaladobaa da arc konsensusi, aramed `marTva~, am sityvis farTo mniSvnelobiT, SesaZlebeli rezultatis misaRwevad. am azriT, Zala
Tavsebadia nebismier socialur interaqciasTan, radgan sazogadoebaSi cxovreba arsobrivad gulisxmobs sxva qmedebebze

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zemoqmedebis SesaZleblobas. amasTan, Zalaufleba, Zala aRar


aris dominirebis identuri, aramed es ukanaskneli ZalauflebiTi situaciis specifikur tips warmoadgens. Zalaufleba ar
aris boroteba ambobs fuko, igi strategiuli TamaSia... problema mxolod imaSia, vicodeT rogor aviciloT Tavidan dominirebis Sedegebi. cxadia, frangi moazrovnis es msjeloba socialuri interaqciis strategiul interaqciasTan gaigivebisaken
ixreba. am STabeWdilebas kidev ufro aZlierebs fukos mier komunikaciuri moqmedebis principis kritika, romelic habermasis saxelTan aris dakavSirebuli. misi azriT, `sruliad transparantuli komunikacia~ ubralo utopiaa, radgan komunikacia
yovelTvis warmoqmnis Zalauflebis efeqts. nebismier SemTxvevaSi, faqtia, rom socialuri qmedebis strategiul qmedebasTan
gaigiveba pirdapirproporciulad gulisxmobs subieqtisaTvis
garkveuli xarisxis Tavisuflebis miweras.

kvlav subieqti: avtonomia da TviToba


fukos gamaxvilebuli yuradReba praqtikuli sistemebis
strategiul mxareze erTaderTi niSa ar yofila individis problemis gamZafrebisaTvis frangi moazrovnis gviandel SemoqmedebaSi. am aspeqtiT aranakleb mniSvnelovani iyo TviTformirebis principis Semotana. rogorc fuko aRniSnavs, Tu adrindel
SromebSi misi yuradRebis centrSi figurirebda im `teqnologiebis~ Seswavla, romlebic cxovrebis sxvadasxva sferoSi marTavs individebs, mogvianebiT man mkafio gansxvaveba gaatara, erTi mxriv, normalizebaze orientirebul me-s teqnologiebsa da,
meore mxriv, eTikur teqnologiebs Soris, romelTa mizani mSvenieri cxovrebiT cxovrebaa. Sesabamisad, genealogiur-arqologiur analizSi ikveTeba axali mimarTuleba. igi gulisxmobs ara
subieqturobis normalizirebis formebis, aramed mimarTebis im
nairsaxeobis eqsplicirebas, romelic me-m unda daamyaros sakuTar TavTan; sxva sityvebiT im teqnologiebis deskrifcias,
romliTac subieqtma unda gansazRvros, Tu rogor unda imoqmedos man, rogorc eTikurma subieqtma. fuko erTmaneTisagan
ganasxvavebs moralur sistemebs orientiris mixedviT; wesebis
kodirebisa Tu eTikuri Rirebulebebze. da marTalia,
miuxedavad imisa, nebismieri moraluri sistema gulisxmobs Tavis TavSi wesebis kodirebas, individs mainc rCeba garkveuli gza

118

mamuka surmava

sakuTari Tavis rogorc moraluri subieqtis konstituirebisaTvis.


yovelive amis gaTvaliswinebiT naTelia, rom fukos gviandel
SemoqmedebaSi strategiuli da eTikuri subieqtis TematizebiT
individi aRar aris kulturuli da instituciuri sistemebis instrumenti, aramed igi iRebs intenciurad moqmedi agentis statuss. miuxedavad amisa, mainc problemuri rCeba, ramdenad Sorsmimavalia es transformacia da ramdenad organulia individisa da avtonomiurobis cnebebis kavSiri. socialuri interaqciis strategiul interaqciasTan gaigivebiT fuko, faqtobrivad,
SeuZlebels xdis avtonomiuri subieqtis ideis dafuZnebas. vinaidan strategiuli qmedeba mouSorebelia ZalauflebiTi efeqtisagan, anu garedan gansazRvris momentisagan, eTikuri TviTgansazRvra socialuri CarCos miRma eqceva. sxva sityvebiT, esTetikuri individualizmis idea disciplinuri struqturebis,
interesebis, ZalauflebiTi mimarTebebis mniSvnelobis xazgasmis fonze bolomde daufuZnebeli rCeba.
saboloo jamSi, erTgvari daskvnis saxiT, Semdegi SeiZleba
iTqvas: kritikuli Teoriis gadasaxedidan, fukos gviandeli interpretaciuli CarCo erTgvarad ewinaaRmdegeba Zalauflebis
mis adrindel ontologiasTan. Tu adreul etapze yovelive konteqstis, apersonaluri Zalebis funqciaa, mogvianebiT situacia icvleba: yuradRebis centrSi eqceva `is intencionaluri da
nebelobiTi qmedebebi, romlebiTac adamianebi ara mxolod garkveul wesebs gansazRvraven TavianTi qmedebisaTvis, aramed sakuTari Tavis transformaciasac cdiloben...~. miuxedavad amisa, arcerTi es sqema arc adreuli da arc gviani ar uzrunvelyofs optimalur konceptualur karkass kritikul-Teoriuli kvlevebisaTvis. Zalauflebis ontologia metismetad reduqciuli da calmxrivia am miznebisaTvis. rac Seexeba mravalganzomilebian ontologias, isic naklovania, radgan socialur
mimarTebebs warmosaxavs rogorc strategiuls da, aqedan gamomdinare, faqtobrivad, adgils ar tovebs kritikuli TeoriisaTvis mniSvnelovani individis avtonomiurobis principisaTvis.
amgvari kvalifikacia ar unda gavigoT rogorc fukos istoriul-kritikuli kvlevebis Zalisa da mniSvnelobis absoluturi uaryofa, aramed rogorc cda Sefasebul iqnas fukoseuli
midgomis arsebiTi mxare miseuli midgomis wanamZRvrebisa da Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT. misi Ziebebi xSirad ar emTxveva kri-

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119

tikuli socialuri Teoriis meinstrims. misi nominalizmi, deskriptivizmi da istorizmi erTgvari sapirwonea zogadis, normatiulisa da Teoriulisa. rogorc unda iyos orientirebuli
kritikuli Teoria cnebebsa da principebze, sakuTari praqtikuli interesebis ganxorcielebis gzaze igi mainc garduvalad
miadgeba cvalebads, SemTxveviTs, romelic ase mniSvnelovania
fukosaTvis. am TvalsazrisiT, misi gamokvlevebi, mimarTuli,
erTi mxriv, istoriul konteqstebze, romlebSic specifikuri
`praqtikuli sistemebi~ warmoiqmnebian da funqcionireben, da
meore mxriv, moralur-racionaluri subieqtis formirebaze,
Rirebuli damatebaa racionalizaciis Sesaxeb ufro globaluri diskursisa. metic, mis mier iZulebis, ierarqiulobis da sxva
msgavsi fenomenebis ukompromiso kvleva romlebic msWvalaven
yvela racionalur diskurss, erTgvari impulsia kritikuli TeoriisaTvis, kidev ufro Sors wavides iseTi Zireuli cnebebis
detranscendentalizaciis gzaze, rogoricaa goneba, WeSmariteba da Tavisufleba.

120

a r q i t e q t u r i s

s e m i o t i k a
guram yifiani
nodar amaSukeli

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~
qarTul arqiteqturaSi
(Tiris monastris RvTismSoblis
eklesia)
guram yifiani
arqiteqtori da arqeologi, istoriis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Tbilisis ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori. ZiriTadi naSromebi: kolxeTis
da iberiis warmarTuli
taZrebi da qarTuli
qristianuli xuroTmoZRvrebis warmoSobis sakiTxebi, Tb., 2000; ufliscixe, Tb., 2002; Zveli Tbilisis zoroastruli taZari, Tb., 2009.
interesTa sfero: antikuroba da adreqristianuli samyaro.
nodar amaSukeli
Tbilisis samxatvro akademiis profesori. aA rqiteqturis fakultetis
dekani;
interesTa sfero: monumenturi xelovnebis istoriuli wanamZRvrebi.

es werili Cven mier nagulisxmevia, rogorc erTgvari megzuri arqiteqturuli


Zeglis Secnobisa da SefasebisaTvis. rogorc qvesaTaurSia aRniSnuli, ganvixilavT
Tiris monastris RvTismSoblis eklesias.
batoniSvili vaxuSti gvamcnobs, rom:
`kvalad qrcxinvals zeiT ars, liaxvis dasavliT, TamaraSeni, mcire qalaqi TamaraSens zeiT erTvis Tiris monastris xevi. am
xevzed goris Zirs ars aCabeTi, sasaxle da
cixe mefeTa. amis dasavleTiT ars mTaSi Tiris monasteri, ugunbaTo, aramed friad keTilSeni, keTils adgilas, zis winamZRuari~.1
ioane bagrationis (batoniSvilis) mixedviT, ki: `q. qrcxinvalis xeobasa da samaCablos xeobas rac soflebi samefo, saTavado,
saaznauro da saeklesio da didis liaxviT
irwyvis soflebi, arian eseni~: da am soflebis CamonaTvalSi iricxeba `Tiris monasteri~-c, rogorc dasaxleba da cocxali or______________________________
ganizmi. 2
1

K qarTlis cxovreba. IV, batoniSvili vaxuSti, aRwera


samefosa saqarTveloisa. teqsti dadgenili yvela ZiriTadi xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. Tb.,
1973, gv. 371.
2
ioane bagrationi, qarTl-kaxeTis aRwera, teqsti gamosacemad moamzades, gamokvleva da saZiebelebi daurTes T. enuqiZem da g. bedoSvilma, Tb., 1986, gv. 40-41.

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

121

monastris xuroTmoZRvrebas nugzar andRulaZis SesaniSnavi


monografia mieZRvna,1 da aq mraval saxelovnebaTmcodneo sakiTxTan erTad dawvrilebiTaa aRwerili eklesiis mdebareoba
da landSaftTan misi damokidebuleba (sur. 1).2 misi kvleva ar
isaxavs miznad im sakiTxis ganxilvas, romelsac Cven SevexeT jer
kidev 1994 wels3, TviT Zegli ki 1990 wels movixileT.
monasteri TavxelisZeTa sagvareulos ekuTvnoda, mogvianebiT ki is maCabelTa gvarma gaisakuTra. Zegli (RvTismsoblis eklesia) mraval xelmosakid elements Seicavs saimisod, rom igi
XIII s-is 80-iani wlebiT daTariRdes.4 es is epoqaa, roca arqiteqturul nawarmoebs jer kidev profesiuli goneba qmnis da igi
Serwymulia SemoqmedebasTan.
samonastro kompleqsis ZiriTadi nageboba, RvTismSoblis
eklesia (sur. 2.), CrdiloeTis mxriT TiTqmis kldes ebjineba. eklesia Znelad aRsaqmelia, rogorc dasavleTis, aseve aRmosavleTis mxridanac, samagierod, misken gaSlili, Tavisufali xedi
iSleba samxreTis mxridan da XIII s-is arqiteqtoric swored am
fasads (samxreTisas) uTmobs gansakuTrebul yuradRebas. aqve
unda aRiniSnos isic, rom dasavleTidan eklesias kari arca aqvs,
samagierod, samxreTis mxridan igi ori, portaliani RiobiTaa
aRWurvili.
werilis ZiriTadi mizani Tiris RvTismSoblis eklesiis xuroTmoZRvris, anu saukuneTa miRma momqmedi ostatis, azrovnebis rekonstruqciis cdaa. man amisaTvis dagvitova yvelaferi,
anu Semoqmedeba (ar dautovebia traqtati da memuarebi).

n. andRulaZe, Tiris monastris xuroTmoZRvruli ansambli. Tb.,


1976, gv. 8 da Smd; am monastris Sesaxeb ix. agreTve . , .
, , ., 1975, gv. 127-131; Sida qarTli I, patara da didi liaxvis xeobebis arqiteqturuli memkvidreoba, redaqtori c. dadianiZe, Tb., 2002,
gv. 191-194.
2
n. andRulaZe, Tiris monastris... gv. 10 da Smd;
3
g. yifiani, n. amaSukeli, Tiris RvTismSoblis eklesiis samxreTi fasadi. saqarTvelos akad. S. amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis saxelmwifo muzeumi. moxsenebaTa Tezisebi (oqt. 1994), Tb., 1994, gv. 12-15.
4
n. andRulaZe, Tiris monastris... gv. 101 da Smd;

122

guram yifiani, nodar amaSukeli

amasTan gaazrebuli gvaqvs isic, rom farTo mkiTxveli amdagvar kvlevebs ramdenadme eWviT ucqeris da amis mizezi araerTia: jer erTi, rogorc Cans, moumzadebel mkiTxvels abnevs
geometriuli sqemebi, rac aucileblad unda iyos warmodgenili
Semoqmedis qmedebaTa Tanmimdevrobis rekonstruqciisaTvis,
rogorc Tundac sailustracio masala. garda amisa, arsebuli
kompoziciis sistemis dadgenis cdebs igi SemTxveviTobad miiCnevs, ara da, `SemTxveviTobani~ da `damTxvevebi~ ar SeiZleba
usasrulo iyos, anu Tu ar arsebobs sistema, mas veravin verafers , miusadagebs. Cveni azriT, nawilobriv skefsiss amdagvari
kvlevebis mimarT unda iwvevdes naklebi rwmenac `wina samyaros~
SemomqmedTa ganviTarebul sistemur azrovnebaze. da bolos, da
rac mTavaria, esaa eWvi imisa, rom mkvlevarma, SesaZloa, winaswar SemuSavebul koncefcias dauqvemdebaros `statistikuri
monacemebi~, vTqvaT anazomi, da aseTi ram marTlacaa SesaZlebeli, radgan es procesi aracnobieradac ki SeiZleba warimarTos.
unda aRvniSnoT, rom gamoqveynebul anazomebSi1 Cven araviTari koreqtivi ar Segvitania. isini Cven miviReT, rogorc `mocemuloba~ kvlevisaTvis.
Zeglis moxilvisas upirvelesad TvalSi gvecema misi `ucnauri~ samxreTis (da faqtobrivad erTaderTi) fasadi. aq, erTi SexedviT, verc ki varkvevT, rasTan gvaqvs saqme `wesrigTan~ Tu
`qaosTan~, magram imaSi ki SeiZleba SevTanxmdeT, rom misi saxiT
Cven winaSe dekoratiuli panoa.
garegnuli asaxulobiT, eklesia darbazuli tipisaa, TiTqosda calnaviani, magram igi ori darbazisagan Sedgeba: dasavleTisa, SedarebiT viwro da samxreTidan CridiloeTisaken mimarTuli, xolo centraluri, romelic aRmosavleTidan bemiTa
da sakurTxevlis absidiT isazRvreba, kvadratuli. gamodis,
rom sami sivcobrivi erTeuli erTian sistemaSi mxolod saxuravis konstruqcias mohyavs da is aris kidevac navi (navis), romelic Tavis sivrceSi or sivcobriv sxeuls aerTianebs (sur. 3).

eklesia nawilobriv auzomavs l. rCeuliSvils 1938 wels, xolo


mTlianad kompleqsi 1968-70-ian wlebSi n. alxaziSvilsa da n. andRulaZes. ix. n. andRulaZe, Tiris monastris... gv. 7, sqolio 15.

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

123

sakurTxevlis absida am ZeglSi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas


iqcevs. misi Crdilo da samxreTis morkaluli gverdebis tendencia imas gvauwyebs, rom isini naxevarwriulobisaken miiswrafvodnen, magram igi, ase vTqvaT, `gadaketilia~ swori xaziT,
anu wakveTili saxze gvaqvs kanonikuri absidis dausrulebeli
saxe. aq Zneli iqneba misi ganxilva, rogorc ZeglTa im rigis Semadgenlisa, romlebic sworkuTxa absidebiT xasiaTdeba.1 am Zeglis arqiteqtors umtkivneulod SeeZlo aRmosavleTiT, Tundac 1,5 m-is sigrZeze, stilobati gaegrZelebina da srulfasovani absidis Seqmnas veRaraferi daabrkolebda, magram misi mizani, rogorc Cans (da gamoCndeba), raRac Temisa da ideis ganxorcielebaa da amitom igi Tavis Tavs kanonikuri normebis darRvevis uflebas aZlevs.
taZari samxreTidan da CrdiloeTidan gviandel minaSenebsac
Seicavs. CrdiloeTis minaSeni sanaxevrod kldis masivSi SeWrili sivrcea. cxadia, rom roca samxreTis fasadis ganxilvas SevudgebiT, minaSens `ukuvagdebT~, anu fasads Tavisi Tavdapirveli `daufaravi~ saxiT warmovadgenT.
kvlav gegmas unda mivubrundeT (sur. 3). misi Sida farTobis
sigane 6,25 metria, xolo sigrZe 14 metri. am ricxvTa Sefardeba 6:14=0,4, pirdapir gveubneba, rom arqiteqtorma taZris Sida
farTobs safuZvlad daudo iseTi sworkuTxedi, romelic Tavis
TavSi mraval dinamiur Tvisebas Seicavs da mas ewodeba sworkuTxedi 1 : 5 . esaa bolo dinamiuri sworkuTxedi, romelic
miiReba kvadratis TandaTanobiTi, diagonaluri ganviTarebis
Sedegad. pirvel dinamiur sworkuTxeds ewodeba 1 :

2 : kvad-

ratis diagonali udris 2 da Tu misi sigrZis toli monakveTiT gavagrZelebT kvadratis or paralelur gverds, miviRebT
sxva Tvisebis sworkuTxeds, vidre kvadratia. kvadratis gverds
pirobiTad vuwodoT 1, xolo mis or paralelur gverds, da Sesabamisad, sworkuTxedis sigrZes, Tavisi saxeli ukve aqvs 2 . am
sworkuTxedis, anu pirvel dinamiuri sworkuTxedis saxeli TavisTavad gamodis 1 :

2 . am sworkuTxedis diagonali ki,

ix. da Sdr. . , , , , qarTuli


xelovneba 7 (seria A). Tb., 1971, gv. 27 da Smd.

124

guram yifiani, nodar amaSukeli

tolia 3 da Tu analogiurad ganvaviTarebT winamorbed sworkuTxeds, vRebulobT geometriul sxeuls, romelsac ewodeba
1 : 3 . am ukanasknelis diagonalis sigrZe 4 -s utoldeba, magram misi sigrZis erT-erT gverdze gadazomviT miRebuli sworkuTxedi, miuxedavad imisa, rom dinamiuri ganviTarebiTaa Seqmnili, mainc statikur figurad iTvleba, radgan sworkuTxedi
1 : 4 , ubralod, ori kvadratis jamia. misi diagonali 5 tolia da misgan warmoebul sworkuTxeds ki, Sesabamisad, ewodeba
sworkuTxedi 1 : 5 . es bolo dinamiuri sworkuTxedia (sur. 4).
marTalia is, rom diagonaluri ganviTarebis meTodiT usasrulod SeiZleba ganvaviTaroT kvadrati, rogorc sawyisi forma,
magram arqiteturis Teoriam da praqtikam am Sefardebaze dasva
wertili, rogorc erT-erT srulyofil geometriul sxeulze.
SeiZleba axla gavacnobieroT Tiris RvTismSoblis eklesiis arqiteqtoris damokidebuleba arqiteqturis kanonikurobasTan.
man sworkuTxedi 1 : 5 aRar gaagrZela da ar Seqmna raRac iseTi
sworkuTxedi, romelic aucileblad daarRvevda aRqmadobas,
man sworkuTxedi arqiteqturul `kanonmdeblobas~ dauqvemdebara.
SeniSvnis saxiT unda vTqvaT, rom samive dinamiuri sworkuTxedi da, garda amisa, `oqros kveTis~ sworkuTxedi jer kidev Zveli egviptis (Zv. w. IV aTaswleulidan mainc) sataZro da samarxeul arqiteqturas edo safuZvlad1, magram berZnulma klasikurma arqiteqturam da xelovnebam sworkuTxeds 1 : 5 , gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba mianiWa, rogorc didi dinamiuri SesaZleblobebis mqones. Tu mis centrSi kvadrats warmovqmniT, maSin misi gverdebis mosazRvred, marjvniv da marcxniv vertikalurad
mdgomi `oqros kveTis~ sworkuTxedebi warmoiSoba (sur. 5). garda amisa, es sworkuTxedi ori, horizontalurad ganfenili didi, `oqros kveTi~-sa da mcire, vertikalurad aRmarTuli amave
proporciis sworkuTxedis2 jamia (sur. 6). Tiris RvTismSoblis eklesiis gegmaSi am sworkuTxedis (1 :

5 ) Tvisebebi

.. , e .
, . 1, 1970, gv. 138-154
2
dawvr. ix. ., . ., 1936,
gv. Smd.

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

125

savsebiT Seufaravadaa gadmocemuli: avtorma centraluri


darbazi kvadrats dauqvemdebara, xolo kvadrati plus absida
`oqros kveTis~ sworkuTxedTan miaaxlova, aseve kvadratuli
darbazi plus dasavleTis `saTavso~ kvlav `oqros kveTis~ Sefardebas warmoqmnis.
kvlav SeniSvnis saxiT, oriode sityva unda iTqvas `oqros
kveTze~ da am Sefardebis mqone sworkuTxedzec.
germanelma mkvlevarma ceizingma fundamenturi Sroma miuZRvna am Sefardebas da gansazRvra misi arsic: `imisTvis, rom
mTliani Sedgenili ori araTanabari nawilisagan gamoiyurebodes srulyofilad formis TvalsazrisiT, mcire da did nawils
Sorisac iseTive Sefardeba unda arsebobdes, rogorc didi nawili Seefardeba mTlians~1, anu esaa Sefardeba, romelic harmoniulad akavSirebs erTmaneTTan mTelisa da nawilebis sidideebs. es SeiZleba, gaviazroT monakveTze, romelic or araTanabar
nawiladaa gayofili. a : b = b : c (sur. 7). es Sefardeba gamoisaxeba
ariTmetikuli rigiT: ...0,056; 0,090; 0,186; 0,234; 0,382; 0, 618; 1, 0;
1,618; 2,618... da a. S. am rigSi yoveli wina rocxvis Sefardeba momdevnosTan gvaZlevs 0,618. didisa mciresTan ki 1,618. es Sefardeba praqtikuli saqmianobis Sedegad xSirad mrgvaldeboda,
vTqvaT, rogorc 0,62 an 0,6. amasTan rigi aditiuria, anu yoveli
ricxvi miiReba wina ori ricxvis jamiT. TviT Sefardeba gamoxatuli 0,618-iT miaxloebiTia; zemoT moyvanili rigi xom mTlianad iracionaluri ricxvebisagan Sedgeba. proporcia gamoisaxeba formuliTY

5 1
(am formulis geometriul gasaRebs bolos
2

davubrundebiT).
Zveli berZnebi am proporcias `kidura da Sualedur~ Sefardebas uwodeben (kidura mag., 0,146 : 0,090; Sualeduri ki,
vTqvaT, 0,236 : 0, 382). SuasaukuneebSi mas `RvTaebrivi Sefardeba~ ewoda, aRorZinebis epoqam ki igi `oqros kveTis~ epiTetiTac
Seamko.
imave (an daaxloebiT imave) TvisebebiTaa aRWurvili mTeli
ricxvebis rigic, romelic XIII s-Si italielma maTematikosma
1

. , . ., 1990, gv. 5-6.

126

guram yifiani, nodar amaSukeli

leonardo pizelma (zedmetsaxelad fibonaCi) aRmoaCina1. es rigic aditiuria da ase gamoiyureba: 2; 3; 5; 8; 13; 21; 34; 55; 89; 144;
233; 377... da a. S., da am ricxvebis urTierTSefardeba uaxlovdeba `oqros kveTisas~ e. i. ricxviTi mniSvnelobebiT 0,618-iT
gamoxatul Sefardebas. mag. 8 : 13 = 0,615...; 13 : 21 = 0,619...; 21 : 34
= 0,617... da a. S.
`oqros kveTis~ sworkuTxedi ki iseTi Tvisebebis mqonea, sadac misi patara gverdis Sefardeba did gverdTan gvaZlevs Sefardebas Tundac miaxloebiTi mniSvnelobiT mainc: 0,6., maSin
didi gverdi aseve Seefardeba `mTlians~, anu patara da didi
gverdebis jams. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom aseTi, anu `oqros kveTis~ sworkuTxedi, bunebaSi yvelaze myari sworkuTxedia Tavisi
meqanikuri TvisebebiT.
Tiris monastris RvTismSoblis eklesiaSi darbazis sigane 6
metrs udris. sigrZe ki centraluri kvadratuli darbazi
plus absida 9,5 m-is tolia; an darbazs plus dasavleTis `saTavso~ aseve 9,5 m-s uTanabrdeba (6 : 9,5 = 0,631... 0, 6). sworkuTxed 1 : 5 . Cven zemoT yuradReba davuTmeT da TandaTanobiT
ufro gasagebi unda gaxdes, Tu ratom wakveTa arqiteqtorma
`proeqtSi~ absida. mas swored sworkuTxedi 1 : 5 sWirdeba da
mis Tvisebebs igi samxreTis fasadzec didi SemoqmedebiTi unariT avlens.
rogorc zemoTac mivaniSneT, taZris xilvisas upirvelesad
misi samxreTis fasadi gvxvdeba TvalSi. igi dekoratiuli panoa
da Tu masze dasmul `aqcentebs~ laqebis saxiT warmovidgenT,
ukeT gavacnobierebT (sur. 8) mis mxatvrul mniSvnelobas da TviT
`panos~ dinamiur Tvisebebs. sxva Tu araferi, arqiteqtori aq
uars ambobs simetriis centralur RerZze, e. i. uars ambobs martiv aRqmadobaze2, da, amasTnave, safasade sibrtyesac 1: 5 sworkuTxeds uqvemdebarebs (misi sigrZe 15,75 metri, simaRlesTan,
1

.., . ., 1984, gv. 8 da Smd.; . ,


. ., 1936. gv. 21 da Smd.
2
struqturuli fsiqologiis erT-erTi arqiteqturuli postulati gulisxmobs: `RerZisadmi damokidebuleba aRqma advildeba Tu
mnaxveli mosaxilvel obieqtis RerZze imyofeba~. ix. . ,
. ., 1982, gv. 46.

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

127

stilobatidan karnizamde qimationamde 7 metri, swored am Sefardebas gvaZlevs, rac am bolo dinamiuri sworkuTxedis

5 gverdebs axasiaTebs: 7 : 15,75 = 0,44...).

1:

fasadze laTinuri aso-niSnebiT dasavleTidan aRmosavleTisaken (marcxnidan marjvniv), mimdevrobiT aRvniSnavT safanjre dekoratiul da portalebian karis Riobebs: A mcire portaliani karis Riobi; B karnizisqveSa mrgvali sarkmeli; C antropomorfuli sarkmeli; D mrgvali sarkmeli fasadis centralur areSi; E didi portaliani kari; F naxevarsvetebze
Sesmuli sarkmeli fasadis centralur areSi; G aRmosavleTis
`are~-s sarkmeli, gviandeli gadakeTebisa da adgilmonacvleobis Sedegi;1 H aRmosavleTis (marjvena mxris) kidura sarkmeli.
fasadze ikiTxeba agreTve kuTxis pilastrebidan sibrtyeze gamomavali mrgvali kvanZebi. fasadis panos danawevrebaSi isini
arcTu mcire rols TamaSoben. dasavleTisas ` W~-Ti aRvniSnavT,
aRmosavleTisas ki, Sesabamisad, `O~-Ti.
safasade sibrtyeze, romelsac panodac movixseniebT xolme,
`laqebi~ qveda marcxena (dasavleTisa) kuTxidan garkveuli
progresiiT miemarTeba marjvena zeda kuTxisaken diagonalurad. Sesabamisad, ramdenamde gantvirTulia zeda marcxena da
qveda marjvena areebi. es namdvili qiazmia, erTgvari kontraposti, romelsac arqiteqtori sibrtyeze SefardebaTa sistemebiT Rebulobs.
marcxnidan panoze, fasadis simaRlis gadazomviT, anu kvadratis marjvena vertikaluri gverdiT, ganisazRvra E portalis
RerZi, Semdgomma safexurma ki, kvadratis diagonalurma ganviTarebam da proporciam 1 :

2 , daakonkreta F sarkmlis RerZi.

proporcias 1 : 3 nu mivaniWebT aq mniSvnelobas, radgan am


sworkuTxedis marjvena are adgilmonacvlebul sarkmels exeba
da qmnida igi aqcents Tu ara, sruli darwmunebiT ver vityviT.
samagierod, proporciam, 1 : 4 , anu ori kvadratis jamma, bolo,
ukiduresi aRmosavleTis Riobis RerZi daazusta H sarkmeli
(sur. 9).
1

128

guram yifiani, nodar amaSukeli

analogiuri gziT xuroTmoZRvari kvadrats marjvnidan marcxnivac aviTarebs da SefardebiT 1 :

2 E portalis dekora-

tiuli CarCos sazRvrebs azustebs. 1 :

3 -iT antropomorfuli

C sarkmlis RerZi ganisazRvra, xolo orma kvadratma (1 :


wertilis RerZi (sur. 10).

4)A

gamodis, rom arqiteqtorma safasade sivrce sam seqtorad


dahyo. centralurSi da, amave dros, kvadratul areSi D, E da F
elementebi ganaTavsa, marcxena vertikalur areSi (rac `oqros
kveTis~ sworkuTxeds Seesabameba) A, B, C elementebi da amave
Tvisebis marjvena sworkuTxa areSi G da H `laqebi~. man, anu arqiteqtorma, ori erTgvarovani dinamiuri sworkuTxedic, kerZod, 1 : 2 erTmaneTs daafina: marcxnidan da marjvnidan da
amiT centraluri aqcentebis sazRvrebi daazusta: marcxena
proporciiT F sarkmlis RerZi da marjvenaTi E portalis sazRvari (sur. 11). aq aRsaniSnavia is, rom swored 1 : 2 proporciiT gansazRvra xuroTmoZRvarma centraluri vertikaluri aqcentebis (E, F) mdebareoba, radgan monakveTi

2 `oqros kveTiT~

Seefardeba 5 (1,4142 : 2,2361 = 0,63...) da, Sesabamisad, fasadzec


manZili marcxena kuTxidan E portalis marcxena kidemde `oqros kveTiT~ Seefardeba sigrZis danarCen monakveTs. manZili
marjvena kuTxidan F RerZamde imave proporciiT Seefardeba
monakveTs F RerZidan fasadis marcxena sazRvramde (sur. 12).
rogorc aRvniSneT, sworkuTxedi 1 : 5 Tavis TavSi Seicavs
`oqros kveTis~ sworkuTxedebs anu magaliTad, mis centralur
kvadrats plus erT-erTi kidura `oqros kveTis~ sworkuTxedi
TavisTavadac horizontalurad ganfenili `oqros kveTis~
sworkuTxedia. misi diagonalis kvadratis gverdTan gadakveTis
wertiliT, horizontalurad safasade sibrtye aseve `oqros
kveTis~ SefardebiT iyofa da sibrtyeze mas kuTxis pilastrebidan gamoziduli medalionebi akonkretebs (W da O). fasadis Semdgomi danawevrebac sistemuri xasiaTisaa da isazRvreba B
mrgvali sarkmlis adgili da a. S.

129

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

arqiteqtori aq kvadratis sxva SesaZleblobebsac iyenebs, es


SesaZleblobebi ki imaSi mdgomareobs, rom Tavissave sxeulSi
mas SeuZlia, warmoSvas dinamiuri sworkuTxedebis igive saxeebi,
rac mas SeuZlia diagonalebis saSualebiT sigrZeSi Tavis sxeulis sazRvrebs gareT miiRos. anu, kvadratis diagonalsa da mopirdapire kuTxeebis SemaerTianebeli rkalis gadakveTaze agebuli sworkuTxedi pirveli dinamiuri sworkuTxedia, e. i. 1 :

2 . am ukanasknelis diagonalsa da rkalis gadakveTaze warmoiqmna sworkuTxedi 1 : 3 da a. S. (sur. 14). arqiteqtorma am meTodiT safasade sibrtyeze mkveTrad gamosaxuli da diagonalurad awyobili samive kvadratis SigniT kvadratis Sida danawevrebis principiT gansazRvra mcire elementTa da detalTa
mijnebi (sur. 15).
vfiqrobT, rom aq analizi unda SevwyvitoT, zogierTi ram
aRarc ki davakonkretoT da aRar SevexoT danarCen fasadebs, nagebobis sivcobrivi kompoziciis sakiTxebs da a. S. mkiTxvelma,
miTumetes, Tu is studentia, Tavad unda SeZlos am narkvevis
gagrZeleba da dasruleba, an romelime sxva Zegli unda moiZios
da aRadginos saukuneTa miRma moqmedi arqiteqtoris azrovnebis sistema, an arsebul narkvevSi, da es yvelaze ukeTesi iqneba,
uaryos avtorTa monacemebi.
Tiris monastris RvTismSoblis eklesiis da gansakuTrebiT
misi samxreTis fasadis, rogorc dekoratiuli pano-s erTmniSvnelovnad gansazRvra Zalian Znelia. igi namdviladaa xelovnebis nimuSi. am nimuSiT rom saqme `qaosTan~ gvaqvs, es erTi SexedviTac SeiZleba rom gaviazroT. `naxati~ STabeWdilebis Seqmnas
emsaxureba da am niSniT igi impresionistuli panoa. es sibrtye
mTlianad modelis Seqmnis cdaa, nebieri Semoqmedis survilebis
dakmayofileba (gavixsenoT, rom am dros, jer kidev rusTavelis
epoqis `Tavisufali neba~ dominirebs SemoqmedebaSi), magram igi
inteleqtiT mowesrigebuli qaosia, atarebs TamaSi-s, rogorc
fsiqologiur-esteTikuri kategoriis yvela niSans.

P. S. ganmarteba formulisaTvis

5 1
, misi geometriuli ga2

saRebi: ori kvadratis jams anu sworkuTxeds 1 :

4 Tu diagonaliT

130

guram yifiani, nodar amaSukeli

ganvaviTarebT sigrZeSi vRebulobT sworkuTxeds, mravali dinamiuri Tvisebebis Semcvels da mas ewodeba 1 : 5 . es teqstSidac araerTxel aRvniSneT. axla ki ori kvadratis jami warmovsaxoT vertikaluri dgomiT da araferi gviSlis xels, diagonali
gadmovzomoT, vTqvaT, marjvniv da viwro gverdis pirobiTi gagrZelebiT avagoT sworkuTxedi. mTlianad es sworkuTxedi cotaTi kvadrats hgavs, magram kvadrati araa da mas qarTulad dinamiuri kvadratic SeiZleba rom vuwodoT, magram ori kvadratis (pirobiT aRvniSnoT 2) diagonalis ganzomilebis 5 , gadazomviT miviReT gverdiTi, vertikalurad aRmarTuli sworkuTxedi. 5 -s rom gamovakloT `1~, da unda gamovakloT, radgan
isedac gamoaklda kvadratis gverdi, maSin ori kvadratis gverdiT warmosaxuli sworkuTxedi `oqros kveTisaa~. misi gverdebis Sefardeba sxva gamosavals ar gvaZlevs. geometriuli sqema
asaxavs formulas: 5 (ori kvadratis diagonali) gamovakloT
1, anu kvadratis gverdi, da es monakveTi gavyoT 2-ze (anu ori
kvadratis tol monakveTze sur. 16).
sur. 1. Tiris monasteri, xedi samxreT dasavleTidan.
sur. 2. Tiris monastris RvTismSoblis saxelobis eklesia, wina
planze samreklo.
sur. 3. gegma.
sur. 4. kvadratis diagonaluri ganviTareba da dinamiur sworkuTxedTa warmoSoba.
sur. 5. sworkuTxed 1 : 5 centrSi warmoqmnili kvadrati da
gverdiTi sworkuTxedebi.
sur. 6. sworkuTxed 1 : 5 danawevreba `oqros kveTis~ did, horizontalurad ganfenil da mcire, vertikalurad aRmarTul, amave Tvisebebis sworkuTxedad.
sur. 7. monakveTis danawevreba `oqros kveTis~ SefardebiT.
sur. 8. `laqebiT~ warmosaxuli fasadi.
sur. 9. fasadis elementTa ganviTareba kvadratis ganviTarebis Sesabamisad dasavleTidan aRmosavleTisaken.
sur. 10. fasadis elementTa ganviTareba aRmosavleTidan dasavleTisaken.

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

131

sur. 11. fasadze sworkuTxebis 1 : 2 urTierTdafenis Sedegad gansazRvruli elementebi.


sur. 12. safasade sibrtye danawevrebuli `oqros kveTi~-s
proporiciT.
sur. 13. `oqros kveTis~ sworkuTxedebis danawilebis Sedegad
miRebuli monakveTebi samxreTis fasadze.
sur. 14. diagonalis da rkalis meSveobiT ganviTarebuli kvadratis Sida farTobi.
sur. 15. safasade sibrtyis diagonaluri dinamika gansazRvruli da dakonkretebuli kvadratis Sida ganviTarebis
SesaZleblobebiT.
sur. 16. `oqros kveTis~ formulis
Rebi.

5 1
geometriuli gasa2

132

guram yifiani, nodar amaSukeli

sur. 1

sur. 2

danarTi

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

sur. 3

sur. 4

133

134

guram yifiani, nodar amaSukeli

sur. 5

sur. 6

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

sur. 7

sur. 8

135

136

guram yifiani, nodar amaSukeli

sur. 9

sur. 10

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

sur. 11

sur. 12

137

138

guram yifiani, nodar amaSukeli

sur. 13

sur. 14

`mowesrigebuli qaosi~ qarTul arqiteqturaSi

sur. 15

sur. 16

139

140

s e m i o t i k a

d a

k r i t i k a

daviT andriaZe

xelaxali RENDEZ -VOUS


(kultursemiologiuri
kontaminaciebi)

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, Jurnal


artefaqtis~ mTavari
redaqtori, iv. javaxiSvilis saxelmwifo universitetis profesori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
ferwera da imaginacia
(monografia), ikonologiuri margialiebi (monografia), leviaTanis
daRupva (monografia)
da sxva.
interesTa sfero: kulturis filosofia, literaturis kritika, artkritika, xelovnebis
sociologia, semiotika.

amas winaT erTma qarTvelma mweralma


ra dasamalia da, Tamaz WilaZem misTvis
sruliad uCveulo ampluaSi telemonologSi aseTi ram Tqva: `aRmosavluri wumpe~...
konteqstiT igi Cveni `cisferyanwelebis~ mier qarTul poeziaSi damkvidrebuli evropeizmis odiozur sapirwoned iyo
moxmobili.
baton Tamazs SemTxveviT araferi wamoscdeba mudam awonili aqvs sityva da
mis naTqvams am SemTxvevaSic sruliad
garkveuli rezoni axlavs.
aRmosavleTi marTlac `wumped~ aRiqmeba qarTuli kulturuli cnobierebisaTvis, axla mentalobas rom veZaxiT, im
kulturisTvis, romelic, ukacravad da,
cota ar iyos, `dakompleqsebulic~ kia Tavisi saTuo prodasavluri (TuU evrocentristuli) orientaciis gamo.
SesaZloa, vcdebiT, magram ase gvgonia:
ratomRac, sul imis cdaSi varT, amoviSroT Cveni orientalisturi sisxli (da
cremlebi), xelovnurad davibneloT aRmosavleTidan (ara ruseTidan) amomavali mze da zezvasa da mzias STamomavlebma ~Camaval mziT naferi~ evropis daiss

xelaxali RENDEZ-VOUS (kultursemiologiuri kontaminaciebi)

141

SevaficxoT beberi qarTuli Zvlebi.


xumroba iqiT iyos da, Cvens prodasavlur intenciebSi, TiTqmis gadamwyvet rols TamaSobs Cveni konfesiuri inercia tradicia; oRond isic gasaTvaliswinebelia: egeb geopolitikurad
(da geokulturulad) aRmosavleT-dasavleTis mijnaze mdgomma saqarTvelom, ybadaRebuli energomatareblebiT penetrirebuli virtualuri `derefnisa~ ar iyos, moxerxebulad moirgos
erTgvari interkulturuli mediumis momgebiani uniforma, kidev erTxel Cados `hafizis vardi prudonis vazaSi~ anda decentralizebuli `evropocentrizmidan~ orientaluri periferia
marginaliisakenac gaaparos Tvali da sulac am ori kulturuli sivrcis qaosmosur mijnaze gaaTamaSos Tavisi perversiul
tragifarsuli istoria.
`mijnebze mudam gasaocar sagnebs xedaven~ qadagebs k. lixtenbergis aforizmi; m. baxtini ki gvarwmunebs, `yoveli kulturuli aqti arsebiTad sazRvrebze binadrobs, amaSia misi seriozuloba~.
ase rom, Tu gvinda `gasaocari sagnebis~ danaxva da, amasTan,
Tu kidev SegvrCa (`kidev SegrCa, Tu ara~) survili, rom Cveni
kulturuli aqtebic `seriozulad gamoiyurebodnen~ oRond,
arc am dros unda gviRalatos groteskuli realizmis grZnobam, iqneb, swored am dasavlur-aRmosavlur mijnebze veZioT
ga-darCenis sagani. bolosdabolos, sagnis siyvaruli kidev erTi citatiT gavaRizianeb mkiTxvels misi mijnebis siyvaruls
niSnavso; es ukve g. Cestertonia. amitom, egeb Cvenc, bavSvebiviT sazRvrebze viTamaSoT, Tugind, `moZvelebuli~ selinjeris
gmirebiviT viancoT `Wvavis yanaSi~ anda heseseuli iozef knehtiviT `gaverToT~ gawyvetili kulturologiuri krialosniT.
`mZivobanas~ simboluri konotaciis marao xom `i czinis~ sakraluri sazrisis, Soreuli aRmosavleTidan msubuqad monaber niavqveS iSleba. am uZvelesi traqtatis samocdaoTxi heqsogramac, `i czinis~ postulatebis prototipebad ifanteba, gafantuli mZivebis Zieba ki kulturis universaluri, `dakarguli~ enis
Ziebaa.
da mainc, `i czini~ CvenTvis ucxo xilia... qarTul kulturaSi
jer ar momwifebula amgvari nayofi, Tumca, rac ar daTesila, ra
momwifdeboda?! cxadia, Cven snoburad ki ar vqadagebT, maincdamainc, goeTesaviT ipiligrimos qarTvelma poetma (Tanac, `orjer poetma~) Zenis mistikur sanaxebSi; Zenamde CvenTvis jer kidev Sori gzaa... da kidev: baxtiniseuli `gzis qronotopi~ al-

142

daviT andriaZe

baT, Cven verasodes Segvaxvedrebs.


samagierod, axlos islamia; islami, islami is odiozuri
sityva, lamis `ukulturobis~ (`wumpis~) sinonimad rom JRers
CvenSi... netav, ratom ar aRiqmeboda islami da misi kultura,
vTqvaT da, paul kleesaTvis amgvar `qaosad~, rogori TvaliTac
gardatexa kleem islamuri qalaqis topologia misTvis imanenturi qronotopis prizmaSi?! ra sayvarlad infatiluria mis naxatebSi meCeTebisa da minareTebis siluetebi...
CvenTvis ki, rogori autanelia muslimanuri taZari, autaneli ki ara, gaugebaria muslimuri taZruli cnobiereba. magram,
TviT `naficma evropelebmac~ xom gvian aRmoaCines es fenomeni;
pioneri anri korbeni iyo, visma wignmac (`taZari da Wvreta~) saTave daudo iudaistur, qristianul da islamur taZarTa sinqronul fenomenologiur eqsplikacias.
islamisTvisac taZari da misi sakraluri sivrcea kulturis
yofierebis saSvi. amitomac iyo, rom TiToeuli muslimi cxovrebaSi erTxel mainc unda swveoda meCeTs meqaSi, Sesuliyo
kabaSi da arafatis mTamde mieRwia, anu Caetarebia sruli haji
piligrimobis es diadi aqti.
islamurma gonma kargad uwyis, rom kabas prototipi karavia, Tu meqas taZari ibrahimis (abraamis) agebulia, karvis `xuroTmoZRvari~ musaa (mose); amitomacaa, rom arc sinagoga da arc
qristianuli taZari ar CaiTvlebian meCeTis winamorbedebad;
mgoni, Zalian SeviWeriT islamis taZarSi da vinmem `TaTroba~ rom ar dagvwamos, dRes, esoden moduri - politikuri rakursiT SevecdebiT islamis `profanizacias~.
da marTlac, `islami~ politikur realobas ufro aRniSnavs
da homeiniseuli Teokratiis Cadrian asociaciamde dadis (dRemde `aiaTolaTi~ moixseniebs saqarTvelos pirvel prezidents
erTi Cveni `simposionisti~ poeti) da kidev: `islami~ meCeTidan
- am, rogorc derida ityoda, `aq-yofnis ereqciidan~ gadmomdgar molas gamyivan xmad (mtris xati diskursi) Cagvesmis; didi muxranis perifraziT: `qarTveli am xmas inatrebs? ara~; miT
ufro, rogor inatrebs: `RmerTo, RmerTo, eg xma tkbili gamagone Cems mamulSi~... iqneb amitomac gvaSinebda e.w. `Turquli
universitetis~ gaxsnis idea bazaleTis tbis sakralur toposSi, idea-simulakri, romelmac, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, mgoni, Cailuris wyali dalia.
ras izam, aseTia `islamis imiji~; magram, es saxeli Tavidanve

xelaxali RENDEZ-VOUS (kultursemiologiuri kontaminaciebi)

143

gautyda islams, Tavidanve barbarosebad moevlinen isini `kulturul~ evropas, daundoblad anadgures dapyrobili qveynebis
adgilobrivi xelovneba: qristianulic, sasaniduric, budisturic... yovelive es Cven viciT, zogi wagvikiTxavs, zogic gvsmenia, `aTas erTi Rame~ gviTenebia xalifaTa Tu vazirTa qveSqveSobebisa da pikanturi poligamiuri istoriebis kiTxvaSi. mTeli am `makompromitirebeli~ dokumentebis saTaves evropuli
Suasaukuneebis siRrmeSi mivyavarT, jvarosnuli eqspediciebidan dabrunebuli raindebis monaTxrobiTac viciT bevri ram...
umeteswilad, Suasaukuneebis raindebma gansazRvres islamis samyaros `imiji~ da Tavisi gamoxatuleba hpoves, Tundac, nikoloz kuzelis dialogebSi... islamis amgvari xati dResac cocxlobs. `islamis ideali meomaria da ara mwignobario~, amas maqs
veberTanac amoikiTxavT, magram, islami ara mxolod maxviliT
ipyrobda qveynebs. maxvili samxedro upiratesobis niSan-simbolo iyo maTTvis, kalami ki religiuri RvTismosaobisa da inteleqtualuri upiratesobisa. swored `kalmis mflobelni~ xdebodnen xalifaTa vazirebi. SemTxveviTi araa, xalifa al-mamunis erTi vazirTagani `ori xelovnebis ostatis~ tituls rom
atarebda.

* * *
saerTod, garkveuli gagebiT, nebismieri kultura meore
kulturisaTvis erTgvari Casafrebuli safrTxis reprezentaciaa. ` SOS, ~,
v. bibleris am poetur-filosofiuri formulis esqatologiuri semantika gulisxmobs kulturaTa urTierTgafrTxilebaurTierTsaSiSroebasac da gadarCenis erTobliv Zalisxmevasac. am mxriv, aRmosavluri kultura dasavlurisTvisaa signali SOS, dasavluri ki aRmosavlurisaTvis, orivem erTad ki,
saboloo jamSi, warRvnis morevi erTi naviT unda gadacuron.
Tavisi eTnonacionaluri kulturiT, islami mainc `karantinis zonaa~ CvenTvis, magram, ratom varT iudaizmis an sxva tipis
ezoTerizmisadmi ufro tolerantulni? es kiTxva mainc upasuxod rCeba. mokled, islami ufro paTologiurad daZabuli, nevrotuli mzeris, vidre hermenevtikuli gagebis horizontia. da
mainc, iqneb gvecada, jansaRad mivapyroT evropul-kontemplaciuri Tvalyuri am `saSiS sityvas~ (rogorc erTxanobas ` myrali ~ daniis princs aRmoxdeboda: `sityvebi, sityvebi, sityve-

144

daviT andriaZe

bi...~), movusminoT, da Cvenc SevesityvoT, viSviSi ki ar ganvagrZoT fundamentalizmis potenciuri blokirebis masmediis am
qarafSutulad gazviadebuli verbaluri teroris gamo da ki ar
gavaRrmavoT ufskruli evropeizmsa da orientalizms Soris,
aramed kulturfilosofiurad vecadoT am istoriuli ufskrulis, ufro rbilad, napralis `dacementebas~.
axla, vinmem ar gvkiTxos: `aqamde sad iyaviTo?~... ise ki, Cvengan am `aramkiTxe moambisgan~ (isev `iqneb~?!) marTlac Tavxedoba iyos receptebis gamowera. amgvari kadnierebis gamo, albaT, Rirsic viqnebi, `mimtyipon da mimagdon~, magram weras atanili, mainc jiutad SevecdebiT, elementarulad, kidev erTxel
movigonoTY da amaSi, originalobis pretenzia, `alahsa vficav~,
ara gvaqvs dasavluri metafizikisa da islamis kulturis implicituri dialogis zogierTi, metnaklebad aprobirebuli sakiTxi.
XX saukunis II naxevari dasavleTisa da aRmosavleTis inteleqtualur azrTa produqtiuli Sexvedris niSniTaa aRbeWdili, ityvis S. Sukurovi es didebuli rusulenovani muslimi
kulturologi. magram sakiTxavia, aris Tu ara am ori kulturis
dialogi srulyofili; Tanac, dialogsac gaaCnia. SeZlebisamebr, unda dazustdes, romel ritorikul figuras vgulisxmobT
dialogSi: diatribas (bion borisTenites `stilSi~), simposions,
solilokviums (aptisTenes, epiqtetes, markus avreliusisa Tu
netari avgustines diskursiuli praqtikiT) Tu kolokviums?!
Tumca, albaT, unda arsebobdes dialogis kidev erTi tipi, ris
nimuSadac, SesaZloa, gamodges arCiliseuli `gabaaseba Teimurazisa da rusTavelisa~ es virtualuri kolokviumi (arab. `muna-zara~) qarTul-aRmosavlur poetur diskursTa prerogatiulobis Temaze; qarTvelTaTvis eTnofsiqokulturulad ufro
axlobeli isev simposionis tipis nadimuri dialogia, oRond ara
mkacrad platoniseuli, aramed aRmosavlur-xaiamiseuli dramaturgiiT, xSirad `Jamianobis dros lxins~ rom mogvagonebs.
mokled, Sarif muxamedoviCi ki ityvis `produqtiuli dialogio~, magram, axla iuri mixailoviCsac mivceT sityva: `kulturaTa sruli urTierTgageba araproduqtiuliao~ uTqvams gansvenebul lotmans da daumatebia: `amgvari dialogis Jams mudam
unda rCebodes erTgvari `RriWoebi~ da amisave wyalobiT eZleva kulturas teqstad qcevis Sansi. `moskov-tartus skolis~ am
didi mamis, TiTqosda, sxvaTaSoris naTqvams a. piatigorski i.se-

xelaxali RENDEZ-VOUS (kultursemiologiuri kontaminaciebi)

145

nokosovTan dialogSi ixsenebs; es ukanaskneli ki, ruseTis inteleqtualuri elita Tavgadaklul mamardaSvilianelad rom
icnobs, - kulturaTa Soris zemoxsenebul gaugebrobas `fundamenturs~ uwodebs. davixsomoT: `fundamenturi gaugebroba~! mogvianebiT es termini kidev gamogvadgeba.
nuTu, marTlac, aRmosavleT-dasavleTis `fundamenturi gaugebrobaa~ am ori eTnokulturis `produqtiuli dialogisa~ da
maTi teqstad konstituirebis fundamenti?! yovel SemTxvevaSi, amgvari dialogis strategia unda iyos rogorc `aRmosavleTi-dasavleTSi~, ise piruku: `dasavleTi-aRmosavleTSi~; sacdel poligonad (Tu `derefnad~) saqarTvelos gamocxadeba aravin dagvaswros!
axla, isev seriozulad:
albaT, marTlac niSandoblivia, rom zemoxsenebuli anri
korbeni, visac, faqtobrivad, ar icnobs Cveni kulturologiuri azrovneba (anda icnobs da gvimalavs) martin haidegeris mowafe iyo; Tavad haidegeris fundamentur-ontologiuri ganazrebani ki, SesaZloa, marTlac sufiuri traqtativiT iqnas wakiTxuli, iseve, rogorc esse poeziis arsis Sesaxeb, holderliniseul teqstTa implikaciebs rom efuZneba, garkveuli azriT,
sparsuli poeziis arssac warmoaCens.
cxadia, miutevebeli zereloba iqneboda imis daSveba, rom haidegeri fenomenologiur hermenevtikul gaazrebebSi sufiaTa warmodgenebiT xelmZRvanelobda anda poeziis dasavluri gagebiT - anu poeturi xatis Sida formis - partituriT kiTxulobda poeziis `aRmosavlur gagebaze~, anu poeturi xatis `gare formaze~, orientirebul sparsel poetebs.
`yofiereba da drois~ haidegeriseuli poeturi eqsplikaciebi da misi mimarTeba sufiur poetur msoflaRqmasTan ontoTeologiur sazriss ufro flobs da, bunebrivia, tipologiuri analogiebis zedapirze ar tivtivebs. yovel SemTxvevaSi, haidegerica da misi mowafeebic, saxeldobr, korbeni Tu pol rikiori,
mzad aRmoCndnen islamis mxurvale ToneSi gamomcxvari ` sulis
puris~ misaRebad da mosaneleblad, im sazrdosi, pitnasaviT rom
aridebda cxvirs nikolai fiodorovi, xolo is, rasac `
~-s avtori ver Rebulobda, misaRebi aRmoCnda gviandeli vladimir soloviovisaTvis.
albaT, Cvenc SegviZlia `fahrus~ motivis Semotana am opusSi

146

daviT andriaZe

da Cveni `basri kalmisa~ da `gonierebis~ avtoparodiuli TviTgandideba, Tumca, ara! isev qristianuli TviTgvema sjobs, amitomac ganvagrZobT: vfiqrobT, arcTu aplomburad Tavdajerebul `novatorad~ gamovCndebiT, Tu vityviT, rom dasavleTisa
da aRmosavleTis metafizikuri azrovneba Tanabrad dastrialebs yofierebisadmi hermenevtikuli relaciis sakiTxs da, amdenadve, ar iZleva garkveul pasuxs. yovel SemTxvevaSi, imave
sufiuri filosofiis pasuxi yofierebis (`vujud~) wvdomis SesaZleblobis Sesaxeb ambivalenturia: `kic~ da `arac~; WeSmaritebis Secnobis aqti sufizmSi TrobasTanaa gaTanabrebuli;
WeSmariteba Rvinoa, WeSmaritebis maZiebeli ki Rvinismsmeli. imisaTvis, raTa vwvdeT WeSmaritebas, anu arsebulSi, absolutis garda, sxva araferi vWvritoT, aucilebelia, vflobdeT
RvTaebrivi simboloebiTa Tu niSan-indeqsebiT operireba preparirebis unars.
Semdeg: Cveulebrivi mokvdavi sulier moZRvarTa, brZenTa
meSveobiT unda ikvlevdes gzas... swored brZenia rogorc jalaledin rumis erT teqstSia is, vinc flobs sakuTar CiraRdans da ase mouZRveba qaravans (Sdr. rusTveliseuli `ara viqm,
codna ras margebs filosofosTa brZnobisa~); Cven ki, visac arc
brZenad mogvaaqvs Tavi (cotaRa gvaklia!), oRond, arc qaravanis `Man~-ur SemadgenlobaSi gvinda viyoT anonimurad CarTuli, SevecdebiT qarTuli gonis orientaciis eqsplikaciisaTvis,
isev da isev, decitaciis princips mivmarToT da `wera-kiTxvis~
aqtiT ganvagrZoT dekonstruqtivistuli manipulireba. miT ufro: `wera codnis naxevariao~. aq ki, vgonebT, deridas `araxazobrivi weris~ Teoriacaa nawinaswarmetyvelevi.
islamis grafikuli diskursi sagnis ontologizebas axdens,
aso-aso SevyavarT islamis yofierebaSi, arabeskac da qufis labirinTuli konfiguraciebic xom, bolosdabolos, samoTxis ikonikuri metaforebia, is `masalebia~ (`yuranSi~ mcenareulobis metaforul xats xom `masala~ hqvia), romlebic muslimanTa taZruli cnobierebis konteqstSi maSin aqtualizdebian, rodesac
maT winaSe warmosdgeba yofierebis WeSmariti xati...
da mainc, ZalaSi rCeba is, wyeuli `ki-ara~! marTlacda, ra aris
is uTqmeli (warmo-uTqmeli), yofierebis gagebis fundamentur
SeuZleblobas rom moaswavebs; uTqmeli (warmo-uTqmeli) da
dau-dgeneli (da warmo-u-dgeneli) erTia: RmerTi (yofiereba).
isic xom warmo-u-dgenelia, rom wmida ioane damaskeli xali-

xelaxali RENDEZ-VOUS (kultursemiologiuri kontaminaciebi)

147

fas karzec nayofierad TanamSromlobda; iqneb, esec kulturaTa dialogis, Tanac, fundamentur gaugebrobaze damyarebuli
dialogis forma iyo?! kulturaTa dialogs rom Tavi davaneboT,
marTlac sagulisxmo warmosadgenia ori, sapirispirod (rom ar
vTqva mtrulad) ganwyobili orTodoqsuli religiis ragvari
tolerantoba igulisxmeba am istoriuli faqtis miRma qristianuli eklesiis es `mamaTagani~ turistuli viziT xom ar imyofeboda damaskoSi?!
isic sagulisxmoa: Tu SevTanxmdebiT, rom warsulisa Tu dRevandelobis maRali inteleqtualuri azri garkveul movlenaTa istoriuli mniSvnelobis problemebiT ki ar Semoifargleba, aramed maT TavisTavad `arawinaaRmdegobrivi~ yofierebis zeistoriul metafizikur konteqstSi ganixilavs, SesaZloa, marTlac ar aRmovCndeT WeSmaritebisgan daSorebulad.
da mainc, XIX-XX saukuneTa istoriul-pozitiuri azrovnebis
ZalisxmeviT gaxda SesaZlebeli adamianis kontroverzuli istoriuli cnobierebis remodelireba. oRond, esecaa: imave Zalisxmevam, ukuagdo Tu ara, arierscenaze mainc gadaaTamaSa adamianuri Semecnebis geopolitikur, eTnokulturul Tu konfesiur sazRvrebs miRma darCenili konkretuli warmodgenebi; da
am `aqciiT~ kidev erTxel dadasturda, rom sakuTriv istoriul, imanentur codnasTan erTad arsebobs `sxva~ istoriac,
codnisa da refleqsiis sruliad gansxvavebuli, werils, diskurss rom efuZneba...
esaa istoria rogorc naweri.
meore mxriv, zemoxsenebuli `aqcia-warmodgena~ kidev erTxel SeiZleba, gaviazroT, rogorc kacobriobis profanuli istoria sakraluri istoriis fonzec da mis uzrunvel-yofil
toposSic, anu Sina-aurul sivrceSi; SesaZloa, es iyos pozicia,
romlis Seufaseblobac gagviWirvebs kacobriobis istoriis paradoqsTa Sefasebas. oRond, amgvar, Semfasebel subieqtad isev
da isev `poeti~ Tu ivargebs, `poeti~, romelic ar iTakilebs kiTxvebze pasuxis uqonlobas, ukeT: Seupasuxeblobas (da ara upasuxismgeblobas), `poeti~, romelsac iaraRad sityvac hyofnis
(ra cotaa?!), `carieli sityva~... ise rogorc, saxiobis da-mdgmelisaTvis (anu reJisorisaTvis), piter brukisa ar iyos, `carieli sivrcec~ kmara; esec xom (Tumca, ratom-c?) moqmedebaa.
marina cvetaeva erT mSvenier poetur teqstSi (` ~)
ase ityvis: ` - ~. rogorc Cans, poeti si-

148

daviT andriaZe

carieleSic - rasac leqsis sivrceSi pauza (anda cezura) Tu Seesatyviseba moxerxebulad moqmedebs; etyoba, araTu mijnebze, sicarieleSic (cezura-pauzebSic) gasaocar sagnebs xedavs
poeti. isic niSandoblivia, rom sicarielis poetika satiaciis
anu grZnobadi intenciebisagan daclis (avis)momaswavebelicaa.
axla, ra xdeba aRmosavleTSi, anu `wumpis~ qronotopSi?
semitur enebSi, maT Soris, arabulSi, sadac ar `TamaSdeba~ zmna `yofna~, Turme nu ityviT da, winadadebis formebs swored pauza akavSirebs, pauza, rogorc grZnobadi sicarielis araverbalizebuli, oRond, mkveTrad SesagrZnobi analogi, esoden
laRad rom TamaSdeba islamis xelovnebaSi. saxeldobr, pauza,
anu sicariele, gvevlineba predikaciis niSnad da am TvalsazrisiT, nebismieri `sagnis~ sawyisi TviT yofierebaSia daunjebuli:
damatebiTi ganmartebis aucilebloba imis Sesaxeb, rom `sagani~ gvevlineba `raimed~ anda `aris raime~ zedmetia.
es semituri azrovnebis wesia, semiturisa, romelic iseve
gansxvavdeba rom ara vTqva, ewinaaRmdegeba ariuls anu indo-iranuls, rogorc arabuli grafikuli azrovneba iranul
vizualur azrovnebas.
aqedan: `sagnis~ Sesaxeb diskursic indo-evropul, kerZod,
iranul enebSi sruliad sxvagvar konstruqciaze aigeba. aq erTi
mcire dazustebac ar iqneboda uadgilo: `yofna~, romelic Tavad ar igulisxmeba predikatad, yvela da-saxelebul predikatTa pirobad gvevlineba. TvisebaTa mTeli mravalferovneba:
`iyos rogoriRac~..., `imyofebodes raRacnair mdgomareobaSi~,
`drois~ yovelgvari SesaZlebeli aspeqti da a.S. cneba `yofierebazea~ damokidebuli. es emil benvenistia. indoevropuli
cnobierebisaTvis cneba `yofiereba~ saganTan mimarTebiT eqsplicirdeba. sworad ga-keTebuli sagani niSneulia rogorc ara
ubralod denotati, aramed sakuTriv TviTkmari Rirebulebis
sagani, romlis silamazec implikaciis saxiT ki ar arsebobs aRsaniSnSi, aramed uSualodaa masSi ganivTebuli. mokled, ariuli
cnobiereba Tavis statikur mistikur mWvretelobaSi grZnobadi xatebiT kmayofildeba; swored, zoroastrielebisgan isesxes iudevelebma samoTxis idea, anu is esqatologiuri saxismetyveleba, samyaros semitur suraTs rom agvirgvinebda.
asea Tu ise, sagnis sicarieleSi (pauzaSi) daunjeba, diaxac,
semituri fenomenia da ara ariuli; poeturi diskursic, sakuT-

xelaxali RENDEZ-VOUS (kultursemiologiuri kontaminaciebi)

149

riv, am sicarieleSi xorcieldeba, aqve isaxeba `gasaocari sagnebis~ naxvis (Tu ga-da-naxvis) horizonti.
qarTul poetikaSic xom ar damdgara amgvari `sicarielis
dro~. es, albaT, igivea, rac `sivrcis dro~ - es ucnauri amfibolia Tu oqsiumoroni...
iqneb, es kulturuli aqtic, ara mxolod sazRvrebze, sicarieleSic xdeba, Tugind interkulturul-interteqstualur
`wumpeSi~, oRond `Sinaur wumpeSi~, vin icis?!
`Cveni dro axal rusTavels elis~ - Tqva poetma;
Cveni dro `dasavlur-aRmosavluri divanis~ axal avtorsac
elis...
mTavaria, es ar iyos `godos molodinSi~... Tumca, ratomac
ara!
maxlas, qarTul kulturas isev elodeba RENDEZ-VOUS rubrikiT `hafizis vardi prudonis vazaSi~...
prudonis vazaSi hafizis vardis furclobis niSani aris da
dro axali paemanisa...

150

dalila bedianiZe

lia sturuas Semoqmedeba


da folklori

SoTa rusTavelis literaturis institutis


folkloris ganyofilebis mecnieri TanamSromeli; poeti da kritikosi;
interesTa sfero: poezia, kritika, folklori.

lia sturuas poeturi Semoqmedeba mravalmxriv aris saintereso. igi gamorCeuli poetia im TvalsazrisiT, rom aris uaRresad Tanamedrove da misi poeturi samyaro xasiaTdeba evropuli azrovnebiT,
amasTan qarTuli sinamdviliTac aris nasazrdoebi. misi poezia inteleqtualuria,
emyareba ganswavlulobas da moiTxovs ganaTlebul, gacnobierebul mkiTxvels,
romelic Tanamedrove msoflio literaturul procesebSi kargad erkveva. erTi
sityviT rom vTqvaT, lia sturuas poezia
friad elituria da moumzadebeli mkiTxveli misgan siamovnebas ver miiRebs.
lia sturuas leqsebis erT-erTi masazrdoebeli wyaro aris folklori, rogorc qarTuli, aseve antikuri. antikuri miTosia gamoyenebuli leqsebSi: `oda
sizifes~, `penelope~, `antikuri soneti~,
`sizifes lodi~, `ucnauri ariTmetika~.
`oda sizifes~ sonetia (sturua 1999: 9),
romelSic SemoqmedebiTad aris damuSavebuli antikuri miTi sizifes Sesaxeb, romelic imdenad popularulia, rom aq aRar
moviyvanT.
`ar daijero, rom dakarga cam mniSvneloba,
rom uazroa silurjeSi xelis faTuri.
neta, RvTaebriv sisadaves ratom varTulebT,

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151

roca aqvea mwvervalebic da qvesknelebic,


romelTa Soris miTiuri sizife dadis,
kaci Sveuli, uZinari da bednieri,
radgan saTave ufskrulSi aqvs, mwvervalze vardi,
Cems wvalebasac rom dahkravdes misi ieri.
Cems fiqrs, romelic kanonier CarCoSi ar devs,
leqss ki ar unda warekveTos Tavi da zoma.
ar gaufrindes qarSi Tmebi, fesvi ar mokvdes,
amaze fiqri SeumCnevlad dReebs amoklebs,
romlebsac mainc avivsebdi sizifes SromiT,
Tu Sefasebis erTeulad miviCnevT vardebs. . . `

Tu kargad davakvirdebiT leqss, SevniSnavT, rom arsad ar


aris lodi naxsenebi, romelsac sizife mwvervalisken miagorebs.
lods aq cvlis vardi, romelic lia sturuas leqsSi RvTaebrivi
tvirTis metaforad unda miviCnioT. poetis Sroma am leqsSi gaigivebulia sizifes SromasTan, romlis mizanic amaoebasTan
brZolaa. striqonSi `leqss ki ar unda warekveTos Tavi da zoma~
gvxvdeba gamoZaxili yaCaRi prokrustes miTisa da am striqonSi
SemoqmedebiTi Tavisuflebisaken mowodebac amoikiTxeba. amaoebas SeWidebul poets, rogorc miTosur sizifes lodi, ise aqvs
miniWebuli vardi uflisagan jildod imisaTvis, rom miuxedavad yoveldRiuri amaoebisa, ar eSveba sayvarel saqmes, radgan
es saqme misi arsebobis erTaderTi gamarTlebaa.
sizifes Temaze lia sturuas aqvs sxva leqsic `sizifes lodi~
(sturua 1986: 129-131), sadac ukve mTidan dagorebuli lodis
amotanazea saubari da es saubari qvecnobieris doneze mimdinareobs, rameTu lodi mTidan ki ara, `tvinis wverodan dagorda~:
`Sen sizifes lods wamogkidebs
da martiv ritmSi aewyoba cxovreba;
mwvervalidan qveviT,
iqidan ki lodis simZime
sisxlis Sveuls isev atyorcnis
tvinamde, camde . . . ~

rogorc vxedavT, aq lodis metafora moicavs poetis SemecnebaSi momxdar aRelvebas, aRfrTovanebas, gamowveuls SemoqmedebiTi SromiT da am SromiT daRlili poetis erTaderTi gulSematkivari dedaa, romelic `sxvebTan erTad icdis, rodis amovitan lods. . . unda, miexmaros, magram ukve aRar SeuZlia.~ mok-

152

dalila bedianiZe

led rom vTqvaT, sizifes Tema, sizifes Sroma lia sturuas orive leqsSi SemoqmedebiTi Sromis simZimesTan aris gaigivebuli,
Sedarebuli, amasTan mSvenieris da amaRlebulis gamomxatveli metaforiT vardiT gansaxovnebuli.
leqsi `antikuri soneti~(sturua 1999:99) Tavisi formiT sonetia da Seexeba antikuri miTosis gmirebs, ufro mometebulad
aqilevss, romelsac wrTobis Semdeg qusli darCa susti da gamouwrTobi. es leqsi mihyveba antikur miToss, antikur poezias,
romelic `TvalebdaTxrili hegzametriT idgamda enas.~ aq aris
miniSneba gmirTaA saukuneze, antikur RmerTebze, antikur qandakebebze da mTeli leqsi ganmsWvalulia antikuri samyaros
mSvenierebisadmi da sinanuliT naklovanebebisadmi, romelic
asea gamoxatuli: ~sisxlis aRreva, sisastike, mruSi genebi~, an
`rogor uyvardaT, ra mze iyo, ra TeTri Wiri.~ es saxe `TeTri
Wiri~ mzis gverdiT da Savi Wirisgan gansxvavebiT, friad originaluri mignebaa antikurobis sulis gamosaxatavad. leqsSi
gvxvdeba antikuri miTosis reminescenciebi da gamoZaxili aqilevsis miTisa.
leqsSi `ucnauri ariTmetika~ gvxvdeba troas cxenebis xseneba. unda vifiqroT, rom aq troas omSi monawileTa cxenebzea miniSneba, mTlianad troas omis miTze (romelic, rogorc Slimanma gaarkvia, miTi ki ara, sinamdvile iyo).
`Sen ki samebis qveS dadixar,
RvTaebrivi ariTmetikis monawile,
sadac sami oTxze metia.
mec rom wamoval aqeT,
troas cxenebis avi garemocvidan,
Cems sisxls aravin ar akocebs,
saRamosken gadaxril oTaxSi~. . .

am striqonebSi unda igulisxmebodes, Tu ra warmatebiT Secvala warmarToba qristianobam, samebam, da qristes sisxli tyuilad ar daiRvara. leqsis dasawyisSi brinjaos cxenis xseneba ki
migvaniSnebs im cxenze, romelic troaSi RamiT Seitanes aqavelebma da miTosur saxed iqca.
qarTuli folkloric didi warmatebiT aris asaxuli lia sturuas poeziaSi. es aris leqsebi `wiqara~, `samSoblo~, `***xom SeiZleba~, `*** gamigonia, mTiel xvaramzes~, `balada moWril marjvenaze~, `wiTela batonebi~. es leqsebi mis wignSi `leqsebi, po-

lia sturuas Semoqmedeba da folklori

153

emebi~ (1986) gamoyofilic aris saerTo saTauriT `qarTuli folkloris Temebze~. leqsSi `samSoblo~ gamoyenebulia qarTuli
ficis formula `deda SeerTos colado~:
`rogorc am cis qveS,
CemTvis ucxo miwis naWerze,
romelsac erqva Zveli elada,
Cems garSemo marmarilos RvTaebrivi
torsebi dadiodnen,
maT wiaRSi
gaugonari codvis da mruSobis
mewamuli Canasaxi Rvivdeboda
da kaTarzisis netarebas maaxlovebda,
am netarebis da umaRlesi qarTuli wyevlis
gulisguli
sakuTar dedas colad irTavda~ (sturua 1986: 78-79).

leqsSi lafsusia gaparuli ~xom SeiZleba~ iwyeba epitrafiT


qarTuli xalxuri leqsis `vefxvisa da moymis~ striqonebiT:
`egeba vefxvis dedai Cemze mwareda tirisa.~ es leqsi agebulia
`vefxvisa da moymis~ reminescenciebze da teqstSi aseve gvxvdeba Tixis lazares xseneba, rogorc wvimis momyvani qarTuli
RvTaebisa da striqoni qarTuli xalxuri leqsidan `mze dedaa
Cemi~, romelnic organulad erwymian da saxeobrivad amdidreben leqsis mxatvrul qsovils. leqsis finali: `oRond mieciT
dedaCems Zala, rom deda vefxvi Seecodos~ organul kavSirSia
xalxuri leqsis striqonebTan, epigrafTan `egeba qarTlis dedai Cemze mwareTa tirisa~ da warmoadgens mis mxatvrul damuSavebas. lia sturuas es leqsi dawerilia pirvel pirSi da warmoadgens moymis monologs.
da mainc, yvelaze ufro axlos qarTul folklorTan dgas lia
sturuas usaTauro leqsi `***gamigonia, mTiel xvaramzes~. am
leqssac, iseve, rogorc qarTuli folkloris Temebze agebul
sxva leqsebs, epigrafad uZRvis xvaramzes leqsi vaJikas:
`netavi Tasad maqcia,
rom RviniT agevsebodi,
Seferili mqna wiTlada,
Semsvavdi, Segergebodi.~

es leqsi agebuli vaJikasa da xvaramzes romantiuli Sexved-

154

dalila bedianiZe

ris epizodze. vaJika gvarad nakveTauri iyo. nakveTaurebi erTerTi umdidresi ojaxi iyo fSavSi. vaJika da xvaramze sxvadasxva soflebidan iyvnen. maT erTmaneTi uyvardaT, magram patronebma nebarTva ar misces qorwinebaze. xvaramze sxvaze gaaTxoves. uxeiro qmari Sexvda da isev vaJika uyvarda. erT nawvimar
dRes vaJikam xvaramzes sofeli Caiara maTi saxlis gverdiT, xvaramzem misi cxenis nafexurebs Turme Robe Semoavlo ar waiSaloso (q.x.p. 1978: 224).
lia sturuas es leqsi mihyveba romantiul epizods da warmoadgens cnobili siuJetis damuSavebas.
`man Semoavlo Tavis sevdas
maRali Robe
da mamakacis nafexurebi
idga miwaze,
rogorc puris an Rvinis mcenare~ (sturua 1986: 84-86).

aqac lafsusia gaparuli ara mamakacis, aramed misi cxenis


nafexurebs Semoavlo Robe xvaramzem.
`balada moWril marjvenaze~ (anu poetis improvizebuli gasamarTleba saqmiani da medrove `msajulebis~ mier) iwyeba epigrafiT xalxuri leqsiT:
`xekorZulas wyali misvams,
mcxeTaA ise amigia.
damiWires, mklavi momWres,
kargi ratom agigia.~

garda am epigrafad gamoyenebuli qarTuli leqsisa, leqsSi


gvxvdeba qarTuli andazac `mRvdels WilofSic icnobeno~ Secvlili saxiT `radgan beri WilofSic icnoba~. es leqsi aRwers,
Tu rogor mokveTes mklavi arsakiZes, romelic poetis Tanamedrove adamianad aris warmodgenili da, savaraudoa, rom poetis
alter egos warmoadgens amis Tqmis uflebas gvaZlevs striqoni `rom man taZari aago da leqsi dawera~. arsakiZis dasjis scena gaigivebulia jordano brunos dasjis scenasTan, vinaidan
leqsSi gvxvdeba misi sityvebi: `is mainc brunavs~. am leqsSi arsakiZis saxe ganzogadebulia, mas msoflio miTosis gmiris mniSvneloba aqvs miniWebuli (sturua 1986: 89-92).
`wiTela batonebi~ dawerilia monologis saxiT da aRwerilia

lia sturuas Semoqmedeba da folklori

155

wiTela batonebiT avadmyofi poetis xilvebi:


`me mawuxebs wiTela bavSvobis valiviT
da vxedav bebiebis mwiTuri TvalebiT,
JRali wveriT da mziani gonebiT
da aJRaruneben wiTel zanzalakebs,
romlebmac liTonis enebiT alokes
Cemi bavSvoba TafliviT keTili
da mandes saidumlo cxradaketili. . .
me davinaxe, rasac mimalavdnen,is hgavda wiTel Sesawir mamals,
sisxlis wveTebisgan qvasaviT Sekruls,
is hgavda Tbil da noyier erkemals. . . ~ (sturua 1986: 92-93).

leqsSi sworadaa dafiqsirebuli, rom wiTela batonebs wiTel


mamals swiravdnen, oRond erkemali albaT zedmetia, esec licenzia poetikas brali unda iyos. wiTela batonebTan dakavSirebuli ritualis aRwerac emTxveva maT folklorul saxes.
leqsi `wiqara~ agebulia qarTuli xalxuri zRapris `wiqaras~
motivebze, romelTaganac domonirebs motivi rqis gamTelebisa, ris sanacvlodac wiqaram Tagvs Tavisi leSi unda aWamos. leqsi dawerilia lirikuli monologis saxiT. aqac, rogorc zemoT
ganxiluli leqsebis umravlesobaSi, lirikuli gmiri gaigivebulia leqsis avtorTan da SemoqmedebiTad aris damuSavebuli leSis TagvisTvis daTmobis motivi:
`me mowifuli kaci var, wiqara
da leSs ase advilad ver gavimeteb,
Sen da fufalam itireT bavSvi,
romelsac Tagvi Seecoda
da Tavis leSs Sepirda.
me ki mowifuli kaci var
da melodeba cecxlisferi noxebis xao~ (sturua1986: 94-95).

amrigad, folkloruli siuJetebi, motivebi da mxatvruli saxeebi amdidreben lia sturuas leqsebs, rogorc Tematurad, aseve mxatvrulad. rogorc antikuri, aseve qarTuli miTosisadmi poetis damokidebuleba SemoqmedebiTia. folklori Tanamedrove zneobriv problematikasTan aris Sejvarebuli da kaTarzisuli daniSnulebiT gamoiyeneba. TiToeuli Temis, TiToeuli

156

dalila bedianiZe

motivis Tu mxatvruli saxis damuSavebas lia sturua axdens Tavis mdidar sulier cxovrebasTan SerwymiT, sulier problemaTaA gadawyvetis warmatebuli mcdelobiT. antikuri miTosis gamoyenebas saerTaSoriso asparezze gahyavs poeti, msoflio
kulturas naziarebi mkiTxvelis gulis gasaxarad, xolo qarTuli folklori erovnul muxts aZlierebs mis leqsebSi.

157

mirian ebanoiZe

teqsti da realoba
(venis arSia)

filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori. akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo


universitetis sruli
profesori filosofiaSi; gelaTis sasuliero akademiis leqtori.
ZiriTadi Sromebi: diskursi da ena. Tbilisis
universitetis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2001.
fragmentebi diskursis
problemebze. Tbilisis
universitetis gamomcemloba, Tbilisi, 2001.
diskursi. quTaisis saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, quTaisi, 2006. ,,margaliti
da sicariele (poeturi krebuli) quTaisi,
2006
interesTa sfero: literatura, semiotika,
filosofia.

teqsti laTinurad qsovilia. igi gansxvavdeba informaciisagan, romlis mizanic teqstis miRma gasvlaa. informaciisaTvis teqsti mxolod saSualebaa. qsovili TavisTavSive qsovs adresatsa Tu recipients, Sesasvlelebsa da gamosasvlelebs, siRrmesa da zedapirs. rolan barti
wers: `teqsti niSnavs qsovils; Tumca Tu
aqamde am qsovils fardad gebulobdnen,
romlis miRma warmatebulad Tu warumateblad imaleboda azri (WeSmariteba),
Cven, am qsovilze laparakisas, xazs vusvamT dabadebis da warmoebis SesaZleblobebs, risi meSveobiTac teqsti iqmneba,
usasrulod iqsoveba mravali Zafis gadaxlarTviT: am qsovilSi Cakarguli subieqti qreba, obobas msgavsad~(barti).
ara mxolod is, rac undoda, eTqva avtors, an rasac ideologia gangvimartavs
Tavis enaze, aramed meqanizmi azrTa warmoebisa, sxvadasxva msoflmxedveloba,
sxvadasxva epoqa eZebs masSi sakuTar saTqmels.
`teqsti dascinis nebismieri kulturuli toposis pretenzias, ibatonos masze~.
Cven vswavlobT teqstebis gavlas, da ara
maTTan darCenas. ideologia teqstebis

158

mirian ebanoiZe

kiTxviT miRebul siamovnebas ukanono garTobad miiCnevs.


`vefxistyaosani~ SeiZleba, vikiTxoT, rogorc klasTa brZolis, aseve RvTismetyvelebis, astrologiis, ricxvebis mistikis,
zRapris, saero romanis poziciebidan. sxvadasxva epoqaSi, sxvadasxva ideologiis Suqze.
SeiZleba, ikiTxo marcxnidan marjvniv, an piriqiT. vertikalurad, komentarebiT. bolos, ubralod, seirnob, gzaSi SemTxveviT dagdebul nivTebs iReb. aTvaliereb. wignebi, romlebmac Seni marSrutebis kvali Semoinaxes, ar gaZlevs imis saSualebas, rom Tqva: es Sen iyavi. es marSrutebia: nicSedan homerosi, malarmedan hegeli, wminda mamebidan rilke. beketis siCume
sicilis akompanimentis da komediis dasawyisia. xSirad vmalavT
wignebs, romlebic wagvikiTxavs, maT magivrad sxvebs vasaxelebT, rom ar mogvagnon. kiTxvis garda, SeiZleba amas vuwodoT
curva, Tevzaoba, Wama, mosavlis aReba.
teqstis masala enaa cocxali, rTuli, sakuTari energiisa
da kanonzomierebebis mqone. adamians SeuZlia, ilaparakos mxolod maSin, roca misiT da masSi laparakobs miwa, ca, mokvdavi da
RvTaebrivi. misi gamoCeniT ritualizdeba maradiuli dava miwisa da samyarosi, ganxeTqilebis idea da sawinaaRmdego ZalTa erTianoba. Cven ki ar vlaparakobT, ena gvlaparakobs. poeti ismens
da mihyveba. `usmino piriT~, rogorc haidegeri ambobs. dialeqtiT laparakobs gansxvavebuli landSaftebi, ese igi miwa. teqsti am dialeqtebis Sejaxebaa, energiebis gadakveTis wertili,
movlenaTa centri. egzistencia da kultura, ena da yofiereba
gadaikveTeba. zogi teqsti am rols asrulebs erTjeradad. zogi yovelTvis.

SeiZleba Tu ara, wigni miviCnioT im mTlianobad, rac wyvetebisagan dagvicavda? wignis erTianoba cvalebadi da SefardebiTia. rogorc ki is gamokvlevis sagani xdeba, imwuTsave kargavs
erTmniSvnelovnebas da aRar uTiTebs sakuTar Tavze, rogorc
erTeulze. misi bunebis Sesaxeb Cven SegviZlia, vimsjeloT diskursis rTuli velidan amosvliT. wigni miuTiTebs sxva wignebze, wignebis erTobliobaze, romlebic win uswrebs an mosdevs
(momavalSi), iseve, rogorc literaturis miRma darCenil socialur-politikur realobaze. Tuki klasikuri metafizika dis-

teqsti da realoba (venis areSia)

159

kursis miRma eZebda wyaros diskursisaTvis avtoris an realobis saxiT, teqstSi Tavad diskursze da enaze yuradRebis gamaxvileba meoce saukunis literaturaSi gvaTavisuflebs gamoxatvis fenomenisagan. ena ki ar gamoxatavs, aramed xatavs. igi mxolod sakuTar Tavze miuTiTebs, da ara mis miRma arsebul fenomenebze, rac bartis cnobili formulirebiT, mianiSnebs avtoris sikvdilze. reprezentaciis, mimezisis, artikulaciis da simbolizaciis nacvlad, rac literaturas garegan kanonzomierebebs daumorCilebda, franguli `axali romani~ cdilobs, aRweros interpretaciis gareSe, darCes zedapirTan, rac dafarulis, siRrmis da WeSmaritebis Ziebisgan gaTavisuflebiT malarmeseul idealur literaturas migvaaxloebda, Tumca wera yovelTvis kavSirSia ZalauflebasTan, rac isev klasikis TemasTan
gvabrunebs. literatorTa nawilis azriT, teqsti warmoadgens
Zalauflebisgan Tavdaxsnis saSualebas. Zalaufleba Cabudebulia yvelgan, TviT TavisuflebiT aRtyinebaSi, romelic mis amoZirkvas cdilobs, revoluciaSi. mas qmnian ara marto isini, vinc
`floben~ Zalauflebas, aramed isinic, vinc mas `ar flobs~. saxezea izomorfizmi, rac weras aaxlovebs sxva socialur praqtikebTan. Zalaufleba weriTac iqmneba. deliozi literaturas
ganixilavs, rogorc manqanas, romelsac mimarTeba aqvs omis manqanasTan, siyvarulis manqanasTan, revoluciis manqanasTan da a.
S. `rodesac wer, arkvev problemas: literaturulma manqanam
rom imuSaos, romel sxva manqanaze SeiZleba da unda iyos mimagrebuli~. klaisti da omis giJuri manqana, kafka da biurokratiis
uCveulo manqana. es Temebi gzas xsnis klasikis Semdgomi kvlevebisaTvis, rac gadalaxavs Tanamedrove literaturaTmcodneobis fetiSistur tendenciebs, gamoxatuls werilis, teqstis
avtonomiuri da TviTmkmari RirebulebiT. Cven arasdros vkiTxulobT, risi Tqma unda wigns, ra aris wigni, aRmniSvneli Tu aRsaniSni, masSi raimes gagebasac ki ar vcdilobT, magram vkiTxulobT, ra amoZravebs mas, ratom qmnis an ver qmnis sixSireebs, ra
mravlobiTobebSia Cafluli, ris Sedegadac gardaiqmneba. literaturis retrospeqtuli Seswavla saSualebas gvaZlevs, vilaparakoT Zalauflebis erTian velze, literaturisa da socialur-politikuri fenomenebis kavSirze.
dasavleTSi poeti azrs aZlevs samyaros da formas aZlevs qaoss. misi mTavari iaraRi metaforaa, romelsac sityvaSi gadahyavs sagani da, piriqiT, sityvas simbolod aqcevs: erTi niSnavs

160

mirian ebanoiZe

meores. aRmosavlur poeziaSi sagani rCeba `uTargmneli~, igi asrulebs ideis, metaforis da simbolos rols, ise rom, arasdros
kargavs Tavis Tavs da yovelTvis sagnad rCeba. aseT leqsebSi
icvleba mkiTxvelisa da avtoris urTierTobebi. metaforebis
poezia poetis warmosaxvaSi kravs da amTlianebs samyaros da erTianobis saxes aZlevs. sagnebis poezia mkiTxvels sTavazobs, Tavad Seqmnas am sagnebidan mTlianoba. mxolod mkiTxvels SeuZlia, daamyaros sityvebiT gamouTqmeli kavSiri saganTa da
grZnobaTa Soris, romlebsac isini iwveven. aRmosavleTSi poeti ar laparakobs gamouTqmelze, aramed gviCvenebs mas. igi gamouTqmels tovebs imas, rac enas ar emorCileba. aseTi poezia
saSualebas gvaZlevs, gavigonoT warmouTqmeli. ieroglifebi
ar aris ferweruli suraTi an sanaxaoba, magram misiT gamoxatuli cneba `mravalsaxiania~ da ufro metad emorCileba mkiTxvelis fantazias. igi, rogorc mTargmneli, maTgan misawvdoms irCevs, sakuTari samyarosaTvis. yovel epoqas Tavisi xedva SeiZleba hqondes. rogorc paundi uwodebs, ara translation, aramed
`translucences~.
Cinur poeziaSi erTi sagani meoresTan ar aris Sedarebuli.
isini erTad awyvia, erT rigSi rogorc naturmorts, maT aerTianebs ara mizez-Sedegobrivi, aramed asociaciuri kavSiri,
romelic saSualebas iZleva, leqsi qaris qrolviT gaixsnas~
(mandelStami). fen-liu qari da nakadi qari kosmosis Rrma Zalebis gamovlenaa materialurisa da sulieris ganuyoflad,
moZravi da gaCerebuli erTdroulad.
sityvebi kvlav sagnebad iqcevian, romelTaganac leqsi isevea Sedgenili, rogorc dekoracia. aq ar aris alegoriuli sagnebi, romlebic sxva realobaze miuTiTeben. calke aRebuli bunebrivi sagnis materialoba ar iTargmneba. strofebisa da saxeebis kavSiri myardeba ra gramatikul, an Tundac logikur doneze is asociaciuria, qvecnobieria miniSneba, reminiscencia,
meore da mesame plania saWiro, radgan poezias ar SeuZlia pirdapir laparaki. saxeebi unda Sedges ara nawarmoebSi, aramed
mkiTxvelis gulSi.
aryofnidan es striqonebi qaRaldze venis saidumlo arSiiT
lagdeba Cinurad niSnavs literaturas, Tumca aseve msoflio
arSiaa, daos mier varskvlavebis, mTebisa da wylebis monacvleobiT Seqmnili (mTebisa da mdinareebis poezia). swored amitom

teqsti da realoba (venis areSia)

161

araa zRvari werasa da realobas Soris. su Si ambobda van veis Sesaxeb: mis poeziaSi suraTebia, mis suraTebSi poezia.
klasikasTan gvabrunebs teqstis umTavresi Tviseba: mas
cnobierebaSi Semohyavs teqstSi, rogorc jadosnur brolSi,
areklili samyaro, rogorc mTlianoba. paradoqsulad, kvlav
realobas davubrundiT. is realisturia, maSinac ki, roca dante jojoxeTSi mogzaurobs, `vefxistyaosnis~ gmirebi ki mulRazanzarsa da gulanSaroSi.

literatura
fenoloza 1968: Fenolloza E., The Chinese Written Character as a
Medium for Poetry. Ed. E. Pound. San Francisco, 1968.
barti 1994: , ., // .
. / . . ., 1994. . 389.
haidegeri 1993: , ., . . `~.
1993.

162

giorgi kekeliZe

ararsebuli
sazRvrebis gamo
mokled mizezebisa da miznis gamo

Tbilisis Tavisufali
universitetis doqtoranti; ilia WavWavaZis
saxelobis stipendiati
(rusTavelis fondi);
oTar CxeiZis saxelobis
stipendiati; literaturul portal lib.ge-s
damaarsebeli; mwerali, 2009 wlis `sabas~
laureati (wlis saukeTeso debiuti);
naSromebi: `postmodernizmi qarTul poeziaSi~, `ilia WavWvaZis
publicistika msoflio publicistikis
konteqstSi~, `dramis
poetika~ (mecxramete
saukune msoflio da
saqarTvelo);
interesTa sfero: literaturis Teoria,
kritika, poetika, semiotika.

1921 wels ruseTis mier saqarTvelos aneqsiam, garda araerTi arasaxarbielo Sedegisa, dabada erTi uaRresad saintereso fenomeni qarTuli kulturuli emigracia.
evropis da amerikis kontinentis qveynebSi dafantuli qarTveli mecnierebi, mxatvrebi, moqandakeebi, mwerlebi da, gnebavT,
msaxiobebic. miuxedavad socialuri SeWirvebis da nostalgiis moZalebisa, isini mainc qmnidnen Rirebul kulturul produqts. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlamde es saxelebi (Tu mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT grigol robaqiZes) saqarTveloSi mcxovrebTaTvis sruliad ucnobi iyo.
qarTuli literaturis qrestomaTiasac,
iseve, rogorc xelovnebis sxva dargebs,
mas Semdeg, rac profesorma guram SaraZem
emigrantuli memkvidreobis didi arqivi Camoitana, qarTuli emigraciis muzeumi Seiqmna da lamis bestselerad qceuli samtomeuli ucxoeTis cis qveS gamoica, wesiT,
axali saxelebi unda Semateboda, magram XX
saukunis miwurulis kritikam grigol robaqiZis mwerluri talanti imyofina da sxva
danarCeni avtoris Semoqmedeba isev yamirad moitova. [faqti erTia, me ar Semxvedria qarTuli poeziis momravlebul anTologiebSi umetesi maTganis saxeli da arc

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

163

am teqstebis analiziT aWrelebuli kritikuli almanaxebis furclebi minaxavs. arada, zogierTi maTgani, gnebavT mxatvruli donis gamo da, gnebavT, istoriuli TvalsazrisiT, namdvilad imsaxurebs amas].
am mxriv, saetapo mniSvneloba hqonda rusudan niSnianiZis ortomeuls saqarTvelo samans aqeT...da samans iqiT (Tbilisi,
2005, merani. redaqtori rostom CxeiZe), ramdenadac ganxorcielda warmatebuli mcdeloba, literaturismcodnis TvaliT
danaxuli emigrantuli mwerloba gaecno mkiTxvels.
am wignma kidev erTxel daanaxa sazogadoebas is gasaTvaliswinebeli momenti, rom aucilebelia samans aqeTa da samans iqiTa teqstebis erT, saerTo qarTuli literaturis konteqstSi
ganxilva da maTi separacia ar aris marTebuli. rogorc daaskvnidiT, Cveni naSromis mizanic swored is gaxldaT, rom daiZebnos msgavsi Temebi, motivebi da Tundac gansxvavebebi im poetebis SemoqmedebaSi, romlebic XX saukunis dasawyisSi moRvaweobdnen saqarTveloSi Tu emigraciaSi. emigrantTagan, davZenT, rom ganvixileT mxolod sami, Cveni azriT, umTavresi avtori (grigol robaqiZesTan erTad). gviandeli emigranti avtorebi: giorgi yifiani, giorgi lolua da a.S. ar gangvixilavs, radgan, vfiqrobT, rom es ufro axali esTetikuri nakadia da sxva
tipis kvlevas saWiroebs.
SevecadeT, Segvedarebina ramdenime saxe-simbolo sxvadasxva
poetTan sad identuri iyo, sad antagonisturi da sad avtonomiuri.A sizmris, bedisweris, glovis, mzis simbolikebi daamuSava
rusudan niSnianiZem, mis mier ganxiluli Temebidan Cven mxolod
mgzavrs mivmarTeT, radgan, albaT, es aris yvelaze rTuli da
mravalwaxnagovani saxe, yvelaze fleqsiuri mdgomareoba qarTuli emigranti poetebisTvis da ara marto - saTqmelis recipientamde misawvdenad, Sesabamisad igi araerT komentators iTxovs.
aseve mivmarTeT mcire kvlevas saleqso sazomTa, versifikaciis dasadgenad zogierT emigranti qarTveli poetis SemoqmedebaSi, rac, Tavis mxriv, axali wamowyebaa da specialistisTagan
muSaobis gagrZelebas moiTxovs.
aqve davZenT erT sayuradRebo garemoebas miuxedavad imisa,
rom emigrant poetebs wlebis ganmavlobaSi evropul literaturasTan uSualo Sexebis saSualeba hqondaT da, ocdaaTiani
wlebidan moyolebuli, uamrav saxelovnobo novacias adevnebdnen Tvals rogorc formaluri, asve Tematuri Tvalsazri-

164

giorgi kekeliZe

siT, isini mainc im poeziis erTgulni darCnen, romelic XIX saukinis dasasrulisa da XX saukunis adreuli wlebidan imemkvidreves. samomavlod,U uintereso ar iqneba dakvirveba, Tu riT aris
gamowveuli maTi gulgrili damokidebuleba im periodSi mimdinare procesebisadmi qarTvelebisTvis maxasiaTebeli integraciis unaris naklebobiT, socialuri fonis gamo gamowveuli
mouclelobiT Tu, ubralod, warsulisadmi gadaWarbebuli siyvaruliT (gnebavT, samiveTi erTad).
mgzavris mosvlis gamo
sityva `mgzavri~, garda sxva araerTi datvirTvisa, religiuri
simbolocaa da mis Zalian zogad ganmartebas Tu movitanT -,,wuTisoflad gamvlels niSnavs (soloviovi).
empiriul religiur cnobierebaSi mogzaurobas, miuxedavad rigi niuansuri sxvaobebisa misioneruli xasiaTi aqvs da magaliTis mimcemia (qristianobaSi, mTavari mimarTulebebis warmomadgenlebTan erTad, araerTi damoukidebeli ordenis beri da seqtanti, islamSi derviSi, hinduizmSi saniasi da a.S).
Sesabamisad, mgzavri, rac unda iracionalur sababs gvTavazobdes, bunebrivia, konkretul Sedegzea orientirebuli.
es momenti kargad aris gamoyenebuli hagiografiaSi, patristikaSi. ufro gvian, Suasaukuneebis saraindo romanisa da renesansis teqstebi, ra Tqma unda, mgzavris saxes sxva formiT warmogvidgenen, Tumca miznis miRwevis da amiT danarCeni sazogadoebis xsnis motivi SenarCunda.
romantizmis epoqaSi poeziam kidev ufro gadaamuSava es Tema da
mgzavrobas amsofliuri, zogadadamianuri tragizmis funqcia
SesZina (baironi, mickeviCi), qarTul romantizmSi am motivis
mTavari damnergvi, nikoloz baraTaSvili, TiTqmis koherentulia evropeli poetebis da aseve davalebulia religiuri egzegetikiT, roca iracionalur, angariSmiucemel swrafvas gamarTlebas uZebnis:
da Cems Semdgomad moZmesa Cemsa
siZnele gzisa gauadvildes,
da Seupovrad mas hune Tvisi
Savi bedis win gamouqroldes
(merani)
meoce saukunis modernistulma cnobierebam Tema ufro egzistencialuri gaxada. generalizacia rig SemTxvevSi imdenad farTo iyo, rom mogvianebiT sxva disciplinebic SeierTa (magali-

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

165

Tad, egzobiologia mecniereba, romelic ikvlevda sicocxlis


dedamiwisgareSe formebs), Tumca Cvens SemTxvevaSi am motivis
is formebi gvainteresebs, romelic XX s. sawyis wlebSi da, kerZod, qarTul literaturaSi gamovlinda.
valerian gafrindaSvili sruliad samarTlianad miiCnevda galaktionis lurja cxenebs baraTaSvilis meranTan gapaeqrebis mcdelobad. orive leqsis genezisi apokalifsur xedvebs
ukavSirdeba da misi erTgvari aluziaa (Tumca, aRniSnaven, rom
cecxlovani cxeni, aRmosavlur astrologiur horoskopSi misi dominirebis gamo, ufro adrindeli, romelime gaqvavebuli
kulturis personaJia).
Tu mecxramete saukune, qarTuli magaliTis mixedviT mainc, teqstis epilogur nawilSi indobs mkiTxvels, atomis periodis evterpe gacilebiT mkacri da tragikulia, qronotopis gaazreba
imdenad subieqturia misTvis, rom drosac da sivrcesac erTmaneTSi uwesrigod areulad aRiqvams, masSi mogzaurisTvis ki sityva gadarCena, iseve rogorc daRupva, ironiuladac aRar
JRers imdenad ucxo da araimanenturia qrola, xetiali,
mgzavroba aq ar gulisxmobs arc sicocxles, arc sikvdils, aramed raRac sxvas mesames (terenti graneli).
TvalsaCinoebisTvis lurja cxenebis finali:
mxolod nislis TareSSi. samudamo mxareSi
zeviT Tu samareSi, wyevliT SenaCvenebi,
rogorc zRvis xetiali, rogorc bedis triali
Cqari grgvinva-grialiT qrian lurja cxenebi
es qarTuli simbolisturi skolaa, ufro swored, am skolis
qrestomaTiuli nimuSi. am periodis narativis, diskursis amocnoba ar Wirs, arc misi impulsis dadgenaa rTuli saqme kiTxva,
romelsac Cven vsvamT, am SemTxvevaSi sxva kuTxiTaa mimarTuli
ramdenad sinqronulia emigranti qarTveli poetebis azrovneba Tundac am nimuSTan da, zogadad, qarTul poeziasTan, romlic maT Sin datoves da romelic Tavisi gziT ganviTarda.
mgzavris Tema, rogorc erTi gansakuTrebuli maxasiaTebeli,
marTebulad gamoyo Tanamedrove mkvlevarma, rusudan niSnianiZem. misi definicia, am SemTxvevaSi, zedmiwevniT zustia. Mmovixmob citatas:
erTi saintereso mxatvruli saxe, romelic swored am dReebidan mkvidrdeba, esaa mgzavri (an mogzauri), adamiani, romelic
fuZes, keras, Tavis Sin-s daSorebia da gadaxvewilia. Tumca misi
Sinaarsi erTgvarad SeiZleba gaviazroT, dedamiwaze Semoxetebuli da samSoblodan wasuli, gzaze damdgari (rusudan niSnia-

166

giorgi kekeliZe

niZe, saqarTvelo samans aqeT da samans iqiT. Tbilisi. 2005)

dagvianebis gamo
XX saukuneSi qarTuli poeziis lirikuli gmiri mZafrad ganicdis yvelgan da yovelTvis dagvianebis SegrZnebas.
1927 wels, yofili futuristi, simon Ciqovani, wers leqss mgzavris simRera. nawarmoebi, simarTle iTqvas, Tavidan ar gamoirCeva pesimisturi ganwyobiT:
sadgurSi mival daniSnul droze
magram dasasrulisken es simyare TandaTan iklebs da eWvad iqceva. Tumca mkiTxvelisTvis cxadia, rom es eWvi winaswar dadasturebulia da avtors sityva albaT-is nacvlad aRar rom daewera, Tvisobrivad araferi Seicvleboda:
ager mivyvebi ucxo vagonebs
Senze mRerali, Ramis mTevari,
axla mis iqiT irems magonebs
da me sad mivqri, Seni mdevari
albaT viqnebi sadgurSi droze,
Caqrnen RameSi Crdilni mTebisa.
(da Tundac droze miaRwios, aseve cxadia, rom es is sadguri araa,
sadac elian)...
terenti graneli ufro melanqoliuri da Semguebelia, igi kiTxvebs ar svams, ubralod icis da ganicdis rogorc aucilebels
da maradiuls:
axlac Soreul megobars veli
romelmac ase daigviana (qalis agonia)...
lirikuli gmiri midis daniSnulebis adgilze. folkloruli
tradiciidan moyolebuli (Tavfaravneli Wabuki, Semomeyara
yivCaRi) igi ver an ar axerxebs amas.
tician tabiZis leqsi me yaCaRebma momkles aragvze Zalad
mogviane mgzavris simReraa igi bedisweras exmareba, aCqarebs
(vici, momelis mainc es bedi) da Sin momavali (savaraudod, satrfosken) samudamod agvianebs da TviTmkvlelobas mxatvruli
efeqtebiT niRbavs:
me yaCaRebma momkles aragvze.
g
G alaktion tabiZeE TiTqos gamosavals poulobs gamosavali novaciuri ar gaxlavT msoflio literaturisTvis, piriqiTac magram TiTqos panaceaa (paliativi mainc ) da yvela mas mimarTavs sazogadoebisgan separacia, martokacobis poeturi idea:

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

167

waval da sadme davesaxlebi


am saukunis mgzavri gviani
sadac iqneba mtveri naklebi
da ufro nakleb adamiani...
gviani mgzavris ideas amuSavebs emigranti qarTveli poeti simon bereJianic. Mmgzavri (daibeWda 1982 wels parizSi gamocemul leqsebis krebulSi) erTi SexedviT folkloruli baladis
interpretacias miagavs:
viyavi mefe da vgavar zRapars,
movkvdebi, isev gameRviZeba
Zvel koSkebidan avanTeb lampars
da mzeT-unaxavs CavesiZebi.
ejibs vubrZaneb: damaklda xedva
da vidre Ramem TmebSi gamaba,
momgvareT kvici, mkvircxli, uxedni
da saqorwilo momarTviT kaba.
arc sinanuli, arc Tavis daxra,
zecam marguna es bedi wilad:
uZluri mefe qarSi umayrod
mivemgzavrebi me saqorwilod.
leqsi kompoziciuri da dramatulia, protagonisti ganwirulia
sikvdilisTvis da erTgan mas aseT frazas aTqmevinebs avtori:
,,da mec gadavkrav mgzavri gviani
mowamlul RviniT avsebul Tasebs...
gviani mgzavrobis SegrZneba galaktionTan da simon bereJianTan identuria, problemis gadawyveta ki diqotomiuri. giorgi gamyreliZis leqsi roca cacxvebis grZeli Crdilebi (daiwera 1926 wels. dabeWdilia krebulSi gviani rTveli, santiago
de Cile, 1960 w.) sxva ganwyobiT aviTarebs Temas.
lirikul gmirs samSobloSi deda elodeba (aq, albaT, SeniSnavT
nostalgiuri narativis niSnebs, magram imave warmatebiT SevZlebT zogadkacobriulTan mimarTebis danaxvas), gmiri ki samudamod darCenila ucxo qveyanaSi. imdenad uperspeqtivoa misi yofa am mxriv, rom Tavs aRarc im gvian mgzavrad Tvlis, romelic Sebindebisas Caivlis sofelSi:
da Tu gaisma fexis xma neli
mgzavris gvianis-soflis SaraSi
Sen imzirebi svel fanjaraSi
da me amaod, amaod meli

168

giorgi kekeliZe

cxeni mgzavris umTavresi transporti


es tradiciac (ra Tqma unda, mistikur-tropuli gagebiT) nikoloz baraTaSvilis mernidan iRebs saTaves da XX saukunis qarTul poeziaSi iseve transformirdeba, rogorc sxva araerTi
simbolo.
galaktion tabiZe yvelaze xSirad da masStaburad mimarTavs am
Temas. Mmxedari cxeni (an cxenebi) samyaro (lurja cxenebi,
efemerebi da a.S.). Tumca aranaklebia am mxriv, emigranti poetis, giorgi gamyreliZis memkvidreoba. aqve davZenT, rom gamyreliZe iyo axlo megobari tician tabiZis da paolo iaSvilisa
(am ukanasknels biZaSvilad ergeboda), cxovrobda quTaisSi, sadac gimnaziaSi gamosca Jurnali baRdadis weroebi (aqedanac
unda veZioT simbolistur nakadTan misi aseTi organuli kavSiri). cxenis, rogorc adamianis mamoZravebeli (am sityvis orgvari pirdapiri da mxatvruli gagebiT) simbolos xedva poetis
SemoqmedebaSi ise viTardeba, TiTqos kompoziciurad erT siuJetur qargasTan gvqondes saqme. dinamika daRmavalia baraTaSvilis da galaktionis mernebis ideas exmianeba, mere pragmatul
xasiaTs sZens da erT-erT leqsSi satiruli ganwyobiT gvirgvindeba.
lurji monoklis dasawyisi `lurja cxenebis ritmikas gvagonebs:
giJuri aSvebiT da Tav anaSvebi
eolis raSebi dahqrodnen frTamali.
ocnebas scioda, Rrublebi sdioda,
grigali hyioda da cecxli gamali
ganwyoba aqac apokalifsuria gardauvalia da yvelafers walekviT emuqreba:
saxuravebze asdioda qalaqs aruli
d
D a ecemoda setyvasaviT rkina da Tuji
meRupeboda am qalaqSi Rrma siyvaruli
(sanugeSod darCenili lurji monokli, romelSic cisfrad
sCanda cecxlis aruli, erTi mxriv, poetis TavSesafaria, meore mxriv, aq SeiZleba gulubryvilo aluziis niSnebi davinaxoT)
leqsi cxenebi msgavsi suraTiT iwyeba:
mze qalaqs edeba cecxlian enebiT
asfaltze iRvreba: kupri da melani
da moulodneli situaciiT grZeldeba:
quCaze damdgaran Sebmuli cxenebi

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

169

daRlilni, daRlilni arian yvelani


daRlili da, gansakuTrebiT, Sebmuli cxenebi, ukve sxva esTetikis niSania, axali, teqnikuri azrovnebis primatis niSani. ukeT
aRsaqmelad moviyvanT bolo or strofs:
pauza daRlilebs. d
D aipyro qimiam
qveyana, omic da mebrZolic.
da cxenis magier gvaZlevs energias
motori: eleqtro-bencoli.
damSviddiT, cxenebo! Ddro dadga netari
yofnaSi SeiWra axali faqtori:
zecaSi miafrens aparats mxedari
miwispirs miarRvevs traqtori.
teqnokratuli terminebis SemoWra leqsSi da poeturi opoziciebis neologizmebiT gamZafreba, SeiZleba, Tanamedrove mkiTxvels cota xelovnurad moeCvenos, Tumca im epoqisTvis (1920iani wlebi) es Zalian organuli da Sesabamisi azrovneba gaxldaT.
ganwyoba ironizdeba da mZafrdeba sxva leqsSi. leqsis saTauri
rosinanti, ra Tqma unda, aris pirdapiri miniSneba Tu romeli tipis personaJis mixedviT agebs avtori leqss, magram aqve
Cndeba iribi gancda baraTaSvilis nawarmoebis aluziis:
Tqven xom icnobdiT sakvirvel merans!
(sadRaa axla msgavsi cxenebi!)~
da dasasrulic saocrad cxadad exmianeba axla ukve XX saukunis
qarTul poezias. es striqonebi, gnebavT, raJden gvetaZis virebis mesiis Soreul reminiscenciad CaTvaleT:
da darCa sanCos da imis virebs
mas Semdeg burTi da moedani
mernis virad qcevis idea swored im dekadensuri garemos pirmSoa, sadac emigranti poeti SemoqmedebiTad yvelaze kargad
grZobda Tavs (da igi didad ar gansxvavdeba, vTqvaT, giorgi leoniZis ganwyobisgan - raSo, miwas miWedilo, veRar aiqrole),
sainteresoa, rogor amuSavebs am Temas simon bereJiani xsenebul leqsSi mgzavri:
Cemo merano, gadiqec qarad!
gahkafe mkerdiT tyeni uvali,
sad mamam brZoliT dRes gaiara,
gaivlis medgrad xval momavali
reminiscenciulobisadmi avtoris Segnebuli midrekilebis Sesaxeb rom ar vicodeT, egeb gvefiqra, rom plagiatobisken waucda xeli, magram simon bereJianis talantis da gamocdilebis

170

giorgi kekeliZe

mqone poetze saubrisas amis Tqma uprincipo sulswrafoba iqneba.


simon bereJiani ufro did aqcents mxedris fenomenze akeTebs,
romelic gaorebulia mefur didebas da romantiul xetials Soris. Ddasasrulic bundovanebis SegrZnebas iwvevs - pasuxgaucemeli kiTxviT:
romeli cxovrobs axla Cven orSi!
dRe mzis TvalebiT CemSi vis xedavs?
bednier mefes Tu svel mindorSi
gayinul cxenze usulo mxedars?
emigranti poetis, Salva amirejibis, leqsSi mogzaurs (minanqrebi, wignis gamomcemloba arabiZis da amx. Tbilis. 1920), iseve
rogorc, TiTqmis didi nawili misi poeziisa, davalebuli aris
qarTveli romantikosebisgan dawyebuli leqsika-frazeologiiT, saTqmelis identurobiT damTavrebuli (magaliTisTvis ginaxavs Sena, SoriT mavals, mgzavro daRlilo, adgilni mwirni, udaburni da veranani da a.S.). zedmetad ar gveCveneba, vTqvaT,
rom misi Semoqmedeba neoromantizmis CarCoebs ufro esadageba, vidre simbolizmis an nebismieri modernistuli skolisa, romelTa gamovlinebasac im periodis literaturul saqarTveloSi hqonda adgili. sicocxlis, wuTisoflis warmavlobis idea
mgzavris saxeSia identificirebuli, xedva impersonalisturia (vaiSnavizmi, Sopenhaueri) anu sazogado, msoflio sevdis motivebis gamoZaxili, Sesabamisad, pesimisturi ganwyoba Warbobs
(mogzauri var mec Senebri, he warmavalo). Salva amirejibis
mgzavri imiTac aris gamorCeuli, rom mas merani ar hyavs, Tumca
bediswera imaves uqadis, rasac baraTaSvilis protagonists
vici waSlian CemTa ferxTa naterfals qarni da mzisa mtverni
waeyrian cremlis gubesa im gansxvavebiT, rom, rogorc aRvniSneT, Salva amirejibTan samomavlo optimizmis niSnebi am
konkretul leqsSi mainc ar ikiTxeba.
P.S. mernis saxe XX saukunis qarTul poeziaSi zogierT SemTxvevaSi matarebelma Caanacvla, Tumca misi adgilis daWera mainc
ver SeZlo.
TvalsaCinoebisTvis, albaT, imis gaxsenebac kmara, rom komunisturi epoqis ideebis iseTi apologetic ki, rogoric alio
mircxulava gaxldaT, gverds ar uvlis am saxes, metic, asparezze sakuTari bedaurebi gamoyavs da sxvebs metoqed uyenebs:
,,ismis mTebis guguni
da sxivebis Rreoba,

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

171

caze Rrublis raSebi


cecxls aCenen WenebiT,
am udabno midamos,
am ukuneT xeobas,
ver gaivlis `merani
da verc `lurja cxenebi.
(,,naxtomi mzisken)

ukanmoxedvis gamo
giorgi gamyreliZes, romlis Sesaxebac zemoT ukve mogvixda saubari, aqvs kidev ori saintereso leqsi mgzavris ambavi da
mogzauris ocneba (maT yuradReba miaqcia rusudan niSnianiZemac).
mgzavris ambavi, garda tipuri uimedobis gancdisa, aRTqmuli
adgilis vermoxilviT gamowveuli tragizmisa (magram ver mixvel dapirebul lurj qveyanaSi, daeci gzaze sasikvdilod daWrili Sveli), imiTac aris saintereso, rom masSi moulodnelad
Cndeba Tamar mefis saxe (dasawyisSi da dasasrulSi), calke aRebuli leqsis ZiriTadi nawili simbolisturi teqstis STabeWdilebas tovebs swer qarvis leqsebs da Sedixar mkrTal nirvanaSi, rogorc Tavadi gekvari, Zroxebis mcveli, Sen gaiare fexSiSvelma mravali veli, da `Wknebi mzeze, viT alerdi gvalviT
yanaSi da am dros Sen rom gecxovra, gearseba oqros xanaSi,
dagifarvda Tamar mefis fiqalis xeli.
Tamar mefis kultis gadmotana poeziaSi iSviaTi sulac ar gaxlavT (gr. robaqiZe, g.leoniZe), magram emigranti poetis am leqsSi mas sul sxva datvirTva aqvs samSoblos magivrobas swevs.
Mmgzavri, romelic saqarTvelos verasdros miaRwevs, ocnebiT
warsuls elodeba, masSi cxovrebas cdilobs, dedoflis Svenieri xelis eimedeba, magram meoce saukunis dekadenturi suli
aqac Cris uimedo rom-s da kidev erTxel amtkicebs, meoce saukuneSi ocnebac koreqtirebadia.
rusudan niSnianiZe miuTiTebs gamyreliZis meore leqsis,
mgzavris ocnebis pirdapir kavSirze bibliur wignebTan da Zveli aRTqmidan daZrul asociaciebs ganixilavs. mag.: moxda saswauli did da Zvir, damibrunda egvipteSi gayiduli Svili (SeadareT iakobisa da iosebis ambavi); virtualur realobaSi dabrunebul poet-iosebs samSobloc virtualuri aqvs:

172

giorgi kekeliZe

ara, isev mdidari var,


Zveli ocnebiT vTbebi
venaxic maqvs, saxnavebic
tyec da saTibebic
da misi optimizmic pirobiTia:
da Tu mimces ucxoeTs
miwas bedi avi,
Tu Cems saflavs ver itirebs
Zma da naTesavi,
Ookeanes gadmolaxavs
saqarTvelos qari
da CamZaxebs salams giTvlis
rioni da mtkvari
esec mgzavrobis erTe-rTi forma qarTul literaturaSi samSoblodan da samSoblosken (pirveli iZulebiTi da ganxorcielebuli, meore nebiTi da ganuxorcielebeli).

epistoleTa gamo

wigni vnaxe misi iyo


SoTa rusTaveli
saidumlo baraTo
meqmenmeqmen marado
akaki wereTeli
werili XX saukunis dasawyisis qarTul poeziaSi xSirad gvxvdeba da mas Civilis forma ufro aqvs, vidre ubralo mokiTxvis. umetes SemTxvevaSi is sofelSi an soflidan igzavneba da adresati,
rogorc wesi, ojaxis wevria. werils arc saburvelSemoxveuli
romantikul-mistikuri elferi dakravs, rogorc es mezobel XIX
saukunes uyvarda igi pirdapiria da realisturi, zogjer cinikuric. avtori (an, rig magaliTebSi, werilis mimRebi, romelic mTavar gmirad gvevlineba) Svelas naklebad iTxovs, igi
ufro ibarebs raRac mniSvnelovans da sicocxleze metad aucilebels.
yvelaze cnobili epistolaruli Janris leqsi, paolo iaSvilis
werili dedas (1916 w.) monaniebanarevi sityvebiT iwyeba:

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

173

davtove sofelimyudro samyofeli...


TviTkritikiT grZeldeba:
da davikuntebi
qalaqis quCebSi me - salaxana
TandaTan avtori imCnevs, rom, miuxedavad soflis siwmindisa,
igi mainc qalaqs (Tu poetebisaa) airCevs:
roca me qalaqSi mawuxebs, maxelebs
yvela yelsaxvevi. Savi xelTaTmani
es Sewuxeba da gaxeleba, ra Tqma unda, mxolod dadebiT konteqstSi ixsenieba parizis bohemebs TvalSenavleb paolosTvis.
Semdeg igi verc iqaurobas iguebs (nebiT Tu iZulebiT):
iqneb Cven Tbilisi xval yvelam davtovoT
(iZulebaze imitomac mivuTiTeT, rom mkiTxvels qarTul emigraciaze arcTu Soreuli asociacia aRZvroda).
leqsi miwerili TxovniT mTavrdeba, poeti grZnobs, rom sofeli mis samudamo warsulSi darCa:
deda! inaxule
Sen wminda xaxuli!
wadi fexSiSveli,
qalaqSi dakarguli SvilisTvis Rame gaaTie
deda pasuxs ociode wlis dagvianebiT moiwers. giorgi gamyreliZis leqsi Zveli baraTi, anu dedis werili 1938 wels aris dawerili, sazRvargareT ukve didi xnis gadaxvewili poeti saqarTvelodan dedis TvalebiT iyureba da dedis xeliT wers:
Zvirfaso Svilo!
cxare cremli minamavs saxes
am werils rom gwer,
da damwvari Cemi gulia,
Cemi survili:
Sen rom erTxel kidev menaxegulis kunWulSi
samudamod Senaxulia.
mere mSobels elandeba, rom misi Svili dabrunda ucxo coliT
da unaxavi SviliSvilebiT:
da Cem mkvdar gulSi
kvlav inTeba imedis Suqi
am striqonebis Semdeg leqss sruliad moulodneli gadawyveta
aqvs; erTmaneTs mosdevs frazebi:
magram mainc gwer,

174

giorgi kekeliZe

Cemo biWo, nu dabrundebi!


gza ari Cvenken
momavali b
B oroti, avi.
Cven movlil venaxs
Seesia eklebis xvavi
da Cven samreklos
dasCxavian yvavTa gundebi.
da mTavrdeba ase:
nu moxval, Svilo!
giTvli deda, me mariami;
saqarTveloSi
aRar aris CvenTvis alagi
aravin icis, ras niSnavs es sityvebi, sabWoTa xelisuflebis pirdapir kritikas Tu gardauvali verdabrunebis grZnobis farul
Serbilebas faqti erTia qalaqel poetsa da soflel dedas,
qarTvel dedasa da sazRvargareT gadakargul Svils Soris xidi uimedod Catyda an Caangries.
dedis werili ilo mosaSvilmac miiRo, oRond gacilebiT adre
da TbilisSi (baraTi 1920 w.):
Seni werili miviRe guSin,
rogor daedo wamlad iarebs
da pasuxadac imaves uTvlis, rasac megobari cisferyanweli:
dedi, dagtove, ra gamovida,
cxovrebam ufro xeli damria!
vatyob, sofelSi veRar movitan
mkerds baRdadians da wels qamrians
paolo iaSvilTan SedarebiT, baraTis avtori ufro tragikulad aRiqvams movlenas:
mtanjavs dRemudam fiqri arjali
da mZime jvari zurgze mkidia,
Cemi niSnobis qamar-xanjali
cols mepurisTvis miuyidia
ilo mosaSvils cxadad warmoudgenia soflis scenebi deda sarTaviT, mayruli da mercxlis bude, oRond es warmodgenebi kidev ufro umZafrebs sadardels:
Tumca verc natvras wamier lxeniT
verc yinuls daZravs wamiT galRoba
me damrCes gulSi ocneba Tqveni
Tqven uzrunveli Cemi balRoba.
uaRresad originaluri formiT (rogorc versifikaciuli, ise

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

175

Sinaarsis TvalsazrisiT) aris mowodebuli emigranti poetis,


simon bereJianis leqsi elo (winadadebaTa wyobiT waagavs uitmenis stils, romelsac qarTul literaturaSi yvelaze xSirad
mogvianebiT muxran maWavariani mimarTavda). neologizmebis
garda, bereJiani iyenebs barbarizmebs, riTac giorgi erisTavis
dramaturgias enaTesaveba, Tumca, rusicizmebis nacvlad, aq
frangulia dominanti. aseve xSirad mimarTavs asobgera lasiT gawyobil literacias SedarebisTvis aq paolo iaSvilis aso
lasi SegviZlia movixmoT)
leqsis siuJeti aseTia safrangeTSi mcxovrebi emlo saqarTvelodan elos werils elodeba. lodini gaWianurdeba.
ra vqna, ra gaxda lioniii
rato ar modis fostalioniii
da ai erTxel:
erT saRamoTi,
(iqneboda saaTis aTi)
gasvrili mtverSi
erTTavad TeTri
dabrunda otelSi
musio, vort letr!
werili aiRo.
wyalmac waiRo
Tqveni francia!
madamjan, tuJur kontribucia?!
Sevida oTaxSi...
emlo gaiSxlarTeba sawolze da werilis kiTxvas iwyebs:
qmaro-jan, mama sayvarelo, emlo Zvirfaso,
cremliT daswera Senma elom yoveli aso
ex, samarTali ar arsebobs CemTvis zecaSi!
rad dagvaoble, riTvin waxvel zagranicaSi
da a.S.
dis, pelos werilicaaa:
emlo, jan, emlo! rom wamoxval, Sen genacvale,
or-ori xeli wamogviRe narmis sacvali.
tanTa ara gvaqvs, titlikanebs gvwyuria, gvSia,
mewveli Zroxac ki waasxes koleqtivSia.
vfiqrobT, komentari gaaubraloebs im saTqmels, rac simon bereJianma am leqsSi igulisxma.
giorgi gamyreliZes, garda Zveli baraTisa, aqvs kidev erTi leqsi, romelic werilis formiT aris mowodebuli.

176

giorgi kekeliZe

es nawarmoebi sruliad gansxvavedeba aqamde ganxiluli teqstebisagan. hqvia colis werili gamgzavrebis win. poeti cdilobs, qalisa da mamkacis intimuri cxovrebis detalebi ironizebuli gaxados, da aRwevs Tu ara amas, ufro ukeT paolo iaSvilis erT leqsTan SedarebiT davaskvniT, romlis saTauri aris
Zaxili da aseve qal-vaJis ganSorebis Semdeg periods exeba. marTalia, am ukanasknels, g. gamyreliZis leqsisgan gansxvavebiT,
savaraudod, safuZvlad konfliqti udevs, magram Cven aq ufro
mimarTebis damokidebuleba gvainteresebs da, Sesabamisad, mogvyavs magaliTic. orive SemTxvevaSi qali saubrobs:
Zvirfaso giorgi, sayvarelo
meuRlev Cemo!
minda am baraTs mgzavrobis win
cota ram davrTo,
moiqce ise, rogorca vwer
yvelafers qvemoT
im xnis manZilze, sanamde
xar uCemod, marto (giorgi gamyreliZe)
margalitebi mogxvie yelze samwyeba,
margalitebi, iagundebi.
ar SemiZlia Seni saxis gadaviwyeba,
ar dabrundebi? (paolo iaSvili)
colis werilis avtori sayofacxovrebo momentis SemotaniT
ufro da ufro amZafrebs iumors:
sayinuleSi Zexvia da naWeri loris,
karaqi, yveli da kvercxebic,
rac ginda yvela.
roca ixmaro finjani da saini ori
garecxe sapniT vaxSmisTvis da
yavis sasmelad (giorgi gamyreliZe)
ar SemiZlia daviwyeba Seni
saxisa
d
D avfare Rame bneli
nawnavebiT
vixuteb vnebiT msubuq haers Cems
oTaxisas
TeTri mklavebiT
(paolo iaSvili)

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

177

rogorc vxedavT, qarTveli poetebis werilebSi araferia optimizis msgavsic ki arc avtorisTvis da arc adresatisTvis,
imdenad, ramdenadac es qveTavi Tamamad SegviZlia simon bereJianis leqsiT davasruloT:
eloda, eloda
werils emlo da
netav ar mieRo!

poetis cnebisTvis
XIX saukunis II naxevris qarTulma mwerlobam poetis cnebis sami
avtoris definicia SesTavaza mkiTxvels. samiveSi misi roli miRmier samyarosa da wuTisofelSi nawildeba, igia erTgvari mediatori qveyanasa da zeciur sauflos Soris:
me ca mniSnavs da eri mzrdis
miwieri zeciersa;
RmerTTan misTvis vlaparakob
rom warvuZRve wina ersa
(ilia WavWavaZe)
Suakaci var ubralo
xan miwisa var, xan cisa
(akaki wereTeli)
vamayob imiT, rom miwas miwad
d
D a cas ciurad miveTavazi
(vaJa-fSavela)
XX saukunis pirveli naxevris qarTuli lirikis mamoZravebel
Zalad simbolizmi iqca. iracionalur, feeriul xilvebs CaWidebuli poeziisTvis patriotizmis cneba SedarebiT dabali rangis aRmoCnda, mas sxva interesebi hqonda:
TeTrad aTeneb: Tavs gesxmian avi bodvebi,
bneda gereva miwis wylulis xilviT gaosils,
damxrCval katebSi gagondeba mTvaris codvebi
(grigol robaqiZe, frang poets)
nacionalizmis SegrZneba sruliad gamousadegar iaraRad iqca
poeti msoflio moqalaqe unda gamxdariyo:
mgosnis goneba sarkea sruli.
ar aris misTvis samSoblo kerZod.

178

giorgi kekeliZe

yvelgan erTia musika sulis


da suli brunavs msoflio RerZad
(aleqsandre abaSeli, Soreuli napiri)
metic, poetisTvis da poeziisTvis yovelgvari socialuri faqtori waiSala, maqsimalurad TviTkmari gaxda, gareSe azrisgan
da gavlenisgan sruliad damoukidebeli:
CemTvis mivdivar da CemTvis vmReri
(valerian gafrindaSvili, poezia)
leqsi iqca upirveles da ukanasknel TavSesafrad:
Tu samSoblo mainc ar momeferos
me movkvdebi, rogorc poets Sehferis.
simRerebi xalisis da brZolisa:
poezia upirveles yovlisa
(galaktion tabiZe, poezia upirveles yovlisa)
lirikuli nawarmoebi avtors sakuTar sicocxled uRirs:
me ar vwer leqsebs, l
eqsi TviTon mwers,
Cemi sicocxle am leqss Tan axlavs.
(tician tabiZe, leqsi mewyeri)
da Tu es leqsi unda iyos ukanaskneli
maSin es Zori yvavebisTvis gasatania
(paolo iaSvili, poezia)
poetis fenomeni imdenad gafetiSda, rom dedamiwaze tusaRis
roli moirgo:
Savi fiqrebi grovdeba isev,
dgeba wamebis TeTri saaTi.
miwa ar minda da rogorc qriste,
mec vemzadebi gafrenisaTvis
(terenti graneli, poeti patimari)
amgvari ganwyoba modernistuli skolis poetebisTvis sruliad
bunebrivi gaxldaT, cota arabunebrivi, maTi teqstebi ufro
mogvianebiT, istoriuli realobis mkveTri cvlilebisa da sabWoTa xelisuflebis totaluri diqtatis pirobebSi axmianda.
(amaze ufro vrclad saubrobs akaki baqraZe wignSi ,,mwerlobis
moTviniereba). Mmasobrivi represiebis SiSma aiZula isini, erTxmad moenaniebinaT Zveli pozicia da poezia isev konkretul
wamowyebaTa (am SemTxvevaSi revolucia da postrevoluciuri
periodi) damxmare iaraRad eqciaT. amas axal droebasTan alaverdis gadasvla (t. tabiZe) ewoda:
mxiblavda mwuxris poeziis Savi mantia
axla ki vambob: roca irgvliv cecxli anTia

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

179

brZolis magivrad atirdeba mxolod jabani


(aleqsandre abaSeli, poetebs)
samSoblosTvis, rogorc rigiTma
mebrZolma, unda vixado vali
amin! de, Cemi saTuTi riTma
omSi avardes, viT qariSxali
(ioseb griSaSvili, Tbilisis poeti)
davdgeT iq, sadac qariSxalia
d
D a sisxliani dgas angelosi
axal grigalebs vwiravT sicocxles
Cven, poetebi saqarTvelosi
(galaktion tabiZe, Cven, poetebi saqarTvelosi)
amxanagebo, nu gezarebaT
Camocileba Zveli fesvebis
droa gadiqcen oqros zarebad
Aacremlebuli Cveni leqsebi
(paolo iaSvili, poeti da adamiani)
aucileblad unda aRvniSnoT, rom poeti-mebrZolis fenomeni
literaturuli TvalsazrisiT, sulac ar gaxlavT dasaZraxi.
(mTels msoflioSi, romantizmis zogierTi didi da realizmis
TiTqmis yvela warmomadgeneli, swored, am niSniT aris cnobili), ubralod, am avtorebisTvis es ar iyo maxasiaTebeli ganwyoba da, Sesabamisad, xelovnurobis STabeWdilebas qmnis (Tumca
istoriuli konteqsti aucileblad aris gasaTvaliswinebeli).
im periodis qarTul literaturas hyavda iseTi poeti, romlisTvisac moZraobis kulti, sicocxlis, rogorc brZolis, idea
ganmsazRvreli da bunebrivic iyo:
dRevandeli dRis pasux-mgebelo,
Caasvi sityva tyvia tyviaSi!
miwas ar axsovs, iyos poeti
gamomwyvdeuli kubos wyvdiadSi
(giorgi leoniZe, siWabuke da leqsi erTia)
patriotuli suliskveTebaa misi poeturi narativis umTavresi
xazi:
gulis naTeli me mipovia
qarTlis didebis me var mnaxveli
samSoblo Cemi gulis feTqvaa
samSoblo Cemi leqsis saxeli
(vumRer samSoblos)
giorgi gamyreliZe poetis misiaze iSviaTad wers. gGamonaklis-

180

giorgi kekeliZe

Tagnia leqsi poeti da poezia. avtori nawarmoebSi marTlis


Tqmis da bolomde daxarkvis principebis gamtarebelia, misTvis iluzirebuli metyveleba fuW da yalb teqsts gulisxmobs:
Tu ityvi gancdils, damdagvels, marTals,
Tu Sig ar Segyva Cmaxva misxalic,
mkiTxvelis guli daiwyebs farTxals,
rogorc ankesze Tevzi cincxali.
poeziaa: grigali qari,
sisxli: melani da nawerebi,
riTma lamazi: kalmaxi Cqari,
grZnoba ankesi da facerebi.
Znelia, am striqonebis mixedviT gadaWriT daaskvna: zemoT motanil magaliTTagan Tu romeli ideis momxrea poeti albaT
ufro Sualeduri pozicia uWiravs. Zalian saintereso ganviTareba aqvs simon bereJianis mgosans. SinaarsiT igi TiTqmis identuria im leqsebisa, romlebic qarTvelma poetebma axali cxovrebis dadgomas miuZRvnes, magram maTgan gansxvavebiT emigranti avtori Tavisufalia cenzurisagan da misi saTqmeli araa naZaladevi, igi gulwrfeli SegnebiT uaryofs Tavis liriul sawyiss da mas patriotuli JiniT anacvlebs, Tan ise, rom arc warsuls inaniebs, ubralod, sakuTar adgilas tovebs, rogorc Tavis droze misaReb formas:
davcqeri miwas tyviiT daxuruls da vambob ase:
unda miviRo dawyevlili xana axali,
unda gavyino CemSi sxivi maRal parnasis,
gavzardo gulSi civi gveli da qariSxali.
piriqiT, sinanuli mas axali droebis mantiis mosxmis gamo ufro
aqvs, Tumca miznis misaRwevad am dananebasac male risxvad gadaaqcevs:
ras vaqnev sityvas, haerovans awonilis misxliT,
ros gars martyia ekliani rkinis mavTuli!
melnad davwure noyieri qarTuli sisxli,
kalmad mipyria xelSi basri xmali qarTuli
mgosnis simon bereJianiseuli ideac Camoyalibda:
var Cemi qveynis guldamwvari Wirisufali
eris brwyinvale momavaliT msurs gavixaro
Tu saqarTvelo ar iqneba Tavisufali
de, mtvrad qceuli damenaxos mTeli samyaro.
rogorc vxedavT, poetis, gansakuTrebuli, socialurad aqtiuris, gnebavT, tribunis saxe emigranti poetebis teqstebSic coc-

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

181

xlobs, es is saxea, romelic 50-iani, 60-iani wlebis qarTuli


literaturisTvis umTavres, ganmsazRvrel niSad iqca.
..........
saxe-simboloTa Sesaxeb saubari, ra Tqma unda, am Temis irgvliv
amiT ar amoiwureba. Cveni yuradReba miiqcia sarkis, rTvelis,
Tovlis, zRvis simbolikaTa msgavsebebma ganxiluli avtorebis
SemoqmedebaSi, Tumca es samomavlo kvlevis miznad gvaqvs gadanaxuli.

sazomebi
formalistuli Ziebebis kuTxiT qarTvel emigrant poetTa Semoqmedeba novaciurobiT ar gamoirCeva. avtorebi gaurbian eqsperimentebs da, erTi-ori gamonaklisi SemTxvevis garda, im
versifikaciul formebs eyrdnobian, romelTa ganaxlebac qarTul poeziaSi cisferyanwelTa ordens ukavSirdeba.
leqsebis umravlesoba izosilaburia, heterosilabizms mxolod
iSviaTad da isic xSirad uneblied daSvebuls vxvdebiT. sonetebs werda grogol robaqiZe. igi am saleqso modelis erT-erT
pirvel damamkvidreblad iTvleba qarTul poeziaSi. p
P oetis cnobil camet sonets ukve hqonda gamoxmaurebebi leqsTmcodneobaSi (akaki xinTibiZe grigol robaqiZis sonetebi, Tamar barbaqaZe Sens sonetebSi gadareva Sekruli rokavs) , amitomac
maTze aRar SevCerdebiT. sonetis garda, erTaderTi forma, romelic xazgasmiT aris miTiTebuli, stansebia. mas, ZiriTadad,
Salva amirejibi iyenebs.
stansebi provansul literaturaSi aRmocenda da patara sasimRero xasiaTis leqss ewoda. igi gansxvavebulia grZeli sasimRero kanconebisgan da sxva Janruli formebisgan. evropul stansebSi strofebis ricxvi meryeobs 4-dan 12-mde. rusul stansebSi dominanturia oTxstrofiani iambi, jvaredini riTmiTa da oTxstriqoniani strofiT. stansebs mimarTavda a. puSkini (maTi Targmanebi qarTul enaze paolo iaSvils ekuTvnis). sityvis genezisad franguli `stance~ da italuri `stanza~, anu sadgomi oTaxi,
dgindeba. Aa. kviatkovskis leqsikonis mixedviT, stansebis mTavari maxasiaTebeli aris is, rom oTxtaepiani strofebisgan Sedgenili leqsia da saerTo TemiT aris gamTlianebuli. misi yoveli strofi dasrulebulia, rogorc Sinaarsis (azris, saxis), ise

182

giorgi kekeliZe

formis mxriv. yvela strofis riTmuli sqema erTnairia (mag: jvaredini), magram riTma ar meordeba. TiToeuli strofis bolos
aucilebelia pauza. anJambebani ar gvxvdeba.
qarTul poeziaSi galaktion tabiZis da paolo iaSvilis stansebia cnobili.
Salva amirejibis stansebi arakanonikuria. igi arRvevs oTxtaepiani strofis Semdeg dasasmeli pauzis princips, erTmaneTisgan pirvel da ukanasknel strofs mijnavs, oTxtaepedsac ar asrulebs, Txroba momdevno striqonSi gadaaqvs:
icnobT Tu ara, Tqven saxeebs aq aRbeWdilebs,
Tqven, romelTac ki gekuTvniT fiqri da zrunva!
igonebT Tu ar, droebs warsuls, ganvlil manZilebs,
Tqven, romelTac ki momaniWeT amdeni Wmunva!
Tqven, Tqven gekuTvniT saidumlo Cem gulis TqmaTa
(stansebi (icnobT Tu ara))
SedarebiT ufro mowesrigebulia sxva stansebi (laura krens).
erT leqsSi, romelsac aseve stansebi aqvs saTaurad, poeti sxva
mxriv Tanmimdevrulia, Tumca strofebis gamijvnas aqac zemoT
xsenebuli meTodiT axdens.
yvelaze popularuli ori sazomia muxambazis variacia, e.w.
mcire besikuri (5/4/5) da simetriuli aTmarcvledi (5/5).
besikuri, romelic cisferyanwelebma aRadgines qarTul
leqsSi, gamoiyena Salva amirejibma (stansebSi, mogzaurs, keisris coli, mTeli sicocxle, ici Sen mxare, exla ki mjera), giorgi gamyreliZem (Zveli hangebi, yvela simReras mirCevnia, Zveli baraTi, Cveni mxare, damSvidobeba da a.S.) am
formas arcTu xSirad mimarTavs simon bereJiani, Tumca misi saprogramod saxeldebuli leqsi mgosani am sazomiTaa gamarTlebuli. miiCneven, rom es forma saTqmelis ufro advilad da srulad gamoxatvis saSualebas iZleva.
magaliTisTvis:
Tu gamarjveba ar arsebobs sisxlis gareSe,
mxolod sisxlisTvis gixmobs Cemi buki-naRara
ise ar Caval, ciT mosuli, bnel samareSi
Tu ar SevRebe mtrebis sisxliT Cemi W
Q aRara
(simon bereJiani, mgosani)
kmara zRaprebi, poetebo, uqmi nugeSi:
musika, sevda, yvavilebi, leqsTa wyobebi
miwaa msuqan behemotTa gaxrwnili leSi;
kacobrioba: bacilebi da mikrobebi

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

183

(giorgi gamyreliZe, miwaa leSi behemotis)


rekordsmeni mainc simetriuli aTmarcvledia, Salva amirejibis (kojors, ezenami, nu etyvi pos, meris, maskaradi da
a.S.), simon bereJianis (maradisoba, ukvdaveba, mgzavri, samSoblo ucxoeTSi da a.S.), da giorgi gamyreliZis Semoqmedebis
udidesi nawili swored simetriuli aTmarcvlediT gawyobil
leqsebs uWiravs (zRapari Tbilisze, Zveli simRera, napartaxali, ocneba rTvelze, mTesvelis simRera, rosinanti,
dardi, me Savi zRvisken gavyvebi qarebs). am sazomiT ZiriTada lirikuli, sevdiani ganwyobebi gadmoicema:
pirveli Tovli daeca quCebs.
pirveli Tovli me momagonebs
micvalebulis gayinul tuCebs
da TeTr kabebSi moTul gogonebs
(simon bereJiani, samSoblo ucxoeTSi)
kerkeTis ZirSi devs ezenami
ankara aris mis wyalTa Relva
mzes sdevs burusi da mTvares nami
da mrisxanea aq cisa elva
(Salva amirejibi, ezenami)
magram didia godeba ufro,
Tu sakuTar Tavs sarkeSi xedav
viT micvalebuls, uWirisuflos,
viT wylis ufskrulSi CarCenil cxedars
(giorgi gamyreliZe, diliT sarkesTan)
giorgi gamyreliZes, garda simetriuli aTmarcvledisa, ekuTvnis aTmarcvledis iSviaTi variacia (4/4/2). es sazomi dasturdeba ioseb griSaSvilTan xaxe, galaktion tabiZesTan atmis rtoo (T. barbaqaZe, qarTuli leqsTmcodneoba da sxva.
Tbilisi. 2006 w.), da sxva poetebTan TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba. mas erTgvari wamRerebis intonacia aqvs:
atmis rtoo, daRalulo rtoo,
atmis rtoo, simSvidea Sori.
qariSxali modis saimdroo,
yvavilebis qarSi mihqris tbori
(galaktion tabiZe, atmis rtoo)
magram mTidan daubera qarma
Searxia foTlebi da wyali
mTebs axada muqi nislis Calma
gaaqana mTvare, oqros nali

184

giorgi kekeliZe

(giorgi gamyreliZe, sami leqsi)


giorgi gamyreliZe, formalisturi TvalsazrisiT, meti fantaziis uflebas aZlevs Tavs. mogzauris ocneba heterosilaburi leqsis tips miekuTvneba, romliTac emigranti qarTveli poetebis poezia Raribia:
am Saragzas rom gavcdebi (4/4)
qarians da mtvrians (4/2)
davinaxav koxta ezos (4/4)
da saxls kramitians (2/4)
igi mimarTavs melodiur Tormetmarcvleds (3/3/3/3). Aam zomiT
werda galaktion tabiZe (jvars ecvi, jvars ecvi, saSveli ar
ari). leqsiA mdore rafsodias waagavs:
da isev zmoreba, vneba uwindeli
katasTan TamaSi da TrTolviT xumroba
Zvirfasma maCuqa patara cindali;
me miyvars zamTarSi siCumis stumroba
(paolo iaSvili, xSiria siCume)
mze qalaqs edeba cecxlian enebiT
asfaltze iRvreba: kupri da melani;
quCaze damdgaran Sebmuli cxenebi,
daRlilni, daRlilni arian yvelani
(giorgi gamyreliZe, cxenebi)
Salva amirejibi, garda romantikosebisa, davalebulia XIX saukunis realizmis warmomadgenlebisgan, ufro metad ki akaki wereTlisgan. maRali Sairis (2/4) im saxeobas, romelsac akaki iyenebda, emigranti poeti xSirad mimarTavs.
me Canguri misTvis minda
rom simarTles msaxurebdes
ganamtkicos azri wminda
guls siwmindiT axurebdes
(akaki wereTeli, Canguri )
turfav, maxsovs hangi Seni
akvnesebda CemSi grZnobas
mimRerodi siyvarulze
TviT mixdili trfobiT cnobas
(Salva amirejibi, turfav)
arc dabali Sairia (5/3) Salva amirejibisTvis ucxo, aqac misi
intonaciebi akakisas enaTesaveba:
mTawminda Cafiqrebula,
Sehyurebs ciskris varskvlavsa,

ararsebuli sazRvrebis gamo

185

mnaTobi sxivebs maRliT hfens


Tavdadebulis saflavsa.
(akaki wereTeli, ganTiadi)
bezirgnis Svili ara var,
arc aznauri kuTxisa
Tevzis mWiravi viyavi
da mkeTebeli zuTxisa.
(Salva amirejibi, meTevzis simRera)
Svidmarcvledic (4/3) akakis gavleniT aris dawerili:
misTvis gideb ubeSi,
galbob cremlis gubeSi,
amisrule, rac giTxres,
Tu xar Cemi nugeSi!
(akaki wereTeli, saidumli baraTi)
da Sen cekvav, cekvav Sen
veRar gdeven Tvalebi
cekvav luwi, cekvav kent
me vTvli da viRalebi
(Salva amirejibi, gesmis xma)
unda aRiniSnos, rom Tavisufal leqss emigranti poetebi ar swyalobdnen. verblans (konvenciuri leqsisa da verlibris nazavi),
romelic qarTul literaturaSi XX saukunis aTian wlebSi dasturdeba (konstantine WiWinaZe), mimarTavs simon bereJiani Cven
mier zemoT sxva konteqstSi ganxilul leqsSi elo.
uintereso ar unda iyos imis dadgena, ra tipis riTmebs iyeneben
aRniSnuli avtorebi, ramdenad popularulia maT SemoqmedebaSi im periodisTvis moduri konsonansasonansuri wyvilebi. am
kuTxiT kvlevis warmarTvas Cven Semdgom naSromebSi vapirebT.

186

nona kupreiSvili

enobrivi orientaciidan
kulturis orientaciamde

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, SoTa


rusTavelis literaturis institutis TanamSromeli.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
XX saukunis 20-iani
wlebis modernistuli
proza; poststalinuri
xanis kritikuli refleqsia; recefciuli
esTetikis saTaveebTan
da sxva;
samecniero interesebi: literaturis istoria, kritikis istoria,
semiotikuri kvlevebi.

gasuli saukunis 60-ian wlebSi qarTul


saliteraturo presaSi eniT daukmayofileblobis sagulisxmo determinacia gamJRavnda. axalgazrda enaTmecnierma arli
TayaiSvilma Jurnal `ciskris~ furclebze seriozuli polemikis safuZvlad qceuli ramdenime werili gamoaqveyna (`frazeologiur erTeulTa Targmnis sakiTxisaTvis~ - 1960 w., `wasaSleli striqonebi~ 1963 w., `rogor vuSveloT qarTul enas~ 1966 w., `ena Zveli, ena axali~ - 1968 w., `me
myovar-Jam daJinebiT~ - 1968 w.). maTSi,
teqstisadmi kritikis sruli gulgrilobis pirobebSi, mwerlisa Tu mTargmnelis
enasTan damokidebulebis gadasinjvis aucilebloba gamoikveTa: `aravisTvis ucxo
ambavi araa, rom zogjer ena da stili miviwyebulia Cveni kritikosebis nawarmoebebSi. isini cdiloben Rrmad Caswvdnen
mwerlis ideur-mxatvrul koncefcias,
zedmiwevniT daaxasiaTon gmirebi, magram
enaze rom midgeba saqme, ratomRac enas
kbils aWeren...~ (TayaiSvili 1963: 116). avtori ufro Sorsac midis. misi msjelobis
deversifikaciuli xasiaTi, rogorRac mimarTuli `enis mravalsaxeobis im droisaTvis daxuruli problemis~ gaxsnisaken,
amave problemis funqcionaluri stilis
SesaswavliT Canacvlebas ewinaaRmdege-

enobrivi orientaciidan kulturis orientaciamde

187

boda. drois im konteqstSi, anu dekomunizaciis adreul etapze,


rodesac mxolod Zalas ikrebda totalitarizmis tyveobaSi
myofi azris deideologizacia, sityvis ideuri sqemebisa da konotaciebisagan ganTavisuflebis procesi, rodesac ara mxolod
socialisturi ideologia da socializmi, aramed metanarativis mTeli sistema Zireul cvlilebebs unda daqvemdebareboda,
aseTi poziciis SemuSaveba simptomuric iyo da mravlismomaswavebelic.
arli TayaiSvilsac da misi publikaciebiT gamowveuli polemikis monawileebsac (revaz TavaZe, baCana bregvaZe, zviad gamsaxurdia), miuxedavad saliteraturo enisa da zogadad literaturis problemuri sakiTxebisadmi seriozuli damokidebulebisa, im etapze uTuod bolomde gacnobierebuli arc hqondaT,
rom erTvebodnen e.w. `didi lingvisturi SemotrialebiT~ Seqmnil axal inteleqtualur velSi da TandaTan iwyebdnen iseTi
sakiTxebis analizs, romlebiTac dRes lingvisturi kulturologiaa dainteresebuli.
axalgazrda enaTmecnieri, da es sagangebod unda aRiniSnos,
aSkarad eyrdnoboda da gulwrfelad iziarebda kidec enis sakiTxebze sxvadasxva dros momuSave qarTvel mecnierTa (arn. Ciqobava, ak. SaniZe, ak. gawerelia, gr. kiknaZe, i. imnaiSvili, p. qavTaraZe da sxv.) mTel rig mosazrebebs, Tumca aranaklebi enTuziazmiT imowmebda misTvis aseve cnobil avtorTa: evropuli
struqturalizmis fuZemdeblad miCneuli ferdinand de sosiurisa da uSualod misi mowafis, aseve Jenevis skolis warmomadgenlis, ~franguli stilistikis~ avtoris, Sarl balis Sexedulebebs. es Sexedulebebi TayaiSvilis werilebSi sainteresod interpretirebuli da gaTavisebuli iyo: ena, rogorc niSanTa yvelaze srulyofili da gavrcelebuli sistema, romelic imavdroulad faseulobaTa sistemacaa, imaze met informacias inaxavs,
vidre es erTi SexedviT Cans; `individualuri da nacionaluri
mentalitetis gaucnobierebeli intenciebis simbolurad amsaxveli~ (lit. Teoria 2006: 91) igi ganuwyvetliv moZraobs, icvleba (am ukanasknelTan dakavSirebiT, avtori amerikeli lingvistis svodeSis gamoTvlebis Sedegebs iyenebs); enis struqturis
amgvari Riaoba gamoricxavs purizmis gamarTlebas; arqaizacia,
romelic qarTul originalur, gansakuTrebiT ki Targmnil, literaturaSi iCens Tavs, TviTmiznuria, enobrivi orientacis gamomxatveli ufroa, vidre imisa, risic unda iyos, anu stilisturi xerxis; vinaidan `kulturuli fenomenebi ganixileba enis, ro-

188

nona kupreiSvili

gorc formaTwarmomqmneli principis prizmaSi~ (lit. Teoria


2006: 86), amitom gvsurs Tu ara es Cven, enis moZraoba dRevandelobidan warsulisaken warsulis erTgvari mumificirebaa (Warbi arqiazmebi, fsevdopoeturi intonacia, paTeturoba, epiTetomania ki swored am mizans emsaxureba) da garkveuli informaciis matarebelia imdenad, ramdenadac `misi (enis) myofobis sakiTxi kulturuli identobis problemas ukavSirdeba~ (TayaiSvili 1968: 126). zogadad ena xom yvela sistemis interpretatoria.
TayaiSvilis mier sruliad samarTlianad `niWierebad~ moxsenebulma mTargmnelebma enobrivi koncefciis amgvari gaazrebisaTvis mzaoba ver gamoavlines.1 mravlismTqmeli replika: `ena
enaTmecnierTaTvis rodi iqmneba~ am mosazrebas nawilobriv adasturebs. erTiani, uwyveti, TxuTmetsaukunovani saliteraturo
procesis Sesaxeb ukve Camoyalibebul (sabolood ki mogvianebiT gacxadebul) TvalsazrisSi, sadac moiazreboda ara Zveli
da axali, aramed erTiani saliteraturo ena (TvaraZe 1997: 44)
destruqciuli elementis, bolomde gaucnobierebeli siaxlis,
Semotanis safrTxe igrZnes. amitomac polemikis iniciators `higienis sakiTxebze sasaubrod mosuli pirdaubaneli eqimi~ ewoda. (TvaraZe 1968: 86). enaTmecnieri, marTalia, ar upirispirdeboda (saamisod igi sakmaod koreqtuli aRmoCnda), aramed, rogorc TviTon ganmartavda, `enis Tanadroulobis sakiTxebze~
mxolod sadiskusiod iwvevda literatorebs, mainc eWvqveS dadga Tavsmoxveuli totalitaruli metanarativisagan, jorj oruelis terminologiiT ki newlang-isgan, imave `~-isgan
(O 1980: 200) Tavdacvis strategia, am strategiis SemmuSavebelTa avtonomiuroba da xelSeuvaloba. Zneli misaxvedri ar
iyo, rom kamaTSi literatorebs zurgs umagrebda konstantine
gamsaxurdias mier yvelaze kritikul periodSi, jer kidev XX-s
30-ian wlebSi, wamoyenebuli e.w. `enis diqtaturis~ idea (gamsaxurdia 1934: 3), romelmac maSindeli sazogadoeba, imave oruelis mosazrebis mixedviT, gaacocxla da ixsna `c ~
(X 2004: 199), daupirispira ra amiT stalinizmis enobriv
kulturas Tavisi totaluri centrizmiT, unificirebiTa da
mkacri ierarqiulobiT, rusuli enis dominanturi roliT. Tumca SemdgomSi enis reformatori es didi mwerali, gansakuTrebiT mimbaZvelTa simravlis gamo, enisave ganviTarebis erTgvar
Semaferxebladac ki iqca. saWiro iyo am stilis demistificireba. arli TayaiSvili msgavs nabijze, rogorc Cans, Segnebulad

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ar midis: jer erTi, mas miaCnia, rom gamsaxurdias ena (gansakuTrebiT ki leqsikuri istorizmebis gamoyeneba) erTi konkretuli mwerlis mxatvruli samyaros kuTvnilebaa, misi, ase vTqvaT,
avTenturi `xelweris~ gamovlinebaa, amitomac misive sruluflebianobis axsna swored am logikiTaa SesaZlebeli. garda amisa, mwerlis, iseve rogorc zogjer mTeli literaturuli skolis, ena Seiswavleba (yovel SemTxvevaSi, unda Seiswavlebodes)
ara marto rogorc esTetikuri kategoria, rogorc individualuri `sityvieri xelovneba~, aramed `mxatvruli literaturis
enisaTvis mocemul periodSi damaxasiaTebeli saerTos mixedviT, romelic ar warmoadgens arc individualuri stilis faqts
da arc saerTo saliteraturo enis sakiTxebs. swored saerTosTan mimarTebaSi unda ganixilebodes niSandoblivi~ (TayaiSvili 1968: 124). `enis Tavis TavSi da TavisTvis~ gaazrebis am mcdelobas imave enis struqturalistur gagebamde mivyavarT. unda
gaviTvaliswinoT isic, rom lingvisturi epistema am droisaTvis dasavleTSi ukiduresad gafarToebulia, imdenad, rom komunistur baltiispireTSi iuri lotmani kiTxulobs leqciebs
struqturalistur poetikaSi (1964 w.), xolo tartus skola TiTqmis Camoyalibulia da arsebobs, rogorc semiotikuri fenomeni. ase rom, miuxedavad sabWoTa monokulturis Caketilobisa,
odnav aweuli rkinis fardidan `Teoriis demoni~ icqireba. arli
TayaiSvilis `lingvistur-struqturalisturi Ziebani~, an amgvari Ziebebisken mimarTuli mcdelobani, cxadia, am konteqstSi unda ganvixiloT.
Tumca, davbrundeT odnav ukan da meore msoflio omisSemdgom periodSi enis `lingvisturi portretirebis~ unikaluri
nimuSi gavnixiloT galaktionis `mSvidobis wigni~. is, rac ar
apaties enaTmecniers, ubralod, ver gauges did poets. `kompetentur~ literatorTa erTi nawilis mier poema `mdare leqsiT
Sesrulebul abdaubdad~ iqna miCneuli, gamomcemlebma ki misi
mxolod fragmentulad dabeWdva miiCnies SesaZleblad. sinamdvileSi galaktioni, rogorc `eris sulis Ziebis misteriis~ (TavaZe 2001: 305) Semqmneli, rogorc Cveni ukiduresad Seryvnili
`butaforuli azrovnebis mamxilebeli~ (jguberia 1988: 6) poemaSi qarTuli enis metafizikuri da eTikuri maxasiaTeblebis
kombinacias qmnis. igi gvevlineba enis Sesaxeb tradiciuli diskusiis arealSi (tarieli, avTandili, Tamari, luarsabi...) Seqmnili axali miTis avtorad (amas lingvistur miTisqmnadobasac
uwodeben), romelsac enis, rogorc kulturis wyaros, rogorc

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nona kupreiSvili

kulturis sicocxlisunarianobis garantis sjera.2 etalonuri


enis, imave mSvidobis wignis, Zieba (... wigni tariel, /tariel wigni!...an kidev `aq vxedav becebs, Tvals ras aceceb, / aq wigns daeZeb?/ aq ra unda wigns?~) galaktionisaTvis ukavSirdeba `qarTuli enis civilizaciur Zalas~, mis mouSlel muxts, romelic gadaarCens qarTul kulturasa da literaturas. Tu vixelmZRvanelebT iosif brodskis cnobili enobrivi koncefciiT
( 2000: 54) unda vaRiaroT, rom am konkretul masalaSi
galaktions, rogorc unikaluri smenis, gnebavT, prosodiuli
smenis, Semoqmeds, `enis, rogorc usulo materiis xma~ Caesmis.
poemaSi xdeba is, rasac 50-iani wlebis gamomcemlebi, miuxedavad poetisadmi didi pativiscemisa, ubralod ver axsnidnen: `adamianuri vnebaTaRelva adgils uTmobs lingvistur aucileblobas~ ( 2000: 47), xolo STagonebis wyarod ara SvidfrTiani muza, aramed Tavad ena, ufro zustad ki, `enis diqtati~ gvevlineba. geniosis warmosaxvaSi enis fenomenis wvdoma `enis geniis~ gagebasTan, masTan erTad ki `eris geniasTan~ Cven rom `eris
suls~ vuwodebT enisave TviTregulaciisa da TviTmarTvis saidumloebrivi procesebis mibmas ukavSirdeba. amgvari saidumlos amoxsna ki safuZvliani optimizmis wyarodaa qceuli. poemis avtoris rwmeniT, Cvens enas didxans ar mouwevs `luarsaboba~, igi kvlav `tarielad~ gardaisaxeba, anu ena daZlevs masSi ganfenil nostalgiur simZimes da kvlav qarTuli wesrigis gamomxatvelis misias daibrunebs. samwuxarod, es gamocdileba, romelsac Tavis droze yuradReba miaqcia r. TvaraZem, Semdgom ki
m. jguburiam, bolomde ar iqna gaazrebul-gaTavisebuli.
ambivalenturi kavSiri enisa kulturasTan dRevandel lingvistur kulturologiaSi orgvari sqemiTaa warmodgenili: mentaliteti / kultura > ena da piruku: ena > mentaliteti / kultura. `ciskarSi~ ganaxlebuli polemika, ase vTqvaT, meore sqemiT warimarTa. amjerad igi gamoiwvia revaz TvaraZis statiam
`mTliani saqarTvelos mesityve~ (TvaraZe 1997: 40). SesaZloa,
mxolod konstantine gamsaxurdias literaturul portretad
Cafiqrebuli es werili programulad iqca. masSi, erTi mxriv,
tradicionalizmsa da sabWoTa metanarativs, meore mxriv, tradicionalizmsa da Teoriuli refleqsiebis gamravalferovnebis tendenciebs Soris ukve dawyebuli an uaxloes momavalSi mosalodneli dapirispirebis TavdacviTi meqanizmebi aisaxa, rac,
Tavis mxriv, kidev ufro aRrmavebda enis mravalsaxeobis ukve
wamoweul problemas. polemikis meore etapze ZvelebTan erTad

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191

axali avtorebisa da publikaciebis gamoCena (g. asaTiani, `modelebi da sinamdvile~ - 1970 w; g. asaTiani, `meti sinaTle~ 1970 w;
z. gamsaxurdia `ganmartebis sityva~ 1970 w.) enis tradiciisadmi
damokidebulebis aqtualizebas uwyobs xels, rac kritikuli azris, kritikuli refleqsiis gaaqtiurebas da misi `meTodologiuri aRWurvis~ mizandasaxulobas ukavSirdeba. z. gamsaxurdia
Tomas eliotis sakuTar Targmanebs (mag. mis erT-erT werils
`kritikis daniSnuleba~) swored am kuTxiT iyenebs. ara marto
is, Tu rogori unda iyos Tanamedrove xelovneba, aramed isic,
Tu rogor unda gardaiqmnas kritika masTan mimarTebaSi? poetis zedrouloba enis miseuli individuaciis xarisxTanaa dakavSirebuli, magram Tu didi narativebisa da funqcionaluri paradigmebis, mag. marqsizmis, rRveva Seuqcevad procesad iqca,
aranakleb mniSvnelobas tradiciasTan damokidebulebis sakiTxic SeiZens. imave eliotis mosazrebiT, romelsac savsebiT iziarebs z. gamsaxurdia, `warsuli unda Seicvalos TanamedroveobiT~ zustad imdenad, ramdenadac `Tanamedroveobas warmarTavs
warsuli~ (elioti 1989: 113). swored aq gadaixlarTa da lamis
`gordias kvanZad~ iqca g. asaTianisa da z. gamsaxurdias mosazrebebi. g. asaTiani gansakuTrebiT gaaRiziana kritikaSi intuitiuri meTodisa da warsulis esTetikuri gamocdilebiT zedmetad davalebuli e.w. sinTeturi enis apologiam (z. gamsaxurdia mis umTavres samkauls ara arqaizms, aramed poetizms uwodebda). rogorc savsebiT samarTlianad aRniSnavs levan asaTiani-umcrosi: `kamaTi gascda literaturuli paeqrobis farglebs
da Seexo evropuli mwerlobis, filosofiis, religiis, mecnierebis, qarTuli sulieri kulturis istoriis umniSvnelovanes,
arsebiT sakiTxebs...~ (asaTiani 2001: 7). amasTan, Tavi iCina Cveni
sazogadoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelma qronikulma senma, iman,
rasac siuzan zontagi `polemikis ulmobel suls~ uwodebda. romel lingvo-kulturul tips ekuTvnis qarTuli da rogori kriteriumebiT unda xdebodes kulturaSi ukufenili qarTuli cnobierebis Secnoba? igive mosazreba aRniSnuli polemikis Sesaxeb gamoTqmul Tavis zepir gamosvlaSi T. doiaSvilma ase Camoayaliba: `rogori unda iyos qarTuli cnobiereba, gansakuTrebulobiT unda mohqondes Tavi, Tu racionalisturobiT?~ `mopaeqreTa ganaTlebam, basrma inteleqtma... originalurma mignebebma~ (asaTiani 2001: 8) mkiTxvelTa farTo wris yuradReba miipyro. cxadi iyo, rom, rogorc g. asaTiani ganmartavda, `ifeTqa
kritikulma azrma da is, rac uCinari winaaRmdegobis saxiT ar-

192

nona kupreiSvili

sebobda, mzis sinaTleze amovida~ (asaTiani 1970: 4). mopaeqreebs


qarTuli kulturis kardinalur sakiTxebze, SeiZleba iTqvas,
principSi identuri mosazrebebi hqondaT, Tumca es identuroba ukavSirdeboda `sabWoTa filosofiur azrovnebasTan da literaturaTmcodneobasTan~ am inteleqtualTa gansxvavebul
damokidebulebas (garda amisa, z. gamsaxurdia Tbilisis universitetis kursdamTavrebuli iyo, g. asaTianma ki ganaTleba moskovis saxelmwifo universitetSi miiRo). kompromisuli azrovnebisagan ganTavisufleba, romelsac aRniSnulma polemikam xeli Seuwyo, marTebuli, kargad gaazrebuli kulturuli orientaciis mignebis winapiroba iyo. saintereso is aRmoCnda, rom g.
asaTianma, miuxedavad gaweuli winaaRmdegobisa, polemikis Sedegad miRebuli gamocdileba jerovnad gamoiyena: `z. gamsaxurdias miTiTebam, esses, rogorc yvelaze perspeqtiul literaturul-kritikul formaze, garkveulwilad biZgi misca ufro
xSirad miemarTa eseisturi TviTgamoxatvisaTvis... erovnuli
sulis arsebobisa da mniSvnelobis aqcentirebam z. gamsaxurdias mxriv, misi werilebis suliskveTebam, misma mosazrebebma qarTul kulturaze (cxadia, sxva obieqtur mizezebTan erTad), Seqmna `saTaveebTan~ (asaTiani 2001: 8). aq iwyeba swored arli TayaiSvilis publikaciebiT dawyebuli polemikis mesame etapi, rodesac g. asaTianis axali wignis (`saTaveebTan~) fragmentebis gamoqveynebas mohyva ak. baqraZis `mkvaxe SeZaxili~ da z. gamsaxurdias `mkvaxe SeZaxilis eqo~. enis identobaze dawyebuli saubari
kulturis identobaze saubarSi gadaizarda. Tavisuflebisa da
damoukideblobis saxiT ualternativo prioritetebi gamoikveTa da rac aranakleb mniSvnelovania, aRniSnulma sametapovanma polemikam 70-80-iani wlebis kritikuli azri nacionaluri narativis Semadgenel nawilad warmogvidgina.
90-iani wlebis Taobam msgavsi polemikebi kraxiT dasrulebuli `filologiuri proeqtis~ mosamzadebel da Sesabamisad
unayofo etapad miiCnia. qarTuli kulturis TviTmyofadobisa
da TviTkmarobis aqcentireba morigi miTogeneraciis diskursad, gabrZoleba `skepsisis, unugeSo kosmopolitizmis~ dasaZlevad plakaturi nacionalizmis, metic, militaruli ideologiis gamovlinebad.
samwuxarod, am da msgavs mosazrebaTa erTi nawili safuZvels
moklebuli ar iyo. kulturuli fundamentalizmis safrTxe,
marTlac, arsebobs da misgan Tavis daRwevas Tanadroul procesebTan sinqronuli da koordinebuli azrovneba sWirdeba;

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193

iseve rogorc arsebobs ideologiuri demistifikaciis procesis Semobrunebisa da misi axali miTologiiT Canacvlebis safrTxec; amasTan, arc CvenSi sagangebod gadamaluli travmuli
gamocdilebis gamodevnaa jer dasrulebuli. es sayovelTaod
cnobili problemebia, romelTa gadaWra ara marto mxatvruli
aRmoCenebisa da esTetikuri riskebis msurvelTa interesebSi
unda Sediodes.
rac Seexeba tradiciuli kulturis dominanturobas, romelic 90-ian wlebamde gagrZelda, igi arc mxolod iluzoruli
da arc mxolod saziano yofila. Tumca savsebiT logikuri iyo
misi `modernizebul gamocdilebaze dafuZnebuli mimarTulebiT Canacvleba~. es tradicia savsebiT marTebulad miaCnia,
vTqvaT, oTar WilaZes, romelic amasTan dakavSirebiT gulistkiviliT aRniSnavs: ...Tumca marTebuls ver vuwodeb imas, rom
mudmivad mxedvelobidan gvrCeba isini, vinc sabWoTa wiaRSi am
cvlilebaTa Seuqcevadobas amzadebda. Cvenc viziarebT didi
mwerlis am mosazrebas da migvaCnia, rom im pirobebSi, rodesac
esoden TvalSisacemi iyo `sabWoTa sinamdvilis ritualuri Jestebi da morCilebis etiketi~, 60-70-iani wlebis aq warmodgenilma sametapianma polemikam mwvaved dasva qarTuli kulturis antitotalitaruli imunitetis sakiTxi. polemikis monawileTa
mosazrebebis ignorireba ki, dRevandelobis gadasaxedidan,
TviT amgvari imunitetis SesaZleblobis uaryofa iqneboda.

literatura
asaTiani 1982: asaTiani g. saTaveebTan. Tb. 1982.
asaTiani 2001: asaTiani g. mosazrebani da winaswarmetyvelebani.
gaz. `Cveni mwerloba~. 2001. 16-23 XI.
bregvaZe 1968: bregvaZe b. mcdari Tvalsazrisi. J. `ciskari~. 1968. 7# .
gamsaxurdia 1991: gamsaxurdia z. werilebi. eseebi. Tb. 1991.
elioti 1989: elioti T. tradicia da pirovnuli niWiereba. eseebi. Targm. p. da r. CxeiZeebis. Tb. 1989.
TayaiSvili 1963: wasaSleli striqonebi. J. `ciskari~. 1963. 1
# .
TayaiSvili 1968: ena Zveli, ena axali. J. `ciskari~. 1968, 8
# .
TvaraZe 1968: TvaraZe r. maT SesaZleblobebze skeptikurad yurebis dasturi. J. `ciskari~. 1968. 6
# .
TvaraZe 1997: TvaraZe r. gadasaxedi. Tb. 1997.

194

nona kupreiSvili

TvaraZe 2001: TvaraZe r. legenda gakaltionis cxovrebisa. Tb.


2001.
literaturis Teoria 2006: kvaWantiraZe m. enis semiologiuri
kvlevis meTodologiisaTvis. Tb. 2006.
jguburia 1988: jguburia m. saubrebi akaki gawereliasTan. gaz.
`literaturuli saqarTvelo~. 1988. 6-VI.
WilaZe WilaZe o. `bednieri tanjuli~. Tb.
2000: . . . 2000.
1989: . `1984` .
`1984`. . . 1989.
1989: . . . 1989.
2004: .
, 2004, 67.

195

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`qalaqi, sadac ver ipoves


adamiani~

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis


humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis
kvlevebis fakultetis
doqtoranti;
interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba,
kritika, semiotika.

da Tqua: nu rai, ufalo, ukueTu vityodi


merme erTgzis-Ra
da ipovnen Tu aTni? da Tqua: ara warvwymido aTTaTvis.
(dabadeba, 18; 32)

mxatvruli teqsti metad Ria da, amave


dros, daxuruli mocemulobaa. misi wakiTxva SesaZlebelia uamrav konteqstSi (an
sulac ukonteqstod); amasTan, ar arsebobs dadgenili formula, romlis mixedviTac danamdvilebiT amoicnoba ama Tu im
teqstis Sina arsi; Sesabamisad, mravalgvaria teqstis dekodirebis modelic; Tumca, danamdvilebiT mainc veravin ityvis
(maT Soris, Tavad avtoric), rom sabolood amoxsna mxatvruli teqstis saidumlo.
literaturis mTeli mimzidvelobac albaT swored esaa amocnobis, bolomde
wvdomis momnusxveli SeuZlebloba...
yvela teqsts (miT ufro, mxatvruls)
Tavisi xibli aqvs, magram gamorCeulad sainteresoa teqsti, romelic recipientis
epoqaSi iqmneba da romlis Rirebulebaca
da adgilic sxva teqstebs Soris, faqtobrivad, araa gansazRvruli (es droisa da
epoqis prerogativaa). aseT SemTxvevaSi,
Tanabaria Tavisuflebisa da pasuxismgeblobis xarisxi (xelovnebisa da masTan dakavSirebuli pasuxismgeblobis problema

196

cira kilanava

Zalze Rrmad da sainteresod aqvs gaanalizebuli mixail baxtins).


es werili exeba Tanamedrove qarTveli poetis giorgi zanguris - leqss - ,,qalaqi, sadac (2005 w.), romelsac sruli saxiT
warmovadgenT:
binZuri xalxiT dasaxlebul teritorias
qalaqs, romelsac daungries sicilis skola,
sizmris moyolad gaumxiles mters istoria
da yovel Rames tradiciad gadeqca srola;
sadac kargaven megobrebi Zmobis SegrZnebas
da poetebi ganTiadebs aRar xvdebian,
sadac qalisTvis siyvarulis axsna Segrcxveba
da loloebi maisSiac aRar dnebian.
nagavsayrelze rom Sexvdeba gogonas biWi,
yvavilis nacvlad rom miarTmevs gatexil sarkes...
iq, sadac kvdeba mijnurebSi alersis niWi
da buxars SeSad ukeTeben balzaks da markess.
qalaqs, romelsac sasaflaos galavani aqvs
da mtredebs Wamen, ise SiaT dakargva rwmenis,
Rame kaxpebiT datvirTuli qaravania,
sadac sicocxle sulelia, sikvdili brZeni.
sadac yovelTvis saubroben Zalian cotas,
magram nervebiT, erTmaneTis zizRiT, xmamaRla,
sadac sikeTe gamocdaze abarebs codvas
da siymawvile naoWebma mtverSi damarxa.
aseT qalaqSi Semofrinda zafxulis macne,
peplebis gundiT, yvavilebis lurji niaviT,
iwriales da saRamomde verafriT gaZles
qalaqSi, sadac ver ipoves adamiani.
leqsi, struqturuli da Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT, or
araTanabar nawilad iyofa: pirvel monakveTSi (5 strofi) aRwerilia qalaqi, xolo meore monakveTSi (bolo, me-6, strofi)
movlena, romelic am qalaqis cxovrebaSi gansakuTrebuli da sabediswero aRmoCnda.

`qalaqi, sadac ver i poves adamiani~

197

qalaqis saxeSi (sainteresoa, rom es araa geografiuli aRwera) yvelaze metad ori maxasiaTebeli iqcevs yuradRebas: esaa
binZuri xalxiT dasaxlebuli teritoria, romelsac ,,sasaflaos galavani aqvs, anu qalaqis, rogorc gansakuTrebuli sivrcis,
aRmniSvnelad aq gvevlineba neitraluri (da, mocemul konteqstSi, negatiuri) sityva teritoria, romelic SemosazRvrulia
sasaflaos galavniT, e.i. am adgils garesamyarosgan mijnavs sikvdili. Sesabamisad, amgvarad izolirebuli sivrcidan Tavis daRweva gulisxmobs im zRvris gadalaxvas, romelic qveynierebas
or (am da im) nawilad yofs. amitomac logikuria, vifiqroT, rom
qalaqis mcxovrebTagan aravin gasula Caketili wridan. magram,
rogorc Cans, galavani arc sxvaobs imisgan, rasac sazRvravs,
radgan principulad erTi da igivea sasaflao (mkvdarTa qalaqi) da qalaqi (nekropolisi), romelic leqsSi ixateba. es, arsebiTad, TviTizolaciaa (teqstSi, faqtobrivad, arc Cans wuxili
arsebuli viTarebis gamo; aravin ganicdis saSinelebas, romelsac Taobebi erTgvari ritualurobiT ewirebian msxverplad).
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom esaa sikvdiliT garemoculi masis veluri
swrafva TviTganadgurebisken. sulieri TvalsazrisiT, namdvili sasaflao swored qalaqia. amitomac, sikvdili aqedan gasvla
ki ar aris, aramed aq darCena.
qalaqSi mcxovrebT avtori aRniSnavs markeriT - binZuri xalxi, romlis calkeul jgufebsac warmoadgenen megobrebi, poetebi, mijnurebi... mocemul SemTxvevaSi, es leqsikuri erTeulebi sakuTar mniSvnelobaTa antonimebad warmogvidgebian (magaliTad, sityva ,,megobars aq araviTari saerTo ar aqvs Tavis SinaarsTan...) da kaxpebi; xolo ,,binZuri, garegnul mxareze metad, swored Sinagani samyaros maxasiaTeblad gvevlineba.
sagulisxmo faqtia is, rom TiTqmis yvela asakobrivi kategoriis CamonaTvalSi erTxelac ar figurirebs bavSvi/bavSvoba, sityva ,,adamiani ki leqsSi Cndeba erTaderTxel (ukanasknel
striqonSi) da isic uaryofiTi konteqstiT: ,,qalaqSi, sadac ver
ipoves adamiani.
rogorc ukve aRiniSna, mTeli teqsti (bolo strofis gamoklebiT) qalaqis aRweras eTmoba, magram aris erTi (rigiT meore) striqoni, romelSic Cans tragikuli istoriis dasawyisi. qalaqis qceva usaxur teritoriad, faqtobrivad, swored aqedan
iwyeba. amasTan, esaa erTaderTi striqoni, romelSic zmnas subieqtad ewyoba sxva/sxvebi (kompoziciuri, simetriuli da wminda azrobrivi TvalsazrisiT, am figurasTan uSualo kavSirs

198

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qmnis bolo strofis zafxulis macne, rogorc Tvisebrivad sxva,


ucxo).
am sazareli sivrcis istoriaSi mxolod orjer Caerevian garedan (es momentebi formobrivadacaa naCvenebi teqstis pirvel
da bolo, e.i. sasazRvro, strofebSi maTi warmodgeniT). [istoriis] dasawyisad gvevlineba ngreva (qalaqs, romelsac daungries sicilis skola, rasac mohyveba sizmris moyolad mtrisTvis
istoriis gamxela), mis dasasrulad ki iqceva sulieri aRdgomis
Jamis dadgoma (aseT qalaqSi Semofrinda zafxulis macne). orive momenti qalaqSi sxvis, ucxos Semosvlas, qmedebas ukavSirdeba. Tu pirveli SemTxveva dacemis sawindari xdeba, meore aRdgomis, ganaxlebis dasabamad unda iqces, magram mxolod tragikul dasasrulad formdeba, riTac sabolood mTavrdeba mTeli istoria.
ratom xdeba ase?
cxovrebis stilis mixedviT, am qalaqSi ori tipis simptomTan gvaqvs saqme:
I tipis simptomebi wesad qceuli movlenebi:
a) yovelRameuli srola;
b) poetebi ganTiadebs aRar xvdebian;
g) loloebi maisSiac aRar dnebian;
d) buxars cecxlad ukeTeben balzaks da markess;
II tipis simptomebi faseulobaTa kargva:
a) kargaven megobrebi Zmobis SegrZnebas;
b) qalisTvis siyvarulis axsna Segrcxveba;
g) kvdeba mijnurebSi alersis niWi...
am ori jgufisgan gancalkevebiT dgas erTi gansakuTrebiT
STambeWdavi saxe: [da] mtredebs Wamen, ise SiaT dakargva rwmenis
(es erTgvari reminescenciaa pirvelyofili sazogadoebis sajaro totemisturi nadimobebisa). amasTan, igi, faqtobrivad, zemoT warmodgenil orive jgufSi Sedis (mtredebis Wama tradiciad qceuli movlenaa; rwmenis dakargva ki am qalaqSi jerac SiaT). sakuTar TavSi religiuri sawyisis moSTobis es cxoveluri
moTxovnileba sazarelia Tavisi saxeobrivi naturalizmiT: sakraluris desakralizeba aq Sesabamisi sityvieri formuliTaa

`qalaqi, sadac ver i poves adamiani~

199

gadmocemuli: mtredis/suliwmindis saxeSi saWmlis/xorcis


danaxviTa da rwmenis dakargvis mxecuri SimSiliT adamianebi
RvTaebrivs yvelaze mdabali instinqtiT ,,eziarebian.
swored am centraluri simboluri saxiT aixsneba istoriis
aseTi finali.
sazogadod, teqstSi istoriis sami saxea warmodgenili:
1. qalaqis dacemamdeli warsuli sizmris moyolad gaumxiles mters istoria;
2. qalaqis dacemis istoria mTeli leqsiT gadmocemuli;
3. metaistoria, romelSic unda CarTuliyo da ver CaerTo
qalaqi (zafxuli, rogorc maradiuli sicocxlisa da esqatologiur momavalTan dakavSirebuli simbolo).
amaTgan pirveli, faqtobrivad, dakargulia (xsovnaSi SemorCenilia mxolod misi gamxelis ambavi); mesame yofierebis miRma
da maRla mdgomia, xsovnaSi wamierad gaelvebuli; es yvelaferi
ki moTxrobilia meore saxis istoriiT, rogorc sulierad
mkvdari qalaqis cocxali matianiT.
teqstSi warmodgenilia saintereso simetriuli qronotopuli modeli: sivrce aRniSnulia oTxi sityviT: teritoria, qalaqi, nagavsayreli da gansakuTrebiT aqcentirebuli wevr-kavSiriT sadac, dro ki markirebulia aseve oTxgvarad, sityvebiT: Rame, maisi, zafxuli, saRamo.
orive jgufSi Semavali leqsikuri erTeulebi or qvejgufad
iyofa:
sivrce: a) teritoria, qalaqi, nagavsayreli; b) sadac;
dro: a) Rame, maisi, saRamo;
b) zafxuli.
jgufebs Soris mimarTeba paradigmatul-sintagmaturia: a
jgufSi gaerTianebuli erTeulebi qmnian erT saxeobriv sistemas (met-naklebad konkretuli SinaarsiT), b jgufSi warmodgenili erTeulebi ki, TavianTi simboluri denotatebiT (esaa maTi erTaderTi mniSvneloba) maTs opoziciur mxares. sxva sityvebiT, sivrcis imgvari aRsaniSni, rogoricaa sityva sadac, gulisxmobs mxatvruli saxis (mocemul SemTxvevaSi, qalaqis) ganzogadebas, gaucxoebas, abstrahirebas da igi ar mianiSnebs geografiul mocemulobaze; xolo drois is markeri, romelic
leqsSia mocemuli (zafxuli) qristianuli religiisTvis (da uZveles xalxTa warmodgenebSic) tradiciuli binaruli opoziciis zamTar-zafxulis simbolikiT aixsneba.
bunebrivia, pirvel qvejgufTa sityvebsac aqvT TavianTi simboluri mniSvnelobebi (gansakuTrebuli siRrmiT drois aR-

200

cira kilanava

mniSvnelT), magram meore qvejgufTa sityvebi swored imiT gamoirCevian, rom maTi interpretacia SesaZlebelia mxolod simbolur doneze, empiriuli Sinaarsisgan damoukideblad.
sazogadod, qalaqis, rogorc gansakuTrebuli sivrcis, simboluri mniSvneloba gamorCeulad or kulturul arealSi Camoyalibda: antikur da bibliur samyaroebSi. pirvelSi igi daukavSirda polisis fenomens (da Sesabamisad, saxelmwifoebriv
azrovnebas), meoreSi ki gamovlinda antinomiuri wyvilis saxiT,
romlis erT mxares codvis qalaqTa (babilonis, sodomisa da gomoris), meore mxares ki zeciuri, maradiuli qalaqis (ierusalimis) figurebi idga. gansxvavebuli iyo, agreTve, moqalaqis
cnebac (erT SemTxvevaSi igi uSualod socialur konteqsts gulisxmobda, meore SemTxvevaSi ki religiurs).
am TvalsazrisiT, uaRresad sainteresoa qalaqTa daarsebisa da ganadgurebis Sesaxeb antikuri da qristianuli warmodgenebis analizi (magram es metad kompleqsuri problemaa da masze
aq aRar visaubrebT).1
qristianuli tradiciis Sesabamisad, udabnoisa qalaqmyofloba simbolurad demonur sivrceSi RvTaebrivi wesrigis damyarebas niSnavda (antinomiuri wyvili udabno-qalaqi) da amgvari Rvawlis winasaxed udabnoSi macxovris gasvla iqna miCneuli.
Zveli aRTqmis doneze ki daviT mefsalmunis mimarTvaSi ierusalimisadmi (fs., 136, 5) erTdroulad konkretuli qalaqic iqna
moazrebuli da zeciuri qalaqis arqetipic:
ukueTu dagiviwyo Sen, ierusalem, daiviwyen marjueneca Ce2
mi!
Camoyalibda religiur da saxelmwifoebriv centrTa (gamorCeul da wminda qalaqTa) kultura; kacobriobis istoriaSi Sevida araerTi gansakuTrebuli qalaqis saxeli3 ...
CvenTvis saintereso kuTxiT, msoflio literaturis isto______________________________
K1 ,,simboloTa sistemaSi, kulturis istoriaSi rom gamomuSavda, gansakuTrebul
adgils ikavebs qalaqi. amasTan, gamosayofia qalaqis semiotikis ori mTavari
sfero: qalaqi, rogorc sivrce da qalaqi, rogorc saxeli (...
( . C. .
). -, 2004. gv. 320).
2
maTes saxarebis mixedviT ki, codviT dacemuli ierusalimis saxe ikveTeba
misdami qristes mimarTvaSi: ,,ierusalem, ierusalem, winaswarmetyvelTa
mkvlelo da Sendami movlinebulTa qvebiT Camqolvelo!.. (maTe, 23, 37).
3
am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa XX saukunis cnobili arqiteqturuli
eqperimentis gaxsenebac. saqme exeba braziliis, rogorc momavlis qalaqis,
Senebis ideas. amis Sesaxeb sagangebod saubrobs umberto eko Tavis wignSi (.
., ( ), -, Symposium, 2006).

`qalaqi, sadac ver i poves adamiani~

201

riaSi mniSvnelovania utopiur an abstraqtul qalaqTa saxeebi


(Sua saukuneebis teqstebSi asaxuli qalaqebi STagonebulia, rogorc wesi, swored religiur qalaqTa simboluri mniSvnelobebiT); simbolisti avtorebis leqsTa ciklebi (soflisa da qalaqis diqotomiiT); dasavlur da aRmosavlur kinematografSi asaxuli qalaqebi, XX saukunis meore naxevris msoflio prozaSi Seqmnili qalaqTa saxeebi...
giorgi zanguris leqsSi warmodgenili qalaqis saxis interpretireba zemoT CamoTvlil TiTqmis yvela konteqstSia SesaZlebeli; gansakuTrebiT TvalSisacemia misi tipologiuri kavSiri bibliur codvis qalaqebTan, aseve Seqspiris 66-e sonetis
intonaciasTan, rei bredberis romanSi ,,451 farenhaitiT aRweril samyarosTan, eJen ioneskos ,,martorqebTan da a.S.
am momxiblav masStaburobaSi gadasvlamde uTuod marTebulia misi ganxilva, uwinares yovlisa, qarTuli literaturis
konteqstSi, kerZod ki, galaktionis leqsTan (,,i. a. 1916 w.) kavSirSi. maT Soris, faqtobrivad, erTsakunovani droiTi distanciaa; garda amisa, TvalsaCino gansxvavebebi ufro metia, vidre
msgavsebebi. magram am gansxvavebebs (anu daSorebis wertilebs),
rogorc irkveva, erTiani suraTis rekonstruirebisTvis iseTive mniSvnelovani funqciuri datvirTva aqvs, rogoric msgavsebebs (anu Sexvedris wertilebs).
magistraluri xazi, romelic am or teqsts erTmaneTTan arsebiTad akavSirebs, aris uadamiano qalaqis saxe.
galaktionis teqstSi mTel tragizms qmnis bavSvis sikvdilis
daunaxaobiT gamowveuli sazareli gancda (sayovelTao apaTiis saSinelebis verdatevniT SeSlili quCa erTaderT Wirisufalad rCeba), uadamianebo qalaqis sulieri sicariele da usaxuroba; zanguris mier daxatul qalaqSi bavSvis (Tundac, gardacvlilis) xsenebac araa (misi samyaro sicilis skolis nangrevebSia damarxuli). es qalaqi ganwirulia, radgan ver cnobs zecidan mosul macnes; ganwirulia, radgan am qalaqSi, sadac binZuri
xalxi cxovrobs, ar aRmoCnda adamiani (bibliuri sodomisagan
gansxvavebiT):
aseT qalaqSi Semofrinda zafxulis macne,
peplebis gundiT, yvavilebis lurji niaviT,
iwriales da saRamomde verafriT gaZles
qalaqSi, sadac ver ipoves adamiani.
mocemul strofSi leqsikur da azrobriv doneze ramdenime
saintereso paraleli ivleba galaktionis leqsis calkeul sa-

202

cira kilanava

xeebTan: maleniavi lurji niavi - mofrena angelozebi macne


da uadamianebo qalaqi. Tumca, XX saukunis dasawyisisa da XXI saukunis dasawyisis am teqstTa mimarTebis problema mxolod amiT
ar amoiwureba. maT Soris arsebiTi kavSiri urTierTdamokidebulebaSia da ara oden saxeobriv sistemaTa SesabamisobaSi.
sxva sityvebiT marTalia, fragmentuli saxiT, magram mainc SesaZlebelia Tanamedrove qarTul poeziaSi bibliuri modeliT
STagonebuli qalaqis poeturi xatis erTi waxnagis rekonstruireba. kerZod, ,,qalaqi, sadac erTgvari gamoZaxilia (SeiZleba
iTqvas, cariel adgilTa Taviseburi Sevsebac ki) leqsisa ,,i.a,
ufro zustad Tu am ukanasknelSi bavSvis4 aRsasrulia naCvenebi, zanguris leqsi sazareli movlenis Semswre da damviwyebeli qalaqis istoriis dasasruls asaxavs. esaa, faqtobrivad, istoria dacemuli da umomavlo qalaqisa, romelsac moukvda (Tu
romelmac mokla?!) nukrisTvaleba da mimozisTmeba5 bavSvi da
Tavisi cnobierebidan samudamod amoSala, mere ki gamosaxsnelad moevlina zafxulis macne.
leqsSi es saxe gamorCeulia Tavisi bundovanebiT, kodirebulobiT, radgan araa saxeldebuli, masze miniSnebulia mxolod;
naTqvamia, rom igi aris zafxulis macne da qalaqSi peplebis gundiTa da yvavilebis lurji niaviT Semodis. es konteqsti mravalmxriv sagulisxmoa. peplebis, yvavilebisa da niavis qristianuli
simboluri mniSvnelobebi, faqtobrivad, erTmaneTis adekvaturia6 da samive maTgani suls, misi ukvdavebis ideas ukavSirdeba.
______________________________
4

simboloTa enciklopediaSi bavSvis saxis axsnisas swored galaktionis ,,i.a


aris damowmebuli Tomas manis romanTan kavSirSi: ,,saukunovani transformaciis
Semdeg, es saxe-simbolo warmogvidgeba hano budenbrokad (Tomas manis romanis
,,budenbrokebis patara gmiri), romelic adamianis yvelaze saTuT, yvelaze
mtkivan, yvelaze daucvel bunebas ganasaxierebs da iRupeba kidec... gana raRac
msgavsi ganwyoba araa galaktionis leqsSi... hano budenbroki erTgvari
ilustraciaa fridrix nicSes Tezisisa, romlis Tanaxmadac, ,,bavSvi simboloa
asakiT motanili Sinagani ganwmendisa da sisadavis (,,ase ityoda zaratustra),
xolo ,,qristianul ikonografiaSi swored bavSvebad gamoisaxebian marTalTa
sulebi (z. abzianiZe, q. elaSvili. simboloTa ilustrirebuli enciklopedia.
t. I., Tb., 2006 gv. 31-33.)
5
sagulisxmo faqtia is, rom mimozis religiuri simbolizmi aRdgomis rwmenaSi
mdgomareobs (dasax. naSr., gv. 108).
6
simboluri saxismetyvelebiT, pepela sulis gansaxierebaa (berZnulad es sityva
imavdroulad sulsac aRniSnavda), yvavilis simbolika ki dabadebis, sicocxlis,
sikvdilisa da aRorZinebis maradiul wrebrunvas ukavSirdeba, xolo niavi
suliwmindis gamovlinebis erTerTi saxea. zedmetic kia imis Tqma, rom lurji
feri uSualod zecas miemarTeba.

`qalaqi, sadac ver i poves adamiani~

203

mocemul konteqstSi igi gaTavisuflebis, rogorc umaRlesi Rirebulebis, konceptiTaa gaSinaarsebuli da mimarTulia
sxvaTa (mkvdarTa qalaqSi darCenilebis) xsnisken.7 magram qalaqi ver cnobs zafxulis macnes, romlis saxec uSualod uflis
angelozs ukavSirdeba; 8 usaSvelobis tragizmi ki gansakuTrebuli simwvaviT Cans sityvebSi: ,,iwriales da saRamomde verafriT gaZles...
Tu galaktionis teqstSi nawarmoebis eTikur centrad bavSvis figura moiazreba (movlenebi swored mis garSemo viTardeba), zanguris teqstSi amgvari centri ar arsebobs; galaktionis teqstSi erTiani siuJeturi xazia warmodgenili, maSin roca
zangurTan ambavi, rogorc aseTi, mxolod teqstis dasasruls
iwyeba da maSinve wydeba
qalaqis saxis or fazas Soris (warsuli da axlandeloba) mniSvnelovan sxvaobas qmnis, agreTve, xmis, rogorc niSnis, orgvaroba: pirvel SemTxvevaSi mis aRmniSvnelad gvevlineba kivili
(,,SeSlili saxiT kioda quCa) da simRera (,,da gaismoda debis simRera), meore SemTxvevaSi ki xmamaRali saubari (,,sadac yovelTvis saubroben Zalian cotas, magram nervebiT, erTmaneTis zizRiT, xmamaRla).
orivegan erTia xedvis rakursi esaa miwidan danaxuli samyaro (,,mofrindnen lurji angelozebi// ,,Semofrinda zafxulis macne); xazgasmulia zecisa da miwis tradiciuli binaruli
opoziciis principuli mniSvneloba.9
magram Tu galaktionis leqsSi mtvriani qalaqis sapirispiro
mniSvnelobis sivrced sofelic moiazreba (,,mzeze yvaoda soflad
aluCa), zanguris teqstSi es alternativa moxsnilia; zafxulis
(simboluri SinaarsiT, igive gazafxulis) dadgoma arc ki igrZnoba (,,loloebi maisSiac aRar dnebian), aq aravin iyureba cisken...
______________________________
7

,,qalaqSi Sesvlisa da misi ,,xsnis, sikvdilis daZlevisa da gamarjvebis


(triumfis) metaforebze saubaria freidenbergis mravalmxriv saintereso
wignSi ,,siuJetisa da Janris poetika (. . .
( . . . ). . 1997.).
8
qristianuli saRvTo simbolizmis mixedviT, es saxe, amavdroulad,
suliwmindasac ukavSirdeba, romlis xiluli gansaxovneba, mtredi, ,,uZvelesi
droidan iTvleboda RvTaebrivi siwmindisa da umankoebis simbolod. masSi
xedavdnen zeciur macnes, erTgvar ,,kuriers adamiansa da ufals Soris (z.
abzianiZe, q. elaSvili., simboloTa ilustrirebuli enciklopedia. t. I., Tb., 2006
gv. 153).
9
,,miwieri cxovreba upirispirdeba zeciurs, rogorc droebiTi maradiuls da
ara sivrcobrivi TvalsazrisiT... geografia warmodgeba rogorc eTikuri
codnis nairgvaroba (... (
. C. . ). -, 2004. gv. 298).

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swored amitom misTvis ucxo da sabolood ganuxorcielebelia maradiuli ga]zafxulis sixarulis SegrZneba.
sazogadod, saanalizo teqstis ZiriTad pasaJTa ganxilva da
arsebiTi problemis dadgena TavisTavad ukve ayalibebs daskvnebs. amasTan, miRebul Sedegebs, gansakuTrebuli formulirebis saxiT, mkiTxvels sagangebodac Seaxseneben. mocemul SemTxvevaSi, etiketis dacvis aucileblobaze maRla usaTuod dgas
dafiqreba abraamisa da uflis dialogSi sodomis gadasarCenad
dasmul ukanasknel kiTxvaze.

205

malxaz xarbedia

cinikuri sibrZne

ilia WavWavaZis saxelmwifo universitetis


humanitarul mecnierebaTa da kulturis
kvlevebis fakultetis
doqtoranti,
SoTa
rusTavelis literaturis institutis TanamSromeli. Jurnal
`cxeli Sokoladis~
literaturuli redaqtori.
ZiriTadi naSromebi:
galaktionis qalaquri
teqsti, poeturi narcisizmi da interteqstualoba, `piradi biblioTeka~ (esseebi).
interesTa sfero: literaturaTmcodneoba,
kritika, mxatvruli
Targmani.

Field Guide to Melancholy


by Jacky Bowring
melanqoliis gzamkvlevi
jeki bauringi
melanqoliam SeiZleba sistemis srul
efemerizaciamde da nebismieri socialuri institutis uaryofamde migviyvanos, da
es iqneba saukeTeso gamosavali Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi.
besik xaranauls aqvs aseTi striqonebi:
`rac moiwyine, mas Tavidan veRar moiwyen
da axali mosawyeni unda e Zio, erT mowyenaSi orjer ver Sexval...~. 200-ze meti wlis
win kidev erTma besikma dawera: `sevdis
baRs Sevel SenaRonebi: mokrefad msurda
vardis konebi~. aseTi magaliTebis moyvana qarTuli sityvierebidan usasrulod
SeiZleba, rac jeki bauringis ideas adasturebs imis Taobaze, rom sevda yvela enaze srulyofilad gamoixateba da misTvis
aRmosavleT-dasavleTisa Tu sxva kulturuli cnebebi sulerTia.
sevda, melanqolia universaluri movlenaa. yvela erTia, franguli ennui da
germanuli Weltschmerz, Cinelebis bei qiu da
iaponelTa kanashii, portugaliuri saudade
da rusuli , espanuri duende da Turquli hzn.
qarTul enaSic mravalnairad gamoixa-

206

malxaz xarbedia

teba melanqolia: mowyeniloba, Wmunva, naRveli, sevda... cota


sxva rames niSnavs dardi da mwuxareba, aseve javri, uguneboba,
daRrejiloba, urva da daRoneba, Tumca es sityvebi mainc melanqoliis im did sityvier wreSi Tavsdeba, romelic adamianis fsiqikur mdgomareobasac gamoxatavs da kulturulsac.
Tanamedrove fsiqiatrebi am movlenas paTologiur danakliss (abnormal bereavement) uwodeben, an fsiqotur depresias (psychotic depression), da es cnebebi, jeki bauringis azriT, Zalian mouqnelia imisTvis, raTa `adamianuri arsebobis umdidresi ganzomileba~ gamoxatos da marTlac, SeuZlebelia am orma muSa
terminma Tundac erTi waxnagi moicvas im nayofieri mdgomareobisa, romelsac sevda hqvia. jeki bauringi melanqoliis namdvili advokatia, igi uars ambobs am simdidris medikalizaciaze da
mkveTrad acalkevebs mas depresiisgan. igi ar iTvaliswinebs melanqoliisa da glovis froidiseul opozicias, sadac melanqolia gaigeboda, rogorc raRac statikuri mdgomareoba, romelic nebismieri ganviTarebis blokirebas axdenda. piriqiT, melanqolia am wignSi kreativs utoldeba, igi STagonebis wyaroa,
winsvlis sawindari. avtori, romelic, ukve ramdenime weliwadia
baRebze, peizaJis arqiteqturaze da mogonebaTa surnelebze
wers, `melanqolias~ CauRrmavda da mTeli wigni dawera am sulier mdgomareobaze. aqamde, roca saubari melanqoliaze Camovardeboda, yvela, rogorc wesi, XVII saukunis erTi bejiTi ingliselis, robert bartonis gigantur naSroms, 1500 gverdian The
Anatomy of Melancholy-s ixsenebda xolme. axla ki ukve 240-gverdiani, lakonuri, moqnili da Tanamedrove kvleva gvaqvs, sadac
pliniusis gaqanebis mqone swavlulis nacvlad, axalgazrda mecnieri gvesaubreba Tanamedroveobaze.
bevrs SeiZleba, gaukvirdes, ram ganapiroba Cemi es arCevani.
Cemi azriT, dRes swored melanqoliis deficiti igrZnoba Cvens
mediateroristul qveyanaSi. dRes, roca, erTi mxriv, sworxazovneba da rkinis mizanmimarTuleba mefobs, meore mxares ki,
depresiiTa da SiSiT dauZlurebuli adamianebi dganan, melanqolia erT-erT yvelaze naTel mdgomareobad rCeba, romelic
Seanelebda drois msvlelobas da mogvcemda sagnebSi SeRwevis
saSualebas. sevda axalisebs warmosaxvas da sxva kuTxiT gvanaxebs yvelafers, rac irgvliv xdeba, igi istoriasac axleburad
gvakiTxebs.
flobers uTqvams Tavis `salamboze~: `cota vinme Tu xvdeba,
ramxela sevda damWirda, raTa karTageni aRmedgina~-o. mis gar-

cinikuri sibrZne

207

da, kidev Zalian bevri xelovani SeiZleba CamovTvaloT, vinc


Wmunvas iyo da aris ayolili. kinoSi antonioni, bergmani da tarkovski, mxatvrobaSi eduard hoperi da gerhard rixteri. Tanamedrove musikaSi, ra Tqma unda, tom ueitsi da nik qeivi arian
Camomsxdari `wylisa pirsa~, klasikur musikaSi hildegard fon
bingeni, erik sati, olivie mesiani da mesianisve gavleniT dasevdianebuli henrik gurecki (modiT, barem gia yanCelic mivakuTvnoT am melanqolikebs, mere ra, rom stravinskidan moedineba)
da mravali sxv. melanqolia Zalze mravalsaxovania, arsebobs religiuri, erotiuli, nostalgiis melanqolia, anda sulac `heroikuli melanqolia~, ris saukeTeso Tanamedrove nimuSadac
jeki bauringi betmens miiCnevs.
me rom mkiTxos kacma, melanqolia mTlianad momavalzea mimarTuli, miuxedavad imisa, rom fsiqologebi warsulis verdaZlevas ukavSireben am paToss. CemTvis igi winaaRmdegobaa, uaryofa, gnebavT, politikuri brZolis erT-erTi saSualeba (gaixseneT valter beniaminis `memarcxene melanqolia~). melanqolia
xSirad cinikuri sibrZnea, uZalo adamianTa mTavari iaraRi, romelmac SeiZleba sistemis srul efemerizaciamde da nebismieri
socialuri institutis uaryofamde migviyvanos, da es iqneba saukeTeso gamosavali Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi, saukeTeso pasuxi xelisuflebis im efemerul daTmobebze, komisiebsa da gamoZiebebze, romliTac savsea qarTuli satelevizio media. yvelafer amas isev yovliswamlekavi cinikuri melanqolia mirCevnia.

208

nana trapaiZe

teqstis gagebis
Tanamedrove problemebi

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori. baTumis


SoTa rusTavelis saxelmwifo universitetis ufrosi maswavlebeli.
ZiriTadi Sromebi:
,,droisa da sivrcis
xedva-gancda n.baraTaSvilis SemoqmedbaSi~, ,,baZvis filosofiuri koncepti da misi
rusTveluri interpretacia~, ,,n.baraTaSvilis filosofiuri
narativi~, Wkvianisa~
da zemxedveli cnobierebis~ binaruli opozicia, ,,g. tabiZe klasikur da modernistul
paradigmaTa konteqstSi.
interesTa sfero: literaturis Teoria,
kritika, sicocxlis
filosifia.

literatura im siaxleebiT, rogorc is


dRes qarTul sinamdvileSi Tavis Tavs
warmoadgens da misi gageba-wakiTxvis meTodebi xSirad ar Seesatyviseba erTmaneTs. jer kidev muSaobs wakiTxvis stereotipi, romelic azrovnebis klasikur paradigmebs efuZneba. es stereotipi garkveul gemovnebas, pozicias axmovanebs da
igi, rogorc wesi, skeptikuria axali paradigmebisa da gemovnebis mimarT, da saerTod gamotovebs an ugulebelyofs im
cvlilebebs, romelic adamiansa da samyaros Soris damokidebulebis sferoSi
moxda da mimdinareobs.
nebismieri stereotipi Tu gemovneba
WeSmaritebis Tavisebur gagebas gulisxmobs. WeSmaritebis is gageba, romelsac
klasikuri azrovneba gvTavazobda, gagebis Tavissave gzebsa da meTodebsac gamoimuSavebda...
magram adamianis mier samyaros gagebisa da TviTgagebis konceptualuri cvlilebebis pirobebSi dasturdeba acdena
WaSmaritebasa da meTods, azrsa da gagebas Soris. warmoiSva acdenebi enasa da
sagnebs, enasa da azrs Soris.
am cvlilebebs win uZRvis sociokulturul sinamdvileSi mimdinare procesebi, msoflmxedvelobrivi gardatexebi,
cxovrebis wesisa da misi RirebulebiTi
prioritetebis gadaxedva. am Tvalsazri-

teqstis gagebis Tanamedrove problemebi

209

siT qarTuli sinamdvile sakmaod ekleqtikur suraTs qmnis, rac


gansazRvravs kidec Tanamedrove qarTuli literaturuli procesebis mTel specifikas..
teqstis analizis gavrcelebuli stereotipis mixedviT (romelic, erTi mxriv, tradiciul meTodologias efuZneba, xolo,
meore mxriv, xSirad arc axal meTodebs usaxavs raime axal miznebs), Tavad teqsti meorad poziciebze gadadis. igi Teoriuli
planis, msoflmxedvelobrivi da ideologiuri konteqstebis
ilustracia xdeba xolme. cxadia, mniSvnelovania gareteqstobrivi indikatorebi, romlebic uzrunvelyofen teqstis gagebas,
magram aris sxva alternativac avxsnaT teqsti Tavisi Tavisagan, rac niSnavs SevcvaloT veqtori, anu teqsti mivmarToT gareteqstobrivi realobebisaken da ara piriqiT.
nebismieri dialogi, maT Soris teqstTan (Tu teqstTa Soris)
dialogi eqspliciturad arasodes miuTiTebs Tavis Tavze, amdenad aq vdgebiT sirTulis (albaT uxerxulobisa da riskis) winaSec, isaubro dumilze da Tan araferi daaklo mis metyvelebas.
sxvagvarad: dialogi teqstTan SeiZleba aRiniSnos rogorc
aRmqmel subieqtsa da teqsts Soris xelisCamorTmevis aqti. es
metafora gamoxatavs im intimur Sinaarssac, romelmac TviTon
Sexvedris faqti gansazRvra da romelic amasTan Tavsac iTavisuflebs sakuTari Tavis Sesaxeb raime daSifruli komentarisagan, verbaluri axsnisagan. igi SeiZleba iyos garkveuli gageba,
romelic win uswrebs Tavad gagebis aqts, Taviseburi inteleqtualuri teritoriac, gnebavT poziciac, romelic aq da axla
SeiZleba warmosdges, rogorc erTgvari eqsperimenti.
Tanamedrove cxovrebis dinamiurobaSi cxovrebis gancdac
aramdgradia da igi SexebaTa myisierobaSi samyaros, sakuTari
Tavis gacnoba-daviwyebis permanentul process warmoadgens.
amdenad, Cveni epoqis niSnuli mdgradi da sando garantiebis Seqmnaa, romelSic adamians dasvenebisa da Secdomebis, anu adamianad yofnis ufleba eqneboda.. Sesabamisad, mTeli Tanamedrove
sociokulturuli sinamdvile SeTanxmebaTa rTuli sistemaa,
romelic gazRvevs adamianad yofnis safrTxeebisagan. dazRveva Tanamedrove humanizmia, risTvisac winaswar ixdi.
stabilurobac konvenciaa, romelic mudmivad Segvaxsenebs
Tavis politikur da ekonomikur pirobiTobas msoflio mSvidobisa da adamianis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis fundamenturi

210

nana trapaiZe

principebis (da)rRvevebis winaSe. magram saqme isaa, rom pirobiToba, konvenciuroba am sociokulturuli garemos TviTgaformebis safuZvelmdebare principia. feodalur-klasobrivi vertikali saxelSekrulebo horizontaliT Seicvala. adamiani nebismier SemTxvevaSi tyvea... Sesabamisad, cnobiereba ,,Zvel sinamdvileSi moiTxovda garemoebaTa ,,vertikalur analizs, mis
amocnobas, xolo ,,axal sinamdvileSi igive procesi mimarTulia ganfenilobiTi poziciiT SeTanxmebaTa da pirobiTobaTa semiotikuri Sinaarsis gagebisaken.
politikuri da ekonomikuri sistema, rogorc SeTanxmebaTa
da pirobiTobaTa sistema, sociokulturul sinamdviles am sistemisTvis maorganizebli semiotikuri da komerciuli standartiT adgens da aformebs.. is, rom adamiani politikuri cxovelia, am sistemaSi absoluturi mniSvnelobisaa. mteri da moyvare, rogorc urTierTpoziciuri mdgomareoba, imTaviTve politikuri opoziciebia, romelic saWiroebda enobriv gaSualebas,
semiotikur pirobiTobaTa sistemurobas, rogorc garkveul kodur mocemulobas, romelic funqciurad aqtiurdeba komunikaciis procesSi. maSasadame, ,,mtrisa da ,,moyvris (o)poziciur acdenebSi semiotikuri sistema stabilurobis garantad avlens Tavs. aqedan, ena orientirebuli xdeba aRweros, aRniSnos
acdenaTa sinamdvile, rogorc globaluri eqsistencialuri simarTle adamianisa da samyaros damokidebulebaTa Sesaxeb.
radganac Tanamedrove samyaro politikuri gamWolobis ukidures xarisxs atarebs, aqadan, enac totalurad politikuria,
anu igi gvaqvemdebarebs politikis yvela semiotikur kanonsa
da kodur sistemas, romelic Cven mier mxolod komunikaciis aqtSi cnobierdeba. ena saukeTeso maswavlebelia, romelic flobs
sibrZnes cnobierebisa da sagnebis, cnobierebisa da mexsierebis istoriuli da empiriuli kavSirebis Sesaxeb. enis floba am
kavSirTa dafarva-gacxadebis saidumlos flobaa da igi xelovnebis privilegiaa.
aqedan, literaturaSic, sagnobrivi da arasagnobrivi realobebi tradiciuli simboloebis nacvlad (romlis TviTdamokidebuleba idumalebaa da SiSi ar gacxaddes saidumlo metafora), aRiwerebian niSnebiT, romlebic gamoxataven saganTa gamoxatvis pirobiTobas, moklebulni arian yovelgvar misticizms
da atarebs komunikaciuri marcxis srul cnobierebas, aseve SemoqmedebiT infantilizms yovelgvari mozeime ganwyobilebis
mimarT raime erTmniSvnelovani racionaluri sazrisis, logo-

211

teqstis gagebis Tanamedrove problemebi

sisa da absoluturi WeSmaritebis flobis Sesaxeb (es marcxi da


infantilizmi ironiulad miemarTeba SemoqmedebiTi triumfisa da seriozulobis tradiciuli poziciebisaken..)
gaucxoeba tovebs ufskruls, magram es ar aris carieli ufskruli, es aris is adgili, sadac acdenaTa napralSi adamianebi
erTmaneTs, an/da sulac sakuTar Tavs gamotoveben. amasTan am
adgilas cnaurdeba moxelTebaTa, dialogTa da gagebaTa myisieroba, romelic bedniereba-ubedurebis empiriul inversiebs
niSnobrivad awarmoebs. es aris maradiuli acdenebis jadosnuri toposi, romelic gvaiZulebs ara ubralod vimoZraoT, aramed vimoZraoT da SevxvdeT sapirispiro mimarTulebiT.
azris simboluri gamoxatvis sapirispirod, niSniT azrovnebas, romelic nacvlad alegoriisa metonimias aqcevs mxatvruli asaxvis mTavar gamomsaxvelobiT strategiad, TamaSebrivi
arasworxazovneba da desakraluroba axasiaTebs. TamaSSi gageba win uswrebs Tavad gagebis aqts, anu gasagebi ukve gagebulia.
amgvar ,,hermnevtikul wreze myofi aRmqmeli gaivlis manZils
subieqtis gagebidan obieqtis gagebamde. miuxedavad SesaZlo gadacdomebisa, Secdomebisa, romelic gagebis dinamikaSi dasaSvebia, es wre, rogorc (avto)komunikaciuri sistemis zrdadi an
mdgradi entropia, aRadgens tradiciis, ganwyobis, avtoritetis uflebebs monawileobdes gagebis aqtSi ise, rom ar axdendes am wris gadagvarebas. is, rom es wre ar gadagvarda, gadameri
haidegers umadlis, romelic am wres, ,,Semecnebis dadebiT pirobad da interpretaciasTan misasvlel erTaderT xerxad miiCnevda.
adamianis Sinagani entropia, romelic Seqcevad da Seuqcevad, zrdad da mudmiv procesTa Sekrul (da ara Caketil) sistemas warmoadgens, proecirebulia poeturi sintaqsis cvlilebaSic ukuqceviTobebSi, subieqt-obieqtis inversiaSi, mag;
,, - ki magram Cven xom miwas davenarcxeT
da mere waviqeciT! Tu waqcevas ar apirebda,
ratom daenarcxa es kaci miwas?
- iciT, es kaci jer mokvda da mere daenarcxa miwas,
d.barbaqaZe,
,,wesrigis damcvelebi

,,ara, isini Cven ar gvTamaSoben

212

nana trapaiZe

***
sityvebi mkvrivdebian, deddebian da movlenebad,
nivTebad da Sexebebad gvibrundebian;
d.barbaqaZe,
,,kristalizebuli sityvebis jami

,,cxovreba grZeldeba warsulisken,


romelic kidev bevr Zvirfas Sexebas gaiyolebs,
erTmaneTiT amoavsebs nivTebs Soris cvalebad
manZils,
erTmaneTSi Caanacvlebs sul sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT
aCqarebul gamocdilebebs
d.barbaqaZe,
,,cudi amindis mere(3)

tradiciuli pirdapiri gza, - sagnidan azrisken da azridan


sityvisaken, aRar muSaobs Tanamedrove poetikaSi, radgan aseTi uSualo gza dakargulia. subieqti da obieqti gaSualebulni
arian cnobierebis intenciiT da gadmoicema niSanTa sistemiT,
romelSic subieqti sakuTari Tavis obieqti xdeba. gagebisa da
komunikaciis aqtis pasuxismgeblobasac niSani atarebs. rac metia amgvari pasuxismgebloba, miT metia komunikaciuri siamovnebis xarisxic. sityva da azri ,,yovel wams ecnobian erTmaneTs
da maSinve iviwyeben erTmaneTs. sityvasa da azrs Soris manZili
dro-sivrcis velze imdenad mcirea, rom gvaiZulebs ori nebismieri TanabarmniSvnelovani WeSmartebis pirispir aRmoCenilebmac ki an erTi virwmunoT an meore. maSasadame erTis ukugdebis xarjze meores mivaniWoT upiratesoba, riTac ganxorcieldeba komunikaciis aqti, xolo procesi SeiZens Tvisebriv da funqcionalur maCvenebels, rogorc xarisxs da rogorc etikets.
komunikaciis procesSi cnobiereba aaqtiurebs pasiuri mexsierebis anu daviwyebaTa sferos da igi iwyebs moZraobas hemenevtikuli wris mTel sigrZeze gaxsenebebisa da cnobisaken, rac
mTavrdeba gagebiT, dialogiT, romelic win uswrebs xolme Tavad moZraobis Sinagan entropias. am moZraobaSi dadasturebu-

teqstis gagebis Tanamedrove problemebi

213

li acdenebi gvaiZuleben gavixsenoT, anu aRvadginoT, gadavweroT dialogi, romelic Cvenamde iyo da ganvaTavsoT igi maradiul awmyoSi.

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ABSTRACTS
Tsira Babrakadze
The Sun Semiotics in Poetry
Davit Guramishvili assumes the existence of two Sun cognitive and odd,
The astronomical planet as well as God metaphor is considered. The conscious
sun is out of sight while the odd one (God) is more inaccessible: Oh! God of
wealth and wisdom and cognition depth! How mysterious are his justice and ways!
(To Romans,12,33).
Marina Tsvetayeva represents two special images of the Sun shining in the
sky and lit up in humans breast.
The poet is microspace and exists by analogy with the world. Eternal events
always represent metaphors of inner feelings senced by the poet.
The Sun as an universal concept and symbol reveals lots of connotations, such
as biblical, archetypical, mythological, astronomical, associational, poetical, and
etc. And what does the Sun denote? Posing astronomical meaning, the Sun is the
yellow star in Milky Way and the centre of Solar System. Celestial objects, even
the Earth, continuously move around the Sun, that is the source of light and warmth...
The Sun influences people as well as the nature while emanating energy of
various speed... Light and magnetism establish the earth forms.
The Sun appears to be the symbol of the space essential contemplating power.
However, ancient pictures of the universe are geocentric, the Sun is the centre of
symbol, the space and existence as well as the symbol of intuitive knowledge,
intelligence, illumination, glory and majesty, sovereignty...Overall, the Sun is an
eye of the universe contemplating the image of divinity, transcendental archetype of light, besides this, demonstrates the door of the universe leading to the
entrance of knowledge and immortality.
The Sun is considered as masculine initiation in many traditions, while some
cultures represent it as feminine phenomenon. Due to Georgian folklore: the Sun
is my mother, the Moon father, flock of stars are my sisters and brothers!
The still sun, that is in the sky, is not concerned about the time while it is
eternal now.
Alchemists consider the Sun in accordance with mind, Sol et Luna gold
and silver, the king and the queen, soul and body...
The Sun adventure (due to the author) is researched in The Sun in The
Knight in the Panthers Skin by Victor Nozadze establishing the Sun according to
the poem in this history. Mentioning this adventure we are concerned about the
Georgian poetic sun with the scope of symbols, metaphors and etc.
The Sun appears to be characters metaphor the Sun is the human in The

215

Knight in the Panthers Skin. This point of view is formed in accordance with
metaphor that the Sun is Gods visible image.
The human is reflection of Gods image, that is the part of the Sun or Gods
part especially the human in love (God is love).We deal with two Sun the SunGod and the Sun-human.
Researching materials reveal the Sun as: God, pagan, deity, life, human, time,
beloved, plant, animal, motherland, Georgia...
Some poets promote individual poetics of the Sun representing their individual
language space.

Konstantine Bregadze
Galaktion and Novalis
1. The point of departure for a comparative analysis of fiction must a priori be
the creative inspiration implicitly presented in the process of creation.
Consequently, a literary study must be focused on revealing in a particular
artistic work the degree of creative reception of impressions received through
aesthetic inspiration and not on a formal search for influences. Therefore,
comparative literary studies must be predominantly aimed at tracing and
unveiling the sources of inspiration and not at indentifying the existing
influences, as it is exactly the hermeneutic of inspirations, and not of
influences, what truly matters in terms of literary investigation.
2. Hence, comparative literary studies must explore two authors of
approximately similar significance representing, consequently, similar literary
trends in typological terms (e.g. Rustaveli and Wolfram von Achenbach,
Novalis and Baratashvili, Galaktion and Georg Trakl, etc.) as well as from
the perspective of aesthetic inspiration (e.g. German romanticists and French
symbolists, French symbolists and Galaktion, etc.), which at the following
stage of study will serve as a precondition to facilitate interpretation and
reception of the original poetic tropology of the authors.
3. Nowadays, it is widely agreed in Galaktion studies that French symbolists
were among the creative inspirers of Galaktions poetry. On the other
hand, less interest is paid to German romanticism as the source of the
Georgian poets creative inspiration.
4. It can be argued with confidence that apart from French symbolism
Galaktions poetry was also inspired by German Romanticism, which is clearly
manifested in his poem `No Minstrel Any More~, as well as other poems
where he straightforwardly refers to `the blue flower~ (die blaue Blume),
the central symbol of one of the founders of German Romanticism and a

216

great Romantic poet Novalis (Friedrich von Hardenberg, 1772-1801). This


poem can be interpreted as an original poetic dedication to Novalis and his
romantic poetry on the one hand and as a conceptual-aesthetic agreement
of German Romanticism and the Galaktions poetry on the other.
5. What Novalis and Galaktions poetic texts have in common is the
understanding of the image of the beloved as the symbol of transcendental
divine reality, which is presumably rooted in Novalis poetic texts (cf.
Galaktions `No Minstrel Any More~, `Who Is This Woman?~, `Sweeping
Wind~, the cycle of poems about Mery and `Novalis Hymns to the Night~).
Another feature that Novalis and Galaktion have in common is the poetic
reception of the cult of the Divine Virgin, Madonna, where the poetic
image of the Mother of God appears as the symbol of divine love and
transcendentalness. Presumably, the origins of the aesthetic inspiration of
this aspect of Galaktions works are likewise to be looked for in Novalis
poetry (cf. Galaktions `Blueness, or A Rose in Sand~, `White Madonna
Followed the Ship~, `Evening~, No Minstrel Any More~ and poetic cycles
of `Hymns to the Night~ and `Spiritual Songs~).
6. Despite the creative inspiration conveyed by Novalis romantic poetry,
Galaktion is original and unique in his poetic intentions, which is attested
by his unparalleled tropology. Galaktions poetic texts must be regarded
as one of the highest manifestations of transcendental poetry.

Irakli Tskhvediani
James Joyces Ulysses: Texture and Structure
The present essay is concerned with the Joycean stream-of-consciousness technique and internal monologue, structural and compositional principles, stylistic devices as manifested in Joyces mock-heroic epic Ulysses.
Symbolic leitmotifs, which can be traced back to Wagners musical drama, became an instrument of material organization in modernist novel in general and in
Ulysses in particular, on its way of classical forms transformation and detachment
from the traditional 19th century realism. The social-historical approach determined
the structure of the 19th century novel to a large degree. Attempts to go beyond its
rigid framework or above its level could not but shatter this structure. Unavoidably
the empirical life material, social material as it is, became more spontaneous and
unorganized, which was compensated by the action becoming internal (inside monologues, stream of consciousness, subconscious complexes) and symbolic, even
mythologically so. The technique of leitmotif and the synthesis of epiphany and

217

melos (the spirit of music) enabled Joyce to transform the chaos of fragmented
texture into a highly organized and structured aesthetic whole.

Tamar Lomidze
The Second Semantics in Poetic Text
For the first time in Georgian literary studies examples of the paronymic attraction have been traced in the poetic texts by Nikoloz Baratashvili, an eminent representative of Georgian romantic poetry.The fact is interesting, because sound organization of poetic texts is not paid much attention to and doesnt take an important
place in Baratashvilis poetry. For example, inexact rhymes are used here systematically and apparently to reject habitual, automatized phonic associations and paradigmatic relations of words. We set a goal to state what relationship might exist
between systematic using of paronymic attraction and systematic usage of inexact
rhymes in Baratashvilis poetry.
Paronymic attraction is a specific linguistic phenomenon. Paronyms and
paronymic attraction are differentiated.Whereas words of similar sounding but of
differing meaning (the so-called omophones) are considered to be paronyms,
paronymic attraction originates when sound coincidence or similarity links parts of
morphemes forming words. For this reason, in each of the words linked with
paronimous attraction, the so-called quasimorpheme (quasi-stem) coexists with
the morpheme with which the meaning of the word is conventionally linked. The
quasimorpheme is identified as a result of partial sound coincidence with some
words. Singling out of quasi-stem causes the creation of a kind of additional `meaning~ in the word. In Baratashvilis works we come across with numerous specimens of paronymic attraction [e.g.: mr mr (aremare - kamaras); chvn shvn
(mechveno mshvenieris); gr kr (gare phikrit); sr zr (esret - sazari); tsvl
tsvr (natsvlad tsvars), etc.], hence, this phenomenon should not be taken for a
casual sound coincidence.
The paper commences with the indication that the harmoniousness of vers is
relegated to the background, semantics being assigned the leading role in
Baratashvilis works. It is not fortuitous that here we find systematically specimens of the use of inexact, unharmonious rhyme. The interrelationship of rhyming
words in inexact rhyme is a syntagmatic union of differing rather than similar (as
it was in the case of exact rhyme) elements. Analoguosly, under the influence of
paronymic attraction, two differing morphemes establish syntagmatic relationship in one and the same word - one of them is the stem of the word, with which
the usual meaning of the word is traditionally connected, while the other is identified through syntagmatic relation of certain elements of this word with elements

218

of some other word (or words). The word becomes equipped with double
semantics, which implies its dual reading. Accordingly, in a particular text too,
in which paronymic attraction occurs, the opportunity arises of dual reading of
this text. Hence, it may be conjectured that the use of paronymic attraction
was due to the same factors that determined the replacement of exact rhyme
with inexact rhyme.
What is this second `text~ that manifests itself in Baratashvilis works?
Does it correspond to Kristevas modern conception of intertextuality? Clearly
enough, this text is not a specimen of citation in the precise sense of this term,
for it is not a mosaic unity of some other particular text (or texts). Nor it is
characterized by clearly defined semantics. In this case a strange, secondary
text that originates as a result of paronymic attraction, is formed of `words~
(quasi-stems), which may have any semantics, as this was effected at the initial
stages of the development of language, when any meaning may have become
linked to any sound complex. Thus, the features of `proto~-speech deposited
in the depth of the unconsciousness manifests itself in this `other~ text. Obviously, the destruction of the conventional meanings of linguistic signs in
Baratashvilis poetry is effected with a special purpose. Its result is the duality
of the semantics of the text, which is directly related to such already established specificities as the split structure of the `self~ of the lyrical character,
mutually opposing characterization of one and the same phenomenon and the
equal rights of differing points of view within the framework of one and the
same text. Hence paronymic attraction should be considered an organic part of
the manner of Baratashvilis works.
Thus, it is shown in the paper that in Georgian romantic poetry, particularly
in that of Baratashvili, a special device of sound organization of text - paronymic
attraction - is made use of; in this case paronymic attraction is pointed to be
used in a new function for destruction of conventional meanings of words and
to reveal secondary texts having uncertain semantics in Baratashvilis poetic
texts; it is stated that paronymic attraction is an organic element of works by
Baratashvili as artistic system.

Khatuna Maisashvili
The Homeland, the Nation-state and the Georgian Elites. Printed Press
of Georgia in 1990-1991.
The article aims to highlight the role of the Georgian media, after their coming
out from the Communist censorship, in the creation of national identity during the
first years of state independence. The research concerns: a) the importance of
media representation in maintenance of a shared collective identity on the basis of

219

sharing a sense of common territory; b) the importance and influence of the type
of sources in creation national identity-affirming language in the media.
The quantitative analysis (content-analysis and factor analysis) of 1736 units
from five Georgian newspapers of the early 1990s and standardized interviews
with publishers, editors and reporters from nine Georgian newspapers of 19901991 identify the relevant national context in the media. I argue that national identity discourse (expressed in attachment to `national place~) was at heart of the
Georgian National Governments and intelligentsias efforts to mobilize the Georgian public around the idea of independency through the communication strategies.
Findings suggest that: a) government officials and intelligentsia were the main actors in creation of the media discourse of national identity, and b) that journalists
just paralleled these themes in their coverage.
The idea of the article is based on the links between the media and three of the
most influential opinions articulated in early 1990s: the first, the phenomenon of a
daily plebiscite, or a psychology of the conscious will to be a nation (Renan,
Ernest, 1990), the second, the phenomenon of the psychology of imagination to be
a nation (Anderson, Benedict, 1991) and the third, the phenomenon of the psychology of reminding (Billig, Michael, 1995). To create homeland by every word, even
if least significant one, to indicate the existence of the world of nations constantly,
this was the challenge of the Georgian media in the early 1990s. This challenge
would be resulted in every person reading a newspaper would accept imagined
homeland and become a member of the nation, national community.

Irakli Mchedlishvili
The spatial form and two main metaphors
Since the person has conceived limited both in time and in space his existence,
a question how to achieve a unification with the world became for him the basic,
existential problem. Both religious and philosophical views offered the, especial
attitudes for the decision of this problem.
The statement given by antique Greeks - the person can comprehend the order
of the Universe, has laid down in a basis of all Western culture. Connected with
perception of a human body the spatial form became the basic structural part not
only for representation about a structure of the Universe, but also the western
thinking as a whole.
The model of `impress~ which was the basic both in antique and in Christian
the periods, in days of Revival was replaced by other spatial formation, a metaphor
of a vessel or capacity. This, in emanational structure of medieval representation
of the Universe had been brought `human dimension~.

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Arisen during New Time, more precisely, in the beginning of XIX century, sociological views which have been focused on methods of natural sciences have
replaced the basic until the structural pattern - the spatial form on temporary. That,
in turn, probably has unpremeditatedly led to ignoring of the individual, human factor or measurement.
All humanitarian accidents of XX century in many respects occured for this
reason. It is thought, that mechanical mixing of basic paradigms forming culture is
characteristic and for the beginning of XXI century. That suggests - in the near
future there should be a new metaphor forming coherent vision...

Mamuka Surmava
The Critique of Impure Reason: Foucault and Habermas

Commentators have generally paid much more attention to Foucaults


break with earlier forms of critical theory then to his continuities with them. But for
purposes of developing a critical theory adequate to the contemporary situation,
focusing only on discontinuities can become counterproductive. What unites Foucault with Critical Theorist thinkers is as significant as what divides them. In the
article it is defined certain broad similarities beside of considerable differences
between Foucaults genealogy and program of critical theory recently renewed by
Jrgen Habermas. Both Foucault and Habermas call for transformation and
radicalization of the Kantian approach to critiqua. The intrinsic impurity of reason
its embeddedness in culture and society, its entanglement with power and interest makes its structures inaccessible to the sorts of introspective survey of the
contents of consciousness favored by early modern philosophers and some twentieth-century phenomenologists. To explore the nature of human reason, we have
to get at those practices, and this calls for modes of sociohistorical inquiry that go
beyond the traditional bounds of philosophical analysis. The critique of reason is no
longer understood as transcendental; it is sociocultural in origin. Correspondingly,
both Foucault and Habermas reject the Cartesian picture of an autonomous rational
subject set over against a world of objects that seeks to represent and, through
representing, to master. Knowing and acting subjects are social and embodied
beings, and the products of their thoughts and action bear traces of their situations
and interests. But while both approaches seek to transform the critique of reason
through shifting the level of analysis to social practice, Foucault sees this as leading
to a critique that is radical and attacks rationalism at its very roots, whereas Habermas
understand critique rather in the sense of determinate negation that aims a more
adequate conception of reason. Finally, while Both approaches see critique of apparently rational practices as having the practical purpose of breaking their hold

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upon us, Foucault does not regard genealogy as being in the service of reason,
truth, freedom, and justice there is no escaping the relations and effects of power
altogether, - wheres Habermas understand the critique as working to reduce such
relations and effects and to replace them with social arrangements that are rationale
in other than instrumentalist sense.
Later Foucaults perspective had clearly shifted. He emphasizes the freedom we have to act within, upon, or against cultural and institutional systems. This
may be described as a shift from the investigation of coercive practices to the
study of practices of freedom.
Viewed from the perspective of social theory, Foucaults later framework
of interpretation lies at the opposite extreme from his earlier social ontology of
power. Then everything was a function of context, of impersonal forces and fields,
from which there was no escape the end of man. Now the focus is on those
intentional conduct but also seek to transform themselves. Neither scheme provides an adequate framework for critical social inquiry. The ontology of power
was too reductive and one-dimensional for that purpose; the later, multidimensional
ontology still depicts social relations as strategic and thus forces the search for
autonomy, so central to the critical tradition, onto the private path of rapport soi.
This is not at all to deny the power and insight of Foucoults historical-critical
studies; it is to question his own accounts of their presuppositions and implications.
I have been arguing that his work is better understood as a continuation and
enrichment of the critical-theoretical tradition. His strengths are often weakness
of mainstream critical social theory; his nominalism, descriptivism, and historicism
a counterweight to the usual emphasis on the general, the normative, and theoretical. However universal critical theory may be at the level of concepts and principles, in pursuing its practical interests, it must finally reach the variable,
contigentthat so occupied Foucault and made his work so powerful a factor in the
contemporary politics of identity. In this regard his investigation into historical
contexts in which specific practical systems arise and function and his studies of
the formation of the moral-rational subject are a valuable complement to more
global discourses about rationalization. Foucoults historical-critical studies challenge
critical theorists to go further than they have in detranscendentalizing their guiding
conceptions of reason, truth, and freedom.

Izabella Petriashvili
Metaphor and Pragmatics of Political Discourse
The study of political discourse, like that of other areas of discourse analysis,
covers a broad range of subject matter. This article provides insight into the
persuasive use of metaphor and its pragmatic functions in political discourse, based

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on a collocational analysis of discourses in American and Georgian political speeches.


Why are metaphors rhetorically successful? It is proposed that metaphors are
effective when they are both cognitively plausible and evoke an emotional response.
They persuade because they integrate pragmatic, cognitive and linguistic knowledge
with awareness of culture, ideology and history. The article presents a series of
corpus-based studies in which analysis of collocations, as well as the pragmatic
use of creative/novel metaphors vs. conventional metaphors, provides insight into
the cognitive motivation and expressive connotation of metaphor. By unifying
traditional and cognitive semantic with pragmatic approaches, we become aware
of the importance of metaphor in persuasive language in political discourse.
However, some of the possible effects of metaphor go beyond persuasion. It is
important to bear in mind that persuasion is not the only function of creative metaphors. The study has revealed the following pragmatic functions of metaphors in
American and Georgian political speeches:
 Metaphors may communicate something which is difficult to express in literal
speech because literal words are lacking
 Metaphors may help in face-threatening situations in which it is more
appropriate to speak about a topic in an indirect way
 Metaphors may add vividness to a speech
 Metaphors may help structuring the argument
 Creative metaphors may introduce new angles of sight
Changes in social practices may produce new discursive challenges which
demand creative response from the audience, its readiness to comprehend creative/
novel metaphors. In this respect, it is crucial to get politically relevant messages
across to the addressees in order to fulfil a specific function. If a metaphor cannot
be perceived or interpreted by the addressees in a proper way, consequently, its
political-communicative function cannot be performed either.

Mirian Ebanoidze
Text and Reality (Contoure of ,,Wen)
The classical metaphysics finds the source of text beyond it, in the image of
the author or reality, the emphasis and focus on discourse and language in the 20th
century literature frees us from phenomena of articulation and expression. Language refers only to itself. Therefore we have, ~the death of the author~, formulated by Roland Barthes. Instead of representation, mimesis, articulation and symbolization, which make literature dependent to the extra circumstances, the French
`nouveau roman~ tries to speak without interpretations and to stay on the surface,
thus approaching Mallrmean idealistic literature without seeking of depths, truth

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and hidden sides, but writing is always connected to power. According to some
critics, literature frees from power. They see nothing beyond the texts, but power
is everywhere and everything is full of it. It is even in the ecstatic desire to be free
or to make revolution. It is formed not only by those `possessing power, but by
those who `does not possess it as well. Here we face isomorphism, which makes
writing take its place among other social practices. Power is created by writing
too. Deleuze views literature as a machine, connected to the machine of war, to
the love machine, revolution machine, etc. Kleist and a mad machine of war, Kafka
and strange machine of bureaucracy - the research of these themes overcomes
fetishistic tendencies in modern literary studies, expressed in autonomic and selfsufficient values of writing; we never ask what a book says, what it is - signified or
a signifier. We dont try to understand it, but we ask what makes it move, what
frequencies it is or it is not engaged in, in what plurality it is involved to be changed.
There are no boundaries between text and reality in the chinesse written tradition. We have to return to the term of ,,reality.
Literature, as magic stone can express the world by some paradoxcal way.

Giorgi Kekelidze
Because of the non-existent borders
Annexation of Georgia by Russia in 1921 except some poor results has born
exceptionally interesting phenomenon - Georgian cultural emigration. In spite of
social poorness and nostalgia - Georgian scientists, painters, sculptors, writers and
artists dispersed in the continent of America and Europe created valuable cultural
products. Before dissolution of the Soviet Union those names (except Grigol
Robakidze) were unknown for Georgians living in Georgia.
When professor Guram Sharadze brought great archive of emigrants heritage,
there was created Georgian emigration museum and was published three-volume
edition Under the Foreign Sky (probably bestseller), hence, that new names
should have been added to the Georgian literatures reading-book as the other art
field. But in the end of XX century Grigol Robakidzes writer talent critics was
enough. (The fact is that, I havent seen names of most of them in Georgian
poetry anthology and I havent seen analyze and critics of the text, but some of
them (because of art level and historical point of view) deserves it).
Rusudan Nishnianidzes two-volume edition Sakartvelo samans aket da samans
iket (Tbilisi, Merani 2005, editor Chkheidze Rostom) was considerable, because
was implemented successful experiment to familiarize emigrant writing to the reader
by literary critic view.

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This book once more showed to the society, that it is necessary to discuss texts
of Sonnet in common Georgian literature context and it is incorrect to discuss
them separately. As you concluded, the goal of our work is to search the same
themes, motive and differences of those poets creation who acted in the beginning
of XX century in Georgia and emigration. Only three were discussed from the
emigrants, we have not discussed the principal authors (among them Grigol
Robakidze) and later emigrants: Giorgi Kipiani, Giorgi Lolua and atc. We think
that they are new aesthetic ones and require other kind of research.
We tried to compare some of them to the different poet, where it was identical,
where antagonistic and where autonomous (Rusudan Nishnianidze has
processed symbolic of dream, destiny, mourning and sun. Themes discussed by
her, we addressed only Mgzavri (Traveler) because it is one of the difficult and
many-sided face. It is extremely flexion state for Georgian emigrant poets and not
only for reporting the view to the recipient, correspondingly it requires commentator
interesting form of traveling in Georgian Literature from hometown and to the
hometown (first forced and implemented, the second willing and
unimplemented).
In XX century Galaktion Tabidze often and intensively addressed to Merani.
As a horseman - horse (or horses) world. (Blue Horses, Epemerebi and
atc.) Emigrant poets view about horse is interesting; they consider it as a human
impellent symbol and their symbols see develops compositionally. Dynamic is
descend and coincides Baratashvilis and Galaktions ideas about Merani,
then it gives pragmatics character and topped as a satyr mood in one poetry.
(Technocratic terms in their poetry and aggravation of poetical opposition by
neologism may be a bit artificial for the modern reader, but in that time (1920) it
was original and appropriate thinking).
The King Tamars cult transfer in literature was not rarely (Gr. Robakidze. G.
Leonidze), but in emigrant poetry it has quite different meaning substitute for
homeland. The traveler who will never reach Georgia expects the past with dream
and trying to live in it, Beautiful hand of queen gives pope, but decadent spirit
of the XX century see hopeless that and once more proves that dream is
corecursive even in the XX century.
In the beginning of XX century we often meet letter in emigrant poetry and
it seems to be more complaint, than simple regards. For most part, it is sent in
village or from village and the consignee is the family member as a rule. The letter
doesnt have romantic-mystic shade as it was in the XIX century it is straight
and realistic, but some times a bit cynic. The author rarely requests someones
help (the recipient of the letter mostly charges something important and something
inevitable that the life).
Poets exceptional, socially active and tribune face is live in the texts of emigrant
poets, - it is the face that become principal and determinant figure in the Georgian
literature in 50-60 years.

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Also, we made some research of poetry criterion to ascertain versification in


some Georgian emigrant poets creation. That is new initiator for its part and
requires continuing work with specialists.
By the side of formalist search, creation of Georgian emigrants poetry doesnt
distinguish with innovation. The authors escape from experiments (except one or
two excepting) and rely on such forms of versification which renewal in Georgian
poetry is related to the order of Tsisperkantselebi.
Most of the poetry is izosilabic, we meet heterosilabic rarely and mostly it is
made unintentionally. Grigol Robakidze wrote sonnets. He is the founder of such
poetry in Georgian literature. Poets 13th poetry has already has response in
prosody (Akaki Khintibidze Sonnets of Grigol Robakidze, Tamar Barbakadze
Sonnet). Besides the sonnets there is indicated lonely form stanza. On the whole
it is used by Shaklva Amirejibi.
Also add, one significant circumstance despite that fact that, for many years
emigrant poets had contact to the European literature and kept an eye on many art
innovation from 30 years, they stayed devoted to that poetry both in formal and
thematic points of view. They heritage it in the end of the XIX and in the beginning
of XX century. In the future, it is interesting to know what cause their indifference
toward the events in that period, lack of integration ability, business caused by the
social background and exaggerated love of the past (or three of them together).

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