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Antibiotics List Classification

In the following list are grouped characteristics of each family of antibiotics, indications, major adverse events, cons-indications. Aminoglycosides. Including inter alia streptomycin (used against tuberculosis) and gentamicin, are effective antibiotics against urinary tract infections and severe intestinal. Their toxicity is primarily auditory and renal (kidney and ear). Their main indications are cons-anesthesia, renal failure, pregnancy.

The TB with ethambutol have liver toxicity, neurological and ocular (liver, nervous system and eyes). They are cons-indicated during pregnancy and in patients with impaired liver or kidney. Rifampicin and streptomycin are among TB. They are related drugs in the treatment of tuberculosis, but having a toxicity level of the ear, liver, kidneys, digestive system, and are also likely to cause allergic reactions. They are cons-indicated in cases of anesthesia, renal failure in infants, during pregnancy and in cases of allergy to these drugs. Betalactamines 1 containing penicillin G (penicillin V, penicillin F, a penicillin, ampicillin) are drugs used relatively common whose own indications are relatively large: Infections heart, skin, broncho-pulmonary, genital, ear, nose and throat, meningitis , digestive, bone, joint, urinary, Listeriosis, syphilis, etc. ... Their main side effects are possible allergic reactions, toxicity associated with neurological, renal and gastrointestinal. Their main indication is cons-allergy. In this class of antibiotics called carbapenems (imipenem) are reserved to the hospital for severe illnesses that are resistant to other antibiotics. The beta-lactam 2 include first generation cephalosporins with cefaclor, cfapirine, cefazolin. They have indicated anti-infectious very broad similar to penicillins. The second and third generations are reserved for hospital care and severe infections. The main side effects are allergic reactions associated with hemorrhage.

The lincosanides. Including clindamycin part, are reserved for certain serious conditions, but have a digestive and liver toxicity. The main cons-lincosanides is an indication of liver failure.

Macrolides. With erythromycin and josamycin are the common drugs indicated mainly in case of genital infection, ear, nose and throat, lung and for infringement by toxoplasmosis. The main side effects are allergic reactions and liver toxicity and gastrointestinal. The main cons-indication is liver failure.

Nitroimidazoles. Including metronidazole, are shown in secondary infections with anaerobic bacteria, that is to say, can live without oxygen. The main side effect is gastrointestinal fragility. The main indication is cons-allergy medication.

The phnocols. Including the tiamphnicol, have indications in severe disease and failure of other antibiotics. However, their major side effects were gastrointestinal toxicity and blood. They are cons-indicated in pregnancy, infants and liver disease.

The polypeptides. Which colistin belongs, have entries in the urinary infections. Their main side effects are toxic to the nervous system and kidneys. The main indications are cons-anesthesia and renal failure.

Quinolones. With acid and nalidixic acid pipemidic are listed in the urinary and genital infections. Beware of allergic reactions. On the other hand, they have some toxicity hearing (inner ear). They are mainly cons-indicated in cases of epilepsy in some psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy and infant.

The rifamycins. With rifamycin used mainly topical, may cause allergic reactions. Rifampicin is also part of this class of antibiotics, it is used against tuberculosis, but it has a toxic digestive and liver. On the other hand, it is cons-indicated in infants.

Sulfonamides. Which may or not be associated with trimethoprim, which is part sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole, used in some congenital urinary tract infections but also in case of failure of other antibiotics. The main side effects and adverse reactions are allergies and toxicity in the blood and kidneys. Their main indications are cons-renal failure, pregnancy, infant.

The synergistins. Including pristinamycin and virginiamycin are part, are shown in skin infections, lung and bone. Their toxicity is mainly gastrointestinal and liver. The main consindication is liver failure.

Tetracyclines. With doxycycline, minocycline and tetracycline are common drugs primarily indicated in genital infections, cholera, typhus, lung ailments. The main side effects are allergic reactions, as well as neurological toxicity, renal and gastrointestinal. The main cons-indications are the children for eight years, severe liver or kidney.

Various antibiotics. Including fusidic acid, vancomycin, fosfomycin and teicoplanin, are reserved to the hospital for staph infections and other severe infections. Their toxicity is in the inner ear and kidney. The main indications are cons-allergy and liver failure.

Classification of antibiotics
Antibiotics are of the oldest discovered drugs that combat specific microorganisms like bacteria and fungi. The antibiotics are classified according to three criteria and although that each category contains several drugs but each one of them is unique in some features and effects. The first classification is according to the spectrum. The spectrum means the number of the organisms affected by the same drug. There are narrow and wide spectrum antibiotics. The wide spectrum antibiotics affect several types of bacteria and fungi and it is usually used where the specific type of the microorganism is unknown. For example, when we are treating an bacterial caused inflammation, we know that we are dealing with a staphylococcus or streptococcus microorganism so the doctor can proceed with the treatment without asking for more lab tests to identify the specific type of the microorganism using the broad spectrum antibiotics but in other cases, where we know the specific type of the microorganism, we can use the narrow spectrum antibiotics that are more effective on specific microorganism but less effective on others. The second classification is according to the type of the action of antibiotics. It could be bactericidal or bacteriostatic. The bactericidal antibiotics kill the harmful microorganism while the baceriostatic ones tend to slow down their growth and give the body the chance to use its immune system against the microorganisms. In case of virulent microorganisms or in case of weak immunity, bactericidal antibiotics are preferred because they will omit the problem from its roots but they will affect the normal microorganisms in the body. In mild cases, bacteriostatic antibiotics could be used because of their minor side effects. The third classification of antibiotics is according to the route of administration of the drug. The prevalent route of administration is the oral route but, there are other routes of administration that are more effective in certain cases like injection or topical applications. Antibiotic injection is used when the doctor wants to see a rapid onset of action and a quick presence of antibiotic in the blood stream. It is used in severe cases and as a post operative regime. Topical application of antibiotics is more used in cases of superficial inflammations and skin infections. Direct application of antibiotics on the affected part make it more powerful in combating the microorganism because when antibiotic is administered through oral or injection route, some of it is degraded in the liver before it reach the peripheral circulation and superficial legions.