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Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)

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Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys


Notch Toughness, Tear Resistance, and Fracture Toughness

J. Gilbert Kaufman

The Aluminum Association


Incorporated

900 19th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006

Materials Park, Ohio 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)

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Copyright 2001 by ASM International All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, September 2001

Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this book, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASMs control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specification is essential. Therefore, specific testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. ASM International staff who worked on this project included Veronica Flint, Manager of Book Acquisitions; Bonnie Sanders, Manager of Production; Nancy Hrivnak, Copy Editor; Kathleen Dragolich, Production Editor; and Scott Henry, Assistant Director of Reference Publications. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kaufman, J.G. (John Gilbert), 1931Fracture resistance of aluminum alloys/J. Gilbert Kaufman. p.cm. 1. Aluminum alloysMechanical properties. 2. Fracture mechanics I. Title. TA480.A6 K355 2000 620.1866dc21 2001022228 ISBN: 0-87170-732-2 SAN: 204-7586 ASM International Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org Printed in the United States of America

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Preface
On behalf of the Aluminum Association, Inc., Alcoa, Inc., and ASM International, we are pleased to provide this summary of data on the fracture characteristics of aluminum alloys. It is broadly based on a publication produced by Alcoa in 1964, called Fracture Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys, and we want to acknowledge the support of Alcoa, Inc., notably Dr. Robert J. Bucci and Dr. William G. Truckner, in arranging to have the copyright to that publication transferred to the Aluminum Association, Inc. Further, we acknowledge the support of Dr. John A.S. Green of the Aluminum Association, Inc. in making it available for a joint publication with ASM International. In particular, we note the contributions of the members of the Aluminum Association Engineering and Design Task Force, Dr. Andrew J. Hinkle, Chair, through their review of and input to the organization and content of the book. This book is unique in the degree to which it presents individual test results for many individual lots of a wide range of aluminum alloys, tempers, and products, rather than simply broad summaries of data; it is also unique for the breadth of types of fracture parameters presented. This combination provides not only the ability to dig out specific data needed to evaluate alloy and temper selections for individual applications, but also the ability to check the degree to which the various fracture parameters provide consistent relative ratings for specific alloys and tempers. We believe these capabilities will benefit a wide range of needs, from alloy evaluation and selections to design. A word is needed about the inclusion in the book of data for a number of alloys and tempers that are considered obsolete today. Such alloys are included because they may have been used in fracture-critical structures in years past, and specialists dealing with maintenance and retrofit of those structures may be looking for data on the old alloys, even though it is unlikely that new structures will be made of them. An explanation is also needed about the treatment of units in this book. Because all of these data were generated in an environment of the usage of English/engineering units, and because of the mass of data involved, almost the entire book is presented in those units. While this is contrary to the normal ASM International and Aluminum Association, Inc. policies to present engineering and scientific data in both Standard International (SI) and English/engineering units, it saves a prodigious amount of expense related to both time for conversion and to the space required for dual presentation. Further, it avoids the inevitable compromises surrounding rounding techniques for such conversions in a multitude of units. Additional help for those interested in SI conversion is provided in Appendix 2. J. Gilbert Kaufman

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ASM International Technical Books Committee (20002001)


Sunniva R. Collins (Chair) Swagelok/Nupro Company Charles A. Parker (Vice Chair) Allied Signal Aircraft Landing Systems Eugen Abramovici Bombardier Aerospace (Canadair) A.S. Brar Seagate Technology Ngai Mun Chow Det Norske Veritas Pte Ltd. Seetharama C. Deevi Philip Morris, USA Bradley J. Diak Queens University James C. Foley Ames Laboratory Dov B. Goldman Precision World Products James F.R. Grochmal Metallurgical Perspectives Nguyen P. Hung Nanyang Technological University Serope Kalpakjian Illinois Institute of Technology Gordon Lippa North Star Casteel Jacques Masounave Universit du Qubec K. Bhanu Sankara Rao Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research Mel M. Schwartz Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Retired) Peter F. Timmins Risk Based Inspection, Inc. George F. Vander Voort Buehler Ltd.

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Contents
CHAPTER 1: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Synopsis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHAPTER 2: Definition of Terms Related to Fracture Behavior . . 5 CHAPTER 3: Tensile Properties as Indicators of Fracture Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 CHAPTER 4: Notched-Bar Impact and Related Tests for Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 CHAPTER 5: Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity . . . . . . . . 15 Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 ASTM Standard Notch-Tensile Test Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 CHAPTER 6: Tear Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 CHAPTER 7: Fracture Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Test Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 KIc and Kc Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Discussion of KIc and Kc Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Industry KIc Database, ALFRAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Typical and Specified Minimum Values of KIc and Kc Fracture Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Crack-Resistance Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Use of Fracture-Toughness Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Discussions of Individual Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

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Understanding the Effect of Residual Stresses on Fracture-Toughness Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 CHAPTER 8: Interrelation of Fracture Characteristics . . . . . . . 105 CHAPTER 9: Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Wrought Alloys at Subzero Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Wrought Alloys at Elevated Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Cast Alloys at Subzero Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Welds at Subzero Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 CHAPTER 10: Subcritical Crack Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Fatigue Crack Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Creep Crack Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Stress-Corrosion Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 CHAPTER 11: Metallurgical Considerations in Fracture Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Alloy Enhancement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Enhancing Toughness with Laminates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 CHAPTER 12: Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

CHAPTER 13: References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 APPENDIX 1: Notch-Tensile, Tear, and Fracture Toughness Specimen Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 APPENDIX 2: Metric (SI) Conversion Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . 183 ALLOY INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

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Figures
Fig. 4.1 Notched bar impact data for aluminum alloys, transverse direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Fig. 5.1 Similarity of ratings of alloys with respect to notch sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Fig. 5.2 Notch-yield ratios versus tensile yield strength of 0.250 in. plate. Transverse direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Fig. 5.3 Notch-yield ratios versus tensile yield strength for wrought aluminum alloys. Transverse direction (Table 5.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Fig. 5.4 Notch-yield ratios (notch tensile strength/tensile yield strength) for cast slabs and separately cast tensile bars of aluminum sand and permanent mold cast slabs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Fig. 5.5 Notch-yield ratio versus tensile yield strength for aluminum alloy castings from notched round specimens (Fig. A1.7a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Fig. 5.6 Ratings of aluminum alloy welds based on notchyield ratios from sheet-type specimens (Fig. A1.4b) . . . . . . 21 Fig. 5.7 Notch-yield ratio versus tensile yield strength for welds in wrought and cast alloys (Tables 5.8 and 5.9). Specimens per Fig. A1.7(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Fig. 6.1 Tear-test specimen and representation of loaddeformation curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Fig. 6.2 Ratings of 0.063 in. aluminum alloy sheet based upon unit propagation energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Fig. 6.3 Ratings of aluminum alloy plate, extruded shapes, and forgings based on unit propagation energy . . . . . . . . . . 41 Fig. 6.4 Ratings of aluminum alloy sand and permanentmold cast slabs based on unit propagation energy . . . . . . . . 42 Fig. 6.5 Ratings of welds based on unit propagation energy . . . . . . . 42 Fig. 6.6 Unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength of 0.063 in. aluminum alloy sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Fig. 6.7 Unit propagation energy vs. elongation of 0.063 in. aluminum alloy sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Fig. 6.8 Unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength for aluminum alloy castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Fig. 6.9 Unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength for welds in wrought aluminum alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

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Fig. 7.1 Schematic drawing of large, elastically stressed panel containing a crack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Fig. 7.2 Schematic representation of influence of thickness on strain-energy release rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Fig. 7.3 Fracture-toughness specimen in 3 million lb testing machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Fig. 7.4 Typical autographic load-deformation curves from fracture toughness tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Fig. 7.5 Schematic of typical R curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Fig. 7.6 R-curves for 2024-T3 and 2524-T3 clad sheet . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Fig. 7.7 R-curves for 7475-T7351, 7475-T7651, 7475-T651, and 7075-T7351, 7075-T651 plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Fig. 7.8 Gross-section stress at onset of rapid fracture vs. crack length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Fig. 7.9 Gross-section stress at initiation of slow crack growth or rapid crack propagation under planestrain conditions versus crack length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Fig. 7.10 Illustrations of potential residual stresses in fracture toughness specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Fig. 8.1 Notch-yield ratio in relation to elongation and reduction of area for aluminum alloy plate . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Fig. 8.2 Critical stress-intensity factor, Kc, versus notchyield ratio (edge-notched specimen) for aluminum alloy and plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Fig. 8.3 KIc and Kc for 1 in. thick panels (Fig. A1.9b) versus unit propagation energy from tear tests for aluminum alloy plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Fig. 8.4 Relationship between plane-strain fracture toughness and unit propagation energy from tear tests for aluminum alloy products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Fig. 8.5 Correlation of plane-strain fracture toughness and notch-yield ratio (specimens per Fig. A1.7a) for 2024 and 2124 plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Fig. 8.6 Correlation of plane-strain fracture toughness with notch-yield ratio (specimens per Fig. A1.7a) for 7075 and 7475 plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Fig. 8.7 Relationship between ratio of fatigue strength of notched specimens to tensile yield strength and notch-yield ratio for aluminum alloy plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Fig. 8.8 Relationship between unit propagation energy and fatigue-crack growth rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Fig. 8.9 Comparison of fracture toughness and stresscorrosion resistance for some aluminum alloys . . . . . . . . . 110 Fig. 9.1 Notch-yield ratios for 18 in. aluminum alloy sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

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Fig. 9.2 Notch-yield ratios for plate at various temperatures. . . . . . 114 Fig. 9.3 Notch-yield ratios for welds in 18 in. aluminum alloy sheet at various temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Fig. 9.4(a) Notch-yield ratio versus temperature for sand cast aluminum alloy slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Fig. 9.4(b) Notch-yield ratio versus temperature for permanent mold cast aluminum alloy slabs. . . . . . . . . . 115 Fig. 9.4(c) Notch-yield ratio versus temperature for premium strength cast aluminum alloy slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Fig. 9.5 Notch-yield ratio versus temperature for groove welds in wrought and casting alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Fig. 9.6 Tear resistance versus temperature for aluminum alloy sheet and plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Fig. 9.7 Unit propagation energy versus temperature for welds in wrought aluminum alloy plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Fig. 9.8 Plane-strain fracture toughness versus temperature for aluminum alloy plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Fig. 9.9 Notch-yield ratio versus tensile yield strength for 18 in. aluminum alloy sheet at 423 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Fig. 9.10 Notch-yield ratio versus tensile yield strength for aluminum alloys at 452 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Fig. 9.11 Estimated (conservative) fracture stress versus flaw size relationship for 5083-O plate and 5183 welds . . . . . . 121 Fig. 9.12 Cross section of 125 ft diam tank for shipboard transportation of liquefied natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Fig. 9.13 Notch-yield ratio versus tensile yield strength for cast aluminum alloys at 320 and 423 F. . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Fig. 9.14 Joint yield strength versus notch-yield ratios for groove welds in wrought and cast aluminum alloys at 452 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Fig. 10.1 Fatigue crack growth rate data for 2124-T851 plate and comparison to data for 2024-T851 plate . . . . . . . . . . 148 Fig. 10.2 Fatigue crack growth rates for 7050-T7451 plate (5.67 and 5.90 in. thick) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Fig. 10.3 Crack growth rates (da/dt) for 2124-T851 and 2219-T851 plate at 300 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Fig. 10.4 KIc versus temperature for 2124-T851 and 2219T851 plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Fig. 10.5 Effects of notches on stress-rupture strengths of 2219-T851 plate (1 in. thick) at 300 F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Fig. 10.6 Effects of notches on stress-rupture strengths of 5454-O and 5454-H32 plate (0.750 in.) at 300 F . . . . . . 152 Fig. 10.7 Crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion tests using precracked specimens of 2xxx and 7xxx series aluminum alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

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Fig. 10.8 Stress-corrosion safe-zone plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Fig. 10.9 Composite stress-stress intensity-SCC threshold safe-zone plot for two aluminum alloys exposed in a salt-dichromate-acetate solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Fig. 11.1 Average plane-strain fracture toughness data for production lots of 4 to 5.5 in. thick 2024 plate . . . . . . . . 158 Fig. 11.2 Comparisons of KIc values for commercial production lots of 2419-T851 and 2219-T851 plate . . . . . 158 Fig. 11.3 Plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc, for production lots of 7075-T73651 plate in L-T orientation. . . . . . . . . . 159 Fig. 11.4 Plane-strain fracture toughness of 7075 and 7175 die forgings of the same configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Fig. 11.5 Plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc, of 7475 plate compared to band of data for conventional highstrength aluminum alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Fig. 11.6 Critical stress-intensity factor, Kc, versus tensile yield strength for 0.040 to 0.188 in. aluminum alloy sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Fig. 11.7 Gross section stress at initiation of unstable crack propagation versus crack length for wide sheet panels of four aluminum alloy/temper combinations . . . . . 161 Fig. 11.8 Crack resistance curves for 7475 sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Fig. 11.9 Results of fracture-toughness tests of plain and laminated panels of 7075-T6 and 7075-T651 sheet and plate (transverse) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Fig. A1.1 Orientations of tear specimens in aluminum alloy products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Fig. A1.2(a) Crack plane orientation code for fracture toughness specimens from rectangular sections . . . . . 176 Fig. A1.2(b) Crack plane orientation code for fracture toughness specimens from welded plate . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Fig. A1.3 Sheet-type notch-tensile specimen, 12 in. wide test section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Fig. A1.4(a) Sheet-type notch-tensile specimen, 1 in. wide test section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Fig. A1.4(b) Sheet-type notch-tensile specimen, 1 in. wide test section, from welded panels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Fig. A1.5 Sheet-type notch-tensile specimen, 3 in. wide test section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Fig. A1.6 Center-slotted sheet-type notch-tensile specimen, 3 in. test section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Fig. A1.7(a) Cylindrical notch-tensile specimen, 12 in. test section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Fig. A1.7(b) Cylindrical notch-tensile specimen, 12 in. test section, from welded panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

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Fig. A1.8 Tear specimen from unwelded and welded panels. . . . . . 179 Fig. A1.9(a) Small center-notched fracture toughness specimen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Fig. A1.9(b) Large center-slotted fracture toughness specimen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Fig. A1.10 Single-edge-notched fracture toughness specimen . . . . . 180 Fig. A1.11(a) Notched-bend fracture toughness specimen . . . . . . . 180 Fig. A1.11(b) Large notched-bend fracture toughness specimen used for 5083-O plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Fig. A1.12(a) Compact tension fracture toughness specimen . . . . . 181 Fig. A1.12(b) Small compact tension fracture toughness specimen used for 5083-O plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Fig. A1.12(c) Large-plate 4 in. thick, compact tension specimen used for 5083-O plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182

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Tables
Table 5.1 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type specimens of aluminum alloy sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Table 5.2 Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens of aluminum alloy sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Table 5.3 Results of tensile tests of 3 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type specimens of aluminum alloy sheet . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 5.4 Results of tensile tests of smooth and centernotched sheet-type specimens of aluminum alloy sheet and plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 5.5 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from aluminum alloy plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table 5.6 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from aluminum alloy castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Table 5.7 Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens from welds in 0.125 in. aluminum alloy sheet . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 5.8 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds in aluminum alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Table 5.9 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds in aluminum alloy sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Table 6.1 Results of tensile and tear tests of 0.063 in. thick non-heat-treated aluminum alloy sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Table 6.2 Results of tensile and tear tests of 0.063 in. thick heat treated aluminum alloy sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Table 6.3 Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Table 6.4 Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy extruded shapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table 6.5 Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Table 6.6 Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

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Table 6.7 Tensile and tear tests of groove welds in wrought aluminum alloy sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Table 6.8 Tear tests of groove welds in cast-to-cast and castto-wrought aluminum alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Table 7.1 Results of fracture toughness tests of thin, centercracked panels of aluminum alloy sheet and plate. . . . . . . 97 Table 7.2 Results of fracture toughness tests of 1 20 in. center slotted panels of aluminum alloy sheet and plate center cracked specimens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Table 7.3 Results of fracture toughness tests of aluminum alloy sheet and plate, single-edge-cracked specimens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Table 7.4 Results of fracture toughness tests of aluminum alloy plate and of welds in plate-notched bend and compact tension specimens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Table 7.5 Representative summary of plane-strain fracture toughness test data for 7475-T7351 plate . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Table 7.6 Published typical KIc and Kc values for aluminum alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Table 7.7 Published minimum values of plane-strain fracture toughness for aluminum alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Table 7.8 Published specified minimum values of planestress fracture toughness, Kc, for aluminum alloys . . . . . 104 Table 9.1 Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens from 0.125 in. sheet at sub-zero temperatures . . . . . . . . . 126 Table 9.2 Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 0.5 in. diam, round specimens from aluminum alloys at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Table 9.3 Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens from welds in 0.125 in. aluminum alloy sheet at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Table 9.4 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diam, notched round specimens from welds in aluminum alloys at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Table 9.5 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diam, notched round specimens from aluminum alloy castings at subzero temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Table 9.6 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diam, notched round specimens from welds in aluminum alloy sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . 135 Table 9.7 Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

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Table 9.8 Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Table 9.9 Tensile and tear tests of groove welds in wrought aluminum alloy sheet and plate at subzero temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Table 9.10(a) Results of tensile tests of aluminum alloy plate at sub-zero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Table 9.10(b) Results of notched bend and compact tension fracture-toughness tests of aluminum alloy sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . 144 Table 9.11 Summary of toughness parameters for thick 5083-O plate and 5183 welds in 5083-O plate . . . . . . . 145 Table 11.1 Results of fracture toughness tests of 7075-T6 and 7075-T651 sheet, plate, and multilayered adhesive-bonded panels bonded with two-part epoxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

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Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p1-4 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p001

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

1
Introduction

1.1 Synopsis
THE TEST METHODS and criteria used to evaluate the fracture characteristics of aluminum alloys are reviewed, and a substantial amount of representative test data for individual lots of aluminum sheet, plate, forgings, extrusions, and castings are shown for a wide variety of aluminum alloys, tempers, and products at room, subzero, and elevated temperatures. The significance and use of various measures of toughness are discussed, and the more valuable fracture indexes are identified. From the tensile test, elongation and reduction in area provide a measure of the behavior of materials in very simple stress fields but offer only a broad indication of fracture behavior. Notch toughness, as measured by the notch-yield ratio, is a useful relative measure of the capabilities of materials to deform plastically in the presence of stress-raisers. Tear resistance, as measured by unit propagation energy from the tear test, provides a meaningful measure of relative resistance to either slow or unstable crack growth. Fracture toughness, based upon fracture-mechanics concepts, defines the conditions for unstable crack growth in an elastic-stress field; it is a direct measure of toughness in that it provides structural designers with specific guidance as to how to avoid brittle catastrophic fractures. The fracture mechanics approach is most useful for high-strength aluminum alloys but has restricted applicability to many broadly used commercial alloys, most of which have great ability to deform plastically at crack tips and absorb energy. Unstable crack growth in elastic-stress fields is rarely encountered for high-strength aluminum alloys. Of the structural aluminum alloys, the 5xxx series provide the most attractive combination of strength and toughness for critical applications such as liquefied natural gas storage and transportation tankage. Among the higher strength alloys, premium toughness alloys such as 2124, 2524, 7050, 7175, and 7475 provide excellent toughness at high-yield-strength

2 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

levels and so are attractive for fracture-critical aerospace and transportation applications. The 5xxx series are also outstanding for high toughness at subzero temperatures, providing both strength and toughness well above room temperature values at temperatures down to 320 F; even at temperatures as low as 452 F (near absolute zero), the toughness levels for many of these alloys and tempers are quite high. For welded structures, 5xxx filler alloys are recommended over aluminum alloy 4043 where high toughness is important at any service temperature.

1.2 Introduction
With the continued development of high-strength aluminum alloys and tempers and their use in very critical components in aerospace, automotive, marine, and cryogenic applications, the ability to adequately describe and predict their fracture resistance remains important. These needs range from (a) in alloy development, determining which alloys and tempers of a given group have the greatest fracture resistance, (b) in alloy selection, making decisions on alloy choices for specific applications, and (c) in design, establishing safe design stresses and/or predicting critical crack or discontinuity sizes under specific service conditions. Most commercial aluminum alloys and tempers are so tough that brittle or low ductility fracture (i.e., unstable or self-propagating crack growth in elastically stressed material) rarely occurs under any conditions. For these alloys, the merit-rating approach is generally sufficient, and measures of notch toughness or tear resistance providing relative qualitative ratings may be sufficient. However, there are a number of higher-strength aluminum alloys and tempers that are used principally in aerospace applications, where strength must be used to the maximum advantage and the consequences of unexpected low-ductility failure must be considered. For these particular alloys and tempers, more precise evaluations of toughness by methods such as fracture toughness testing are required for quantitative evaluation of fracture behavior under specific service conditions and, subsequently, the design of fracture resistance into the structure. It is the purpose of this publication to build on an earlier work (Ref 1) to (a) describe various criteria for evaluating the toughness or fracture resistance of aluminum alloys, how they are determined, and their usefulness and limitations; (b) provide a background of representative data from various types of toughness tests for a wide range of aluminum alloys and tempers, and (c) provide some general guidance as to which alloys may be most useful for applications where high toughness is vital.

Introduction / 3

It is not the intent of this book to describe and provide extensive performance data for other types of fracture mechanisms such as fatigue and corrosion beyond showing the logical interfaces. For comprehensive coverage of these subjects and more in-depth design approaches, readers are referred to the work of Bucci, Nordmark, and Stark (Ref 2) in Fatigue and Fracture, Volume 19 of ASM Handbook. For readers interested in a broader range and depth of discussion on applications for aluminum alloys, as well as other aspects of the aluminum industry, reference is made to Altenpohls book Aluminum: Technology, Applications, and Environment (Ref 3). Much of the data provided herein are from the highly respected Alcoa Laboratories research organization of Alcoa, Inc., which has been active for more than 40 years in the fracture-testing field. Included are data obtained using consistent and well-documented methods from many papers published by Alcoa scientists, as well as data from several previously unpublished reports. Also presented are representative data from the Aluminum Association fracture toughness database, ALFRAC, put together under contract from the Metals Properties Council and subsequently made available through a grant from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Materials Property Data Network. The data included herein are not intended to be exhaustive but to provide a good representation of a wide range of types of toughness indexes for a broad spectrum of aluminum alloys, including both wrought and cast alloys. The data are presented for their value in understanding the fracture behavior of aluminum alloys but are not intended for design. A word of explanation is needed about the inclusion in the book of data for a number of aluminum alloys and tempers that are no longer considered useful for various reasons and that are now designated as obsolete by the Aluminum Association, Inc. Such alloys are included because they may have been used in fracture-critical structures in years past, and so specialists dealing with maintenance and retrofit for such structures may be looking for data on the old alloys. Their inclusion herein provides a useful source and potentially valuable comparisons with data for alloys currently recommended for comparable applications. All obsolete alloys are identified by appropriate footnotes in the tables in which they appear. It is also appropriate to note that all the data presented and discussed in this book were generated in accordance with the ASTM Standard Test Methods (Ref 411) applicable at the time. While there has been some evolution in those standards over the years, especially in the field of fracture toughness testing, the results presented are believed to have been determined by procedures reasonably, if not exactly, consistent with current standards. Finally, some explanation is needed about the treatment of units in this book. Because all of these data were generated in an environment using

4 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

English/engineering units, and because of the mass of data involved, the entire book is presented in English units. While the normal ASM International and Aluminum Association, Inc. policies (Ref 12) are to present engineering and scientific data in both International Standard (SI) and English/engineering units, an appreciable amount of time and expense would be required for the complete conversion and for the dual presentation of all the tables included herein. In addition, the inevitable compromises surrounding rounding techniques for such conversions with a multitude of complex units have been avoided. Those readers interested in SI conversion are referred to Appendix 2 for some guidance. Some additional valuable sources on aluminum alloy products, standards, and properties are included for the reader (Ref 1218).

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p5-9 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p005

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

Definition of Terms Related to Fracture Behavior


IN THE DISCUSSION that follows, a number of general and specific terms are used to describe the various aspects of the fracture behavior of aluminum alloys. It is desirable to define a number of these terms at the outset; many are discussed in greater detail subsequently. ductility. A general term describing the ability of a material to deform plastically, before fracture, usually measured by the elongation or reduction in area in a tensile test. For purposes of this discussion, it is not considered to encompass notch toughness, tear resistance, or fracture toughness. toughness. A general term describing the resistance of a material to low ductility fracture under stress, without reference to the specific conditions or mode of fracture. Generally it is considered to encompass notch toughness, tear resistance, and fracture toughness. notch toughness. A general term describing the ability of a material to deform plastically and locally in the presence of stress-raisers (either cracks, flaws, or design discontinuities) without cracking and thus to redistribute loads to adjacent material or components. It is the inverse of notch sensitivity in the sense that as the notch toughness of a material increases, notch sensitivity decreases. While notch toughness is associated more closely with the resistance of a material to the initiation of cracking and fracture than with its resistance to crack propagation, it correlates well with other indexes of resistance to unstable crack growth (see Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity, Chapter 5, and ASTM Standards E 338 and E 602). notch-tensile strength. The net fracture strength of a notched tensile specimen, that is, maximum load supported by the notched specimen

6 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

divided by its net cross-sectional area. It has little direct value since the notch geometry rarely mirrors service conditions; its principal usefulness is in its relationship to the tensile and yield strengths of the material. notch-yield ratio. The ratio of notch-tensile strength to tensile yield strength of the material. This provides a measure of notch toughness and, hence, of the inverse of notch sensitivity. Notch-yield ratio is considered by many engineers to be a more useful measure of notch toughness than notch-strength ratio (defined next) because it provides a relative measure of the ability of a material to plastically deform locally in the presence of a stress-raiser and thus to redistribute the stress. notch-strength ratio. The ratio of notch-tensile strength to tensile strength of the material. This provides a measure of tensile efficiency for the specific design of notch. It is not consistently reliable as a measure of notch toughness. tear resistance. A general term describing the resistance of a material to crack propagation under static loading, in either an elastic stress field (brittle fracture) or a plastic stress field (tearing). Like fracture toughness, it is generally used in connection with crack growth, not crack initiation. The term tear resistance is generally applied to data obtained from tear tests, usually as measured specifically by unit propagation energy. (See Chapter 6 and ASTM Standard Methods B 871). unit propagation energy. A specific term expressed in in.-lb/in.2 describing the amount of energy required to propagate a crack across a unit area in a tear specimen in terms of the total energy to propagate the crack divided by the nominal crack area (i.e., the original net area of the specimen). It provides a measure of tear resistance and, indirectly, a measure of fracture toughness. tear strength. A specific term, expressed in psi, describing the maximum nominal direct-and-bending stress developed by a tear specimen. Its significance is similar to that of notch-tensile strength, and its primary usefulness is in its relationship to the tensile yield strength of the material. The ratio of tear strength to yield strength (tear-yield ratio) is a measure of the relative resistance of a material to the development of fracture in the presence of a stress-raiser. tear-yield ratio. The ratio of tear strength to the tensile yield strength. Similar to notch-yield ratio, it is a relative index of notch toughness. fracture toughness. A general term describing the resistance of a material to unstable crack propagation at elastic stresses or to low-ductility or brittle fracture of any kind. As used in this book, it does not involve resistance to crack initiation but only to the unstable propagation of a crack already present. The term fracture toughness is sometimes used to denote specifically the critical strain energy release rate, but this is not the literal definition (see Fracture Toughness, Chapter 7, and ASTM Standard Methods E 399, E 561, B 645, and B 646).

Definition of Terms Related to Fracture Behavior / 7

strain-energy release rate, G. A specific term, expressed in in.-lb/in., defining the rate of release of elastic strain energy during crack growth in an elastic stress field. The critical value of strain-energy release rate is measured at the onset of unstable crack growth and is one measure of fracture toughness. stress-intensity factor, K. A specific term, expressed in ksi 2in., relating the gross stress in a material and the size of a crack or discontinuity present in the stress field. It also describes the stress field local to the crack tip. Stress-intensity factor is proportional to the square root of the strain-energy release rate, and so the critical value is a measure of the conditions for unstable crack growth. crack or discontinuity size. A specific term, expressed in inches, defining the overall length of an opening in the stress field from which unstable crack growth might develop. It may represent a material flaw or crack growing out of a design detail (rivet hole, port hole, etc.); in this latter case, the discontinuity size includes the size of the design discontinuity and the crack length. unstable crack growth. A general term describing a situation in which the elastic strain energy released by an increment of crack growth by any mechanism (i.e., static load, fatigue, creep, or corrosion) is sufficient to cause the crack to grow another increment in length; in other words, for the crack to become self-propagating. crack resistance curve. A plot of resistance of a material to slow, stable crack extension, expressed in the same units as the stress intensity factor, K, or the crack extension force, G, as a function of the amount (length) of slow, stable crack extension. Comparison of the crack driving forces with this curve provides an estimate of the conditions for crack growth instability. stress condition. A descriptor of the nature of the stress configuration in a component or at a specific location in a component or test specimen in terms of directionality and multiaxiality, thus indicating the degree of constraint on elastic and plastic deformation in the component or specimen. plane stress. The condition in which all the stresses act in a single plane so that the stress in the third principal direction (normal to the plane) and the associated shear stresses are essentially zero. The strains in all three directions may be significant, so that the cross section may not remain uniform or plane. This is the condition in a thin, wide sheet under axial tension, where the stress in the short-transverse direction (normal to the surfaces of the sheet) is zero and local deformation takes place in the short-transverse direction. plane strain. The condition in which the stresses in all three directions may be significant (i.e., a triaxial stress condition may prevail) and the strains in one principal direction are essentially uniform or zero, usually through the thickness. This condition is approximated at the tip

8 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

of a crack in thick plate, where the strain in the short-transverse direction along the crack front is zero. specimen orientation. Refers to the orientation of a specimen with respect to the major axes of the component from which it is taken. For cylindrical tensile and notch tensile specimens, specimen orientation is generally defined in terms of the relation of the axis of the specimen to the major grain flow pattern, as follows: Longitudinal, or L: axis of specimen parallel to the major direction of grain flow Long transverse, or LT (or simply transverse, or T) for thin components: axis of specimen perpendicular to the axis of major grain flow, in the plane of the component Short transverse, or ST: axis of specimen normal to the axis of major grain flow and to the plane of the component For tear specimens, specimen orientation is generally defined in terms of the relation of the direction of applied stress to the major grain flow pattern and the plane of the component, as shown in Fig. A1.1 and as follows: Longitudinal, or L: applied stress parallel to the major direction of grain flow, in the plane of the component Long transverse, or LT (or simply transverse, T, for thin components): applied stress perpendicular to the axis of major grain flow, in the plane of the component Short transverse, or ST: applied normal to the axis of major grain flow and to the plane of the component For fracture toughness specimens, specimen orientation is defined in terms of the relationship of the direction of applied stress and also the direction of crack growth to the grain flow and to the major plane of the component, as shown in Fig. A1.2(a) and as follows: L-T: applied stress in the major direction of grain flow and crack growth across the width or major plane of the component L-S: applied stress in the major direction of grain flow and crack growth through or normal to the major plane of the component T-L: applied stress normal to the major direction of grain flow and crack growth along the direction of major grain flow T-S: applied stress normal to the major direction of grain flow and crack growth through or normal to the major plane of the component S-L: applied stress normal to the major plane of the component and crack growth in the major direction of grain flow S-T: applied stress normal to the major plane of the component and crack growth normal to the major direction of grain flow For most fracture toughness testing programs, specimens representing only the L-T, T-L, and S-L are used.

Definition of Terms Related to Fracture Behavior / 9

The orientations and positions of specimens from welded components are included in Appendix A1, Fig. A1.2(b) (compact tension specimens) and A1.2(c) (notch bend specimens).

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p11-12 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p011

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

Tensile Properties as Indicators of Fracture Behavior


ELONGATION AND REDUCTION in area from the tensile test are measures of ductility and might be considered the simplest indicators of fracture behavior. As generally measured, elongation is a combination of uniform and nonuniform local deformation in a specific gage length. Because neither elongation nor reduction in area from the tensile test incorporates any measure of stress-sustaining capability in the presence of these types of deformation, however, neither is sufficiently descriptive of the fracture behavior to be very useful to the materials engineer or to the designer concerned with design to resist unstable crack growth (Ref 19). On the other hand, it is fair to say that elongation and reduction in area do provide very broad indications of fracture behavior, so that one material having appreciably greater elongation and/or reduction in area than another is likely to have greater toughness as well. Elongation and reduction in area may also be somewhat useful indicators for comparing different lots of a given alloy, temper, and product if the data under consideration are all from one test direction and if the specimens are all of a single type and size. The correlations among various indicators of fracture resistance are discussed in Interrelation of Fracture Characteristics, Chapter 8, and both the advantages and limitations of these properties as indicators of toughness are illustrated in greater detail. The ratio of yield strength to tensile strength and the area under the tensile stress-strain curve have also been suggested as useful indications of toughness. Although they may be useful for some purposes, they are completely unreliable as indexes of resistance to low-ductility fracture. Alloys 2020-T6 and 6061-T6 both have similar ratios of yield strength to tensile strength (Table 6.1) and similar areas under their stress-strain curves but

12 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

significantly different toughness levels by any measure. A comparison of both alloys is sufficient to demonstrate the inadequacy of these properties, as is shown by the average values in the following table:
2020-T6, T651 L LT 6061-T6, T651 L LT

Parameter

Source

Ratio yield strength/ tensile strength Sheet Plate Stress-strain curve area, in.-lb Sheet Plate

0.94 0.95

0.93 0.93

0.91 0.93

0.88 0.90

Tables 5.2, 5.5, 6.1(b), 6.2

7.8 103 5.3 103 6.3 103 3.3 103 0.70 0.47 15

4.7 103 4.7 103 6.5 103 6.6 103 1.18 1.08 900 1.06 1.01 740

Notch-yield 0.76 ratio, sheet Notch-yield 0.50 ratio, plate Unit propagation 30 energy, sheet, in.-lb/in.2 Unit propagation 100 energy, plate, in.-lb/in.2 Plane-strain 17,600 fracture toughness, KIc, plate, psi-in.0.5

Estimated as elongation (TS + YS)/2 Table 5.1 Table 5.5 Table 6.1(b)

50

905

775

Table 6.2

16,800

26,200

26,900

Tables 7.1, 7.3

L, longitudinal; LT, long transverse; TS, tensile strength; YS, yield strength

The net result is that relying on any measurements from tensile tests for any more than very broad qualitative indicators of notch toughness, tear resistance, or fracture toughness is not recommended.

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p13-14 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p013

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

Notched-Bar Impact and Related Tests for Toughness


THE TEMPERATURE SENSITIVITY of the fracture behavior of ferritic steels, that is, the transition over a relatively narrow range of temperatures from a high resistance to fracture to a very low resistance to fracture, brought about the development of various tests to determine their transition temperature. Charpy and Izod notched-bar impact tests (Ref 5) are among those widely used. The U.S. Navy tear test (Ref 20) has served the same purpose. Drop-weight tests of various types have also been developed for that purpose (Ref 2122) and are reported to be the most reliable. The significant feature of all these tests is that their sole purpose is to establish a limiting temperature below which special precautions must be exercised in using materials displaying such a sudden transition in fracture behavior. The significance of the numbers obtained from the tests is that they define the critical temperature range of a fracture transition. The failure-analysis diagrams developed by Pellini and associates at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratories represented a significant refinement in the handling of transition-temperature data (Ref 21), and this approach has had an important impact on the steel industry. Aluminum alloys, like other face-centered cubic materials, do not exhibit any sudden changes in fracture behavior with a decrease or other change in temperature. Therefore, transition-temperature tests, such as the Charpy and Izod impact tests, have little merit for aluminum alloys except to show the absence of a transition, as the data in Fig. 4.1 illustrate. In addition, many aluminum alloys are so tough that they do not fracture completely in Charpy and Izod tests, so that the numbers obtained in the tests are of no interpretive usefulness. In fact, they usually include the energy required to throw the bent specimen across the room. This is often

14 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

12 6061-T6, Charpy V

Energy to fracture, ft lbf

5456-H321, Izod V 8 2219-T851, Izod V

4 195-T6, Charpy V

0 400 300 200 Temperature, F 100 0 100

Fig. 4.1

Notched-bar impact data for aluminum alloys, transverse direction

overlooked in the reporting and analysis of impact test data, and, as a result, there is a considerable amount of meaningless impact data in the literature for aluminum alloys. The net result is that notched-bar impact tests have never been considered useful indicators of the fracture characteristics of aluminum alloys and are not discussed further herein.

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p15-35 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p015

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity


ONE OF THE EARLIEST APPROACHES to the evaluation of the fracture characteristics of aluminum alloys was via tensile tests of specimens containing various types of stress raisers (Fig. A1.3A1.7). The results from these tests were analyzed in terms of the theoretical stress concentration factors (Ref 23) of the stress raisers. However, this approach has not always been very useful in design because the same theoretical stress concentration factors can be obtained with a great variety of different geometrical notch and specimen configurations, each of which has a unique influence on the numerical results of the tests; if design is the goal, the notched specimen must mirror the stress conditions in the component, including its stress raisers. Therefore, the results of tensile tests of notched specimens have been used primarily to qualitatively merit-rate aluminum alloys with respect to their notch toughness; that is, their ability to plastically deform locally in the presence of stress raisers, and thus redistribute the stress. The notch tensile strength itself is of little value for this rating, but the relationship of the notch tensile strength to the tensile yield strength is much more meaningful. For many years, the criterion most often used from notch tensile test results was the notch-strength ratio, the ratio of the notch tensile strength to the tensile strength of the material. However, this ratio tells little about the relative abilities of alloys to deform plastically in the presence of stress raisers. In fact, for different notch geometries it can indicate contradictory ratings (Ref 24). There are instances, of course, when the notchstrength ratio is useful; for example, when a measure of tensile efficiency of a specific structural member is required, or when the ultimate strength is the primary data taken for the smooth specimens, as in fatigue tests or stress-rupture tests. A more meaningful indication of the inherent ability of a material to plastically deform locally in the presence of a severe stress raiser is provided by the notch-yield ratio, which is the ratio of the notch tensile

16 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

strength to the tensile yield strength (Ref 24). The yield strength, although arbitrarily defined, is a measure of the lowest stress at which appreciable plastic deformation occurs in a tensile test. Therefore, the relationship of the notch tensile strength to the yield strength tells more about the behavior of the material in the presence of a stress raiser than the ratio of the notch tensile strength to the tensile strength. If the notch tensile strength is appreciably above the yield strength (regardless of its relation to the tensile strength), the material has exhibited an ability to deform locally in the presence of the stress raiser. If the notch tensile strength is appreciably below the yield strength, the fracture must have taken place without very much plastic deformation. For a specific notch design this may or may not provide much specific design information, but it is quite useful as a relative measure of how several alloys behave in that situation. Further indication of this fact is the experimental result that the notch-yield ratio provides rather consistent ratings for many alloys and tempers for a wide variety of notch geometries (Ref 24), and the ratings are consistent with those from other fracture parameters, as described later. While a number of different designs of notch have been used by different investigators, very sharp, 60 degree V-notches provide the greatest discrimination among the different alloys. In addition, such notches come
2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 Notch-yield ratio 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2020-T6, -T651 Alclad 2020-T6 7178-T6, -T651 2024-T86 2024-T81, -T851 7075-T6, -T651 2014-T6, -T651 7079-T6, -T651 2219-T87 Alclad 7079-T6 6071-T6 7075-T73, -T7351 2219-T81, -T851 5456-H343 X7139-T6, -T6351 5456-H24 3004-H38 X7106-T6, -T6351 5456-H323 6061-T6 2219-T37 X7039-T6 5454-H34 Alclad 2024-T3 2024-T3 5083-H343 5456-H321 2014-T3 5083-H34 5154-H38 2219-T62 1100-H18 3003-H14 2219-T31 3004-H34 5086-H34 1100-H14 5154-H34 5456-O 5083-O 5086-O 5154-O 5454-O 3004-O 3003-O 1100-O 1 in. wide, 0.063 in. thick (Fig. A1.4a) 1 in. wide, 0.125 in. thick (Fig. A1.4a) 1/2 in. wide, 0.063 in. thick (Fig. A1.3) 3 in. wide, 0.125 in. thick (Fig. A1.5) 3 in. wide, 0.063 in. thick (Fig. A1.5) 3 in. wide, 0.250 in. thick (Fig. A1.5)

Fig. 5.1

Similarity of ratings of alloys with respect to notch sensitivity from notch-yield ratio with different types of notched sheet-type specimens

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity / 17

close to representing the most severe unintentional stress raiser that is likely to exist in a structure: a crack. ASTM standards for notch-tensile testing (Ref 6, 7) call for notch-tip radii equal to or less than 0.0005 in., easily maintained in machining aluminum specimens, though quality assurance measurements are recommended. The specific designs of notches for which data for a wide variety of alloys are available are shown in Fig. A1.3 through A1.7. Representative data for various aluminum alloys with each of the notches are shown in Tables 5.1 through 5.5, primarily from Ref 25 to 35. The types of notches and the dimensions of the various specimens, except those of the 0.5 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type specimen (Table 5.1) first used many years ago, are consistent with the early (Ref 12) or more recent (Ref 13) recommendations of the ASTM Fracture Committee E-24 (now Committee E9). The data were obtained by the ASTM recommended practices applicable at the time. Data are presented for wrought aluminum alloys, cast aluminum alloys, and welds in aluminum alloys, as follows (tables are at the end of this Chapter): Wrought alloys Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 0.5 in. wide, edge-notched specimens (Fig. A1.3) 1 in. wide, edge-notched specimens (Fig. A1.4a) 3 in. wide, edge-notched specimens (Fig. A1.5, ASTM E 338) 3 in. wide, center-notched specimens (Fig A1.6, ASTM E 338) 0.5 in. diameter, circumferentially notched specimens (Fig A1.7(a), ASTM E 602) 0.5 in. diameter circumferentially notched specimens (Fig. A1.7(a), ASTM E 602) 1 in. wide, edge-notched specimens (Fig. A1.4b) 0.5 in. diameter, circumferentially notched specimens (Fig. A1.7b) 0.5 in. diameter, circumferentially notched specimens (Fig A1.7)

Cast alloys

Table 5.6

Welds in wrought Table 5.7 alloys Table 5.8 Welds in cast alloys Table 5.9

The relative ratings of various alloys and tempers and also the similarity of the ratings based on a variety of different designs of sheet-type specimens are illustrated in Fig. 5.1, where the alloys and tempers are shown from left to right in order of increasing notch toughness as indicated by notch-yield ratio for several designs of notched specimen. The order in which alloys and tempers are shown was selected from the average ratings with the different designs of specimen. Although there are

18 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

isolated discrepancies because of the differences in the numbers of lots tested, the overall ratings are quite consistent.

5.1 Wrought Alloys


It is clear from Fig. 5.1 that the annealed (-O temper) non-heat-treatable alloys that have the lowest yield strengths rate highest as a group. The very high-strength 2xxx and 7xxx series of alloys rate lowest. It is not sufficient, however, to conclude that notch toughness increases as yield strength decreases. Additional information may be gained by plotting the notch-yield ratios as a function of tensile yield strength, as in Fig. 5.2 and 5.3, where the notch-yield ratios associated with 0.250 in. thick, 3 in. wide, edge-notched specimens (Fig. A1.5) and 0.5 in. diam, cylindrically notched specimens (Fig. A1.7a), respectively, are plotted against yield strength. From Fig. 5.2, the general trend for decreasing notch toughness with increasing strength is obvious, but it is also clear that the 7xxx (Al-Zn-Mg) series of alloys provides a better combination of notch toughness and yield strength than alloys of the other series represented. In Fig. 5.3 for cylindrically notched specimens, that same trend is apparent, as is a broader indication of the rather closely defined relationship between notch-yield ratio and tensile yield strength.
1.2

1.0

0.8 Notch-yield ratio

0.6

Alloy type 2000 5000 6000 7000

0.4

0.2 Room temperature 0 0 20 40 60 Tensile yield strength, ksi 80 100

Fig. 5.2

Notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength of 0.250 in. plate. Transverse direction. Edge-notched specimen per Fig. A1.5

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity / 19

3.0

2.5

2.0 Notch-yield ratio

1.5 Alloy type 2xxx 5xxx 6xxx 7xxx

1.0

0.5

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Tensile yield strength, ksi

Fig. 5.3

Notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for wrought aluminum alloys. Transverse direction (Table 5.5). Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a)

5.2 Cast Alloys


Relative rankings of the cast alloys are presented in Fig. 5.4. Alloy A444.0-F, the lowest-strength cast alloy, ranks highest, but B535.0-F also stands out for its high notch-yield ratio. The poorest performance is for sand cast alloys 240.0-F and 356.0-T6. Among the higher-strength casting alloys, the premium-quality castings (that is, sand castings made with special care to provide high metal chill rates in highly stressed regions) rate well, and A356.0-T6 consistently has higher toughness than does 356.0T6, the positive effect of its higher purity (i.e., lower content of impurities such as iron and silicon). Looking at the relationship between notch-yield ratio (NYR) and tensile yield strength (TYS) also provides interesting information for castings (Fig. 5.5), most notably the relationship of their performance to that of wrought alloys. Alloys A444.0-F and B535.0-F fall in the band for wrought alloy data, but the other alloys fall at least slightly below the band. The premium-quality castings show the best performance in this respect, and the sand cast alloys the poorest; permanent mold castings generally fall in the middle of the range.

5.3 Welds
Relative rankings for welds are shown in Fig. 5.6. In general, welds made with 5356 and 5556 filler alloys have higher notch-yield ratios and, therefore, higher toughness than welds made with 4043 filler alloy. This

20 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

3.2 2.8 2.4 Notch-yield ratio 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 A356-T7 X335-T6 M700-T5 356-T6 356-T7 220-T4 356-T4 195-T6 A140-F A612-F B218-F 113-F 108-F 142-T77 356-T71 Notch-yield ratio

3.2 2.8 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 A356-T7 A356-T62 X335-T61 A356-T61 A444.0-F 356-T6 359-T62 354-T62 C355-T7 356-T7

Sand casting alloys

Permanent mold alloys

Fig. 5.4

Notch-yield ratios (notch tensile strength/tensile yield strength) for cast slabs and separately cast tensile bars of aluminum sand and permanent mold cast slabs. Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a), Kt 16

is not entirely consistent for reasons not clear from the data, but it is reasonable based upon the higher toughness of aluminum-magnesium (5xxx) alloys in general compared to the limited data for aluminum-silicon (4xxx) alloys. Once again, looking at the data on the basis of NYR versus TYS (Fig. 5.7) reveals additional information. The notch toughness of welds as measured by NYR is generally somewhat less than for parent metal of the
2.8 2.4 2.0 Notch-yield ratio 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 Sand casting Premium-strength castings Permanent-mold castings 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 (3.72) (2.93) A444.0-F B535.0-F Band for aluminum alloy plate

Tensile yield strength, ksi

Fig. 5.5

Notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for aluminum alloy castings from notched round specimens (Fig. A1.7a)

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity / 21

2.4 5556 filler alloy Parent alloy and temper

2.4 2319 filler alloy Parent alloy and temper

2.4 4043 filler alloy Parent alloy and temper

2.0

2.0

2.0

Notch-yield ratio

Notch-yield ratio

1.2

1.2

Notch-yield ratio 2219-T62 HTA 2219-T62

1.6

1.6

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.4

0.4

0.4

0 5456-H343 5456-H321 7079-T6 7178-T6

0 2219-T87 2219-T37 2219-T37 A T87

0 6061-T6 2014-T3 2014-T6 2014-T3 A T6 7075-T6

Ratings of aluminum alloy welds based on notch-yield ratio (notched tensile strength/yield strength) from sheet-type specimens (Fig. A1.4b). HTA, heat treated and artificially aged after welding; A, artificially aged after welding (to indicate temper)

Fig. 5.6

same strength, the principal exceptions being welds made with the 5xxx series filler alloys. Many data for 4043 welds fall well below the band for wrought alloys, a notable exception being when the 4043 weld in 6061T6 was heat treated and aged after welding.
3.0

2.5

Band for L and LT, wrought alloys

2.0 Notch-yield ratio Filler alloy 1100 2319 4043 5052 5154 5183 5039 5356 5556 5554 5456 0 10

1.5

1.0

0.5

20

30

40

50

60

70

Tensile yield strength, ksi

Fig. 5.7

Notch-yield ratio (notch tensile strength/tensile yield strength) vs. tensile yield strength for welds in wrought and cast alloys (Tables 5.8 and 5.9). Specimens per Fig. A1.7(b)

22 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

5.4 ASTM Standard Notch Tensile Test Methods


Emphasizing a point made previously, while data have been generated in the past and are presented herein for a number of geometries of notched specimens, the recommended approach for the future is to use those designs covered by the current ASTM standards, namely ASTM E 338 (Ref 6) for materials up to about 0.500 in. in thickness using sheet-type specimens (Fig. A1.5 and A1.6), and ASTM E 602 (Ref 7) for thicker materials using cylindrical specimens (Fig. A1.7a).

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity / 23

Table 5.1(a) Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type specimens of aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

2014-T6 2020-T6(a) Alclad 2020-T6 2219-T31 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T81 2219-T87 2024-T3 Alclad 2024-T3 2024-T86 5083-O 5083-H34 5086-O 5086-H34 5154-H38 5454-O 5454-H34 5456-O 5456-H24 6061-T6 7075-T6 7178-T6

73.5 81.5 80.2 74.0 56.5 62.9 59.1 69.4 72.1 67.8 68.3 76.9 44.6 53.2 41.2 48.7 49.6 37.6 46.0 47.4 54.9 44.6 83.0 88.6

68.3 77.4 75.4 70.8 44.9 54.0 39.2 54.2 59.8 51.4 52.7 72.9 21.9 43.2 19.6 38.8 42.7 15.8 39.9 24.3 43.0 41.4 75.7 81.6

10.0 7.0 8.0 7.5 17.2 9.0 9.0 9.2 9.2 18.2 18.2 6.0 22.0 10.5 22.2 11.0 9.8 21.5 10.8 21.8 12.0 11.0 10.5 11.5

70.4 64.4 51.3 57.2 55.2 62.5 49.3 63.8 68.0 61.8 63.4 71.4 40.0 53.1 38.0 50.2 52.2 36.8 47.6 41.4 48.8 48.8 79.7 72.6

0.96 0.79 0.64 0.77 0.98 1.00 0.84 0.92 0.94 0.92 0.93 0.93 0.90 1.00 0.93 1.03 1.06 0.98 1.03 0.87 0.89 1.10 0.96 0.82

1.03 0.83 0.68 0.81 1.23 1.16 1.26 1.18 1.14 1.25 1.19 0.98 1.83 1.23 1.95 1.30 1.22 2.33 1.19 1.70 1.14 1.18 1.06 0.89

Specimens per Fig. A1.3; each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Table 5.1(b)mResults of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type specimens of aluminum alloy sheet, transverse
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.063 in.

2014-T6 2020-T6(a) Alclad 2020-T6 2219-T31 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T81 2219-T87 2024-T3 Alclad 2024-T3 2024-T86 5083-O 5083-H34 5086-O 5086-H34 5154-H38 5454-O 5454-H34 5456-O 5456-H24 6061-T6 7075-T6 7178-T6

72.1 81.8 80.3 74.8 56.6 63.1 58.7 68.7 72.9 66.6 66.2 75.8 43.8 51.9 40.4 49.0 49.9 36.0 47.8 46.9 55.2 45.2 82.2 80.5

56.4 75.9 75.0 69.8 40.9 50.9 38.9 52.8 60.6 50.0 46.6 71.3 22.0 38.2 19.8 37.2 42.5 15.7 38.3 25.7 38.7 40.7 72.9 78.5

9.50 7.00 6.50 6.50 17.00 11.20 9.50 9.50 9.20 20.00 19.80 5.20 23.20 11.80 24.00 12.80 14.20 20.50 10.20 24.20 14.50 11.00 10.50 11.20

67.3 61.0 51.1 53.8 54.9 62.9 49.9 62.6 66.2 57.8 61.3 64.4 37.6 50.6 36.7 51.2 56.3 35.3 49.8 41.6 49.7 48.2 74.8 61.6

0.94 0.75 0.64 0.72 0.97 1.00 0.85 0.91 0.91 0.89 0.92 0.86 0.86 0.98 0.91 1.00 1.13 0.98 1.04 0.88 0.90 1.06 0.91 0.70

1.03 0.81 0.68 0.77 1.34 1.24 1.28 1.19 1.09 1.30 1.32 0.91 1.71 1.33 1.86 1.37 1.32 2.25 1.30 1.62 1.29 1.18 1.02 0.78

Specimens per Fig. A1.3; each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

24 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 5.2(a) Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens of aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.063 in.

1100-O 1100-HI4 1100-HI8 2014-T6 2020-T6(a) Alclad 2020-T6(a) 2024-T3 Alclad 2024-T3 2024-T81 2024-T86 3003-O 3003-H14 3004-O 3004-H34 3004-H38 5083-H34 5154-O 5154-H34 5154-H39 5454-O 5454-H34 5456-O 5456-H24 6061-T6 6071-T6(a) 7075-T6 7075-T73 7079-T6(a)

Alclad 7079-T6(a) X7106-T6(a) X7139-T6(a) 7178-T6

14.2 17.9 27.7 73.5 72.5 80.2 80.2 74.2 71.5 67.8 68.3 72.6 76.9 17.0 22.2 27.1 35.6 44.0 54.1 35.4 45.8 49.4 37.6 46.0 47.4 54.9 46.6 54.6 82.3 80.4 72.0 77.0 72.8 78.0 68.9 61.2 65.2 89.4

4.9 16.8 26.3 68.3 65.6 75.4 75.9 70.8 55.5 51.4 52.7 68.0 72.9 7.1 21.4 11.4 31.7 41.0 44.8 16.4 37.8 42.8 15.8 39.9 24.3 43.0 43.4 52.1 76.1 71.9 61.0 70.2 64.0 71.1 61.2 53.9 56.1 82.4

35.1 13.0 5.5 10.0 11.5 8.0 7.8 7.5 19.2 18.2 18.2 6.2 6.0 34.5 10.0 22.2 8.8 8.0 10.7 24.5 9.8 9.8 21.5 10.8 21.8 12.0 11.5 9.5 11.5 10.0 10.2 10.8 11.0 10.8 11.4 11.0 11.0 11.5

13.0 19.2 28.9 63.4 67.9 37.4 42.2 45.9 60.2 57.1 57.6 55.5 59.0 15.8 24.2 23.8 35.6 43.8 49.2 31.4 44.0 46.8 31.7 43.6 34.3 42.2 47.0 54.4 68.1 71.0 67.2 71.4 67.3 66.3 59.0 59.7 60.6 57.8

0.91 1.08 1.04 0.86 0.83 0.47 0.53 0.62 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.76 0.77 0.93 1.09 0.88 1.00 1.00 0.91 0.89 0.96 0.95 0.84 0.95 0.72 0.77 1.01 1.00 0.83 0.88 0.93 0.93 0.92 0.77 0.87 0.98 0.92 0.65

2.65 1.14 1.10 0.93 0.92 0.50 0.56 0.65 1.09 1.11 1.09 0.82 0.81 2.23 1.13 2.09 1.12 1.07 1.10 1.92 1.16 1.09 2.00 1.09 1.41 0.98 1.08 1.04 0.90 0.99 1.10 1.02 1.05 0.86 0.97 1.11 1.08 0.70

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.125 in.

2014-T3 2014-T6 2020-T6(a) Alclad 2020-T6(a) 2024-T81 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T87 5083-O 5083-H343 5086-O 5086-H34 5454-O 5456-O 5456-H24

66.0 70.2 80.5 75.2 71.0 72.6 70.9 57.1 58.3 70.9 70.1 68.2 44.6 52.6 40.8 49.6 33.8 49.8 54.7 55.2

46.7 65.8 76.8 70.2 67.0 68.6 64.8 48.3 39.0 59.2 58.4 57.3 20.2 42.3 19.4 38.0 12.6 23.8 37.8 40.8

20.4 10.3 7.8 8.0 8.0 8.5 8.5 15.9 11.0 11.0 11.5 11.6 22.5 10.5 23.5 12.8 22.5 20.5 12.8 12.2 (continued)

53.2 65.3 48.4 38.8 35.4 37.2 62.2 53.6 47.9 62.7 55.6 61.0 35.1 48.0 35.3 47.0 32.0 38.5 41.8 44.2

0.81 0.93 0.60 0.52 0.50 0.51 0.88 0.94 0.82 0.88 0.79 0.90 0.79 0.91 0.87 0.95 0.95 0.77 0.76 0.80

1.14 0.99 0.63 0.55 0.53 0.54 0.96 1.11 1.23 1.06 0.95 1.06 1.74 1.13 1.82 1.24 2.54 1.62 1.11 1.08

Specimens per Fig. A1.4. Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity / 25

Table 5.2(a) (continued)


Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.125 in. (continued)

5456-H321 5456-H323 5456-H343 6061-T6 7075-T6 7075-T73 7079-T6(a) X7106-T6(a) X7139-T6(a) 7178-T6

55.3 57.4 56.0 58.2 59.3 44.9 82.1 82.8 73.0 80.9 77.5 58.8 64.6 84.2 90.0

40.4 39.5 42.1 46.1 46.2 40.9 74.4 76.6 61.8 75.6 72.3 52.5 56.2 75.3 83.6

13.0 14.5 11.2 8.3 8.5 13.8 11.2 11.2 12.8 11.5 11.5 12.5 11.0 11.0 12.2

45.3 47.6 46.9 48.7 47.8 46.2 68.4 60.8 65.4 67.8 70.8 59.6 62.5 56.3 51.8

0.82 0.83 0.83 0.84 0.81 1.03 0.83 0.73 0.89 0.84 0.91 1.01 0.97 0.67 0.58

1.12 1.11 1.11 1.06 1.04 1.12 0.92 0.79 1.03 0.90 0.98 1.13 1.11 0.75 0.62

Specimens per Fig. A1.4. Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Table 5.2(b) Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens of aluminum alloy sheet, transverse
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.063 in.

1100-O 1100-HI4 1100-HI8 2014-T6 2020-T6 Alclad 2020-T6 2024-T3 Alclad 2024-T3 2024-T81 2024-T86 3003-O 3003-H14 3004-O 3004-H34 3004-H38 5083-H34 5154-O 5154-H34 5154-H39

14.0 18.0 27.7 72.1 72.3 80.3 81.1 74.8 68.9 66.6 66.2 71.6 75.8 16.5 22.2 26.6 36.6 44.4 55.2 34.6 46.2 49.9

5.3 16.4 26.3 65.4 62.6 75.0 75.8 69.8 47.8 44.8 46.6 66.7 71.3 7.3 20.8 11.5 30.6 9.6 42.9 16.0 35.4 42.6

41.3 9.2 5.50 9.5 11.8 6.5 7.5 6.5 19.5 20.0 19.8 6.2 5.2 30.8 6.9 22.8 8.0 7.8 11.8 25.0 13.0 14.2 (continued)

12.8 19.8 28.9 57.2 56.4 34.7 36.5 35.6 54.0 51.2 53.2 53.7 51.7 15.6 24.6 23.6 36.8 43.4 49.8 30.2 44.8 50.1

0.91 110 1.04 0.79 0.78 0.43 0.45 0.48 0.78 0.77 0.81 0.75 0.68 0.94 1.11 0.89 1.01 0.98 0.90 0.87 0.97 1.00

2.41 1.21 1.10 0.88 0.90 0.46 0.48 0.51 1.13 1.14 1.14 0.80 0.72 2.14 1.18 2.05 1.20 1.10 1.16 1.89 1.27 1.18

Specimens per Fig. A1.4. Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

26 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 5.2(b) (continued)


Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.063 in. (continued)

5454-O 5454-H34 5456-O 5456-H24 6061-T6 6071-T6 7075-T6 7075-T73 7079-T6 Alclad 7079-T6 X7106-T6 X7139-T6(a) 7178-T6

36.0 47.8 46.9 55.2 46.1 53.4 82.6 79.7 74.0 76.1 72.8 77.1 67.7 62.4 65.7 88.0

15.7 38.3 25.7 38.7 41.8 50.2 73.5 70.6 62.9 67.3 62.4 68.7 58.7 54.0 56.1 77.6

20.5 10.2 24.2 14.5 11.5 9.0 11.0 10.0 10.5 10.5 11.0 10.2 11.0 11.0 10.0 11.0

31.3 45.6 34.6 41.7 46.7 50.0 63.3 65.4 61.4 65.3 67.5 59.7 58.4 60.0 60.0 54.6

0.87 0.95 0.74 0.75 1.01 0.94 0.77 0.82 0.83 0.86 0.93 0.77 0.86 0.96 0.92 0.62

1.99 1.19 1.35 1.08 1.12 1.00 0.86 0.93 0.98 0.97 1.08 0.87 0.99 1.12 1.07 0.70

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.125 in.

2014-T3 2014-T6 2020-T6(a) Alclad 2020-T6(a) 2024-T81 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T87 5083-O 5083-H343 5086-O 5086-H34 5454-O 5456-O 5456-H24 5456-H321 5456-H323 5456-H343 6061-T6 7075-T6 7075-T73 7079-T6(a) X7106-T6(a) X7139-T6(a) 7178-T6

66.0 73.1 82.8 75.8 71.7 74.4 70.8 60.3 57.4 71.3 72.6 70.1 43.9 52.6 40.0 48.8 34.0 49.4 54.4 54.9 52.8 57.9 56.6 59.7 58.8 44.3 83.7 82.8 74.6 83.0 79.3 61.0 66.5 85.8 91.4

40.8 66.2 77.2 69.1 66.4 68.4 64.6 46.7 38.2 59.2 59.8 58.4 20.2 38.0 19.4 38.9 12.9 24.0 36.8 39.4 31.8 39.6 40.1 43.0 43.2 38.0 71.8 74.1 61.1 73.8 71.4 52.7 57.1 75.3 79.2

20.5 11.8 6.0 7.0 8.0 6.5 7.5 13.3 12.0 10.0 10.5 10.8 23.5 11.5 24.0 17.8 21.5 20.0 15.0 15.8 16.5 17.5 13.5 12.6 11.8 14.0 13.0 11.5 10.8 10.8 11.3 11.0 10.0 10.0 12.5

50.3 58.5 36.6 31.6 33.2 33.2 56.6 54.9 46.1 58.0 57.5 58.1 33.6 45.8 33.2 ... 31.6 36.0 39.4 45.0 40.9 48.2 46.7 47.0 47.0 45.6 60.5 57.0 62.4 58.8 61.5 59.1 61.4 49.8 46.9

0.76 0.80 0.44 0.42 0.46 0.45 0.80 0.91 0.80 0.81 0.79 0.82 0.77 0.87 0.83 ... 0.93 0.73 0.72 0.82 0.77 0.83 0.83 0.79 0.80 1.03 0.72 0.69 0.84 0.71 0.78 0.98 0.93 0.58 0.51

1.23 0.88 0.47 0.46 0.50 0.49 0.88 1.11 1.21 0.98 0.96 0.98 1.66 1.18 1.71 ... 2.45 1.50 1.07 1.14 1.29 1.22 1.12 1.09 1.09 1.20 0.84 0.78 1.02 0.80 0.86 1.13 1.08 0.66 0.59

Specimens per Fig. A1.4. Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity / 27

Table 5.3(a) Results of tensile tests of 3 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type specimens of aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.063 in.

5154-H38 6071-T69(a) 7075-T6 7075-T73 7079-T6(a) Alclad 7079-T6(a)

49.4 56.8 81.5 80.4 72.8 77.0 68.9 78.0

42.8 54.2 73.0 71.9 61.3 70.2 61.2 71.1

9.8 9.5 10.2 10.0 9.9 10.8 11.4 10.8

44.2 45.6 59.2 54.0 57.0 50.6 52.6 51.5

0.89 0.80 0.73 0.67 0.78 0.66 0.76 0.66

1.03 0.84 0.81 0.75 0.93 0.72 0.86 0.72

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.125 in.

2014-T6 Alclad 2020-T6(a) 2219-T87 5456-H343 7075-T6

7079-T6 7178-T6

70.2 71.0 72.6 68.2 66.2 59.3 82.8 84.7 80.7 80.9 90.0

64.0 67.0 68.6 57.3 54.7 46.2 76.6 78.2 73.2 75.6 83.6

10.5 8.0 8.5 11.6 10.2 8.5 11.2 11.0 11.5 11.5 12.2

52.7 31.2 32.1 53.1 50.6 44.8 56.8 53.0 ... 52.1 45.0

0.75 0.44 0.44 0.78 0.76 0.76 0.69 0.63 ... 0.64 0.50

0.82 0.47 0.47 0.93 0.92 0.97 0.74 0.68 ... 0.69 0.54

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.250 in.

2014-T651 2020-T651(a) 2219-T87 7075-T651 7079-T651(a)

70.3 81.6 69.3 84.3 79.0 79.4

65.0 77.4 57.6 78.0 73.8 74.0

11.0 8.5 10.5 14.0 14.0 12.8

46.4 22.6 50.6 44.7 55.2 53.2

0.66 0.28 0.73 0.53 0.70 0.67

0.71 0.29 0.88 0.57 0.75 0.72

Specimens per Fig. A1.5. Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of one lot of material. Yield strength offset is 0.2. (a) Obsolete alloy

28 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 5.3(b)mResults of tensile tests of 3 in. wide, edge-notch sheet-type specimens of aluminum alloy sheet, transverse
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.063 in.

5154-H38 6071-T6(a) 7075-T6 7075-T73 7079-T6(a) Alclad 7079-T6(a)

49.9 56.2 81.0 79.7 72.2 76.1 67.7 77.1

42.6 52.2 71.8 70.6 61.8 67.3 67.7 68.7

14.2 10.0 10.2 10.0 10.1 10.5 11.0 10.2

48.1 41.6 55.5 54.0 54.4 52.7 48.8 47.0

0.96 0.74 0.69 0.68 0.75 0.69 0.72 0.61

1.13 0.80 0.80 0.76 0.88 0.78 0.83 0.68

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.125 in.

2014-T6 Alclad 2020-T6(a) 2219-T87 5456-H343 7075-T6

7079-T6 7178-T6

70.0 71.7 74.4 70.1 68.2 58.8 82.8 86.9 82.7 83.0 91.4

62.2 66.4 68.4 58.4 55.9 43.2 74.1 77.0 72.9 73.8 79.2

10.5 8.0 6.5 10.8 10.5 11.8 11.5 10.5 11.0 10.8 12.5

47.0 22.4 22.3 50.0 46.2 42.0 48.8 39.9 49.7 48.4 33.0

0.67 0.31 0.30 0.71 0.68 0.71 0.59 0.46 0.60 0.58 0.36

0.76 0.34 0.34 0.86 0.83 0.97 0.66 0.52 0.68 0.66 0.42

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.250 in.

2014-T651 2020-T651(a) 2024-T851 2219-T851 2219-T87 5456-H321 5456-H343 6061-T651 7075-T651 7075-T7351 7079-T651(a)

X7106-T6351 X7139-T6351 7178-T651

68.5 69.6 83.1 72.6 66.2 73.4 70.2 53.7 61.4 44.8 86.1 84.8 71.8 79.6 80.2 81.0 62.0 65.8 87.6

61.5 62.8 78.0 67.2 49.2 60.8 57.2 37.2 43.8 40.7 74.8 74.2 59.4 71.0 71.2 72.6 54.0 56.8 79.2

11.0 10.5 6.0 7.0 11.0 10.5 10.5 19.5 11.2 14.8 12.5 13.0 12.0 12.5 12.0 11.5 12.2 12.5 11.0

42.2 38.2 20.0 30.0 47.2 42.2 47.5 44.0 39.2 45.2 34.6 34.9 50.2 41.2 38.1 29.8(b) 57.8 58.0 28.8

0.62 0.55 0.24 0.41 0.71 0.58 0.68 0.82 0.64 1.01 0.40 0.41 0.70 0.52 0.48 0.37(b) 0.93 0.88 0.33

0.69 0.61 0.26 0.45 0.96 0.69 0.83 1.18 0.90 1.11 0.46 0.47 0.85 0.58 0.54 0.41(b) 1.07 1.02 0.36

Specimens per Fig. A1.5. Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of one lot of material. Yield strength offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy. (b) Value is unreasonably low and could not be checked; omitted from all comparisons

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity / 29

Table 5.4(a)mResults of tensile tests of smooth and center-notched sheet-type specimens of aluminum alloy sheet and plate, longitudinal
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.125 in.

2014-T6 2024-T8l

2219-T87 7075-T6 7178-T6

70.2 71.3 71.0 69.6 66.2 80.7 94.7 89.6

64.0 65.2 64.9 62.2 54.7 73.2 78.2 83.5

10.5 9.0 9.0 8.1 10.2 11.5 11.0 12.6

54.0 51.9 51.4 51.8 51.0 57.9 54.9 43.0

0.77 0.73 0.72 0.74 0.77 0.72 0.65 0.48

0.84 0.80 0.79 0.83 0.43 0.74 0.70 0.51

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.125 in.

2014-T651 2020-T651(a) 2219-T87 7075-T651 7075-T7351 7079-T651(a)

70.3 81.6 69.3 83.5 70.2 80.2

65.0 77.4 57.6 77.3 54.2 74.7

11.0 8.5 10.5 14.5 13.5 11.0

49.6 24.4 51.4 41.2 ... 44.2

0.77 0.32 0.89 0.49 ... 0.59

0.77 0.32 0.89 0.53 ... 0.54

Specimens per Fig. A1.6. Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Table 5.4(b)mResults of tensile tests of smooth and center-notched sheet-type specimens of aluminum alloy sheet and plate, transverse
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.063 in.

7075-T6 7075-T73

81.0 72.2

71.8 61.8

10.0 10.1

55.0 55.2

0.68 0.76

0.77 0.89

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.125 in.

2014-T6 2024-T8l

70.0 72.5 71.7 70.5 68.2 82.7 86.9 89.8

62.2 66.4 66.0 64.1 55.9 72.9 77.0 77.4

10.5 8.0 8.2 7.4 10.5 11.0 10.5 12.8

47.7 47.4 46.6 46.2 47.6 50.7 44.0 36.3

0.68 0.65 0.65 0.66 0.70 0.61 0.51 0.40

0.77 0.71 0.71 0.72 0.85 0.70 0.57 0.47

2219-T87 7075-T6 7178-T6

Nominal sheet thickness, 0.250 in.

2014-T651 2020-T651(a) 2219-T87 7075-T651 7075-T7351 7079-T651(a)

69.6 83.1 70.2 94.8 71.8 81.0

62.8 78.0 57.2 74.2 59.4 72.6

10.5 6.0 10.5 13.0 12.0 11.5

39.3 17.1 48.0 37.0 50.5 34.2

0.56 0.21 0.68 0.00 0.70 0.42

0.63 0.22 0.84 0.50 0.85 0.47

Specimens per Fig. A1.6. Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

30 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 5.5(a)mResults of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from aluminum alloy plate, longitudinal
Nominal thickness, in. Ultimate Tensile tensile yield strength strength (UTS), ksi (TYS), ksi Notch tensile Elongation Reduction strength in 2 in., % of area, % (NTS), ksi Notch reduction of area, %

Alloy and temper

NTS/TS NTS/YS

2014-T651 2020-T651(a)

1.000 0.875

0.900 1.250 1.375

2024-T351 2024-T851

1.000 1.500 0.875 1.375

2024-T86 2219-T31 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T851

0.875 0.500 0.500 1.000 0.500 1.000 1.250 1.375

2219-T87

0.500 1.000 1.356 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 1.250 1.000 1.000

2618-T651 5083-O 5083-H113 5086-O 5086-H32 5086-H34 5154-O 5356-O 5356-H321 5454-O 5454-H32 5456-O 5456-H321 6061-T651 7001-T75(a)

7075-T651

1.000 1.250 1.375 1.375 1.500 1.375

7075-T7351 7079-T651(a)

X7106-T6351(a)0.500 1.250 7178-T651 1.250 7178-T7651 1.000

69.0 81.8 83.0 81.4 82.6 79.0 83.2 81.6 81.9 70.0 69.4 71.9 72.0 72.0 71.8 76.5 54.5 54.5 64.1 60.1 67.8 65.7 65.8 66.8 66.4 66.6 69.3 67.9 68.4 62.4 45.5 49.9 41.2 45.0 50.7 35.1 43.5 53.3 35.9 39.2 40.9 49.9 56.3 52.9 55.4 42.2 44.9 81.9 81.4 81.8 80.6 80.6 85.2 90.4 84.0 87.3 88.9 76.7 69.8 70.8 84.2 84.0 82.8 82.2 65.6 67.5 93.6 80.6

63.5 77.0 77.4 76.6 78.3 74.7 77.5 76.1 76.3 56.2 53.0 67.9 65.8 66.1 65.6 72.8 37.7 45.2 48.1 41.4 52.2 52.8 50.8 51.1 50.6 52.0 56.8 56.9 57.1 57.6 20.4 34.5 20.5 30.4 38.2 16.1 20.9 34.7 16.6 38.2 28.9 23.2 34.5 34.2 35.8 39.2 42.2 74.8 74.4 72.2 70.6 70.6 76.4 81.6 75.4 79.1 80.6 66.3 58.3 59.1 76.8 77.6 76.0 75.2 57.7 60.0 84.2 71.7

10.2 2.9 4.4 5.5 5.0 3.8 6.0 5.8 6.0 17.5 19.5 8.0 7.8 8.0 8.5 8.5 28.0 21.0 11.0 13.0 11.4 12.0 11.0 10.2 10.2 11.0 12.6 12.5 11.5 10.8 20.5 14.5 25.0 16.0 12.5 30.7 28.8 16.0 25.0 16.5 15.7 21.8 13.5 16.0 13.2 16.0 16.5 11.0 10.2 9.5 9.5 9.5 10.0 10.0 11.4 10.9 11.2 12.0 12.5 12.5 10.0 11.5 11.0 11.2 14.8 12.5 9.0 11.0

24 4 7 10 7 7 7 8 9 22 28 21 19 20 22 22 ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 22 24 25 ... ... 26 ... 32 25 35 24 18 51 39 18 52 36 32 31 16 18 is 41 50 ... ... 17 18 17 ... 16 17 16 14 29 29 29 20 17 17 20 ... ... 12 ...

82.8 51.4 55.5 61.6 63.4 51.6 66.7 74.9 73.3 81.6 80.9 86.1 85.1 81.8 85.2 87.0 68.3 78.3 74.7 72.2 80.5 79.4 73.8 80.6 81.2 79.9 85.0 82.3 83.1 81.2 51.6 58.7 48.7 55.4 65.5 46.0 50.0 60.4 49.0 51.3 56.2 50.9 59.7 60.8 62.6 64.5 69.2 80.0 65.0 93.1 91.3 91.4 99.3 97.3 97.8 100.8 101.7 93.2 87.6 89.7 103.9 103.0 100.0 100.0 90.8 92.0 87.9 95.6

2 ... ... 1 0 ...

3 4 1 ...

0 6 7 3 3 3 ... 2 ... ... ... 3 ... 3 ... 7 4 8 6 5 10 8 6 16 13 12 5 8 5 5 4 5 ... ... ... ... ... 2 2 ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 ... ... ... ... ... 1 ...

1.20 0.63 0.67 0.76 0.77 0.65 0.80 0.92 0.89 1.17 1.16 1.20 1.18 1.14 1.19 1.14 1.25 1.44 1.16 1.20 1.19 1.21 1.12 1.21 1.22 1.20 1.26 1.21 122 1.30 1.13 1.17 1.18 1.23 1.29 1.31 1.15 1.13 1.37 1.28 1.37 1.04 1.06 1.15 1.13 1.53 1.54 0.98 0.80 1.14 1.13 1.13 1.16 1.08 1.16 1.15 1.14 1.22 1.26 1.27 1.23 1.23 1.21 1.22 1.38 1.36 0.94 1.18

1.30 0.67 0.72 0.80 0.81 0.69 0.86 0.98 0.96 1.45 1.52 1.27 1.29 1.24 1.30 1.19 1.81 1.73 1.55 1.74 1.59 1.50 1.45 1.58 1.60 1.54 1.50 1.45 1.46 1.41 2.53 1.70 2.37 1.82 1.72 2.88 2.39 1.74 2.95 1.82 1.94 2.19 1.73 1.78 1.75 1.65 1.64 1.07 0.87 1.29 1.29 1.29 1.29 1.19 1.30 1.27 1.26 1.41 1.50 1.52 1.35 1.33 1.32 1.33 1.57 1.54 1.04 1.33

Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a). Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity / 31

Table 5.5(b)mResults of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diameter, notch round specimens from aluminum alloy plate, transverse
Nominal thickness, in. Ultimate Tensile tensile yield strength strength (UTS), ksi (TYS), ksi Notch tensile Notch Elongation Reduction strength reduction in 2 in., % of area, % (NTS), ksi of area, % NTS/TS NTS/YS

Alloy and temper

2014-T651 2020-T651(a)

1.000 0.875

0.900 1.250 1.375

2024-T4 2024-T351

2024-T36 2024-T6 2024-T81 2024-T851

0.625 0.625 1.000 1.500 0.625 0.625 0.625 0.875 1.375

2024-T86 2219-T31 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T851

0.625 0.875 0.500 0.500 1.000 0.500 1.000 1.250 1.375 0.500 1.000 1.356 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.750 0.625 1.250 1.000 1.000

2219-T87 2618-T651 5083-O 5083-H113 5086-O 5086-H32 5086-H34 5154-O 5356-O 5356-H321 5454-O 5454-H32 5456-O 5456-H321 6061-T651 7001-T75(a)

69.5 82.3 83.6 82.8 83.8 81.5 82.4 82.2 82.2 67.2 67.2 70.0 68.4 73.0 68.6 68.8 71.5 70.9 71.2 70.8 75.1 73.9 56.3 57.4 64.2 59.9 68.5 66.1 65.8 66.0 65.6 65.8 70.8 69.3 69.1 61.1 45.9 50.1 41.1 44.8 52.4 36.1 44.7 51.8 35.6 40.0 41.4 48.8 55.9 52.7 55.4 42.0 45.1 44.9 81.8 81.8 80.8 79.9 80.5

62.7 77.7 78.2 77.6 78.6 76.5 78.4 77.5 77.4 43.4 44.7 50.3 47.4 60.5 57.2 63.4 66.9 65.0 65.5 64.4 71.6 69.9 34.8 44.2 44.3 40.6 50.9 51.3 49.1 50.8 51.2 49.3 58.1 57.0 57.1 54.6 20.5 34.3 20.6 30.4 37.4 16.2 21.7 33.2 16.8 28.8 29.4 24.0 33.6 34.4 33.3 39.1 40.2 40.4 73.7 73.4 71.3 69.6 70.6

8.8 4.5 2.2 3.2 3.7 2.2 1.8 2.6 2.4 18.0 17.0 14.0 17.2 10.0 9.1 6.6 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.2 4.8 6.0 24.0 16.0 9.0 12.0 9.7 10.5 11.0 10.2 11.0 10.0 9.1 10.0 9.0 8.8 25.0 16.1 27.8 18.6 15.7 29.6 27.7 21.0 24.0 19.2 18.8 21.2 19.0 17.2 16.5 16.5 15.8 15.2 8.5 9.2 8.8 9.0 8.8 (continued)

16 8 4 6 5 5 2 4 4 22 22 22 ... 16 16 16 16 13 14 14 12 13 ... ... ... ... ... ... 21 20 18 20 ... ... 16 ... 33 24 36 38 33 47 32 31 45 46 46 26 27 22 26 ... 42 42 ... ... 14 14 14

79.8 47.8 52.0 58.3 54.3 49.2 53.6 59.0 62.0 73.2 72.8 78.8 77.0 74.6 74.2 70.9 73.8 76.2 68.2 76.7 58.4 67.2 68.3 77.7 69.9 68.8 75.3 77.0 73.8 77.2 76.9 76.1 81.2 76.2 78.8 83.2 48.3 56.6 49.7 54.0 62.1 44.3 48.0 59.2 47.2 53.4 56.5 49.5 58.5 58.3 61.0 62.6 62.6 67.8 68.9 64.6 81.2 83.6 80.7

0 ... ... ... 0 0 ... ... ... 2 2 2 3 1 0 2 0 ... ... ... 0 0 13 5 7 4 2 2 2 ... ... ... 1 ... 1 ... 6 3 7 4 3 11 4 3 12 8 10 6 4 4 4 4 2 5 ... ... ... ... ...

1.15 0.58 0.62 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.65 0.72 0.75 1.09 1.08 1.13 1.13 1.02 1.01 1.03 1.03 1.07 0.96 1.08 0.78 0.91 1.21 1.35 1.09 1.15 1.10 1.16 1.12 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.15 1.10 1.14 1.36 1.05 1.13 1.09 1.20 1.19 1.23 1.07 1.14 1.33 1.33 1.36 1.01 1.05 1.11 1.10 1.49 1.39 1.51 0.84 0.79 1.00 1.05 1.00

1.27 0.62 0.66 0.75 0.69 0.64 0.68 0.76 0.80 1.69 1.63 1.57 1.62 1.23 1.30 1.12 1.10 1.17 1.04 1.19 0.82 0.96 1.96 1.76 1.57 1.69 1.48 1.50 1.50 1.52 1.50 1.54 1.40 1.34 1.38 1.52 2.36 1.65 2.41 1.78 1.66 2.74 2.21 1.78 2.92 1.85 1.92 2.06 1.79 1.70 1.83 1.60 1.55 1.68 0.93 0.88 1.14 1.20 1.14

Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a). Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

32 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 5.5(b) (continued)


Nominal thickness, in. Ultimate Tensile tensile yield strength strength (UTS), ksi (TYS), ksi Notch tensile Notch Elongation Reduction strength reduction in 2 in., % of area, % (NTS), ksi of area, % NTS/TS NTS/YS

Alloy and temper

7075-T651

1.000 0.625 1.250 1.375 1.375 1,500 1.375

7075-T7351 7079-T651(a)

X7106-T6351(a) 0.500 1.250 7178-T651 1.250 7178-T7651 1.000

82.5 82.4 88.0 82.4 86.1 86.7 74.9 68.2 70.1 83.4 83.1 82.5 82.8 65.4 66.4 94.2 79.8

72.8 71.6 78.8 73.4 77.7 77.3 64.6 56.8 58.5 74.4 74.2 72.8 72.6 57.7 58.9 83.0 70.9

9.5 11.2 10.0 11.2 10.8 11.8 10.5 11.8 11.0 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.2 14.0 12.5 9.0 10.8

... 18 14 16 15 16 20 24 23 20 17 16 17 ... ... 13 ...

85.4 91.6 83.2 94.6 95.8 102.1 85.2 80.6 82.1 94.4 94.4 91.0 86.8 90.9 91.2 79.6 88.7

1 0 1 ... ... ... ... ... ... 2 ... 2 ... ... ... 1 ...

1.04 1.11 0.95 1.15 1.11 1.18 1.14 1.18 1.17 1.13 1.14 1.10 1.05 1.39 1.38 0.84 1.11

1.17 1.28 1.06 1.29 1.23 1.32 1.32 1.42 1.40 1.27 1.27 1.25 1.20 1.57 1.56 0.96 1.25

Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a). Each line is the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity / 33

Table 5.6 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from aluminum alloy castings
Alloy and temper Sand casting Ultimate tensile strength Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in., % Reduction of area, % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

240.0-F 242.0-T77 295.0-T6 308.0-F X335.0-T6 Average X335.0-T6 356.0-T4 Average 356.0-T4 356.0-T6 356.0-T7 356.0-T71 Average 356.0-T7 A356.0-T61 A356.0-T7 Average A356.0-T7 520.0-F B535.0-F Average B535.0-F A612.0-F
Permanent-mold casting

33.8 29.8 42.0 25.0 37.3 35.3 36.3 31.1 29.4 30.2 38.6 37.8 28.8 31.9 29.4 30.0 41.6 37.1 37.6 37.4 34.2 41.2 42.6 41.9 43.1

26.0 20.4 27.1 18.5 23.4 22.6 23.0 19.0 17.6 18.7 32.6 33.7 20.2 24.2 20.7 21.7 30.2 30.5 33.2 31.8 31.6 21.2 21.0 21.1 34.8

1.4 2.1 6.4 1.8 8.6 ... ... 4.4 ... ... 2.2 1.6 5.0 ... ... ... 8.8 4.4 ... ... 2.1 12.9 ... ... 3.2

2 4 10 2 12 ... ... 6 ... ... 3 2 ... ... ... ... 10 7 ... ... 2 13 ... ... 7

22.5 27.4 47.4 22.1 38.2 37.4 37.8 31.6 31.3 31.4 37.4 34.5 32.0 38.2 30.6 33.6 51.4 44.9 38.2 41.6 38.4 43.8 44.9 44.4 45.5

0.67 0.92 1.13 0.88 1.02 1.06 1.04 1.02 1.07 1.04 0.97 0.91 1.11 1.20 1.04 1.12 1.23 1.21 1.02 1.12 1.12 1.06 1.05 1.06 1.05

0.87 1.34 1.75 1.19 1.63 1.65 1.64 1.60 1.78 1.69 1.15 1.02 1.59 1.58 1.46 1.54 1.70 1.47 1.15 1.31 1.22 2.06 2.14 2.10 1.31

X335.0-T61 Average X335.0-T61 354.0-T62 Average 354.0-T62 C355.0-T7 Average C355.0-T7 356.0-T6 356.0-T7 Average 356.0-T7 A356.0-T61 Average A356.0-T61 A356.0-T62 Average A356.0-T62 A356.0-T7 359.0-T62 Average 359.0-T62 A444.0-F Average A444.0-F A444.0-T4
Premium-strength casting

40.8 35.6 38.2 50.1 47.8 49.0 37.0 41.0 39.0 35.8 28.4 29.6 29.8 39.4 41.7 40.6 40.9 43.6 42.2 28.2 46.2 47.4 34.7 23.2 22.5 22.8 23.0

28.4 25.6 23.8 45.5 44.3 44.9 31.0 30.4 30.7 31.1 21.4 22.0 22.0 30.8 30.4 30.6 36.7 36.3 36.5 21.4 43.2 43.1 43.2 9.7 9.6 9.6 8.0

8.5 3.5 6.0 1.1 0.9 1.0 2.1 2.5 2.3 1.4 4.3 3.2 5.0 4.3 7.5 5.9 2.1 3.9 3.0 5.3 1.2 1.6 1.4 22.2 15.7 19.0 24.4

13 4 ... 3 2 2 4 6 5 3 6 6 8 7 8 8 6 ... 6 9 3 4 4 37 21 ... 36

45.7 40.4 ... 54.2 51.2 ... 43.4 41.8 ... 4.3 35.3 34.3 ... 47.8 45.4 ... 46.2 43.8 ... 36.9 49.7 42.9 ... 28.6 27.8 ... 30.8

1.12 1.14 ... 1.08 1.07 ... 1.17 1.02 ... 1.17 1.24 1.16 ... 1.21 1.22 ... 1.13 1.00 ... 1.31 1.08 0.91 ... 1.23 1.25 ... 1.39

1.61 1.58 ... 1.19 1.16 ... 1.40 1.38 ... 1.38 1.65 1.56 ... 1.55 1.75 ... 1.26 1.21 ... 1.72 1.15 1.00 ... 2.96 2.90 ... 3.72

C355.0-T61 A356.0-T6 A357.0-T61 A357.0-T62

43.6 41.6 51.2 53.9

30.3 30.2 40.0 46.4

6.4 8.8 11.4 5.3

9 10 13 7

52.6 51.4 56.2 59.4

1.21 1.23 1.1 1.1

1.74 1.7 1.41 1.28

Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a). Each line is the average of two tests of a single lot of material. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%.

34 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 5.7(a) Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens from welds in 0.125 in. aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal (transverse weld)
Longitudinal (transverse weld) Parent alloy and temper Post weld heat treatment Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Joint yield strength (JYS), ksi Notch tensile strength (NTS), %

Filler alloy

Elongation in 2 in., %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

2014-T3 2014-T3 2014-T6 2219-T37 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T62 2219-T87 5456-H321 5456-H343 6061-T6 7075-T6 7178-T6

4043 4043 4043 2319 2319 2319 2319 2319 5556 5556 4043 5556 5556

None Aged to T6 None None Aged to T87 None RHT to T6 None None None None None None

50.0 54.8 46.3 41.8 43.2 44.0 60.5 45.3 51.9 51.9 32.2 46.5 54.1

41.5 54.8(a) 37.8 28.7 39.1 30.5 43.5 32.8 32.6 30.7 23.2 45.0 51.0

2.8 (a) 2.8 4.0 1.9 2.7 7.5 2.3 13.0 7.0 5.3 1.0 1.3

47.4 52.9 42.9 36.0 43.7 47.3 59.5 41.7 54.4 53.2 34.1 43.6 53.0

0.95 0.97 0.93 0.88 1.01 1.08 0.98 0.92 1.05 1.03 1.06 0.94 0.98

1.14 0.97 1.13 1.28 1.12 1.55 1.37 1.27 1.67 1.73 1.47 0.97 1.04

Specimens per Fig. A1.4(b). Each line represents the average of three specimens from a single lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2% in 2 in. gage length. (a) No joint yield strength or elongation identified; failed before reaching 0.2% offset

Table 5.7(b) Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens from welds in 0.125 in. aluminum alloy sheet, transverse (longitudinal weld)
Transverse (longitudinal weld) Parent alloy and temper Post weld heat treatment Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Joint yield strength (JYS), ksi Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Filler alloy

Elongation in 2 in., %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

2014-T3 2014-T3 2219-T37 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T62 2219-T87 5456-H321 5456-H343 7178-T6

4043 4043 2319 2319 2319 2319 2319 5556 5556 5556

None Aged to T6 None Aged to T87 None RHT to T6 None None None None

47.6 49.3 42.7 42.7 45.2 60.2 44.6 51.7 51.8 46.4

38.6 49.3(a) 27.4 38.2 30.8 42.8 31.0 30.3 30.1 46.4(a)

1.0 (a) 4.0 2.3 3.5 9.2 2.2 8.5 7.3 (a)

49.5 48.9 38.3 41.1 44.9 58.0 44.2 51.8 54.0 49.6

1.04 0.99 0.90 0.96 0.99 0.96 0.99 1.00 1.04 1.07

1.28 0.99 1.40 1.08 1.46 1.36 1.43 1.71 1.79 1.07

Specimens per Fig. A1.4(b). Each line represents the average of three specimens from a single lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2% in 2 in. gage length. (a) No joint yield strength or elongation identified; failed before reaching 0.2% offset

Notch Toughness and Notch Sensitivity / 35 Table 5.8 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds in aluminum alloy plate
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Joint strength efficiency, % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Base alloy and temper

Filler alloy

Post weld thermal treatment

Elongation in 2 in., %

Reduction of area, %

Location of fracture(a)

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

1100-H112 1100 3003-H112 1100 2219-T62 2319 2218-T851 2319 3003-H112 1100 5052-H112 5052 5154 5083-O 5183 5083-H321 5183 5356 5556 5086-H32 5356 5154-H112 5154 5454-H32 5554 5456-O 5456 5456-H321 5556 6061-T6 4043 4043 4043 4043 5154 5154 5356 5356 7005-T53 5039 7005-T6351 5039 5356

None None Aged to T62 None None None None None None None None None None None None None None None Aged to T6 HTA(c) None HTA None Aged to T6 None None None

11.6 16.1 57.3 32.7 16.1 29.1 29.2 42.5 44.2 41.5 44.4 38.5 32.6 33.9 43.9 44.6 31.0 26.1 43.3 43.2 25.0 35.6 32.7 40.5 48.3 48.4 42.1

6.1 7.6 40.2 26.8 7.6 13.9 13.7 20.1 26.0 24.3 25.6 19.1 14.5 17.1 21.7 22.5 20.9 15.2 35.9 38.6 14.0 27.3 22.6 29.3 32.2 32.3 28.2

26.5 24.0 7.5 2.0 24.0 18.0 15.0 21.5 14.0 13.5 14.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 13.0 13.0 6.0 12.0 11.0 2.0 13.0 5.5 8.0 9.5 12.2 11.5 6.8

(b) (b) 7 5 67 (b) (b) (b) 39 47 36 (b) (b) 42 (b) (b) 19 (b) 44 (b) (b) (b) 31 33 (b) (b) (b)

(b) (b) 99 50 100 (b) (b) (b) 96 90 97 (b) (b) 85 (b) (b) 69 (b) 96 (b) (b) (b) 73 90 78 85 74

(b) (b) C C C (b) (b) (b) C A A (b) (b) A (b) (b) C (b) B (b) (b) (b) A B (b) (b) (b)

17.8 22.7 63.7 40.7 22.7 32.8 32.1 44.7 54.5 53.8 53.7 41.4 34.1 39.3 40.7 45.2 34.0 27.5 57.5 42.3 33.8 42.9 46.9 ... 59.0 57.6 52.7

1.53 1.41 1.11 1.24 1.41 1.13 1.1 1.05 1.23 1.30 1.21 1.07 1.05 1.16 0.93 1.01 1.10 1.05 1.31 0.98 1.35 1.20 1.44 ... 1.83 1.78 1.87

2.92 2.99 1.58 1.52 3.00 2.36 2.34 2.22 2.10 2.22 2.10 2.17 2.35 2.30 1.87 2.01 1.63 1.81 1.57 1.10 2.41 1.57 2.07 ... 1.85 1.78 1.87

Specimens per Fig. A1.7(b). Each line represents the average of duplicate to triplicate tests of an individual lot of material. For joint yield strength, offset is 0.2%, over a 2 in. gage length. Joint efficiencies based on typical values for parent alloys. (a) Location of fracture of unnotched specimens: A, through weld; B, 0.5 to 2.5 in. from weld; C, edge of weld. (b) Not recorded. (c) HTA, heat treated and artificially aged after welding

Table 5.9 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds in aluminum alloy sand castings
Ultimate Post-weld tensile thermal strength treatment (UTS), ksi Tensile yield Joint Notch strength strength tensile (TYS), Elongation Reduction efficiency, Location of strength ksi in 2 in., % of area, % % fracture(a) (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper combination

Filler alloy

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

A444.0-F to A444.0-F A444.0-F to 6061-T6 A444.0-F to 5456-H321 354.0-T62 to 354.0-T6 354.0-T62 to 6061-T6 354.0-T62 to 5456-H321 C355.0-T61 to 6061-T6 C355.0-T61 to 5456-H321

4043 4043 5556 4043 4043 5556 4043 5556

None None None None None None None None

23.8 24.0 24.1 37.8 30.8 37.7 28.9 35.4

9.5 11.4 12.2 21.5 19.0 24.6 19.3 24.4

12.1 5.7 12.1 6.4 9.3 3.6 7.1 3.6

22 23 27 10 39 5 32 5

100 100 100 76 62 75 66 81

B B B A C A C A

27.5 29.3 29.5 32.0 28.7 37.7 34.5 40.5

1.15 1.22 1.22 0.85 0.93 1.00 1.19 1.15

2.90 2.51 2.42 1.48 1.51 1.53 1.79 1.66

Specimens per Fig. A1.7(b). Each line represents the average of duplicate tests on one lot of material. For joint yield strength, offset is 0.2%, over a 2 in. gage length. Joint efficiencies based upon typical values for parent alloys. (a) Location of fracture of unnotched specimens: A, through weld; B, 0.5 to 2.5 in. from weld; C, edge of weld

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p37-74 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p037

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

6
Tear Resistance

A TEAR TEST of the type described in ASTM method B 871 was first developed at Alcoa Laboratories in about 1950 to more discriminatively evaluate the fracture characteristics of the aluminum alloys in various tempers (Ref 36, 37). As illustrated schematically in Fig. 6.1, values of the energies required to initiate and propagate cracks in small, sharply edgenotched specimens of the design in Fig. A1.8 are determined from measurements of the appropriate areas under autographic load-deformation curves developed during the tests. The unit propagation energy is equal to the energy required to propagate the crack divided by the initial net area of the specimen, and unit propagation energy is the primary criterion of tear resistance obtained from the tear test.
P MC P 3P 4P Tear strength, psi = + = + = A I bt bt bt
Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 = energy to propagate a crack bt

t
7/ 16

Maximum load, P, lb

b = 1 in.
2 1/ 4 in.

in.

Load, lb

Division between crack initiation and propagation

Root radius < 0.001 in.

1 7/ 16 in. Low tear resistance High tear resistance

Initiation

Propagation

Deformation, in.

Fig. 6.1

Tear-test specimen and representation of load-deformation curves. A, area; M, moment; C, moment arm; I, moment of inertia

38 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

The unit propagation energy, more than data from notch-tensile tests, provides a measure of that combination of strength and ductility that permits a material to resist crack growth under either elastic or plastic stresses. The tear strength, the maximum nominal direct-and-bending stress developed by the tear specimen, is also calculated, and the ratio of this tear strength to the yield strength provides a measure of notch toughness; it is referred to as the tear-yield ratio. The usefulness of the data from this test is not dependent upon the development of rapid crack propagation or fracture at elastic stresses. Therefore, the test can be used for all aluminum alloys, even very ductile, tough alloys such as 1100 and 3003, providing a criterion for making direct comparisons of the relative toughness of alloys across the whole range of aluminum alloy types, and directly comparing alloys such as 3003 to the very high-strength alloys. This test is a modification of the older Navy tear test (Ref 20) but involves a smaller, sharp-notched specimen. The design of the tear-test specimen was selected for several reasons. First, the specimen is small enough to be taken from several orientations within most aluminum alloy products, including forgings, extrusions, castings, sheet, and plate. Second, it can be tested conveniently at different temperatures and in various environments. Third, the very sharp notch, in place of the keyhole notch in the Navy tear specimen, permits crack initiation at relatively low energy levels, thus increasing the accuracy of the measurement of propagation energy. With a relatively blunt notch, the large amount of energy required to initiate a crack overshadows and, on the test record, obscures the energy to propagate the crack. It should be noted that the numerical results of tear tests are greatly dependent upon specimen size and geometry, although with specimens of the design in Fig. 6.1, thickness variation in the range from about 0.060 to about 0.100 in. generally has an insignificant effect on the values of tear strength and unit propagation energy. It is appropriate to note that the results are also testing-machine dependent, and that relatively stiff machines are preferred; more flexible machines undergo greater extension during testing and contribute greater stored elastic strain energy to fracturing the specimen, potentially obscuring the propagation energy measurements. In any case, it is desirable to use the same machine when developing relative measurements among a group of alloys and tempers.

Tear Resistance / 39

Representative data for a variety of aluminum alloys and tempers, including welds, taken primarily from Ref 1, 29, and 3337 plus some unpublished reports, are shown in the following tables at the end of this Chapter: Tables 6.1 and 6.2 Wrought aluminum alloys in the form of 0.063 in. thick sheet, with 0.063 in. thick specimens Table 6.1(a) and (b) Non-heat-treated sheet Table 6.2(a) and (b) Heat treated sheet Tables 6.3, 6.4, and 6.5 Wrought aluminum alloys in the form of plate, extrusions, and forgings Table 6.3(a) and (b) Plate Table 6.4(a) and (b) Extruded shapes Table 6.5(a), (b), and (c) Forgings Table 6.6(a) and (b) Cast aluminum alloys, with 0.100 in. thick specimens from cast slabs Table 6.7(a) and (b) Welds in wrought aluminum alloys, with 0.100 in. thick specimens Table 6.8 Welds in cast aluminum alloys, with 0.100 in. thick specimens

Ratings of the alloys and tempers are shown in Fig. 6.2 for wrought alloys based on the tests of sheet; Fig. 6.3 for wrought alloys in the form of plate (Fig. 6.3a), extrusions (Fig. 6.3b), and forgings (Fig. 6.3c); Fig. 6.4 for cast alloys; and Fig. 6.5 for welds in aluminum alloys (Fig. 6.5a for castings welded to other castings and Fig. 6.5b for castings welded to plate). The ratings based on the values of unit propagation energy for sheet, plate, extrusions, and forgings are generally consistent within the various alloys and tempers where comparisons can be made. There is a general trend for unit propagation energy to decrease with increasing product thickness, and thicker products do show a greater degree of directionality than sheet.

T3, T3X, T4 tempers

H1X temper

50
1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0

40 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Longitudinal Transverse

T6, T6X, T73, T8X tempers

H2X, H3X tempers

O temper

Fig. 6.2
1600 1400 1200 1000 1600 1400 1200 1000 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 800 600 400 800 600 200 200 400 0 0 200 0

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

1600

-0 00 11 4-0 0 30 0-0 5 50 3-0 0 30 6-0 5 54 2-0 5 50 3-0 8 50 6-0 5 53 6-0 8 50 4-0 5 54 4-0 5 51

Longitudinal Transverse

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

14 -H 03 14 30 6-H 5 18 54 0-H 0 14 4 11 3-H -H1 8 5 50 310 c. 12 Al 6-H 5 14 54 0-H 0 14 11 3-H 0 12 30 3-H 8 22


1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1600

34 -H 56 24 54 6-H 5 34 54 6-H 5 38 54 4-H 0 38 30 2-H 5 38 50 0-H 5 38 50 4-H 5 34 51 3-H 8 32 50 6-H 5 34 54 3-H 0 34 30 0-H 5 32 50 3-H 8 34 50 4-H 5 34 54 6-H 8 34 50 2-H 5 24 50 3-H 8 32 50 4-H 5 34 54 4-H 5 32 51 6-H 8 32 50 4-H 5 51

X7

Ratings of 0.063 in. aluminum alloy sheet based on unit propagation energy
Longitudinal Transverse

36 36 -T -T 24 24 20 . 20 -T3 4 c Al 202 c. 37 Al -T 19 4 22 4-T 2 3 20 4-T -T3 2 14 20 20 -T4 c. 4 Al 202 c. 4 Al 1-T 7 31 60 9-T 1 4 22 1-T 6 4 60 0-T 2 4 20 9-T 1

Longitudinal Transverse

6 6 -T -T 20 20 20 20 c. 6 Al -T8 -T6 24 78 20 . 71 6 c Al -T6 -T8 78 24 81 71 . 20 -T 4 c Al 202 c. Al -T6 14 6 6 20 1-T 5-T 7 7 60 70 c. Al -T6 -T6 18 14 26 20 c. Al -T6 75 6 70 4-T 2 87 20 9-T 1 6 6 22 6-T -T 6 79 60 70 c. 1 Al -T8 19 6 22 9-T 7 73 70 5-T 7 6 70 1-T 5 62 61 -T 19 T6 22 391 T6 X7 06- -T6 1 1 X7 606 c. 6 Al 1-T 6 6 60 -T 39 T6 70 060

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Longitudinal Transverse

Tear Resistance / 41

53

56

X7

1600

1200

1200

Fig. 6.3(b) Fig. 6.3(a)


0 200 1600 1400 1200 1000 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 800 800 0 400 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 400 0 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

800

600

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

400

200

34 -H 86 15 50 -H1 83 31 50 -H1 83 21 50 -H3 83 21 50 -H3 56 21 54 -H3 56 2 53 -H3 86 4 50 -H3 54 4 51 -H3 54 54 -O 56 54 -O 83 50 -O 86 50 -O 54 54 -O 54 51 -O

1 65 -T 01 51 70 -T6 78 5 71 -T7 01 6 70 -T8 24 51 20 -T8 1 24 65 20 -T7 78 51 71 -T6 75 51 70 -T6 14 51 20 -T6 18 7 26 -T8 19 51 22 -T6 1 79 35 70 -T7 75 51 70 -T8 51 19 63 22 9-T 13 2 X7 -T6 19 51 22 -T3 51 24 63 20 6-T 10 51 X7 -T6 51 61 63 60 5-T 00

Ratings of 0.75 to 1.5 in. thick aluminum alloy plate based on unit propagation energy
Longitudinal Transverse

6 -T 70 1 60 -T5 1 61 5 60 -T8 19 22 -T4 24 20 -T6 51 61 -T6 61 60 -T6 51 1 63 -T5 51 63 -T5 63 3 60 -T6 39 70 -T6 63 3 60 -T5 3 39 T5 70 500 T6 X7 5- 1 00 31 X7 -H 56 54

76 -T 78 5 71 -T7 01 1 70 -T6 20 20 -T6 51 60 -T6 11 14 5 20 -T8 24 6 20 -T7 78 71 -T6 75 6 70 -T7 75 1 70 -T5 05 60 -T6 79 3 70 -T7 01 70 -T6 66 3 60 -T7 75 70 -T6 05

60

Ratings of aluminum alloy extruded shapes based on unit propagation energy


Longitudinal Transverse Heat treated alloys Longitudinal Transverse

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Non-heat-treatable alloys

Longitudinal Transverse

42 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

1500 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 1000 500 400 300 A 200 100 0
20 25 -T 6 22 19 -T 6 70 75 -T 73 70 76 -T 61 70 79 -T 6 20 24 X7 08 0T7 6 70 75 20 14 70 01 20 24 -T -T 6 -T 6 -T 75 -T 85 2

L LT ST

Ratings of aluminum alloy forgings based on unit propagation energy. Values for 7075-T73, 7079-T6, 7075-T6, and 2014-T6 include stress relieved (TX52) tempers. Value at A is estimated. L, longitudinal; LT, long transverse; ST, short transverse
Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 1000 Sand-casting alloys 800 600 400 200 0
T7 06. 6 35 0-T 6. T7 35 .056 71 A3 .0-T 6 4 35 0-T 6. T6 35 .035 5 X3 T 070 -F .0 18 M B2

Fig. 6.3(c)

1000 Permanent-mold casting alloys 800 600 400 200 0


A3 T7 05. 35 6 C .0-T 6 62 35 .0-T 61 4 -T 35 6.0 5 62 A3 0-T 2 9. -T6 35 6.0 5 7 A3 .0-T 61 6 -T 35 5.0 3 T7 X3 .056 F A3 .044 T4 A3 .044

Fig. 6.4
1400 1200 1000
H34 H38

Ratings of aluminum alloy sand and permanent-mold cast slabs based on unit propagation energy

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Comparable parent alloy in annealed temper Comparable parent alloy in indicated temper
H34

Filler alloy indicated

800 600

H321

H321

H18 H14

H38

H321

T87 T851 T62

T87 T851 T62

H38

400 200 0

5052

5154

5183 (5083)

5456

5556 (5456)

1100

2319 HTA

2319 A

4043

2319

T87 T851 T62

H343

H343

4043 HTA

Filler alloy

Fig. 6.5(a)

Ratings of aluminum alloy welds based on unit propagation energy from tear tests. HTA, heat treated and artificially aged after welding. A, artificially aged after welding

Tear Resistance / 43

1000 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 Sand-casting alloys 800 600 400 200 0
A3

1000 Filler metal 5556 4043 Permanent-mold casting alloys 800 600 400 200 0
1 32 -H 56 54 6 1/ -T T7 61 6- 60 T6 35 T7/ 616- 60 T4 35 T6/ 63- 6 6- 60 1-T 35 T4/ 06 6- 5/6 T6 35 0-T 61- 6 70 60 -T M T7/ 061 6- /6 T6 35 T71 61- 1 6- 60 T7 35 T6/ 566- /3 -T6 35 T71 61 6- /60 -F 35 -F 18 21 18 /A2 -H3 B2 -F 56 6 18 /54 1-T B2 -F 06 18 7/6 B2 -T 56 A3 1 32 H 6- 21 45 3 /5 -H T7 56 6 6- 54 1-T 35 T6/ 06 6- 7/6 T6 35 5-T 610 35 6 7 C T6/ 6-T 6- 35 6 35 T7/ 6-T -T6 6- 35 61 35 T6/ /60 6- 61 T6 35 -T 61- -T6 56 60 61 A3 T7/ /60 6 6- 62 1-T 35 -T 06 56 7/6 A3 -T 56

Filler metal 5556 4043

Ratings of groove welds in cast-to-cast and cast-to-wrought. Based on test unit propagation energy with crack propagation through the weld. No subsequent thermal treatment unless otherwise noted. 356T4/6063-T4 is aged 4 h at 375 F after welding.

Fig. 6.5(b)

6.1 Wrought Alloys


As with notch toughness, a broader understanding of tear resistance is gained by plotting the unit propagation energy as a function of tensile yield strength, as in Fig. 6.6 based upon the data for 0.063 in. thick sheet (Ref 1). A broad band of data emerges that, if not separated by alloy and temper type, might appear to indicate a lack of association beyond a broad tendency for unit propagation energy to decrease with increase in strength. When separated by alloy type, however, it is clear that individual relationships exist for different types of alloys. The 7xxx (Al-Zn-Mg) series provides the superior level of tear resistance for a given level of strength. Of the 2xxx (Al-Cu), 5xxx (Al-Mg), and 6xxx (Al-Mg-Si) series, the 2xxx series has a slight advantage. The 1xxx and 3xxx series fall in the lower portion of the band. Increasing the strength of alloys in any of the series by cold work or thermal treatment reduces the tear resistance. An important deviation from the general trend is illustrated by data for the annealed (O) temper of the non-heat-treatable alloys (open symbols in Fig. 6.6): for these alloys in the O temper, unit propagation energy increases with increase in yield strength up to approximately 16 ksi and then decreases. This illustrates that there is a contribution of both strength and ductility to tear resistance; the great ductility of 1100-O or 3003-O, for example, is not sufficient to give them exceptionally high tear resistance as measured by the unit energy required to propagate the crack. The 5xxx alloys in the annealed temper have about the optimal combination of these properties, yielding the highest unit propagation energies measured. This characteristic was the basis of the selection of these alloys for particularly critical applications (see Chapter 11).

44 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

1800 1600 Annealed ( 0) Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Tensile yield strength, ksi 3000 alloys 5000 6000 alloys 2000 alloys 7000 alloys Type of temper T3 T6 O H T4 T7 1000 (99% + Al) 2000 (Al-Cu) 3000 (Al-Mn) 5000 (Al-Mg) 6000 (Al-Mg-Si) x * 7000 (Al-Zn-Mg) T8

Average of longitudinal and transverse values Average for all lots of each alloy and temper

1100

Fig. 6.6

Unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength of 0.063 in. aluminum alloy sheet

A plot relating unit propagation energy to elongation in 2 in. for 0.063 in. sheet is shown in Fig. 6.7. In such a plot, there are few consistent trends and ample evidence that elongation by itself is not a very reliable indicator of resistance to crack growth or tear resistance.

6.2 Cast Alloys


Once again, relating unit propagation energy (UPE) to tensile yield strength (TYS), as in Fig. 6.8, reveals more than the bar charts alone (Fig. 6.4). While it is obvious that low-strength alloy A444.0 has relatively high tear resistance as defined by UPE, Fig. 6.8 also reveals that: Premium-strength cast alloys (i.e., those produced with high chill rates in key areas of the casting) consistently have among the best combinations of UPE and TYS, especially at relatively high strength levels. Sand-cast alloy B535.0-F itself has tear resistance in the same range as wrought alloy plate of the same strength level, and a much better combination of UPE and TYS than most other casting alloys. With the exception of B535.0-F, sand castings generally have among the poorest combination of strength and toughness. Permanent-mold cast alloys generally fall into the intermediate range, with the notable exceptions that 354.0-T62 and 359.0-T62 essentially match the performance of the premium-strength cast alloys (illustrated by the trend line for the triangular symbols).

Tear Resistance / 45

1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36

Type of temper T3 T6 O H T4 T7 1000 (99% + Al) 2000 (Al-Cu) 3000 (Al-Mn) 5000 (Al-Mg) 6000 (Al-Mg-Si) x * 7000 (Al-Zn-Mg) T8

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Average of longitudinal and transverse values Average for all lots of each alloy and temper

40

44

48

52

Elongation in 2 in., %

Fig. 6.7

Unit propagation energy vs. elongation of 0.063 in. aluminum alloy sheet

1400 1200 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 1000 800 600 400 A444.0-F 200 0 A444.0-T4 B535.0-F Sand castings Permanent-mold castings Premium-strength castings

10

20

30

40

50

60

Tensile yield strength, ksi

Fig. 6.8

Unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength for aluminum alloy castings. Band is for data for aluminum alloy plate.

6.3 Welds
As with notch toughness, the tear resistance of welds made with 5xxx filler alloys is generally appreciably higher than that of welds made with high-silicon 4043 filler alloy (Fig. 6.5a and 6.5b). Once again, there are a few exceptions, notably in joints between 6061-T6 plate and 356.0-T6 or T7 sand castings; in these cases, the high silicon in the 3xx.0 castings may be overwhelming the inherent high toughness of the 5xxx type filler alloys.

46 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

When welds in wrought alloys are evaluated on the basis of UPE versus TYS (Fig. 6.9), it is clear that the UPEs of the 1100 and 5xxx welds are as high or nearly as high as those of the comparable parent alloys. For filler alloy 2319, welds that have been post-weld aged or heat-treated and aged provide superior combinations of strength and toughness to those of aswelded samples. Filler alloy 4043 consistently provides less desirable combinations of strength and toughness. A comparable analysis of welds in castings based upon UPE versus TYS is not available because joint yield strengths were not reported and a plot cannot be made. However, a scan of the data in Table 6.5 illustrates that welds made in castings with 4043 filler alloy have lower toughness than those made with 5356 filler alloy. As noted earlier, for the very highsilicon-bearing casting alloys, even 5556 welds have relatively low UPE, the high silicon overwhelming the beneficial effects of the highmagnesium filler alloy. In general, one can conclude that for applications where high toughness is critical, 5xxx filler alloys would be recommended and 4043 filler alloy should be avoided.

Filler alloy 1100 2319 4043 5052 5154 5183 5039 5356 5456, 5556 Post weld aged Heat treated and aged after welding

1400 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

1200

1000

Range for 1100 from Fig. 6.6

800 Range for 2xxx, 5xxx alloys Fig. 6.6

600

400

200

10

20

30

40

50

60

Tensile yield strength, ksi

Fig. 6.9

Unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength for welds in wrought aluminum alloys

Tear Resistance / 47

Table 6.1(a) Results of tensile and tear tests of 0.063 in. thick non-heat-treated aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

1100-O Average 1100-O 1100-H14 1100-H18 Average 1100-H18 3003-O 3003-H14 Average 3003-H14 3003-H18 Average 3003-H18 3004-O 3004-H34 Average 3004-H34 3004-H38 Average 3004-H38 Alclad 3105-H14 5050-O 5050-H34 Average 5050-H34 5050-H38 5052-O 5052-H34 5052-H38 5083-O 5083-H12 5083-HI4 5083-H24 Average 5083-H24 5083-H32 5083-H34 5086-O Average 5086-O 5086-H32 Average 5086-H32 5086-H34

Average 5086-H34 5154-O Average 5154-O

14.6 14.2 14.4 17.9 27.6 27.7 27.6 17.0 21.2 23.2 22.2 35.6 33.5 34.6 27.1 35.4 36.7 36.0 44.0 45.0 44.5 31.7 22.6 26.4 27.9 27.2 31.0 29.2 37.7 43.6 44.3 51.7 53.4 49.7 50.4 50.0 50.5 54.1 37.4 40.7 39.0 43.4 46.1 44.8 45.6 48.7 47.5 48.8 47.6 35.4 34.0 34.7

5.2 4.9 5.0 16.8 24.8 26.3 25.6 7.1 20.4 22.4 21.4 33.4 32.7 33.0 11.4 29.4 31.6 30.5 41.0 42.4 41.7 29.2 9.2 22.8 24.9 23.8 27.9 12.4 31.0 38.3 21.9 44.3 46.7 32.9 38.6 35.9 38.4 44.8 17.8 20.2 19.0 32.8 34.2 33.5 36.7 39.7 36.9 37.6 37.7 16.4 15.5 16.0

35.0 35.2 35.1 13.0 5.0 5.5 5.2 34.5 11.5 8.5 10.0 4.0 4.8 4.4 22.2 8.5 8.2 8.4 8.0 8.0 8.0 7.0 24.5 8.8 7.8 8.3 7.5 25.0 10.0 9.5 22.7 9.8 8.0 16.2 13.8 15.2 11.5 10.7 23.0 22.2 22.6 13.0 12.5 12.8 11.0 10.2 11.8 11.8 TI-2 24.5 23.0 23.8

19.5 19.5 19.5 31.1 44.0 43.2 43.6 24.6 35.4 38.1 36.8 52.3 50.7 51.5 33.8 51.1 54.0 52.6 58.4 59.1 58.8 47.9 28.6 41.9 45.5 43.7 48.3 38.1 58.0 62.8 48.5 65.7 65.7 60.7 68.0 64.4 64.3 69.7 45.5 46.6 46.0 61.2 61.6 61.4 65.8 64.9 64.0 66.0 65.2 44.9 43.4 44.2 (continued)

3.75 3.98 3.86 1.85 1.77 1.64 1.70 3.47 1.74 1.70 1.72 1.57 0.10 1.56 2.96 1.74 1.71 1.72 1.42 1.39 1.40 1.64 3.11 1.84 1.83 1.84 1.73 3.07 1.87 1.64 2.21 1.48 1.41 1.84 1.76 1.80 1.67 1.56 2.56 2.31 2.44 1.87 1.80 1.84 1.79 1.63 1.73 1.76 1.73 2.74 2.80 2.77

27 32 30 20 20 17 18 36 19 17 18 12 20 16 33 17 19 18 11 14 12 19 39 20 22 21 20 54 28 24 38 21 20 34 30 32 21 22 52 44 48 30 29 30 24 20 24 26 24 41 42 42

46 57 52 40 35 40 38 55 39 46 42 24 34 29 49 39 46 42 34 39 36 38 48 46 47 46 37 80 55 32 87 46 42 67 63 65 47 37 80 92 86 63 62 62 52 48 59 56 54 106 92 99

73 89 81 60 55 57 56 91 58 63 60 36 54 45 81 56 65 60 45 53 49 67 87 66 69 68 57 134 83 56 125 67 62 101 93 97 68 59 132 136 134 93 91 92 76 68 83 82 78 147 134 140

725 900 810 635 585 630 610 865 600 720 660 385 530 460 750 600 700 650 530 620 575 600 785 710 760 735 580 1240 865 500 1270 715 570 970 945 960 790 610 1220 1385 1300 940 1005 970 800 760 915 870 840 1630 1440 1535

Each line represents the average of duplicate tear tests (Fig. A1.8) of an individual lot of sheet. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%.

48 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.1(a) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

5154-H32 5154-H34 5154-H38 Average 5154-H38 5356-O 5454-O

Average 5454-O 5454-H32 Average 5454-H32 5454-H34 Average 5454-H34 5456-O

Average 5456-O 5456-H12 5456-H14 5456-H24 Average 5456-H24 5456-H32 Average 5456-H32 5456-H34 Average 5456-H34 5456-H343

40.5 41.3 46.8 49.4 48.1 41.4 37.4 37.5 36.6 37.2 40.2 40.6 40.4 45.6 45.4 45.5 47.4 48.6 50.0 48.7 56.2 60.6 54.8 53.7 54.2 56.0 55.9 56.0 57.7 59.5 58.6 56.2

30.6 32.3 40.5 42.8 41.6 21.0 15.8 15.6 16.8 16.1 32.0 32.6 32.3 39.9 37.0 38.4 24.3 24.1 25.6 24.7 42.9 52.4 43.0 39.5 41.2 42.7 41.6 42.2 46.0 47.5 46.8 48.7

13.5 12.0 9.5 9.8 9.6 26.5 22.5 22.0 19.0 21.2 11.8 11.0 11.4 10.5 10.5 10.5 21.8 22.5 20.8 21.7 12.2 8.2 12.0 13.2 12.6 12.0 12.2 12.1 10.5 10.7 10.6 9.0

59.7 60.0 68.8 66.6 67.7 50.0 45.5 45.8 44.5 45.3 57.8 60.6 59.2 66.2 66.5 66.4 51.7 51.9 52.5 5.2 66.2 64.5 57.8 55.5 56.6 68.5 66.1 67.3 69.8 67.8 68.8 58.9

1.95 1.86 1.70 1.56 1.63 2.38 2.88 2.94 2.65 2.82 1.81 1.86 1.84 1.66 1.80 1.73 2.13 2.15 2.05 2.11 1.54 1.23 1.34 1.40 1.37 1.60 1.59 1.60 1.52 1.43 1.48 1.21

25 28 25 21 23 49 46 48 45 46 27 28 28 23 17 20 33 36 37 35 18 13 13 12 12 22 18 20 15 18 16 10

77 58 35 38 36 87 80 76 99 85 58 57 58 52 59 56 78 77 85 80 44 36 26 27 26 41 46 44 33 34 34 26

102 86 60 59 60 136 126 124 144 131 85 85 85 75 76 76 111 113 122 115 62 49 39 39 39 63 64 64 48 52 50 36

1185 915 545 595 570 1360 1210 1160 1545 1305 905 905 905 810 910 860 1235 1155 1135 1175 645 540 405 425 415 620 665 640 510 490 500 390

Each line represents the average of duplicate tear tests (Fig. A1.8) of an individual lot of sheet. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%.

Tear Resistance / 49

Table 6.1(b) Results of tensile and tear tests of 0.063 in. thick non-heat-treated aluminum alloy sheet, transverse
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

1100-O Average 1100-O 1100-H14 1100-H18 Average 1100-H18 3003-O 3003-H14 Average 3003-H14 3003-H18 Average 3003-H18 3004-O 3004-H34 Average 3004-H34 3004-H38 Average 3004-H38 Alclad 3105-H14 5050-O 5050-H34 Average 5050-H34 5050-H38 5052-O 5052-H34 5052-H38 5083-O 5083-H12 5083-HI4 5083-H24 Average 5083-H24 5083-H32 5083-H34 5086-O Average 5086-O 5086-H32 Average 5086-H32 5086-H34

Average 5086-H34 5154-O Average 5154-O 5154-H32 5154-H34 5154-H38

14.3 14.0 14.2 18.0 28.5 29.0 28.8 16.5 21.4 23.1 22.2 36.0 33.8 34.9 26.6 36.4 36.5 36.4 44.4 44.5 44.4 31.8 22.4 26.9 29.2 28.0 33.0 28.8 38.1 44.4 44.1 51.8 53.7 49.5 51.5 50.5 50.1 55.2 36.3 40.8 38.6 45.0 45.1 45.0 46.0 49.2 47.5 49.4 48.0 34.6 34.1 34.4 39.5 41.7 47.1 49.9

5.4 5.3 5.4 16.4 26.3 26.6 26.4 7.3 20.0 21.6 20.8 31.6 31.4 31.5 11.5 29.0 29.5 29.2 39.6 40.6 40.1 29.4 9 22.4 24.4 23.4 29.4 12.4 30.0 38.4 22.9 40.4 42.8 32.8 41.1 37.0 35.9 42.9 17.6 20.9 19.2 29.6 31.2 30.4 34.3 37.2 34.6 37.4 35.9 16.0 15.6 15.8 28.3 31.0 40.0 42.6

39.8 41.3 40.6 9.2 5.0 5.5 5.2 30.8 8.0 5.8 6.9 4.2 5.0 4.6 22.8 8.8 9.0 8.9 7.8 7.5 7.6 6.5 28.5 8.2 7.8 8.0 8.1 26.0 11.8 11.2 23.2 9.8 9.8 19.2 17.8 15.3 13.2 11.8 26.0 24.2 25.1 14.5 15.5 15.0 14.0 12.5 14.8 14.3 13.9 25.0 24.5 24.8 15.5 13.0 13.0 14.2

18.9 20.0 19.4 31.7 47.3 45.5 46.4 24.3 36.3 37.4 36.8 52.3 52.8 52.6 35.6 52.6 54.8 53.7 57.8 62.9 60.4 48.2 28.4 44.4 47.8 46.1 51.5 37.5 58.6 66.2 49.1 65.4 66.8 59.8 70.1 65.0 63.0 64.8 44.6 48.1 46.4 59.1 60.9 60.0 66.8 64.6 64.0 67.3 65.7 43.1 42:5 42.8 60.6 60.9 70.9 70.3 (continued)

3.50 3.78 3.64 1.93 1.80 1.71 1.76 3.33 1.81 1.73 1.77 1.66 1.68 1.67 3.10 1.82 1.86 1.84 1.46 1.55 1.50 1.64 3.16 1.98 1.96 1.97 1.75 3.02 1.95 1.72 2.14 1.62 1.56 1.82 1.71 1.76 1.75 1.51 2.53 2.30 2.42 2.00 1.95 1.98 1.95 1.74 1.85 1.80 1.84 2.69 2.72 2.70 2.14 1.96 1.77 1.65

29 38 34 18 28 19 24 35 20 17 18 12 18 15 36 18 22 20 12 17 14 19 41 22 33 28 22 53 29 24 40 23 21 26 31 28 22 15 47 52 50 30 28 29 24 21 24 25 24 56 42 49 29 26 26 23

47 64 56 36 31 16 24 66 40 46 43 9 26 18 61 37 40 38 25 23 24 34 59 45 48 46 31 81 54 31 84 40 38 57 53 55 47 31 77 84 80 62 65 64 53 48 60 55 54 94 83 88 75 64 29 39

76 102 89 54 59 35 47 101 60 63 62 21 44 33 97 55 62 58 37 40 38 53 100 67 81 74 53 134 83 55 124 63 59 83 84 84 69 46 124 136 130 92 93 92 77 69 84 80 78 150 125 138 104 90 55 62

740 1015 875 570 515 255 385 1040 615 720 670 145 405 275 950 570 610 590 390 365 380 535 970 690 775 730 485 1255 850 485 1230 620 515 825 795 810 790 510 1175 1265 1220 925 1055 990 815 760 930 855 840 1445 1300 1370 1150 1000 455 610

Each line represents the average of duplicate tear tests (Fig. A1.8) of an individual lot of sheet. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%.

50 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.1(b) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

Average 5154-H38 5356-O 5454-O

48.5 40.9 35.5 36.2 36.2 36.0 40.7 41.0 40.8 47.4 47.1 47.2 46.9 46.5 47.3 46.9 55.5 60.8 55.0 54.0 54.5 54.1 54.8 54.4 58.5 59.5 59.0 56.7

41.3 20.7 15.7 15.4 17.6 16.2 30.4 30.9 30.6 38.3 37.3 37.8 25.7 24.7 24.7 25.0 39.1 48.5 38.6 38.2 38.4 37.5 38.7 38.1 44.1 45.2 44.6 42.7

13.6 27.5 19.5 20.2 20.5 20.1 12.8 12.0 12.4 9.5 10.5 10.0 24.2 24.0 23.5 23.9 14.2 9.5 14.5 15.2 14.8 13.5 14.2 13.8 12.5 12.2 12.4 9.5

70.6 48.8 45.2 45.8 43.6 44.9 59.4 61.9 60.6 68.4 62.8 65.6 53.5 52.2 51.7 52.5 63.5 63.6 58.5 60.2 59.4 65.8 64.6 65.2 69.8 66.7 682 58.0

1.71 2.36 2.88 2.97 2.48 2.78 1.95 2.00 1.98 1.79 1.68 1.74 2.09 2.11 2.09 2.10 1.62 1.31 1.52 1.58 1.55 1.75 1.67 1.71 1.58 1.48 1.53 1.31

24 46 45 50 42 46 37 32 34 26 16 21 31 45 33 36 18 13 13 10 12 18 19 18 14 19 16 8

34 74 82 74 93 83 58 67 62 53 50 52 76 62 71 70 37 24 29 26 28 38 40 39 28 31 30 20

58 120 127 124 135 129 95 99 97 79 66 72 107 107 104 106 55 37 42 36 39 56 59 58 42 50 46 28

530 1155 1240 1130 1455 1275 905 1065 985 830 770 800 1195 925 945 1020 545 360 440 410 425 575 575 575 430 450 440 300

Average 5454-O 5454-H32 Average 5454-H32 5454-H34 Average 5454-H34 5456-O

Average 5456-O 5456-H12 5456-H14 5456-H24 Average 5456-H24 5456-H32 Average 5456-H32 5456-H34 Average 5456-H34 5456-H343

Each line represents the average of duplicate tear tests (Fig. A1.8) of an individual lot of sheet. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%.

Tear Resistance / 51

Table 6.2(a) Results of tensile and tear tests of 0.063 in. thick heat treated aluminum alloy sheet, longitudinal
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

Initiate a crack, in.-lb

Propagate a crack, in.-lb

Total energy, in.-lb

Alclad 2014-T3

Average Alclad 2014-T3 2014-T6

Average 2014-T6 Alclad 2014-T6

Average Alclad 2014-T6 2020-O(a) Alclad 2020-O(a) 2020-T4(a) 2020-T6(a)

Average 2020-T6 Alclad 2020-T6(a) 2024-T4

Average 2024-T4 Alclad 2024-T4

Average Alclad 2024-T4 2024-T3

Average 2024-T3 Alclad 2024-T3

Average 2024-T3 2024-T36

62.3 65.3 63.4 63.7 72.8 72.5 71.8 69.2 69.3 74.2 71.6 72.4 68.4 68.3 68.0 69.3 28.6 28.0 50.0 82.7 94.8 81.4 80.2 81.1 82.0 73.5 69.7 69.6 70.4 69.0 69.7 62.4 66.5 66.5 65.1 68.2 68.1 70.4 68.4 69.7 69.6 71.0 71.5 69.6 69.2 69.4 71.0 67.8 71.1 69.8 67.3 66.2 64.6 65.2 67.7 66.0 67.9 78.0 76.4 76.3

42.6 42.7 44.9 43.4 67.6 66.2 66.1 63.1 63.8 67.5 65.7 66.2 62.7 61.9 61.9 63.2 9.9 10.7 34.2 77.8 80.4 77.2 75.9 76.1 77.5 68.0 54.6 45.8 48.1 44.2 48.2 42.4 42.0 45.4 43.3 50.0 49.9 55.8 48.1 53.0 53.8 53.5 55.5 52.4 53.2 54.4 52.3 52.0 53.8 51.1 52.1 47.8 47.0 45.4 48.8 51.5 50.8 67.0 64.6 65.1

21.0 19.0 20.5 20.2 11.2 10.0 11.0 9.5 9.5 11.2 10.4 11.0 9.8 11.0 10.8 10.6 20.5 21.0 16.5 6.0 7.0 8.0 7.8 8.2 7.4 7.2 18.8 21.5 20.0 20.8 20.3 21.5 20.5 20.5 20.8 19.2 20.2 18.2 20.5 20.0 18.2 20.5 19.2 19.5 19.2 17.2 20.8 20.0 20.8 20.0 19.0 20.2 18.8 19.0 19.2 18.8 19.4 15.8 15.0 16.5

70.2 70.6 70.7 70.5 68.0 67.3 66.6 66.0 70.2 66.2 67.4 59.4 70.8 74.5 74.3 69.8 33.0 34.6 64.1 48.3 42.2 52.1 50.2 36.0 45.8 45.1 77.5 77.8 79.0 77.2 77.9 67.7 74.5 71.1 71.1 75.7 75.7 74.2 76.5 76.9 78.0 81.1 74.8 76.6 74.9 78.4 71.9 71.0 75.3 73.0 73.0 73.8 70.9 74.6 74.3 76.4 74.0 69.8 80.0 78.8 (continued)

1.65 1.65 1.57 1.62 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.05 1.10 0.98 1.03 0.90 1.13 1.20 1.20 1.11 3.33 3.23 1.87 0.63 0.52 0.67 0.66 0.47 0.59 0.66 1.42 1.70 1.64 1.75 1.63 1.60 1.77 1.57 1.65 1.51 1.52 1.33 1.59 1.45 1.45 1.52 1.35 1.46 1.41 1.44 1.37 1.37 1.40 1.43 1.41 1.54 1.51 1.64 1.52 1.48 1.46 1.04 1.24 1.21

24 20 22 22 10 10 9 10 7 11 10 8 9 14 12 11 26 33 28 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 22 20 18 26 22 21 26 19 22 24 19 17 17 16 18 23 16 19 20 18 17 16 17 19 21 10 12 14 15 20 17 11 18 17

50 46 50 49 13 13 15 18 16 22 16 11 19 21 21 18 44 63 70 1 0 5 4 0 2 2 42 43 38 57 45 50 54 46 50 46 42 35 44 44 42 63 42 45 38 34 33 32 36 35 36 33 31 32 39 39 35 17 27 27

74 66 72 71 23 23 24 28 23 33 26 19 28 35 33 29 70 96 98 6 4 8 8 3 6 5 64 63 56 83 67 71 80 65 72 70 61 52 61 60 60 86 58 64 58 52 50 48 53 54 57 43 43 46 54 59 51 28 45 44

770 725 800 765 205 195 240 285 255 335 250 170 290 340 335 285 695 1000 1110 15 0 80 65 0 30 30 655 665 595 900 705 770 830 725 775 725 650 565 700 705 690 950 685 710 580 540 515 510 560 555 580 530 500 515 630 610 550 265 410 410

Each line represents the average of duplicate tear tests (Fig. A1.8) of an individual lot of sheet. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

52 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.2(a) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

Initiate a crack, in.-lb

Propagate a crack, in.-lb

Total energy, in.-lb

Average 2024-T36 Alclad 2024-T36

Average 2024-T36 2024-T6 2024-T81 Average 2024-T81 Alclad 2024-T81 Average Alclad 2024-T81 2024-T86 Average 2024-T86 Alclad 2024-T86

Average Alclad 2024-T86 2219-T4 2219-T31 2219-T37 2219-T62 Average 2219-T62 2219-T81 Average 2219-T81 2219-T87 Average 2219-T87 2618-T6 6061-T4

Average 6061-T4 6061-T6

Average 6061-T6 Alclad 6061-T6

73.4 74.0 74.6 72.8 75.1 74.8 72.0 71.2 69.7 70.4 71.6 67.2 72.7 77.3 72.6 74.2 66.8 68.1 70.3 68.4 77.2 77.0 77.1 73.6 75.6 73.3 69.8 70.4 74.4 72.8 55.4 55.6 61.9 54.6 60.8 57.7 67.9 64.9 66.4 71.5 67.9 69.7 61.3 38.4 38.8 37.1 35.9 37.1 36.8 37.4 46.6 45.2 47.0 43.5 46.6 45.0 46.8 44.1 44.6 45.5 43.2 43.5 43.4 44.4

63.2 61.6 62.0 61.8 63.6 63.6 63.1 60.7 57.4 58.9 60.7 53.2 68.0 73.4 68.0 69.8 60.4 62.2 65.8 62.8 72.4 72.5 72.4 67.8 71.0 67.4 65.0 65.8 71.6 68.1 37.0 44.0 54.2 35.8 42.5 39.2 53.0 51.8 52.4 59.2 56.2 57.7 56.2 26.9 27.6 26.2 26.2 29.6 26.2 27.1 43.4 41.9 44.2 40.9 42.4 41.8 44.0 37.6 37.0 41.5 40.4 40.2 41.0 39.5

15.0 14.5 14.0 14.8 15.1 15.8 14.8 16.5 16.0 16.8 16.0 9.5 6.5 7.0 6.2 6.6 6.5 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.5 6.2 6.4 6.8 6.8 6.5 6.5 5.8 6.0 6.4 21.0 17.2 9.0 9.0 10.0 9.5 9.2 10.0 9.6 9.2 9.8 9.5 6.2 21.0 20.0 20.5 19.2 17.5 20.0 19.7 11.5 11.5 12.0 11.2 12.5 11.0 10.8 15.5 15.8 12.4 11.0 11.0 11.8 15.0

77.2 75.8 77.5 81.9 77.3 70.2 73.1 75.6 75.0 73.2 73.4 64.2 63.4 58.2 61.0 60.9 69.4 66.8 64.8 67.0 58.3 57.7 58.0 64.5 60.9 63.5 59.4 59.5 55.0 60.5 72.4 74.5 83.0 63.3 68.0 65.6 70.4 72.4 71.4 65.7 75.2 70.4 66.1 53.4 52.8 53.5 57.7 54.8 51.6 54.0 65.5 64.1 68.3 66.0 66.9 67.9 68.7 65.9 65.2 66.5 63.7 60.0 63.9 64.4 (continued)

1.22 1.23 1.25 1.33 1.22 1.04 1.16 1.25 1.30 1.24 1.20 1.21 0.93 0.79 0.90 0.87 1.15 1.07 0.98 1.07 0.81 0.80 0.80 0.95 0.86 0.94 0.91 0.90 0.77 0.89 1.96 1.69 1.53 1.77 1.60 1.68 1.33 1.40 1.36 1.11 1.34 1.22 1.18 1.99 1.91 2.04 2.20 1.85 1.97 1.99 1.51 1.53 1.55 1.61 1.58 1.62 1.56 1.75 1.76 1.61 1.58 1.49 1.56 1.63

13 14 15 15 15 12 15 16 16 12 14 10 8 6 9 8 11 9 12 11 6 8 7 6 7 8 7 9 5 7 36 24 19 18 15 16 13 14 14 10 17 14 12 24 24 27 24 25 30 26 16 19 25 21 20 22 19 23 23 21 22 21 20 25

29 27 29 34 27 20 25 35 36 27 29 17 11 10 11 11 17 15 11 14 8 9 8 12 11 11 12 9 7 10 92 67 42 37 36 36 23 26 24 15 ... 15 17 66 62 71 71 66 79 69 56 52 46 56 54 58 53 0 66 56 54 51 52 54

42 41 44 49 42 32 40 51 52 39 43 27 19 16 20 18 28 24 23 25 14 17 16 18 18 19 19 18 12 17 128 91 61 55 51 53 36 40 38 25 ... 25 29 90 86 98 95 91 109 95 72 71 71 77 74 80 72 89 89 77 76 72 72 79

445 430 460 540 425 310 390 510 535 405 430 275 175 160 180 170 275 240 170 230 120 140 130 180 170 170 185 145 105 160 1460 1065 690 565 580 570 370 410 390 235 ... 235 270 1080 1000 1145 1220 1100 1275 1135 910 825 725 915 845 920 855 1090 1040 900 840 800 855 855

Each line represents the average of duplicate tear tests (Fig. A1.8) of an individual lot of sheet. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Tear Resistance / 53

Table 6.2(a) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

Initiate a crack, in.-lb

Propagate a crack, in.-lb

Total energy, in.-lb

Average Alclad 6061-T6 6066-T6 6071-T4 6071-T6(a) X7002-T6(a) X7005-T6 7039-T6 7075-T6

Average 7075-T6 Alclad 7075-T6

Average Alclad 7075-T6 7075-T73

Average 7075-T73 7079-T6(a) Average 7079-T6 Alclad 7079-T6(a) Average Alclad 7079-T6 X7106-T6(a) Average X7106-T6 X7139-T6(a) 7178-T6

Average 7178-T6 Alclad 7178-T6 Average Alclad 7178-T6

42.0 42.4 43.2 59.4 49.2 57.4 69.8 52.0 63.0 83.0 82.3 81.0 83.3 85.5 82.3 82.0 81.6 83.4 81.6 81.8 81.7 81.5 81.0 82.3 77.0 72.9 76.2 78.0 78.0 78.2 74.6 80.4 77.3 73.8 76.6 72.0 72.0 69.5 73.0 71.6 77.0 72.8 78.2 76.0 68.9 73.8 78.0 73.6 61.2 67.0 64.1 65.2 86.1 88.8 90.2 89.0 89.0 89.4 88.8 81.0 81.0 80.6 80.9

36.6 37.6 39.2 51.4 34.8 54.7 61.8 45.7 54.8 76.0 76.1 72.8 75.6 77.0 75.6 74.6 73.6 76.1 73.9 73.4 73.4 73.0 72.8 74.9 69.8 65.7 68.4 70.4 71.3 69.2 67.4 72.8 69.3 65.4 69.0 60.0 61.0 57.8 62.5 60.3 70.2 64.0 71.6 68.6 61.2 66.5 71.2 66.3 53.9 60.7 57.3 56.1 79.8 80.5 81.0 80.5 81.3 82.4 80.9 74.2 73.8 73.4 73.8

15.5 13.5 13.0 12.0 22.5 10.2 11.5 13.8 11.8 11.2 11.5 11.0 11.0 12.5 10.8 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.5 11.5 11.2 10.2 11.0 11.2 11.2 11.5 11.5 10.5 11.0 11.0 10.5 11.0 10.5 10.2 11.0 10.0 10.2 11.0 11.0 10.6 10.8 11.0 11.0 10.9 11.4 11.0 10.8 11.1 11.0 9.8 10.4 11.0 11.5 12.5 13.0 12.5 12.5 11.5 12.2 12.0 12.0 12.5 12.2

61.1 63.9 62.8 69.5 61.9 60.6 91.2 78.1 94.9 73.8 74.2 79.2 78.1 72.1 78.1 70.5 72.3 69.2 79.7 75.8 79.1 84.2 79.0 76.1 71.4 74.5 71.6 75.4 74.8 79.0 74.8 73.6 74.9 70.3 74.0 84.8 75.0 79.0 77.5 79.1 77.5 86.3 80.8 81.5 68.9 68.1 73.9 70.3 87.3 81.0 84.2 81.2 66.8 61.8 64.6 66.6 69.2 62.5 65.2 59.7 60.6 61.9 60.7

1.67 1.70 1.60 1.35 1.78 1.11 1.48 1.71 1.55 0.97 0.98 1.09 1.03 0.94 1.03 0.94 0.98 0.91 1.08 1.03 1.08 1.15 1.09 1.02 1.02 1.13 1.05 1.07 1.05 1.14 1.11 1.01 1.08 1.07 1.07 1.41 1.23 1.37 1.24 1.00 1.10 1.35 1.13 1.19 1.13 1.02 1.04 1.06 1.62 1.34 1.48 1.45 0.94 0.77 0.80 0.83 0.85 0.76 0.81 1.80 0.82 0.84 0.82

22 24 22 14 24 8 32 29 26 10 12 16 12 8 11 13 12 14 10 13 16 12 16 12 11 13 11 12 12 10 12 10 15 11 12 18 16 17 16 17 14 23 16 18 14 11 13 13 28 16 22 16 8 6 6 11 11 6 8 8 12 6 9

59 61 55 24 55 16 44 83 64 14 23 26 17 11 20 16 16 14 18 19 17 22 26 18 17 21 20 21 18 16 22 16 18 18 19 35 27 36 30 32 25 34 36 32 25 23 29 26 64 39 52 50 12 6 11 7 8 10 9 11 7 9 9

81 85 78 38 79 24 81 112 90 24 35 42 29 19 31 29 28 28 28 32 33 34 42 31 28 34 31 33 30 26 34 26 33 29 30 5.30 4.30 5.30 4.60 4.9 39 57 52 49 39 34 42 49 92 55 74 66 20 1.20 1.70 1.80 1.90 1.60 1.6 19 19 15 18

930 950 870 370 875 250 790 1290 1010 220 360 395 270 175 310 265 255 215 285 290 260 360 395 290 275 345 320 325 290 260 360 250 285 285 300 565 420 545 515 510 390 565 565 510 395 370 420 395 1050 635 840 795 185 90 175 110 125 155 140 175 110 140 140

Each line represents the average of duplicate tear tests (Fig. A1.8) of an individual lot of sheet. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

54 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.2(b) Results of tensile and tear tests of 0.063 in. thick heat-treated aluminum alloy sheet, transverse
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

Alclad 2014-T3

Average Alclad 2014-T3 2014-T6

Average 2014-T6 Alclad 2014-T6

Average Alclad 2014-T6 2020-O(a) Alclad 2020-O(a) 2020-T4(a) 2020-T6(a)

Average 2020-T6 Alclad 2020-T6(a) 2024-T4

Average 2024-T4 Alclad 2024-T4

Average Alclad 2024-T4 2024-T3

Average 2024-T3 Alclad 2024-T3

Average Alclad 2024-T3 2024-T36

61.6 63.9 62.7 62.7 72.6 72.6 71.1 69.1 68.5 72.3 71.0 71.8 67.8 67.5 67.0 68.5 28.2 38.1 49.4 81.1 83.2 81.8 81.1 81.6 81.8 73.6 66.5 67.8 67.2 69.3 66.8 67.5 61.0 64.7 65.0 63.6 65.8 65.9 68.4 66.8 67.4 67.0 69.0 68.9 67.4 67.0 67.7 69.2 66.8 67.9 68.2 65.6 64.1 62.0 63.4 65.9 64.3 66.0 75.4 74.8

37.6 42.1 37.6 39.1 65.6 64.6 64.1 61.6 61.6 64.3 63.6 63.1 59.8 59.1 58.3 60.1 10.2 11.3 31.6 73.8 76.2 75.8 75.8 75.4 75.4 67.2 42.7 48.2 44.8 47.6 42.8 45.2 37.4 42.0 44.2 41.2 44.4 45.4 48.0 45.8 46.7 46.5 47.0 47.8 46.4 46.2 49.1 45.5 46.1 44.9 45.9 44.8 43.5 42.0 44.0 44.7 45.2 45.2 57.8 56.8

21.5 21.5 20.2 21.1 9.8 11.0 9.5 9.2 9.0 11.2 10.0 11.0 10.5 11.2 11.0 10.9 20.2 22.0 16.5 6.8 6.8 7.0 7.5 7.0 7.0 7.5 20.0 17.5 20.5 19.2 22.0 19.8 21.0 22.5 19.5 21.0 21.0 19.0 19.0 20.0 18.5 20.0 20.5 19.5 19.7 19.2 17.8 20.0 18.5 19.5 21.2 18.8 19.8 18.0 19.0 20.0 19.0 19.2 14.8 15.8

67.1 69.3 67.8 68.1 63.9 63.0 64.0 60.6 66.3 62.2 63.3 60.9 65.5 70.6 70.5 66.9 31.7 34.0 62.5 48.3 40.9 49.2 41.0 34.0 42.7 42.9 68.1 73.8 73.8 74.6 75.3 73.1 63.7 72.0 69.5 68.4 72.2 71.3 70.3 73.0 73.7 80.9 78.1 72.1 74.0 70.4 74.9 67.5 67.6 69.5 68.9 72.6 68.7 65.0 68.8 72.3 71.4 69.8 69.5 74.5 (continued)

1.78 1.65 1.80 1.74 0.97 0.98 1.00 0.98 1.08 0.97 1.00 0.97 1.10 1.19 1.21 1.12 3.11 3.01 1.98 0.65 0.54 0.65 0.54 0.45 0.57 0.64 1.59 1.53 1.65 1.57 1.76 1.62 1.70 1.71 1.57 1.66 1.63 1.57 1.46 1.59 1.58 1.74 1.66 1.51 1.59 1.52 1.53 1.48 1.47 1.55 1.50 1.62 1.58 1.55 1.56 1.62 1.58 1.55 1.20 1.31

21 17 21 20 8 8 8 5 7 9 8 8 10 13 10 10 26 32 28 3 4 4 3 2 3 2 17 21 15 15 24 18 22 24 20 22 22 18 15 19 17 14 18 18 18 18 16 16 17 16 15 14 14 12 12 15 21 16 10 16

47 39 43 43 11 10 12 13 11 12 12 8 14 16 17 14 44 51 67 0 0 3 2 0 2 2 37 34 36 33 51 38 39 49 39 42 42 36 31 36 37 42 43 35 38 34 33 30 26 32 34 35 28 24 26 34 40 31 17 27

68 56 64 63 18 18 20 18 18 21 19 16 24 29 27 24 70 83 95 3 4 7 5 2 4 4 54 58 51 48 75 57 61 73 59 64 64 54 46 55 54 56 61 53 55 52 49 46 43 48 49 49 42 36 38 49 61 47 27 43

725 615 690 675 175 150 190 205 175 180 180 125 215 260 270 220 695 810 1060 0 0 50 30 0 15 30 595 580 560 515 805 610 600 750 615 655 660 570 500 570 595 690 650 565 600 525 525 470 415 495 540 565 450 390 420 550 625 500 265 410

Each line represents the average of duplicate tear tests (Fig. A1.8) of an individual lot of sheet. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Tear Resistance / 55

Table 6.2(b) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

Average 2024-T36 Alclad 2024-T36

Average Alclad 2024-T36 2024-T6 2024-T81

Average 2024-T81 Alclad 2024-T81

Average Alclad 2024-T81 2024-T86 Average 2024-T86 Alclad 2024-T86

Average Alclad 2024-T86 2219-T4 2219-T31 2219-T37 2219-T62 Average 2219-T62 2219-T81 Average 2219-T81 2219-T87 Average 2219-T87 2618-T6 6061-T4

Average 6061-T4 6061-T6

75.2 71.8 73.2 72.8 70.9 73.4 72.2 70.7 69.2 67.8 69.2 69.8 66.3 72.4 76.8 71.6 73.6 66.3 66.6 69.0 67.3 75.8 76.4 76.1 73.1 76.0 72.4 69.0 69.8 73.0 72.2 55.7 56.2 63.2 56.1 61.2 58.6 68.6 65.5 67.0 71.8 68.2 70.0 60.6 38.8 38.3 38.0 36.7 34.8 36.0 36.4 37.0 46.1 45.4 47.6 43.1 46.4 44.8 46.6 43.3 43.8

57.5 55.2 57.0 56.5 53.8 56.4 54.8 56.0 53.0 51.8 52.6 53.6 51.8 67.6 72.6 66.7 69.0 59.6 60.3 64.0 61.3 70.8 71.6 71.2 67.6 70.5 65.8 64.1 65.1 70.0 67.2 33.6 39.0 50.8 38.6 42.8 40.7 52.4 52.4 52.4 59.0 56.3 57.6 54.2 20.0 25.3 25.2 24.8 23.7 26.6 23.4 24.1 41.8 40.7 42.3 39.1 40.6 40.4 42.4 35.4 35.2

15.5 15.0 13.2 15.0 15.5 15.0 15.5 14.0 14.8 14.2 16.0 14.9 8.8 6.0 6.0 6.2 6.1 6.5 6.8 6.5 6.6 6.2 6.0 6.1 6.0 6.5 6.2 6.2 5.2 5.8 6.0 19.5 17.0 11.2 9.5 10.5 10.0 9.5 10.2 9.8 9.2 9.5 9.4 6.0 23.0 18.0 19.0 18.5 19.0 17.0 21.5 19.4 11.5 11.2 12.2 10.8 12.5 11.8 11.5 15.0 15.8

74.2 75.7 76.4 76.3 77.1 74.8 65.8 72.5 73.6 75.3 72.3 71.9 58.6 58.4 52.1 55.5 55.3 60.3 65.2 64.8 63.4 56.1 58.2 57.2 58.8 59.1 65.0 54.5 52.5 51.9 57.0 71.7 73.6 76.1 60.9 66.8 63.8 65.9 70.4 68.2 64.2 67.2 65.7 59.2 46.5 51.8 52.2 51.3 56.2 53.5 50.3 51.7 62.4 63.2 64.3 65.4 65.0 65.4 66.5 62.9 63.0 (continued)

1.29 1.37 1.34 1.35 1.43 1.33 1.20 1.29 1.39 1.45 1.37 1.34 1.13 0.86 0.72 0.83 0.80 1.01 1.08 1.01 1.03 0.79 0.81 0.80 0.87 0.84 0.99 1.85 0.81 0.74 0.85 2.13 1.89 1.50 1.58 1.56 1.57 1.26 1.34 1.30 1.09 1.19 1.14 1.09 2.32 2.05 2.07 2.07 2.37 2.01 2.15 2.15 1.49 1.55 1.52 1.67 1.60 1.62 1.57 1.78 1.79

13 11 16 17 12 14 11 14 16 18 14 15 7 6 5 6 6 10 11 4 8 5 7 6 6 8 7 6 6 7 7 33 21 14 12 15 14 9 14 12 10 10 10 8 30 21 21 22 22 19 27 23 14 17 18 16 17 22 17 19 24

22 24 26 26 31 25 18 24 29 33 30 27 15 11 8 8 9 12 11 14 12 7 7 7 9 9 9 10 7 7 8 82 50 31 29 33 31 15 27 21 16 21 18 15 72 52 58 58 66 60 70 62 40 40 32 53 48 45 42 56 58

35 35 42 43 43 38 29 38 45 51 44 41 22 17 13 15 15 22 22 18 21 12 14 13 15 17 16 16 13 14 15 115 71 45 41 48 44 24 41 32 26 31 28 23 102 73 79 80 88 79 97 85 54 57 50 69 65 67 59 75 82

335 370 415 410 490 385 275 375 425 490 450 405 245 175 130 140 150 195 175 215 195 110 120 115 135 135 140 155 110 105 130 1300 795 510 445 525 485 240 430 335 250 340 195 235 1105 850 935 935 1135 1000 1130 1015 650 635 505 865 750 715 680 930 915

Each line represents the average of duplicate tear tests (Fig. A1.8) of an individual lot of sheet. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

56 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.2(b) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

Average 6061-T6 Alclad 6061-T6

Average Alclad 6061-T6 6066-T6 6071-T4 6071-T6(a) 6151-T6 X7002-T6(a) X7005-T6 7039-T6 7075-T6

Average 7075-T6 Alclad 7075-T6

Average Alclad 7075-T6 7075-T73

Average 7075-T73 7079-T6(a) Average 7079-T6 Alclad 7079-T6(a) Average Alclad 7079-T6 X7106-T6(a) Average X7106-T6 X7139-T6(a) 7178-T6

Average 7178-T6 Alclad 7178-T6 Average Alclad 7178-T6

45.2 42.6 43.2 43.0 42.4 41.0 41.9 42.4 58.2 47.4 56.2 49.2 69.3 52.2 63.0 84.6 82.6 82.1 82.4 94.8 84.3 81.0 81.2 82.6 80.8 81.4 81.6 81.0 82.1 82.3 76.7 74.8 75.2 75.8 75.8 78.0 75.8 79.1 78.1 73.9 76.3 70.9 74.0 71.3 75.5 72.9 76.1 72.8 78.8 75.9 67.7 73.4 75.9 72.3 62.4 64.3 63.4 65.7 88.9 88.4 88.1 87.4 87.0 88.0 88.0 80.9 79.9 80.5 80.4

39.8 38.4 38.8 38.6 35.6 33.6 35.7 36.8 51.0 30.5 52.5 44.5 59.6 44.8 54.2 75.5 73.5 71.4 73.1 73.0 75.1 71.4 71.1 74.0 71.3 70.6 71.6 71.8 71.4 72.5 67.8 64.9 66.2 66.0 70.2 67.0 66.8 70.0 69.3 64.2 67.2 59.0 62.9 58.3 63.8 61.0 67.3 62.4 70.0 66.6 58.7 65.1 66.6 63.5 54.0 58.8 56.4 56.1 77.9 78.0 78.0 77.0 77.0 77.8 77.6 71.8 70.6 71.5 71.2

12.5 11.2 11.2 9.8 18.8 13.5 14.0 13.1 11.2 22.5 10.0 11.2 10.8 11.8 11.0 11.0 11.0 10.5 10.5 12.5 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.2 11.5 11.2 10.8 10.2 10.5 10.8 10.2 11.0 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.8 10.5 10.0 10.5 10.5 10.5 10.2 10.5 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.5 11.0 10.8 10.8 11.0 10.8 10.8 10.9 11.0 11.0 11.0 10.0 11.5 11.5 12.5 12.5 12.0 11.2 11.9 11.8 11.5 11.4 11.6

64.2 62.1 60.3 62.0 61.6 58.6 60.7 60.9 62.6 59.2 60.5 64.6 83.4 80.1 82.4 67.5 67.7 72.2 72.4 71.1 70.7 68.9 66.2 64.0 74.0 74.2 74.2 82.6 72.2 71.3 66.9 68.3 67.7 70.8 72.3 78.7 69.5 70.8 72.4 71.3 70.9 80.2 70.7 68.0 76.8 73.9 75.0 82.3 75.6 77.6 64.1 65.2 66.3 65.2 83.7 82.8 83.2 77.8 61.5 57.8 65.9 63.0 64.1 56.3 61.4 54.9 57.5 56.1 56.2

1.62 1.62 1.55 1.61 1.73 1.74 1.70 1.66 1.23 1.94 1.15 1.45 1.40 1.79 1.52 0.89 0.92 1.01 0.99 0.97 0.94 0.96 0.93 0.86 1.04 1.05 1.04 1.15 1.01 0.98 0.99 1.05 1.02 1.07 1.03 1.17 1.04 1.01 1.04 1.11 1.05 1.36 1.12 1.19 1.20 1.22 1.11 1.32 1.08 1.17 1.09 1.00 1.00 1.03 1.55 1.41 1.48 1.39 0.79 0.74 0.84 0.82 0.83 0.73 0.79 0.76 0.81 0.78 0.78

18 20 17 18 22 21 23 20 11 19 9 16 19 36 23 8 10 10 9 10 11 10 10 11 13 12 12 12 10 11 9 8 11 11 10 11 10 8 10 9 10 15 9 14 16 14 13 15 14 14 9 10 9 9 23 19 21 15 7 6 6 7 10 6 7 6 3 4 4

46 46 40 41 50 54 50 47 16 44 13 30 44 82 49 10 14 16 12 12 10 15 12 15 18 17 15 14 16 14 12 13 12 14 10 11 17 12 14 12 13 31 20 25 24 25 18 29 22 23 19 14 15 16 49 35 42 32 9 6 10 9 11 6 8 6 7 7 7

64 66 57 59 72 75 73 67 27 63 22 46 63 118 72 18 24 26 21 22 21 25 22 26 31 29 27 26 26 25 21 21 23 25 20 22 27 20 24 21 22 46 29 39 40 38 31 44 36 37 28 24 24 25 72 54 63 47 16 12 16 16 21 12 16 12 10 11 11

740 715 625 670 795 850 780 740 250 700 200 460 710 1275 780 155 220 240 190 190 155 240 190 230 285 255 230 240 240 220 195 215 190 215 160 180 280 185 225 190 205 500 310 380 415 400 280 485 345 370 300 225 220 250 805 565 685 510 140 90 160 145 175 85 130 95 110 105 105

Each line represents the average of duplicate tear tests (Fig. A1.8) of an individual lot of sheet. For tensile yield strength, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Tear Resistance / 57

Table 6.3(a) Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy plate, longitudinal
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

2014-T651

2020-T651(a) 2024-T351 2024-T851

2024-T86 2219-T62 2219-T851 2219-T87

2618-T651 5083-O

5083-H321

5083-H131 5083-H115 5086-O

5086-H32 5086-H34 5154-O 5154-H34 5356-O 5356-H321 5454-O

5454-H32 5454-H34 5456-O

0.25 0.25 0.25 1.00 0.25 1.38 1.00 1.50 0.25 0.25 0.88 1.38 0.88 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.38 0.25 0.25 0.38 1.00 1.00 1.38 0.38 0.75 1.00 7.00 7.70 0.38 0.38 0.50 0.75 1.50 1.38 0.38 0.50 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.38 0.75 0.75 1.00 0.25 0.38 0.50 0.75 0.38 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.00

69.7 67.7 70.3 69.0 81.6 81.9 72.7 69.4 71.8 73.0 71.9 71.8 76.5 58.2 65.8 65.8 66.6 69.3 69.4 68.0 68.4 68.4 62.5 47.6 45.4 43.2 45.0 39.6 48.8 51.0 50.7 49.8 49.4 ... 37.5 38.0 36.6 41.7 43.3 50.7 38.0 35.1 42.0 42.3 43.5 51.0 53.3 36.3 39.2 37.5 38.8 41.1 35.9 38.6 42.1 41.1 41.6 40.9 50.0 49.9 50.8 49.0 47.5

64.3 62.1 65.0 63.5 77.4 76.3 58.2 53.0 65.2 66.4 67.9 65.6 72.8 39.8 52.8 50.8 52.0 57.6 56.0 56.0 57.0 57.1 58.0 23.0 21.8 19.0 19.7 17.6 35.0 34.4 36.7 40.8 42.6 ... 17.3 18.4 16.0 20.5 31.1 38.2 19.5 16.1 30.3 19.5 18.9 35.7 34.7 18.2 23.6 19.6 22.7 23.2 16.6 19.8 31.6 27.1 35.0 28.9 26.6 23.4 24.1 23.2 22.6

11.6 11.0 11.0 10.2 8.5 6.0 18.0 19.5 10.0 8.8 8.0 7.5 8.5 13.2 11.2 11.0 11.0 10.5 10.8 11.0 11.8 11.5 9.3 23.0 23.0 24.5 24.2 22.2 18.5 17.2 18.4 15.5 10.5 ... 31.6 30.0 32.0 25.0 16.0 12.5 27.5 30.7 16.2 18.5 28.8 15.3 16.0 22.0 20.8 21.6 21.2 22.0 25.0 21.5 17.5 20.0 15.2 15.7 20.8 22.5 20.0 21.8 20.8

78.4 71.5 72.7 67.4 59.0 51.7 83.3 80.3 67.0 69.6 67.2 64.9 73.0 67.6 75.0 69.2 70.2 70.5 73.0 73.4 70.6 72.8 65.1 54.0 53.4 50.0 51.3 44.0 66.0 63.4 64.4 67.0 63.9 66.6 43.6 44.6 44.6 46.5 62.2 64.0 49.2 45.1 57.5 49.8 50.8 68.0 65.6 49.4 53.9 48.0 51.9 53.2 46.7 47.5 57.2 55.0 61.6 59.1 58.6 51.6 55.5 52.1 52.6 (continued)

1.22 1.15 1.12 1.06 0.76 0.68 1.43 1.52 1.03 1.05 0.99 0.99 1.00 1.70 1.42 1.36 1.36 1.22 1.30 1.31 1.24 1.27 1.12 2.35 2.45 2.63 2.61 2.38 1.89 1.84 1.75 1.64 1.50 ... 2.52 2.42 2.79 2.27 2.13 1.68 2.52 2.80 1.90 2.55 1.76 1.90 1.89 2.71 2.28 2.45 2.29 2.29 2.81 2.40 1.81 2.03 1.76 2.04 2.20 2.21 2.30 2.25 2.33

15 10 16 17 5 7 38 38 7 7 16 13 13 23 21 20 22 18 13 13 16 22 13 55 57 55 50 44 45 42 38 32 46 29 73 69 73 66 60 37 62 80 62 66 65 66 60 41 78 39 69 67 75 38 30 72 43 61 57 44 50 55 56

22 23 37 27 6 12 72 74 12 14 23 15 23 50 47 36 53 33 26 23 52 ... 28 113 108 121 108 83 113 85 82 82 63 60 139 134 127 114 86 65 138 135 92 148 141 105 87 53 120 67 107 114 129 76 52 111 92 101 99 99 112 106 93

37 33 53 44 11 19 110 111 19 21 39 28 35 72 68 55 75 50 38 37 68 ... 41 167 164 176 158 127 158 127 120 114 108 89 212 203 200 179 146 101 199 215 154 213 206 171 147 94 199 106 176 181 204 114 82 183 135 162 157 142 162 160 149

355 350 375 270 90 115 720 740 195 215 230 155 230 500 470 355 530 330 410 370 525 ... 280 1125 1075 1215 1075 830 1125 855 820 820 626 600 1390 1340 1270 1135 860 645 1375 1350 920 1475 1405 1050 865 830 1205 1040 1070 1140 1290 1190 810 1110 920 1010 995 985 1120 1055 930

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; average of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig. A1.8, generally 0.100 in. thick; in a few cases, 0.063in. thick specimens were used. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

58 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.3(a) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

5456-H321

6061-T651 7001-T75(a) 7001-T7551(a)

7005-T6351 7075-T651

7075-T7351

7079-T651(a)

7106-T6351(a)

7139-T6351(a) 7178-T651

0.38 0.50 0.50 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.25 1.24 0.75 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.00 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.38 0.50 0.50 1.00 1.25 1.38 2.50 2.75 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.38 2.50 0.25 0.25 0.25 1.50 3.00 4.00 0.25 0.50 1.50 3.00 1.00 0.25 0.31 0.31 0.34 0.44 0.50

51.4 55.8 ... 57.5 56.3 ... 52.0 ... 55.4 44.9 88.0 94.2 81.9 80.6 81.4 81.8 80.6 80.6 54.2 82.3 83.0 85.0 83.9 84.3 81.9 83.0 86.9 91.5 90.4 88.8 85.4 82.6 71.4 71.8 70.3 73.2 72.8 74.5 76.2 70.0 80.2 79.0 79.4 84.2 83.5 79.0 61.0 65.6 66.0 62.2 70.5 88.7 89.4 89.0 85.8 88.3 90.6

32.3 35.5 ... 35.6 34.5 ... 36.7 ... 33.8 42.2 83.0 89.5 74.8 73.0 74.4 72.2 70.6 70.6 47.2 75.8 77.3 78.8 78.2 78.0 75.8 72.6 79.4 83.2 81.6 80.4 76.8 69.6 60.4 61.4 59.2 62.5 61.6 62.8 66.2 58.3 74.7 73.8 74.0 76.8 76.3 72.6 54.5 57.7 59.4 57.0 61.2 84.3 84.0 84.9 79.2 80.1 83.2

19.6 16.0 ... 14.8 13.5 ... 12.5 ... 13.2 16.5 8.8 9.5 11.0 11.0 10.2 9.5 9.5 9.5 17.0 12.2 14.5 13.5 13.0 14.0 13.8 12.0 11.5 10.5 10.0 9.8 7.8 10.0 13.0 12.5 13.5 12.8 11.2 11.8 10.2 9.8 11.0 14.0 12.8 10.0 10.0 11.0 14.5 14.8 12.6 15.0 13.0 13.0 12.0 11.5 11.5 11.2 12.4

60.6 68.4 68.1 68.8 65.3 65.0 64.9 65.6 65.7 71.0 43.9 55.4 63.7 58.9 56.6 69.9 69.7 72.6 80.7 75.0 81.2 80.2 80.2 78.6 88.4 ... 76.7 75.8 70.3 77.1 68.6 70.0 79.3 80.8 83.7 79.0 77.4 80.4 82.2 74.9 75.8 86.8 84.2 79.6 76.8 69.4 83.8 86.8 87.3 86.0 85.0 70.8 70.8 60.3 64.2 66.2 70.2 (continued)

1.88 1.92 ... 1.93 1.89 ... 1.77 ... 1.95 1.69 0.53 0.62 0.85 0.81 0.76 0.97 0.99 1.03 1.71 0.99 1.05 1.02 1.03 1.01 1.17 ... 0.97 0.91 0.86 0.96 0.89 1.01 1.32 0.13 1.41 1.26 1.26 1.28 1.24 1.28 1.01 1.18 1.14 1.04 1.01 0.96 1.54 1.50 1.53 1.51 1.39 0.84 0.84 0.71 0.81 0.83 0.84

42 54 39 47 42 42 41 32 49 47 5 7 11 9 9 14 14 13 62 18 14 11 10 17 26 ... 16 13 14 20 15 16 28 25 23 27 26 24 27 22 17 14 23 18 18 14 22 47 42 39 27 9 12 6 13 11 13

92 104 73 75 90 83 86 62 88 91 10 12 17 12 13 19 16 18 101 31 22 23 18 23 47 ... 45 28 20 21 21 25 49 52 39 46 41 39 39 42 25 24 34 39 37 21 56 105 89 91 62 6 24 20 14 25 25

114 158 112 122 132 126 126 95 137 138 15 19 28 21 22 32 30 31 164 49 36 34 28 40 73 ... 61 41 34 41 36 41 77 77 61 73 67 63 65 64 41 38 56 57 55 35 78 152 131 130 89 15 36 26 28 36 38

920 1040 725 750 900 835 860 630 875 905 95 130 175 120 125 185 160 180 1015 315 345 360 280 225 470 ... 450 285 200 210 215 250 495 525 610 470 410 395 385 425 245 240 335 390 370 210 895 1040 880 915 615 95 240 200 145 250 250

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; average of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig. A1.8, generally 0.100 in. thick; in a few cases, 0.063in. thick specimens were used. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Tear Resistance / 59

Table 6.3(a) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

7178-T7651

0.50 0.63 1.00 1.25 0.25 0.31 1.00 1.00

90.3 88.2 93.8 93.6 77.4 75.9 80.6 80.2

83.4 81.2 87.2 84.2 68.4 65.8 71.7 71.2

12.0 9.1 9.5 9.0 11.0 12.0 11.0 10.2

72.6 67.1 61.5 61.8 80.3 73.3 81.1 79.0

0.87 0.83 0.71 0.73 1.18 1.11 1.13 1.11

14 13 9 13 28 18 27 22

24 20 18 17 29 16 18 33

38 33 27 30 49 34 45 55

235 205 180 170 290 155 175 325

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; average of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig. A1.8, generally 0.100 in. thick; in a few cases, 0.063in. thick specimens were used. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Table 6.3(b) Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy plate, transverse
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

2014-T651

2020-T651(a) 2024-T42 2024-T351

2024-T36 2024-T62 2024-T851

2024-T86 2219-T62 2219-T851

2219-T87

2618-T651 5083-O

5083-H321

0.25 0.25 0.25 1.00 0.25 1.38 0.50 0.50 1.00 1.50 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.50 0.88 1.38 0.50 0.88 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.38 0.25 0.25 0.38 1.00 1.00 1.38 0.38 0.75 1.00 7.00 7.70 0.38 0.38 0.50

70.0 68.4 69.6 69.5 83.1 82.2 67.4 67.4 72.4 68.4 72.0 70.2 72.0 72.4 70.2 71.5 71.2 75.1 73.9 58.8 66.5 65.8 65.8 70.2 69.5 69.0 68.8 69.1 63.2 47.4 43.3 43.2 45.0 39.4 49.6 49.9 50.3

62.2 60.7 62.8 62.7 78.0 77.4 43.2 50.0 52.0 47.4 64.8 57.4 66.2 65.8 65.5 66.9 64.8 71.6 69.9 39.8 50.4 49.1 49.3 57.2 55.9 55.5 56.7 57.1 56.4 23.0 23.6 19.7 20.8 18.1 31.3 31.6 32.9

10.2 10.0 10.5 8.8 6.0 2.4 20.0 18.8 16.5 17.2 12.6 10.6 8.0 7.5 7.2 7.0 6.0 4.8 6.0 11.0 10.0 11.0 9.3 10.5 10.0 ... 9.9 9.0 10.0 25.2 20.8 24.2 18.8 21.0 21.8 20.0 19.2

67.8 68.8 63.2 61.0 35.0 36.7 71.4 71.6 80.2 71.1 67.2 62.8 64.1 68.6 60.8 56.8 56.7 49.6 56.0 65.7 66.9 65.6 65.2 71.6 69.4 68.6 63.5 61.5 66.3 54.0 51.0 49.2 49.1 41.4 63.2 61.7 63.0 (continued)

1.09 1.13 1.00 0.97 0.45 0.47 1.65 1.43 1.54 1.50 1.04 1.09 0.97 1.04 0.93 0.85 0.88 0.69 0.80 1.65 1.33 1.34 1.32 1.25 1.24 1.24 1.12 1.08 1.17 2.35 2.16 2.50 2.35 2.27 2.02 1.95 1.91

9 8 10 13 2 3 25 24 37 25 14 13 6 8 12 10 10 6 14 18 12 21 14 19 10 11 12 12 13 57 47 57 37 31 44 43 38

12 14 16 18 5 5 53 44 52 49 19 13 10 10 11 17 7 7 18 34 30 46 24 22 21 18 27 22 26 97 99 109 83 62 84 81 74

21 22 25 31 7 8 78 68 88 74 34 26 16 18 23 27 18 13 32 51 43 68 35 41 31 29 39 34 39 153 146 166 110 93 128 123 112

185 220 155 180 50 50 525 440 515 490 195 135 160 160 109 170 70 70 180 335 305 460 245 220 330 280 270 225 260 965 990 1090 830 625 840 805 745

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; average of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig. A1.8. generally 0.100 in. thick; in a few cases, 0.063-in. thick specimens were tested. (a) Obsolete alloy

60 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.3(b) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

5083-H131 5083-H115 5086-O

5086-H32 5086-H34 5154-O 5154-H34 5356-O 5356-H321 5454-O

5454-H32 5454-H34

5456-O

5456-H321

6061-T651 7001-T75(a) 7001-T7551(a)

7005-T6351 7075-T651

0.75 1.50 1.38 0.38 0.50 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.38 0.75 0.75 1.00 0.25 0.38 0.50 0.75 0.38 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.00 0.38 0.50 0.50 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.25 0.50 1.24 0.75 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.38 1.38 1.38 1.00 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.38 0.50 0.50

51.2 50.1 48.7 38.1 38.2 37.6 41.1 42.4 52.4 38.8 36.1 42.2 43.4 44.7 48.1 51.8 36.5 38.6 38.1 38.4 40.1 35.6 38.8 41.0 40.7 42.6 41.4 50.4 50.4 48.5 48.8 48.3 51.5 54.4 ... 55.8 55.9 ... 50.1 ... 55.4 45.0 44.9 89.6 92.8 81.8 80.0 81.8 80.8 79.9 80.5 53.3 84.8 84.8 75.8 84.0 86.1 83.8 82.4 86.6

36.6 37.5 34.8 18.1 18.9 17.3 20.6 29.0 37.4 19.2 16.2 30.5 19.8 21.7 33.7 33.2 18.7 23.8 20.6 23.2 23.2 16.8 20.4 29.8 26.4 33.9 29.4 27.4 23.7 24.0 24.0 22.8 30.6 34.4 ... 34.4 33.6 ... 33.0 ... 33.3 40.2 40.4 80.6 85.8 73.7 71.2 73.4 71.3 69.6 70.6 46.5 74.8 74.2 75.3 72.0 74.8 74.6 71.6 77.9

14.5 13.0 17.0 31.2 28.8 30.5 27.8 22.0 15.7 27.8 29.6 20.0 29.3 27.7 22.2 21.0 21.5 22.8 24.0 24.0 22.0 24.0 22.0 18.0 24.4 16.8 18.8 21.2 22.3 22.0 21.2 22.2 22.0 21.2 ... 19.3 19.0 ... 17.0 ... 16.5 16.8 15.2 10.2 7.0 8.5 9.0 9.2 8.8 9.0 8.8 16.2 11.2 13.0 13.2 13.0 12.5 12.0 11.2 11.5

64.8 63.5 63.0 43.3 44.6 45.2 46.0 60.4 61.7 49.6 44.1 58.4 48.8 49.2 64.2 62.1 50.0 55.0 48.6 52.8 50.8 45.6 47.0 59.9 57.5 62.3 60.5 58.1 49.2 54.0 49.9 52.4 61.0 66.0 65.5 62.0 61.8 62.2 63.8 60.9 62.8 66.1 68.9 38.3 39.0 45.2 47.6 42.6 51.6 57.8 57.6 79.8 65.7 77.2 79.8 79.3 67.0 77.8 73.4 72.6 (continued)

1.77 1.69 1.81 2.39 2.36 2.61 2.23 2.08 1.65 2.58 2.72 1.91 2.46 2.27 1.90 1.87 2.67 2.31 2.36 2.28 2.19 2.71 2.30 2.01 2.18 1.84 2.06 2.12 2.08 2.25 2.08 2.30 1.99 1.92 ... 1.80 1.84 ... 1.93 ... 1.89 1.64 1.71 0.48 0.45 0.61 0.67 0.58 0.72 0.83 0.82 1.72 0.88 1.04 1.06 1.10 0.90 1.04 1.03 0.93

33 35 26 68 73 67 64 51 33 65 77 66 63 58 46 46 36 79 50 76 55 75 39 39 72 48 68 50 42 44 47 53 46 48 31 35 38 32 39 32 41 31 36 4 3 5 6 5 7 8 8 53 16 12 12 10 12 20 17 14

56 52 50 129 117 124 92 80 40 123 115 87 120 114 66 70 61 120 73 107 86 111 61 58 120 65 91 91 82 92 81 93 79 81 58 62 58 66 71 67 80 49 77 <5 <5 14 11 12 16 7 18 86 23 14 9 12 12 15 14 17

89 87 75 196 190 191 156 131 73 188 192 152 182 172 112 116 97 198 123 183 141 186 100 97 192 113 160 142 124 136 128 1247 125 129 89 97 96 98 110 99 121 79 114 <9 <9 18 17 17 23 16 26 139 39 26 20 23 24 35 31 31

560 520 495 1287 1170 1240 920 800 395 1230 1145 865 1195 1140 660 700 950 1200 1140 1075 860 1105 960 905 1200 650 915 910 820 925 810 935 785 810 575 620 580 660 710 675 800 485 775 <50 <50 130 110 120 100 75 180 855 235 215 140 190 120 150 140 170

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; average of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig. A1.8. generally 0.100 in. thick; in a few cases, 0.063-in. thick specimens were tested. (a) Obsolete alloy

Tear Resistance / 61

Table 6.3(b) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

7075-T7351

7079-T651(a)

7106-T6351(a)

7139-T6351(a) 7178-T651

7178-T7651

1.00 1.25 1.38 2.50 2.75 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.38 2.50 0.25 0.25 0.25 1.50 3.00 4.00 0.25 0.50 1.50 3.00 1.00 0.25 0.31 0.31 0.34 0.44 0.50 0.50 0.63 1.00 1.25 0.25 0.31 1.00 1.00

88.0 88.0 86.6 83.4 79.0 72.4 73.2 71.8 73.0 72.4 73.6 75.6 69.5 81.0 79.6 80.2 83.4 75.6 79.4 62.2 65.4 65.2 58.9 68.6 90.4 90.2 90.3 88.3 87.2 92.4 90.2 89.8 89.6 94.2 77.5 78.5 78.3 79.8

79.2 78.8 77.4 71.8 66.6 60.4 61.6 59.4 62.1 61.8 62.4 65.2 57.1 72.6 71.0 71.2 74.4 66.5 70.5 54.4 57.7 58.5 53.2 59.0 80.4 80.8 82.3 77.0 76.7 82.0 80.8 81.5 80.9 83.0 67.0 68.0 67.7 70.5

9.8 10.0 10.0 7.5 9.0 11.0 11.0 12.0 11.2 10.0 9.8 10.0 9.2 11.5 12.5 12.0 11.2 8.0 7.5 13.4 14.4 12.2 11.0 12.0 12.5 10.8 11.0 12.0 12.0 11.2 11.2 9.7 8.2 9.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 10.3

63.3 50.5 67.9 57.9 54.6 76.5 75.8 76.8 73.6 74.2 72.4 72.4 67.0 67.7 81.0 77.2 73.9 57.4 52.8 84.4 84.4 87.3 80.4 76.6 65.5 62.2 52.3 55.4 54.6 55.4 60.7 51.4 42.3 53.1 73.1 69.2 69.0 70.8

0.80 0.64 0.88 0.81 0.82 1.27 1.23 1.29 1.19 1.20 1.16 1.11 1.17 0.93 1.14 1.08 0.99 0.86 0.75 1.55 1.46 1.53 1.51 1.30 0.82 0.77 0.64 0.72 0.71 0.68 0.75 0.63 0.52 0.64 1.09 1.02 1.02 1.00

11 7 15 12 9 22 22 13 18 20 20 19 16 14 21 17 15 10 10 21 39 39 30 21 8 9 4 8 6 9 9 8 2 7 20 14 16 16

17 12 13 12 12 32 32 26 27 30 30 14 25 21 20 18 23 13 13 44 93 68 53 22 5 5 16 7 12 11 13 10 5 12 14 15 15 16

28 19 28 24 21 54 54 40 45 50 50 33 41 35 40 35 38 23 23 65 131 107 83 44 13 14 20 15 18 20 22 18 7 19 34 29 31 32

175 120 135 125 120 325 325 410 275 300 305 145 255 210 200 175 230 130 130 695 935 685 535 220 50 50 165 75 115 110 130 100 50 125 145 150 150 155

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; average of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig. A1.8. generally 0.100 in. thick; in a few cases, 0.063-in. thick specimens were tested. (a) Obsolete alloy

62 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.4(a) Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy extruded shapes. longitudinal
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

1350-H12 2014-T6 2020-T6510(a)

2024-T4 2024-T8511 2219-T8511 5456-H311

6005-T51

6005-T6

6051-T6(a) 6061-T51

6061-T6

6062-T6 6063-T5 6063-T6 6066-T6

6066-T6511 6070-T6

6101-T6 6151-T6

6351-T51

0.25 0.25 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.69 2.00 2.00 2.00 0.25 2.00 0.13 0.19 0.19 0.25 0.25 0.46 0.44 0.69 0.13 0.19 0.19 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.25 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.13 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.06 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.19 0.19

15.0 67.3 76.1 77.4 76.0 85.8 77.2 80.6 89.3 92.9 69.8 71.4 64.7 52.1 53.6 54.1 53.4 55.8 55.2 53.8 41.8 42.0 42.4 45.0 45.0 45.2 46.6 41.5 43.8 42.7 34.9 40.9 41.8 43.6 36.4 46.5 44.8 50.0 50.4 47.3 47.6 24.2 ... ... 55.1 52.4 58.0 55.1 52.8 57.6 55.3 29.8 48.8 53.4 50.0 51.4 54.8 44.1 40.8

11.1 63.9 69.9 72.3 70.8 81.7 75.4 74.7 83.8 88.2 50.4 64.0 48.4 31.3 31.1 32.9 33.5 33.5 32.0 27.8 36.4 36.7 36.7 41.4 41.4 41.5 43.8 32.1 37.0 38.0 27.9 36.9 37.2 41.3 31.8 44.0 41.5 44.2 43.4 43.9 45.2 19.6 ... ... 36.8 46.4 51.8 55.9 52.4 54.6 52.5 25.8 44.0 50.1 46.0 46.8 50.8 38.0 34.5

32.2 12.2 10.8 10.2 9.8 7.0 7.0 7.5 7.8 6.8 21.0 10.2 10.0 17.0 16.0 15.0 16.0 15.4 18.0 23.0 10.5 13.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.8 8.5 13.5 11.5 12.0 12.0 11.5 12.5 12.0 12.0 12.0 11.5 16.0 15.9 16.0 12.2 13.5 ... ... 20.0 16.0 12.2 13.0 8.4 10.0 12.0 16.5 14.0 16.5 16.0 18.0 17.0 13.5 13.0

23.8 74.8 71.4 78.2 84.6 54.6 75.9 63.4 87.2 59.1 78.0 68.3 76.8 47.2 60.1 62.9 65.2 34.8 59.6 60.1 51.5 55.2 55.0 65.6 63.8 63.8 60.9 58.7 61.7 56.8 53.2 56.7 57.4 68.0 53.8 73.0 66.0 65.0 64.1 73.6 65.9 36.9 64.0 73.8 75.9 68.1 70.1 76.6 78.6 78.6 66.4 47.9 72.1 75.9 70.8 72.6 75.6 67.6 59.6 (continued)

2.14 1.17 1.02 1.08 1.20 0.67 1.01 0.85 1.04 0.67 1.55 1.07 1.59 1.51 1.93 1.91 1.95 1.04 1.86 2.16 1.40 1.50 1.50 1.59 1.54 1.53 1.39 1.83 1.67 1.50 1.91 1.53 1.54 1.65 1.69 1.66 1.58 1.47 1.48 1.68 1.46 1.88 ... ... 2.06 1.47 1.35 1.37 1.47 1.44 1.26 1.86 1.64 1.52 1.54 1.55 1.49 1.78 1.73

62 53 13 28 25 13 18 10 25 9 74 16 30 46 48 59 49 48 43 44 18 15 19 40 35 29 12 27 28 18 18 19 25 42 26 48 38 42 37 105 14 19 31 26 22 15 20 91 83 29 12 41 28 36 35 43 38 37 36

96 100 36 38 37 15 40 12 55 12 153 33 72 130 139 114 211 144 134 142 27 23 47 70 63 62 20 78 59 41 49 39 62 113 87 135 74 98 95 328 32 62 110 45 25 35 41 220 229 69 36 143 79 93 71 101 80 79 91

158 153 49 66 61 27 58 22 91 21 227 49 102 176 188 173 260 192 177 186 45 38 66 110 98 91 32 105 87 59 67 58 87 155 113 183 122 140 132 433 46 81 141 71 47 50 61 312 312 98 49 184 108 130 106 144 117 116 127

960 395 270 380 365 60 405 120 660 125 620 330 725 1300 1880 1140 2110 1440 1340 1420 225 230 470 560 505 510 310 780 590 410 495 390 615 1125 860 1350 590 975 940 1320 500 960 1100 705 390 545 410 870 870 690 560 1430 990 930 705 1005 800 785 910

Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line of data represents average of duplicate or triplicate tests for an individual lot of material. Specimens were generally about 0.100 in. thick; for shapes less than 0.2 in. in thickness, full-thickness specimens were sometimes used. For yield strengths, off set is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy. (b) Crack path was diagonal; propagation values may be unrealistically high.

Tear Resistance / 63

Table 6.4(a) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

6351-T6

7001-T6(a) 7001-T73(a) 7001-T75(a) 7005-T53 7005-T6 7005-T63 X7006-T53 X7006-T63 7039-T53 7039-T63 7075-T651X

7075-T7351X

0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.13 0.06 0.25 2.00 2.00 0.19 0.25 0.75 1.50 1.50 0.25 1.50 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.13 0.13 0.19 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.46 0.50 0.50 0.69 0.69 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 1.13 1.25 1.25 3.00 0.06 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.69 0.75 0.75 0.75

42.8 43.2 40.3 38.3 42.5 41.7 42.5 38.3 36.6 41.1 48.7 53.4 50.4 101.8 84.0 84.9 59.8 55.8 58.0 57.8 62.0 59.5 60.8 63.0 63.8 62.7 90.0 89.2 93.9 85.1 79.2 86.7 93.0 85.5 87.2 90.4 88.2 92.2 88.4 88.6 88.4 84.9 84.8 89.6 88.8 87.5 89.2 90.0 87.0 86.4 88.2 78.6 77.4 78.9 79.8 80.8 73.2 79.3 81.0 81.8

37.5 38.0 34.5 32.7 37.5 37.5 38.9 34.0 31.6 38.7 45.8 48.7 47.4 95.6 75.6 76.4 51.6 49.4 50.7 49.6 54.5 52.2 55.6 57.2 55.9 56.6 81.6 85.2 86.4 77.0 71.4 78.6 84.2 76.5 77.9 83.8 80.2 85.4 80.8 81.6 81.0 77.6 77.6 83.1 82.8 81.0 83.6 82.8 79.4 79.4 80.8 69.1 68.0 69.6 70.4 71.8 61.5 70.0 72.8 73.4

12.0 13.0 11.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 11.5 12.5 13.0 12.5 10.5 12.5 12.0 10.0 10.0 9.2 14.3 18.5 14.0 17.0 14.2 17.0 13.5 14.8 13.3 14.3 11.2 10.5 10.8 11.5 5.2 12.0 12.0 11.8 10.5 10.7 11.8 10.5 10.5 10.8 11.0 12.2 12.0 12.5 12.0 11.2 12.0 11.0 12.8 12.0 11.4 9.0 12.0 13.0 11.0 14.0 12.9 11.5 11.0 11.0

62.2 66.4 61.6 59.6 63.6 62.0 65.8 58.0 54.5 67.5 73.4 76.6 67.9 94.0 88.4 61.1 86.4 82.7 85.2 87.1 87.8 84.2 84.6 90.8 84.4 88.6 78.0 74.0 86.5 73.8 80.2 77.7 78.4 80.4 75.8 75.4 75.9 81.8 77.2 82.0 76.6 84.0 87.8 78.2 82.1 80.0 78.4 75.1 78.0 73.6 79.8 81.2 86.1 81.6 79.4 91.2 79.7 82.6 83.6 82.8 (continued)

1.66 1.75 1.79 1.82 1.72 1.65 1.69 1.70 1.73 1.70 1.60 1.57 1.43 0.98 1.17 0.80 1.67 1.67 1.68 1.76 1.61 1.61 1.52 1.59 1.51 1.57 0.95 0.87 1.00 1.03 1.12 0.99 0.93 1.05 0.91 0.90 0.95 0.96 0.96 1.00 0.95 1.08 1.13 0.94 0.99 0.99 0.94 0.91 0.98 0.93 0.99 1.18 1.27 1.17 1.13 1.54 1.30 1.18 1.15 1.13

34 42 42 40 35 34 38 40 40 45 54 30 18 36 37 11 67 73 71 83 62 57 48 66 52 46 19 14 21 14 16 14 27 20 16 16 18 31 17 18 16 21 25 19 20 19 18 14 16 14 16 16 21 24 21 33 25 23 23 22

88 84 92 102 86 89 79 114 111 121 132 88 43 <10 40 19 104 113 97 114 114 110 122 184 112 125 36 40 35 42 55 28(b) 47 46(b) 41(b) 46 28(b) <10 37(b) 33(b) 25 32 29 38(b) 47(b) 37 36 23(b) 28 24 27 35 34 50 41 64 62 50 39 36

122 126 134 142 121 123 135 154 151 166 186 118 61 <46 77 30 171 186 168 198 176 168 170 250 164 125 55 54 56 56 72 42 73 65 57 62 46 <41 53 51 41 53 54 56 66 56 53 37 44 38 43 51 55 74 62 96 87 73 61 57

880 845 920 1025 860 880 970 1150 1120 1205 1060 1100 675 <100 410 185 1040 1130 970 1140 1140 1105 1225 1860 1130 1260 360 400 350 415 550 435(b) 470 460(b) 410(b) 460 280(b) <100 365(b) 330(b) 245 280 285 375(b) 465(b) 370 360 230(b) 275 240 270 505 535 495 415 635 615 500 385 355

Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line of data represents average of duplicate or triplicate tests for an individual lot of material. Specimens were generally about 0.100 in. thick; for shapes less than 0.2 in. in thickness, full-thickness specimens were sometimes used. For yield strengths, off set is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy. (b) Crack path was diagonal; propagation values may be unrealistically high.

64 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.4(a) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

7075-T7651X

7079-T6(a)

X7106-T53(a) X7139-T53(a) X7139-T63(a) 7178-T651X 7178-T7651X

0.75 0.75 1.13 1.25 1.25 3.00 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.69 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.13 1.25 1.25 0.13 0.13 0.19 0.70 0.19 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 1.25 0.07 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.38 0.50 0.69 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25

80.4 81.4 79.5 77.7 74.0 76.2 82.4 80.1 79.0 79.0 79.7 80.3 80.8 80.2 81.0 80.7 77.1 76.0 82.5 81.2 84.8 86.7 61.0 65.1 66.7 70.3 96.0 93.0 91.8 83.5 82.2 80.3 79.3 79.5 81.8 83.4 83.2 77.8 82.0 83.2 91.9

72.0 73.5 70.7 67.6 63.6 68.0 73.5 71.1 69.2 69.6 70.6 71.7 72.4 71.7 72.7 72.3 67.8 66.5 74.1 73.9 77.6 80.2 54.4 56.6 55.7 62.3 89.0 86.1 86.4 73.2 72.5 70.7 68.7 70.1 72.5 74.4 73.0 68.5 74.4 74.0 73.4

12.5 12.5 12.0 13.5 12.8 12.0 11.5 13.0 12.0 11.4 11.5 12.0 11.5 13.0 12.5 12.0 13.5 12.0 10.0 9.4 9.9 10.0 12.2 13.5 12.2 12.0 10.0 1.5 1.5 ... 9.5 10.0 8.5 9.1 ... ... 11.6 11.0 ... 8.8 10.2

85.5 82.8 85.4 86.7 82.6 82.0 77.9 82.5 77.7 78.7 83.7 84.2 84.4 86.1 84.8 85.6 84.5 84.5 74.6 81.0 76.4 71.2 86.2 91.6 85.8 90.7 49.0 56.8 62.2 81.2 72.7 77.2 76.5 74.0 74.0 77.5 76.5 79.4 77.5 72.8 72.4

1.39 1.13 1.21 1.28 1.30 1.21 1.06 1.16 1.12 1.13 1.19 1.17 1.17 1.20 1.17 1.19 1.25 1.27 1.01 1.10 0.98 0.89 1.58 1.62 1.54 1.46 0.55 0.66 0.72 1.11 1.00 1.09 1.11 1.06 1.02 1.04 1.05 1.16 1.04 0.98 0.99

23 23 25 31 25 17 18 26 20 22 22 21 23 25 22 24 24 27 18 22 17 14 49 49 40 43 12 7 10 20 13 19 20 16 19 18 19 21 19 10 15

44 38 34 75(b) 52 31 24 55(b) 40(b) 32 34 37 31 40 31 42 60 38 54 43 33 36 120 114 82 88 <10 10 13 39(b) 28 43(b) 46 31(b) 40 35 23 38 31 19(b) 28

67 62 59 106 78 48 42 81 60 54 56 58 53 65 54 66 84 65 72 65 50 50 169 162 122 131 <22 17 23 58 41 61 65 47 54 53 42 58 50 39 43

440 380 335 755(b) 520 490 240 550(b) 400(b) 315 340 370 300 400 310 420 605 385 540 430 330 360 1185 1130 815 890 <100 95 135 560(b) 290 430(b) 460 315(b) 355 345 235 375 310 290(b) 280

Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line of data represents average of duplicate or triplicate tests for an individual lot of material. Specimens were generally about 0.100 in. thick; for shapes less than 0.2 in. in thickness, full-thickness specimens were sometimes used. For yield strengths, off set is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy. (b) Crack path was diagonal; propagation values may be unrealistically high.

Tear Resistance / 65

Table 6.4(b) Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy extruded shapes, transverse
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

1350-H12 2014-T6 2020-T6510(a)

2024-T4 2024-T8511 2219-T8511

6005-T51

6005-T6

6061-T51

6061-T6 6062-T6 6063-T6 6066-T6 6066-T6511 6070-T6

6101-T6 6151-T6

6351-T51

6351-T6 7001-T6(a)

0.25 0.25 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.69 2.00 0.25 2.00 0.13 0.25 0.25 0.46 0.44 0.69 0.13 0.19 0.19 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.13 0.13 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.06 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.13 0.06 2.00

13.8 ... 74.8 79.5 ... 82.2 81.7 ... 71.4 64.7 53.4 54.8 53.2 51.7 51.4 43.8 43.1 40.3 46.3 46.2 47.0 43.7 46.2 42.7 41.0 43.6 40.6 44.7 36.0 45.4 47.2 ... ... 53.2 58.8 59.3 ... ... 58.7 30.2 ... 51.0 47.4 49.2 52.4 46.0 41.4 42.7 43.4 40.5 40.0 44.4 42.6 43.8 38.0 35.3 42.4 50.0 ... 89.4

11.2 ... 69.0 75.5 ... 80.6 76.2 ... 65.7 48.4 29.0 30.2 29.8 28.6 28.6 36.0 37.4 33.7 40.1 40.2 39.4 33.9 38.4 38.0 34.0 38.6 35.1 40.2 30.6 42.2 40.8 ... ... 34.7 53.4 52.7 ... ... 55.6 26.1 ... 48.0 43.3 44.1 48.6 39.8 34.3 36.8 38.0 34.5 33.8 38.2 36.4 38.2 32.3 29.0 38.5 45.6 ... 82.3

11.0 ... 10.0 2.0 ... 0.8 4.7 ... 6.4 10.0 20.0 16.8 24.0 24.5 23.0 9.5 11.0 14.5 11.5 12.0 10.0 14.0 12.0 13.0 10.0 10.0 15.5 15.0 18.0 17.0 10.0 ... ... 15.0 12.0 10.0 ... ... 14.0 14.0 ... 16.0 17.0 18.0 18.0 14.5 15.5 13.0 16.0 12.5 13.5 13.0 13.5 15.0 17.5 18.0 15.5 9.5 ... 4.0

24.3 56.4 53 44.4 47.2 53 45.4 77.8 44.6 73.1 60.8 62.6 61.4 59.4 57.7 50.8 55.0 55.4 65.2 63.2 65.0 63.0 64.2 56.2 53.2 54.7 57.2 70.8 55.6 74.3 59.8 76.6 56.6 61.8 59.5 61.6 67.0 65.8 79.7 49.6 76.8 74.2 69.4 71.8 76.0 70.4 62.8 63.6 69.1 63.2 61.2 67.2 64.9 69.6 61.0 58.2 69.8 76.3 78.8 40.2 (continued)

2.17 ... 0.77 0.59 ... 0.66 0.60 ... 0.68 1.51 2.10 2.07 2.06 2.08 2.02 1.39 1.47 1.64 1.62 1.57 1.58 1.86 1.67 1.48 1.57 1.48 1.63 1.76 1.86 1.76 1.48 ... ... 1.78 1.11 1.17 ... ... 1.43 1.90 ... 1.54 1.60 1.63 1.56 1.77 1.83 1.73 1.82 1.83 1.81 1.76 1.78 1.82 1.88 2.01 1.81 1.67 ... 0.49

51 26 6 7 10 7 5 71 7 28 53 59 43 45 41 13 19 18 32 28 25 34 27 16 15 14 17 34 23 48 19 108 31 11 10 12 64 36 25 50 29 36 34 38 41 41 40 32 47 36 38 42 36 44 39 36 43 57 30 5

95 41 9 9 <5 9 7 116 13 35 99 106 87 97 93 19 35 33 51 42 46 56 53 23 27 25 28 57 47 78 37 179 68 11 10 14 77 49 38 141 49 60 76 64 55 64 87 80 76 70 58 95 71 88 76 78 83 95 62 <5

146 67 15 16 <15 16 12 187 20 63 152 165 130 142 134 32 54 51 83 70 71 90 80 39 42 38 45 91 70 126 56 287 99 22 20 26 140 85 63 192 79 97 109 102 96 105 127 112 123 106 96 137 107 132 115 114 126 152 92 <10

945 160 85 90 <50 85 65 460 125 350 990 1060 870 970 930 155 355 330 405 330 380 560 535 225 265 235 275 565 470 780 300 720 680 175 150 135 305 190 370 1410 615 600 755 630 550 640 860 800 765 690 575 950 705 875 755 780 835 760 770 <50

Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line of data represents average of duplicate or triplicate tests for an individual lot of material. Specimens were generally about 0.100 in. thick; for shapes less than 0.2 in. in thickness, full-thickness specimens were sometimes used. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

66 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.4(b) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

7001-T73(a) 7001-T75(a) 7005-T53 7005-T6 7005-T63 X7006-T53 X7006-T63 7039-T53 7039-T63 7075-T651X

7075-T7351X

7075-T7651X

2.00 0.19 0.25 0.75 1.50 1.50 0.25 1.50 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.13 0.13 0.19 0.30 0.30 0.31 0.46 0.50 0.50 0.69 0.69 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.94 0.94 0.94 0.94 1.13 1.25 1.25 3.00 0.06 0.25 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.69 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.13 1.25 1.25 3.00 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.69 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.13

78.4 85.1 58.0 54.2 55.7 55.4 59.1 56.3 60.0 62.2 63.6 64.4 86.5 86.5 86.4 84.3 86.8 82.6 85.6 83.4 84.5 82.6 85.7 84.3 85.8 87.0 86.8 82.8 82.4 84.6 83.4 83.2 83.8 86.0 85.2 84.0 83.6 80.4 78.3 78.5 77.5 76.4 72.6 78.2 80.2 81.2 79.8 80.6 78.7 76.0 72.6 72.2 82.6 78.6 78.6 77.5 79.0 79.8 79.6 79.1 80.4 78.9

70.8 76.5 49.9 47.2 48.4 47.6 51.1 48.6 53.1 54.4 53.8 55.4 77.6 77.3 76.4 73.8 75.6 74.0 76.4 73.8 74.2 74.2 75.8 74.5 77.6 78.8 79.0 74.0 73.6 77.7 76.9 75.9 75.8 77.8 75.8 75.4 75.4 72.4 68.7 70.0 67.6 66.0 60.9 69.4 72.0 72.8 71.4 72.3 70.2 66.3 62.2 62.0 73.8 69.4 69.0 67.6 70.3 71.2 70.9 70.4 72.0 70.4

6.0 8.0 16.0 18.5 17.2 20.5 17.5 19.0 18.0 20.0 17.5 19.0 13.9 9.5 13.0 12.5 12.0 12.0 12.0 15.2 14.0 8.6 13.6 11.0 10.5 11.0 10.0 13.5 13.0 11.4 11.4 11.2 10.9 13.0 14.0 13.0 11.4 8.2 15.0 12.5 12.5 14.0 12.9 14.0 12.0 11.5 13.0 13.5 12.0 14.0 11.2 8.5 11.5 13.0 12.0 11.4 11.5 12.5 12.0 13.5 13.5 12.0

43.4 52.0 86.8 82.7 84.4 86.4 87.3 82.8 86.8 94.0 83.6 90.9 70.4 70.6 83.4 58.8 67.0 65.9 54.8 76.6 68.8 56.7 65.6 53.6 68.6 66.0 66.0 74.9 77.2 54.8 59.0 53.4 55.4 69.0 68.6 63.4 58.2 81.5 78.4 75.8 72.8 85.6 75.2 77.6 78.2 75.3 79.7 77.2 79.4 82.4 75.4 62.0 61.2 75.5 71.8 76.5 77.6 75.5 78.0 77.4 76.4 75.0 (continued)

0.61 0.68 1.74 1.75 1.74 1.82 1.71 1.70 1.63 1.73 1.55 1.64 0.91 0.91 1.09 0.80 0.89 0.89 0.72 0.77 0.93 0.77 0.87 0.72 0.89 0.84 0.83 1.01 1.05 0.71 0.77 0.71 1.17 0.89 0.91 0.84 0.77 1.13 1.14 1.08 1.08 1.30 1.23 1.12 1.09 1.04 1.12 0.75 1.13 1.24 1.20 1.00 0.83 1.09 1.04 1.13 1.10 1.06 1.10 1.10 1.06 1.07

6 7 64 66 63 79 54 53 49 68 35 46 13 12 18 8 22 7 4 17 13 7 14 9 15 12 11 16 15 9 11 8 9 10 13 11 11 17 13 18 17 ... 22 19 20 18 20 18 24 20 18 7 8 17 16 20 20 18 18 16 17 17

<5 <5 84 90 84 102 82 67 100 149 68 93 20 28 25 19 14 11 13 16 13 15 10 13 14 13 11 17 23 10 13 10 10 12 16 10 9 25 19 20 20 ... 27 20 18 18 17 23 19 32 22 11 15 21 19 19 18 19 19 24 20 19

<10 <10 148 156 146 181 136 121 149 217 103 139 33 40 43 27 35 19 17 33 26 22 24 22 29 24 22 33 38 19 23 18 19 22 29 21 19 42 32 38 37 ... 49 38 38 36 37 41 43 52 39 18 23 38 35 40 39 36 38 40 37 35

<50 <50 840 895 840 1020 820 675 1015 1490 685 930 200 280 250 195 140 180 130 165 130 150 100 130 140 125 110 175 230 95 125 100 95 160 160 100 95 355 295 200 200 ... 270 195 185 180 165 230 190 325 215 170 155 205 190 190 180 190 190 235 200 190

Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line of data represents average of duplicate or triplicate tests for an individual lot of material. Specimens were generally about 0.100 in. thick; for shapes less than 0.2 in. in thickness, full-thickness specimens were sometimes used. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Tear Resistance / 67

Table 6.4(b) (continued)


Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

7079-T6(a)

X7106-T53(a) X7139-T53(a) X7139-T63(a) 7178-T651X 7178-T7651X

1.25 1.25 0.13 0.13 0.19 0.70 0.19 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 1.25 0.07 0.07 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.19 0.38 0.50 0.69 1.25 1.25 1.25

76.2 74.5 78.8 79.2 81.7 79.6 65.6 66.6 68.2 ... 92.2 89.5 96.0 ... 81.0 79.0 78.5 79.4 80.4 78.8 81.9 77.0 84.0 80.2

66.6 64.4 68.9 71.6 72.2 71.0 57.2 56.8 59.0 ... 85.8 82.0 90.2 ... 71.2 69.1 68.4 71.2 69.9 70.0 71.6 67.6 75.8 72.0

12.0 12.2 7.5 13.9 12.0 8.0 17.0 15.0 16.5 ... 3.5 10.2 8.5 ... 9.5 9.8 10.0 8.8 ... ... 10.4 9.0 5.8 7.2

82.0 73.2 70.0 72.8 70.0 60.2 94.2 87.8 92.5 44.0 55.6 45.5 50.0 76.7 64.7 68.9 68.9 68.0 62.9 65.8 65.9 60.9 64.7 60.3

1.23 1.14 1.02 1.02 0.97 0.85 1.65 1.55 1.57 ... 0.65 0.55 0.55 ... 0.91 1.00 1.01 0.96 0.90 0.94 0.92 0.90 0.85 0.84

23 17 14 16 11 7 54 41 42 9 7 5 6 14 10 13 13 14 11 14 14 12 6 10

29 17 23 23 22 22 67 43 44 <5 <5 7 7 11 16 19 18 13 13 17 12 13 20 14

52 34 37 39 33 29 122 84 86 <14 <12 12 12 25 26 32 31 28 24 31 26 24 26 24

290 175 230 230 220 220 670 435 455 <50 <50 70 90 165 165 190 135 135 125 170 120 125 200 135

Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line of data represents average of duplicate or triplicate tests for an individual lot of material. Specimens were generally about 0.100 in. thick; for shapes less than 0.2 in. in thickness, full-thickness specimens were sometimes used. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

68 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.5(a) Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy forgings, longitudinal
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

2014-T652 Hand forgings 2024-T6 Hand forgings

2024-T852 Hand forgings

2024-T852 Die forgings

2025-T6 Die forgings 2219-T6-Hand 7001-T75 Die forgings(a) 7001-T6-Die(a) 7075-T6-Hand 7075-T652 Hand forgings 7075-T73-Hand 7075-T7352 Hand forgings 7076-T61 Die forgings 7079-T6-Die(a) 7079-T6-Hand(a) 7079-T652 Hand forgings(a) 7080-T7 Hand forgings(a)

2.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.75 4.75 5.50 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.75 4.75 5.00 5.50 6.25 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 0.38 1.125 7.00 0.25 0.50 0.50 2.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 1.00 4.00 0.38 2.00 2.00 5.00 4.00 7.00

66.5 66.2 66.1 63.0 65.8 64.6 62.5 65.4 69.9 65.6 66.8 69.8 64.2 67.1 67.3 63.5 64.9 66.1 71.5 71.5 55.6 55.6 ... 80.2 80.2 91.9 78.6 83.0 80.7 70.8 63.6 71.2 77.8 77.8 78.0 79.4 76.2 75.6 70.2 68.0

59.7 58.8 53.9 49.6 52.0 50.2 47.1 51.8 63.0 56.5 57.8 61.7 54.2 58.2 57.4 50.1 59.6 59.9 64.2 65.1 36.2 36.2 38.6 71.7 71.7 83.2 78.5 7.22 71.4 61.6 51.2 59.6 73.3 73.3 68.3 68.7 69.1 66.5 63.4 60.5

10.8 11.0 11.0 10.8 10.2 11.0 10.5 10.8 7.5 6.8 9.0 7.8 8.8 9.2 10.0 9.5 7.0 9.0 ... ... 20.0 20.0 ... 10.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 10.0 10.0 11.2 12.8 13.0 14.0 14.0 14.0 12.5 9.2 11.0 14.0 14.0

70.6 66.2 72.2 68.4 71.8 75.4 66.7 81.8 67.9 62.9 63.8 63.6 64.0 67.2 71.4 62.7 64.2 61.5 71.1 70.3 71.6 69.8 72.1 68.8 70.8 70.6 69.2 74.6 72.4 71.8 78.8 83.7 83.2 86.0 79.7 74.6 81.0 88.9 81.4 92.0

1.18 1.13 1.34 1.38 1.38 1.50 1.42 1.58 1.20 1.11 1.10 1.03 1.18 1.15 1.24 1.25 1.04 1.15 1.09 1.08 2.04 1.92 1.82 0.96 0.99 0.85 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.17 1.54 1.41 1.20 1.17 1.17 1.09 1.17 1.34 1.30 1.52

18 17 19 18 22 26 21 31 16 13 12 14 16 9 20 13 15 11 18 16 46 38 38 13 17 10 16 10 24 19 29 36 27 28 26 17 25 34 27 36

24 26 36 29 33 40 38 48 18 14 12 12 25 13 22 26 17 24 27 34 104 102 76 23 23 28 21 48 27 32 58 61 38 62 40 23 39 (c) 27 (c)

42 43 55 47 55 66 59 79 34 27 24 26 41 22 42 39 32 35 45 50 150 140 114 36 40 38 37 59 54 51 88 96 65 90 66 40 64 (c) 54 (c)

245 265 355 295 335 405 385 475 175 140 120 125 250 210 220 260 170 245 270 345 1035 1025 770 230 270 280 210 480(b) 260(b) 320 585 600 375 630 400 230 390 (c) 275 (c)

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; average of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig.A1.8, 0.100 in. thick. For yield strengths. offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy. (b) Crack path was diagonal; propagation values may be unrealistically high. (c) Crack path erratic; energy values not meaningful

Tear Resistance / 69

Table 6.5(b) Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy forgings, long transverse
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

2014-T652 Hand forgings 2024-T6 Hand forgings

2024-T852 Hand forgings

2025-T6 Die forgings 2219-T6-Hand 7001-T75 Die forgings (a) 7001-T75 Hand forgings (a) 7001-T6-Die (a) 0.50 7075-T6-Hand 2.00 7075-T652 2.00 Hand forgings 3.00 7075-T73-Hand 2.00 7075-T7352 Hand 2.00 forgings 4.00 7076-T61 Die 1.00 forgings 4.00 7079-T6-Die(a) 0.38 7079-T6-Hand(a) 2.00 7079-T652 Hand 2.00 forgings(a) 5.00 7080-T7 Hand 4.00 forgings(a) 7.00 X7106-T6352(a) 12.00 Hand forgings

2.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.75 4.75 5.50 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.75 4.75 5.00 5.50 6.25 0.38 1.125 7.00 0.25 0.50 2.00

68.7 66.1 64.3 61.8 64.2 60.4 57.8 59.4 70.8 68.9 68.4 68.6 63.8 66.1 67.0 63.8 56.4 56.4 ... 74.7 74.7 67.2 47.0 80.3 78.2 78.5 71.7 63.4 67.7 75.4 75.4 78.1 76.8 78.0 78.2 67.5 67.5 59.8

61.0 59.7 54.9 49.6 52.5 49.7 46.0 48.3 63.2 60.9 61.0 64.1 56.6 57.3 58.5 54.0 37.3 37.3 41.2 65.8 65.8 63.4 39.4 69.7 67.6 66.3 62.5 50.9 56.9 69.4 69.4 67.8 67.0 68.9 67.6 59.3 59.5 51.7

10.0 4.0 5.0 5.5 7.0 5.2 5.5 4.8 6.5 7.0 5.5 2.8 3.8 7.0 4.8 7.0 1.6 1.6 ... 5.5 5.5 1.8 10.0 10.0 10.2 12.0 11.0 9.0 7.0 8.8 8.8 15.5 14.5 9.8 9.0 9.0 10.0 7.5

58.8 48.5 59.7 51.6 60.6 50.0 43.2 50.5 61.1 53.5 48.2 32.8 39.6 56.3 39.8 56.8 69.1 67.4 59.8 55.8 41.2 43.4 ... 59.6 62.4 46.8 71.8 68.1 49.4 78.9 83.4 72.2 75.4 66.4 55.8 57.3 68.8 67

0.96 0.87 1.09 1.04 1.16 1.01 0.94 1.05 0.97 0.88 0.79 0.51 0.70 0.97 0.68 1.05 ... 1.81 1.45 0.85 0.63 0.63 ... 0.85 0.92 0.73 1.15 1.34 0.87 1.10 1.20 1.06 1.13 0.96 0.83 0.97 1.16 1.28

11 7 13 9 12 8 6 7 12 8 6 3 5 7 5 9 26 28 16 8 4 6 ... 10 6 4 20 21 7 23 25 17 17 15 4 11 14 18

13 11 12 14 11 12 9 10 12 10 8 7 8 8 10 10 50 50 26 12 12 <5 ... 14 18 14 36 35 12 18 23 30 21 22 19 16 17 28

24 18 25 23 23 20 15 17 24 18 14 10 14 16 15 19 76 78 42 20 16 <11 ... 24 28 18 56 56 20 41 48 47 38 37 23 27 31 46

130 1100 115 135 110 120 95 100 125 105 80 65 80 120 95 100 500 500 260 120 120 <50 ... 140 185 140 365 355 125 18 235 300 210 220 195 160 165 275

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; averages of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig.A1.8, 0.100 in. thick. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

70 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.5(c) Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy forgings, short transverse
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile Thickness, strength in. (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

2014-T652 Hand forgings 2024-T6 Hand forgings

2.00 5.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.75 4.75 5.50 2024-T852 Hand 2.00 forgings 3.00 3.00 3.75 4.75 5.00 5.50 6.25 2024-T852 Die 3.00 forgings 3.00 3.00 3.00 2219-T6 Hand 7.00 7001-T75(a) Hand 2.00 forgings 2.00 7001-T6(a)-Die 0.50 7075-T6-Hand 2.00 7075-T652 Hand 2.00 forgings 3.00 7075-T73-Hand 2.00 7075-T7352 Hand 2.00 forgings 4.00 7076-T61 Die 1.00 forgings 4.00 7079-T6(a)-Hand 2.00 7079-T652(a) Hand 2.00 forgings 5.00 7080-T7(a) Hand 4.00 forgings 7.00

66.4 66.1 64.1 62.0 61.7 61.0 58.0 63.2 70.6 66.4 63.8 66.2 62.5 64.1 66.2 62.0 ... ... ... ... ... 67.2 68.6 90.5 47.0 75.6 75.0 68.8 63.2 67.8 74.2 74.2 75.6 77.2 71.5 67.4 68.5

59.4 59.7 54.9 54.5 52.9 50.0 46.8 52.1 60.6 59.0 57.5 59.0 52.2 54.0 55.4 50.1 ... ... ... ... 43.0 63.4 63.6 80.4 39.4 62.0 64.2 59.1 47.6 55.1 67.5 67.5 64.9 64.6 57.8 60.0 61.0

8.0 4.0 6.0 4.5 4.5 5.7 5.5 5.8 4.0 4.0 3.0 2.9 4.8 2.8 5.8 3.0 ... ... ... ... ... 1.8 1.6 3.1 10.0 8.0 6.0 8.0 8.0 6.3 6.5 6.5 9.0 9.0 7.0 5.4 9.6

49.4 34.6 52.4 50.6 45.4 48.1 49.6 46.2 39.6 35.7 33.8 30.5 39.0 45.8 38.1 37.4 45.1 32.8 47.0 46.2 58.9 38.9 38.0 35.6 42.6 42.4 43.4 49.0 59.9 45.6 ... 42.3 48.0 46.4 47.2 44.8 43.7

0.83 0.58 0.95 0.93 0.86 0.95 1.06 0.89 0.65 0.61 0.59 0.52 0.75 0.85 0.69 0.75 ... ... ... ... 1.37 0.60 0.60 0.44 0.62 0.68 0.65 0.83 1.26 0.83 ... 0.63 0.74 0.72 0.82 0.75 0.72

9 4 9 9 6 7 8 7 5 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 <5 3 7 5 14 3 5 3 4 2 2 7 15 6 ... 6 5 5 3 5 4

<5 7 11 8 9 8 10 8 7 7 7 6 8 6 7 5 <5 3 7 10 17 <5 5 <5 4 <5 <5 21 25 11 ... 6 5 <5 12 10 10

<14 11 20 17 15 15 18 15 12 11 10 9 12 9 11 9 <10 6 14 15 31 <8 10 <8 8 <7 <7 28 40 17 ... 12 10 <10 15 15 14

<50 75 105 85 85 80 95 85 70 65 70 60 75 90 70 50 <50 35 75 105 170 <50 45 <50 40 <50 <50 210 250 110 ... 55 50 <50 115 105 100

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; average of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig.A1. 8, 0.100 in. thick. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) Obsolete alloy

Tear Resistance / 71

Table 6.6 Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy castings
Tensile tests Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Ratio tear strength to yield strength, (TYR) Tear tests Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Tear strength, ksi

Sand casting X335.0-T6 Average X335.0-T6 356.0-T4 Average 356.0-T4 356.0-T6 356.0-T7 356.0-T71 37.3 35.3 35.4 31.1 29.4 30.2 38.6 37.8 31.9 29.4 28.8 30.0 37.1 37.6 37.4 41.2 42.6 41.9 23.4 22.6 22.9 19.8 17.6 18.7 32.6 33.7 24.2 20.7 20.2 21.7 30.5 33.2 31.8 21.2 21.0 21.1 8.6 6.8 7.7 4.4 2.3 3.4 2.2 1.6 3.8 4.1 2.0 3.3 4.4 2.1 3.2 12.9 12.6 12.8 38.4 39.3 38.8 32.8 30.6 31.7 32.7 39.2 34.8 32.2 30.6 52.6 34.2 33.6 33.9 47.2 47.8 47.5 1.64 1.74 1.69 1.66 1.74 1.70 1.00 0.87 1.44 1.55 1.51 1.50 1.12 1.01 1.06 2.23 2.28 2.26 8 11 10 7 6 6 4 3 7 7 6 7 5 4 4 35 30 32 19 19 19 13 12 12 8 7 14 11 11 12 8 10 9 108 74 91 27 30 29 20 18 19 12 10 21 18 17 19 13 14 13 143 104 124 190 195 192 130 125 128 75 70 140 110 110 120 75 100 88 1075 740 908

Average 356.0-T71 A356.0-T7 Average A356.0-T7 B535.0-F (218-F) Average B535.0-F Permanent-mold casting X335.0-T61 Average X335.0-T61 354.0-T62 Average 354.0-T62 C355.0-T7 Average C355.0-T7 356.0-T6 Average 356.0-T6 356.0-T7

Average 356.0-T7 A356.0-T61 Average A356.0-T61 A356.0-T62 Average A356.0-T62 A356.0-T7 Average A356.0-T7 359.0-T62 Average 359.0-T62 A444.0-F Average A444.0-F Premium strength casting A444.0-T4 C355.0-T61 A356.0-T6 A357.0-T61 A357.0-T62

40.8 35.6 38.2 50.1 47.8 4.9 37.0 41.0 39.0 35.8 41.4 38.6 28.4 31.7 29.6 29.8 39.4 41.7 40.6 40.9 43.6 42.2 28.2 30.7 29.4 46.2 47.4 46.7 23.2 22.5 22.8

28.4 25.6 23.8 45.5 44.3 44.9 31.0 30.4 30.7 31.1 32.2 31.6 21.4 22.6 22.0 22.0 30.8 30.4 30.6 36.7 36.3 36.5 21.4 22.2 21.8 43.2 43.1 43.2 9.7 9.6 9.6

8.5 3.5 6.0 1.1 0.9 1.0 2.1 2.5 2.3 1.4 4.2 2.8 4.3 7.5 3.2 5.0 4.3 7.5 5.9 2.1 3.9 3.0 5.3 8.5 6.9 1.2 1.6 1.4 22.2 15.7 19.0

43.2 43.0 43.1 46.5 45.9 46.2 36.9 33.2 35 40.6 34.2 37.4 37.0 38.3 35.2 36.8 43.2 44.4 43.8 46.2 46.4 46.3 29.8 39.2 34.5 44.7 41.0 42.8 27.6 28.2 27.9

1.52 1.68 1.60 1.02 1.04 1.03 1.19 1.04 1.12 1.30 1.06 1.18 1.73 1.70 1.60 1.68 1.40 1.46 1.43 1.26 1.28 1.27 1.86 1.77 1.82 1.04 0.95 1.00 2.85 2.94 2.90

9 9 9 6 6 6 6 4 5 8 4 6 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 14 14 14 7 4 6 19 28 24

22 23 22 13 13 13 8 8 8 10 6 8 16 17 17 17 14 12 13 14 13 14 30 25 28 16 12 14 39 50 44

31 32 31 19 19 19 14 12 13 18 10 14 26 27 27 27 23 21 22 23 22 23 44 39 42 23 16 20 58 78 68

220 235 228 130 125 128 85 75 80 105 55 80 165 170 170 168 140 120 130 145 130 138 295 250 272 155 115 135 390 495 442

23.0 43.6 41.6 51.2 53.9

8.0 30.3 30.2 40.0 46.4

24.4 6.4 8.8 11.4 5.3

27.1 51.8 51.6 54.2 53.8

3.39 1.71 1.71 1.35 1.16

30 14 18 10 11

57 28 34 19 12

107 40 52 29 23

580 275 345 190 125

Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line represents average results of tests of duplicate specimens of one individual lot of material. For yield strength, offset is 0.2%.

72 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.7(a)
Alloy and temper combination

Tensile tests of groove welds in wrought aluminum alloy sheet, plate, and extrusions
Sheet, plate thickness, in. Post-weld thermal treatment Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi

Specimen orientation(a)

Filler alloy

Elongation in 2 in., %

1100-H112 As welded 3303-H112 As welded 2219-T62 Parent alloy 2219-T62 Post-weld heat treated 2219-T81 Parent alloy 2219-T81 As welded 2219-T81 Post-weld aged 2219-T87 Parent alloy 2219-T81 As welded 2219-T81 Post-weld Aged 5052-H112 As welded 5154-H112 As welded 5083-O Plate as welded

1.00 1.00 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 1.00 1.00 0.38 1.00

5083-O Extrusion as welded 5083-H113 As welded 5456-O As welded 5456-H321 As welded 6061-T6 As welded 6061-T6 Post-weld heat treated 7005-T63 As welded 7005-T6351 As welded

0.75 1.00 0.88 0.38 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.25

Cross weld Cross weld L T Cross weld L T Cross weld Cross weld L T Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld(c) Cross weld(d) Cross weld(e) Cross weld(f) Cross weld(c) Along HAZ Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld

1100 1100 ... ... 2319 ... ... 2319 2319 ... ... 2319 2319 5052 5154 5183 5183 5183 5183 5183 5183 5183 5183 5556 5556 5456 4043 4043 5039 5356

None None ... ... HTA ... ... None Aged ... ... None Aged None None None None None None None None None None None None None None HTA None None

11.6 16.1 60.8 61.2 61.4 65.0 65.5 46.6 48.4 67.9 68.2 46.2 52.6 29.1 32.6 42.4 40.6 44.2 44.6 43.6 43.2 41.8 43.1 41.2 46.8 46.8 25.0 35.6 48.4 42.1

6.1 7.6 42.5 42.8 42.8 51.8 52.3 33.2 40.2 56.2 56.3 31.8 40.4 13.9 14.5 (b) 20.8 20.5 20.7 19.8 21.4 20.5 (b) 21.2 (b) 30.4 14.0 27.3 32.3 28.2

26.5 24.0 10.0 10.5 8.8 10.0 10.2 1.8 1.5 9.8 9.5 2.2 2.0 18.0 17.0 ... 10.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.2 19.6 ... 12.5 ... 6.8 13.0 5.5 11.5 6.8

Sheet or plate unless noted otherwise. Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line represents average results of tests of duplicate or triplicate specimens of each type. Joint yield strength not determined; ratio of tear strength to yield strength not available. L, longitudinal; T, transverse; HTA, heat treated and artificially aged after welding; HAZ, heat-affected zone. A and B designations in column for tear specimen type are as defined in Fig. A1.8. (a) Commercial gas metal arc welding or gas tungsten arc welding procedures unless otherwise noted. (b) Joint yield strength not determined; ratio of tear strength to yield strength not available. (c) Semiautomatic, horizontal position. (d) Semiautomatic, vertical position. (e) Semiautomatic, horizontal position. (f) Automatic, flat position. Matching tear test results are in Table 6.7(b).

Tear Resistance / 73

Table 6.7(b)

Tear tests of groove welds in wrought aluminum alloy sheet, plate, and extrusions
Ratio tear strength to yield strength (TYR)

Alloy and temper combination

Sheet, plate thickness, in.

Specimen orientation (a)

Filler alloy

Tear specimen Post-weld type Tear thermal (Fig. Strength, treatment A1.8) ksi

Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

1100-H112 As welded 3303-H112 As welded 2219-T62 Parent alloy 2219-T62 Postweld heat treated 2219-T81 Parent alloy 2219-T81 As welded 2219-T81 Postweld aged 2219-T87 Parent alloy 2219-T81 As welded 2219-T81 Postweld aged 5052-H112 As welded 5154-H112 As welded 5083-O Plate As welded

1.00 1.00 0.063 0.063 0.063

Cross weld Cross weld L T Cross weld

1100 1100 ... ... 2319

None None ... ... HTA

A A ... ... A

19.5 24.0 68.0 66.8 87.2

3.20 3.16 1.60 1.56 2.04

48 40 15 15 33

76 78 36 33 44

124 118 51 48 77

755 785 528 527 705

0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 1.00 1.00 0.38 1.00

L T Cross weld Cross weld L T Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld(c) Cross weld(d) Cross weld(e) Cross weld(f) Cross weld(c) Along HAZ Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld

... ... 2319 2319 ... ... 2319 2319 5052 5154 5183 5183 5183 5183 5183 5183 5183 5183 5556 5556 5456 4043 4043 5039 5356

... ... None Aged ... ... None Aged None None None None None None None None None None None None None None HTA None None

... ... A A ... ... A A A A A A A A A A B A A A A A A A A

72.4 70.4 70.8 74.1 ... 67.2 67.0 72.4 37.0 36.2 50.2 50.4 48.2 51.0 50.8 49.6 48.9 51.6 48.2 51.7 51.7 35.5 36.1 60.0 51.4

1.40 1.34 2.13 1.84 ... 1.19 2.10 1.79 2.66 2.50 (b) 2.42 2.35 2.46 2.56 2.32 2.38 (b) 2.27 (b) 1.70 2.34 0.93 1.86 1.82

14 14 31 20 ... 10 24 17 45 50 38 51 38 45 53 38 38 33 36 38 46 19 5 30 28

26 27 20 23 ... 21 22 26 108 104 97 89 89 98 89 96 91 99 85 91 92 38 8 95 94

40 41 51 43 ... 31 46 43 153 154 135 140 127 143 141 134 130 132 121 129 138 57 13 125 122

410 429 324 363 ... 338 352 419 1085 1040 970 890 895 985 890 975 910 990 850 910 920 380 80 950 945

5083-O Extrusion As welded 5083-H113 As welded 5456-O As welded 5456-H321 As welded 6061-T6 As welded 6061-T6 Post-weld heat treated 7005-T63 As welded 7005-T6351 As welded

0.75 1.00 0.88 0.38 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.25 1.25

Sheet or plate unless noted otherwise. Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line represents average results of tests of duplicate or triplicate specimens of each type. Joint yield strength not determined; ratio of tear strength to yield strength not available. L, longitudinal; T, transverse; HTA, heat treated and artificially aged after welding; HAZ, heat-affected zone. A and B designations in column for tear specimen type are as defined in Fig. A1.8. (a) Commercial gas metal arc welding or gas tungsten arc welding procedures unless otherwise noted. (b) Joint yield strength not determined; ratio of tear strength to yield strength not available. (c) Semiautomatic, flat position. (d) Semiautomatic, vertical position. (e) Semiautomatic, horizontal position. (f) Automatic, flat position. Matching tensile test results are in Table 6.7(a).

74 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 6.8

Tear tests of groove welds in cast-to-cast and cast-to-wrought aluminum alloys


Tear tests Ratio Reduced Tear tear section Joint Free specimen strength Post-weld tensile yield bend type Tear to yield thermal strength, strength elongation, (Fig. strength, strength treatment ksi (JYS), ksi % A1.8) ksi (TYR) Energy required to: Initiate a crack, in.-lb Propagate a crack, in.-lb Total energy, in.-lb Unit propagated energy, in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper combination

Filler alloy

Sand casting A444.0-F 5556 to A444.0-F A444.0-F to 6061-T6 A444.0-F to 5456-H321 356.0-T4 to 6063-T4 356.0-T6 to 6061-T6 5556 5556 4043 5556 4043 356.0-T7 to 6061-T6 5556 4043 356.0-T71 to 356.0-T71 356.0-T71 to 6061-T6 356.0-T71 to 5456-H321 A357.0-T7 to 6061.T6 4043 4043 4043 5556 None None None None None None None None None None None None 37.8 32.5 42.6 28.5 28.4 27 26.8 25.8 26.5 26.7 25.7 25.9 (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) 18.8 12.2 12.2 4.1 2.0 6.9 6.9 7.2 6.1 9.4 5.7 8.2 A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C 51.0 46.9 50.6 49.5 45.0 47.7 53.0 49.6 50.1 26.9 37.4 34.2 29.6 34.4 31.8 30.3 34.4 25.7 30.3 34.4 25.7 29.7 32.8 26.6 28.8 32.4 27.8 29.4 33.4 27.6 30.8 32.8 29.6 51.2 50.3 50.2 (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) 60 38 64 56 32 46 66 38 61 3 11 6 6 9 9 7 10 6 7 10 6 6 11 8 8 14 8 8 15 9 8 8 11 61 42 60 103 82 94 105 77 92 115 91 99 16 24 32 15 21 18 16 31 33 16 31 33 22 30 38 18 32 24 20 30 44 14 18 16 112 100 101 163 120 158 161 109 138 181 129 160 19 34 38 21 30 27 23 41 39 23 41 39 28 41 46 26 46 32 28 45 53 22 26 27 173 142 161 1030 820 935 1050 770 920 1185 910 990 160 240 325 150 210 185 175 310 330 175 310 330 220 295 380 175 320 245 205 305 435 140 185 165 1120 995 1010

Permanent mold castings C356.0-T7 to 6061-T6 356.0-T6 to 356.0-T6 356.0-T6 to 5456-H321 356.0-T7 to 356.0-T7 356.0-T7 to 6061-T6 356.0-T7 to 5456-H321 A356.0-T61 to 6061-T6 A356.0-T7 to 6061-T6 4043 4043 4043 4043 4043 4043 4043 4043 None None None None None None None None 32.0 28.1 29.5 25.6 27.6 26.6 28.6 25.2 (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) 16.6 11.4 14.3 8.2 9.8 4.0 9.8 11.8 A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B C A B 36.4 35.1 32.7 34.0 32.8 32.7 39.4 32.7 39.4 34.2 32.7 39.4 38.2 34.3 43.6 37.4 24.3 33.0 36.8 33.4 35.2 39.0 34.0 (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) 12 10 11 14 13 11 28 6 17 22 6 17 27 15 34 38 2 13 25 10 14 37 16 45 28 26 34 34 26 41 18 42 31 18 42 38 36 70 30 10 31 50 35 42 41 40 57 38 37 48 47 37 71 24 58 53 71 59 65 51 104 68 12 44 75 45 56 78 56 445 275 265 340 340 265 410 175 420 310 410 420 375 355 700 295 105 310 495 350 415 410 395

Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line represents average results of tests of duplicate specimens for one individual lot of material. (a) Joint yield strength not determined; ratio of tear strength to yield strength not available

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p75-104 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p075

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

Fracture Toughness
THROUGH THE WORK of A.A. Griffith (Ref 38), G.R. Irwin (Ref 39), and the ASTM Committee E-24 on Fracture Testing of High-Strength Metallic Materials, now ASTM Committee E9 (Ref 40, 41, and many others), about 19 ASTM Standard Test methods, including E 399 (Ref 9), are available for the determination of fracture toughness parameters that relate the load-carrying capacity of structural members stressed in tension to the size of cracks, flaws, or design discontinuities that may be present in the stress field. These parameters, primarily the stress-intensity factor, K, and the strain-energy release rate, G, are more useful to the designer than those measures of toughness that provide only a relative merit rating of materials, such as notch-tensile and tear tests. K and G characterize the potential fracture conditions in terms that permit structural designers to design resistance to unstable crack growth and catastrophic fracture into a structure, even with materials that are relatively low in toughness, including those sometimes described as brittle. It is appropriate in such a survey of the fracture characteristics of aluminum alloys to very briefly review the fracture mechanics theory, describe the test procedures most often used to determine critical values of those fracture parameters, present representative data for aluminum alloys, and illustrate some of the ways the data might be used. It is beyond the scope of this book to go deeply into the science of fracture mechanics or to describe the wide range of analytical techniques now employed in using fracture mechanics in design. The limited applicability of linear elastic fracture mechanics to most aluminum alloys, that is, other than the high-strength heat-treatable alloys, must be emphasized. Since the analysis is based upon the assumption that unstable crack growth develops in elastically stressed material, the fracture-toughness approach is applicable primarily to relatively high-strength materials with relatively low ductility. The type of behavior assumed in the development of the fracture-mechanics concepts is essentially nonexistent in the majority of aluminum alloys. Nevertheless, it is useful to

76 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

overview the approach, provide representative data for those alloys for which the analysis is useful, and illustrate ways of estimating the fracture toughness of the tougher alloys.

7.1 Theory
Consider a large panel (representing a structure) stressed in tension uniformly and elastically in one direction in the plane of the panel, and containing a through-the-thickness crack that is 1) perpendicular to the direction of stress and 2) small with respect to the size of the panel, as shown schematically in Fig. 7.1. Although it is assumed that the panel is stressed uniformly, it is recognized that 1) at the tips of the crack, the stress is greater than the average stress, and 2) within regions immediately above and below the crack, the stress is less than the average stress and may be considered to be zero. As the uniform gross stress increases, so does the stored elastic strain energy in the specimen that is available to propagate the crack. The elastic energy in the region immediately surrounding the crack becomes a crack driving force, which is generally defined in terms of the elastic strain-energy release rate, G, and is related to K, the stress-intensity factor describing the stress field local to the crack tip. This crack driving force is opposed by the resistance of the material to crack extension, which also increases with stress and maintains an equilibrium. When the stress increases to the point that the rate of increase of the crack driving force

Uniform gross stress, Region contributing stored elastic strain energy associated with change in crack length (a) Essentially unstressed region

ao
c

Fig. 7.1

Schematic drawing of large elastically stressed panel containing a crack. Uniform gross stress,

Fracture Toughness / 77

with respect to crack length is equal to the rate of increase of the resistance, unstable crack growth ensues (Ref 41). In terms of a slowly growing crack under constant or increasing stress, when the elastic strain energy released by a minute increment of crack length, a, is sufficient to develop a new increment of crack length, a, the crack will become selfpropagating. By examining the conditions at the critical situation, that is, when the crack growth becomes unstable, a measure of the critical strain-energy release rate, Gc, and stress-intensity factor, Kc, can be established empirically. From Griffiths work (Ref 38), Irwin (Ref 39) suggested that, in very large systems involving brittle materials, the critical strain-energy release rate, (i.e., the rate at the onset of unstable crack growth) is related to stress and crack length by:
Gc Kc 2 E ps2ac c E (Eq 1)

where Gc is critical strain-energy release rate, in.-lb/in.2; Kc is critical stress-intensity factor, psi/in.; c is gross-section stress at the onset of unstable crack growth, psi; 2ac is total crack length at the onset of unstable crack growth, in.; and E is modulus of elasticity, psi. This relationship between stress and crack length must be modified to take into account the facts that a) the dimensions of test panels are finite and may not always be considered large with respect to the crack size, and b) most materials are not perfectly brittle, so that an appreciable amount of plastic deformation takes place at the tips of the crack. The considerations of finite dimensions lead to:
Gc Kc2 E s2 pac c c Wtan a bd E W (Eq 2)

where W equals the width of the panel. The effect of the plastic deformation at the crack tip is to increase the effective length of the crack (2a, in the equations) by the size of the plastic zone at the tip of the crack, namely:
ac a c EGc 2ps2 ys ac Kc 2 2ps2 ys (Eq 3)

where ac is the physical size of the crack and ys is the tensile yield strength of the material. The complete relationship, then, is:
Gc Kc2 E sw pac c c W tan a E W EGc bd 2Ws2 ys (Eq 4)

78 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

The relationship of Eq 4 to Eq 1 may be seen if the width of the panel, W, in Eq 4 is allowed to become large, so that the angle becomes small and the tangent of the angle can be considered equal to the angle:
Gc Kc2 E s2 c a pac E EGc b 2s2 ys (Eq 5)

and if a very brittle material is assumed, so that Gc is very small and EGc is small compared with the square of the yield strength:
EGc 22 ys ~0

then
Gc Kc2 E ps2a c c E

(Eq 6)

Many other analyses have been developed for other stress-flaw size situations (part-through cracks, edge cracks, etc.), but it is beyond the scope of this treatment to review them here (Ref 41, 42, et al.). It may be noted that the material thickness, t, does not enter into these equations except in relationship to load and stress; however, it should not be assumed that thickness is unimportant. Whether plane-stress or planestrain conditions prevail is dependent primarily upon thickness. It has been well established empirically that Gc, and hence Kc, vary with material thickness in a pattern similar to that shown schematically in Fig. 7.2.

Strain-energy release rate, Gc, in.-lb/in.2

Gc

G Ic

Product thickness, in.

Schematic representation of influence of thickness on critical strain-energy release rate, Gc. Also indicative of pattern for critical stress intensity factor, Kc

Fig. 7.2

Fracture Toughness / 79

As the plate thickness increases and plane-strain conditions become dominant, the value of G approaches a minimum value, designated GIc and called the plane-strain strain-energy release rate. (KIc is the associated plane-strain stress-intensity factor.) For a center-cracked panel, the type of specimen representing the conditions in Fig. 7.1, the parameters are expressed as:
GIc K2 Ic E 11
22

2 Ic E

11

2 2W

tana

ao W

K2 Ic 6W2 ys

(Eq 7)

where 2ao is the total original crack length, in.; aIc is the gross stress at the initiation of slow crack growth, psi; and A is Poissons ratio, which is 0.33 for aluminum alloys. The other terms are as defined previously. (Note the use of 6 in the denominator of the plastic zone size correction factor in place of 2, which takes into account the fact that the plastic zone is smaller under plane-strain conditions.) For many alloys, plane-strain conditions may be difficult to achieve. So in order to measure plane-strain fracture toughness, it is necessary to approach or approximate the conditions well enough as to provide a good representation of plane-strain fracture. For example, it has been established that the conditions for fracture under plane-strain conditions are essentially the same as those existing at the initial burst of crack extension in statically loaded specimens, referred to early on as popin (Ref 16). If there is such a burst of unstable crack growth, values of GI and KIc can be calculated with Eq 6, with GIc being the stress at popin. The initial pop-in will still have reasonably represented unstable plane-strain crack growth even if the crack is subsequently arrested by virtue of the ability of the material to develop a shear fracture (shear lip on the fracture surface) and, thus, change the mode of fracture from plane strain to some mixture of plane strain and plane stress (mixed mode). The significance of GIc and KIc is similar to that of Gc and Kc in that they are parameters relating critical gross stress and crack (or flaw) size when the stress conditions are those of plane strain. They have more general applicability, however, in that they represent the lowest level of stress at which unstable crack growth can take place in material of any thickness under any type of stress (static or fatigue) and, hence, represent a conservative (safe) design tool. It has been found more convenient to handle fracture mechanics problems in terms of the stress-intensity factor, K, rather than the strainenergy release rate, G. This parameter provides a direct relationship between the gross-section stress and crack length without the involvement of other material properties or strain (through modulus of elasticity). Therefore, most analytical and experimental procedures focus on KIc and Kc rather than GIc and Gc.

80 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

7.2 Test Procedures


It is useful in discussing test methods for fracture-toughness testing to look first at the early evolution of test procedures that led to the primary focus on plane-strain fracture-toughness testing and then the later emergence of the importance of refining mixed-mode and plane-strain test methods. While both types of tests were employed throughout the period, the standardization and application of the various procedures followed the plane-strain to plane-stress refocus. Early Evolution of Test Methods. In the early years of fracture-toughness testing, center-cracked specimens of the general design in Fig. A1.9 were most frequently used because they permit the evaluation of the fracture parameters under mixed-mode conditions at the onset of unstable crack growth to fracture, as well as at the plane-strain instability using the pop-in concept. By this latter approach, the initial spurt of crack growth in a relatively large specimen may, under certain conditions, adequately represent the plane-strain instability even though the crack subsequently arrests. By instrumenting the crack opening and establishing an appropriate empirical relationship between crack opening and crack length, the conditions at the initial crack instability may be determined and a calculation of KIc made. Detailed discussion of the early development of the various test procedures that may be used to evaluate the fracture toughness parameters is given in Ref 41, 42 and other publications of ASTM Committee E-24 (now E-9). In early tests made at Alcoa Laboratories (Ref 1, 2, 4348), many of which are reported herein, center-notched specimens of various sizes were tested, ranging in thickness from 0.063 to 1.00 in., and with widths ranging from 3 to 20 in. As better understandings developed, the relatively wider specimens were used more often with center-crack length between 25 and 50% of the total width. Generally, the specimens were fatigue cracked, although some of the earlier mixed mode Kc values were obtained from specimens with sharply machined notches (notch radius equal to or less than 0.0005 in.), and the 1 in. thick 20 in. wide 64 in. long specimens (Fig. A1.9b) were not fatigue cracked because of loadcapacity requirements (Ref 48). The center-notched specimens were fatigue cracked by axial-stress loading; the single-edge-notched specimens were fatigue cracked in bending. The maximum nominal fatigue-precracking stresses were equal to or less than 20% of the yield strength of the material. The fatigue cracks were extended at least 18 in. As noted earlier, a compliance-gage technique involving SR-4 electrical-resistance strain gage units was used to obtain an autographic loaddeformation curve, from which it was possible to detect the load at pop-in and, for center-cracked specimens, the length of the crack at the onset of

Fracture Toughness / 81

subsequent unstable crack growth to fracture. A gage length of two-thirds of the specimen width was generally used. A representative 20 in. wide center-cracked specimen in a 3,000,000 lb Southwark testing machine, under test, is shown Fig. 7.3, where the mounting of the strain gage units to measure crack opening may be seen. Fatigue-cracked single-edge-notched specimens of the type in Fig A1.10 were also used. With such specimens, values of the plane-strain parameters were determined from the loads at the initial burst of unstable crack growth. In the case of the single-edge-notched, like the center-cracked specimens, the initial burst of crack growth was almost always at a stress less than that at the subsequent onset of unstable crack growth to fracture (i.e., at pop-in). To ensure that the values of the plane-strain fracture parameters from the center-cracked and single-edge-notched specimens were valid, it was the standard practice to calculate values only for those tests in which significant bursts of unstable crack growth took place, as indicated by a significant pop-in. Examples of load-deformation curves with suitable

Fig. 7.3

Fracture toughness specimen in 3 million lb testing machine

82 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

indications of pop-in are shown in Fig. 7.4. In the majority of instances where these were not present, the data were discarded; in those instances where the pop-in is questionable, the data were so indicated. Data from tests in which the net stress at the onset of unstable crack growth exceeds 0.8 of the tensile yield strength were also generally discarded, because of the likelihood of a greater amount of plastic action than is properly accounted for by the elastic stress analysis and associated corrections. As study of fracture under plane-strain conditions continued and ASTM standard test methods for plane-strain fracture-toughness testing were more fully developed, notched bend specimens of the type in Fig. A1.11(a) and, eventually, compact tension specimens of the type in Fig. A1.12(a) became almost universally used. ASTM Standard Method E 399 for plane-strain fracture toughness testing emerged as the most widely used set of procedures, and they have been gradually broadened to include a wide range of component and specimen variations. For aluminum alloys in particular, ASTM Methods B 645 and B 646, adding current requirements applicable to aluminum, are used in conjunction with E 399. It has always been and continues to be a standard feature of fracture toughness testing that it is essential to ensure that a valid measurement has been achieved. Reference to the applicable test methods will provide a detailed listing of the individual criteria for validity, but the essential requirements are that specimen size, specimen preparation, and testing conditions are such that the test adequately represents unstable growth of a relatively small crack in a large elastic stress field. Typically, values obtained from a test are labeled KQ, a candidate value of KIc or Kc, until the validity criteria have been checked, and only labeled KIc or Kc when the criteria are met. In some few cases, values may be labeled something

Unstable crack propagation to fracture

Pop-in. Initial burst of unstable crack growth

Fig. 7.4

Typical autographic load-deformation curves from fracture toughness tests

Fracture Toughness / 83

akin to essentially valid or reasonably indicative of valid results when deviations from validity are few and very small. Indiscriminate use of this practice is not recommended, and strict adherence to the validity criteria in the standard test methods is prescribed. An additional aspect of plane-strain fracture toughness test methods that deserves particular mention is that of specimen orientation. Unlike most other tests (though equally true for tear specimens), there are really six standard orientations, not just three, because both the plane of the crack and the direction of crack growth must be considered. The six standard orientations are illustrated in Fig. A1.2 and described in Chapter 2. The definitions of orientations in specimens containing welds are also illustrated. As noted previously, ASTM Method E 399 includes other combinations of component shapes and specimen orientation, with which the more experienced testing organization may find it useful to be familiar. Yet another important consideration in plane-strain fracture toughness testing in particular is the influence of residual stresses upon the fracture toughness test results, particularly for nonsymmetrical specimens taken from relatively thick and/or metallurgically complex components such as die forgings. Thanks to the work of Bucci and his associates (Ref 49, 50), this influence is now relatively well understood and may be taken into account in testing. See section 7.8 for more detailed discussion of this factor. Mixed-Mode and Plane-Stress Fracture Toughness Testing. With the gradual recognition of the fact that relatively few structures provided the combinations of thickness and limited plastic-zone development that would provide the constraint needed to be properly described as plane strain in nature, attention returned to the need for standardized methods of defining fracture under mixed-mode and plane-stress conditions. This was accomplished for the aluminum industry by standardization of centernotched panel testing of the type described earlier, to ensure adequate width and initial crack dimensions to ensure consistent and relatively geometrically independent measures of Kc in ASTM Standard B 646. It also led to more focus and standardization of methods for measurement of crack resistance curves, ASTM Standard E 561. Crack resistance curves, or R-curves, are continuous records of stressintensity factor, K, as a function of crack extension, as illustrated schematically in Fig. 7.5(a). They are generated by recording the conditions while driving a crack by increasing the stress intensity, usually in a wide centercracked panel of the type in Fig. A1.12. Measurements of the crack length are made as in the center-cracked fracture toughness tests, that is, by instrumenting the specimen to record crack-opening displacement, which was then interpreted via a compliance calibration relating crack-opening displacement to actual crack length. R-curves generated in this manner may be used to analyze the potential for crack-growth instability by

84 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Crack growth resistance, KR

Kplat Kc

KO

Effective half-crack extension, aeff

Schematic of typical R curve. K0, stress-intensity factor corresponding to initial crack extension; Kc, critical stress-intensity factor (point of fracture instability); Kplat, plateau stress-intensity factor; KR, crackextension resistance; aeff, effective crack extension increment

Fig. 7.5(a)

Crack growth resistance, KR, and crack driving force, KAPP

cr

Material R-curve

Kc K0

Crack-drive curves (, geometry)

cr > 2 > 1

a0

acr

Effective half-crack length, aeff

Schematic of typical R-curve, illustrating overlay of crack driving force curves, including tangency indicative of instability when crack driving force equals crack resistance

Fig. 7.5(b)

overlaying crack-driving-force curves based upon the expected design conditions, and looking for the point of tangency with the R-curve, as illustrated in Fig. 7.5(b). Representative crack resistance curves for some aluminum alloys are presented subsequently along with the KIc and Kc measurements.

7.3 KIc and Kc Data


Values of the critical stress-intensity factors from tests of aluminum alloys are presented in the following tables at the end of this Chapter:

Fracture Toughness / 85

Individual test results

Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 7.3 Table 7.4 Table 7.5

KIc and Kc values from tests of center-notched specimens of sheet and thin plate (Fig. A1.9 a, b) KIc and Kc values from tests of center-notched specimens of plate, 1 in. thick or more (Fig A1.9b) KIc values from tests of single-edge-notched specimens (Fig. A1.10) KIc values from tests of notched bend and compact tension specimens (Fig. A1.11, A1.12, respectively) Representative summary of KIc values from tests of compact tension specimens (Fig. A1.13) from industry database

Published typical values

Table 7.6

Published typical KIc and Kc values for wrought aluminum alloys

Published specific minumum values

Table 7.7 Table 7.8

Published specified minimum KIc values for wrought aluminum alloys Published specified minimum KIc values for wrought aluminum alloys

(Note: No typical or minimum values of fracture toughness have been published for aluminum alloy castings or for welds in wrought or cast alloys.) These data are presented in terms of the stress-intensity factor, K (Kc or KIc); values of the strain-energy release rate, G (Gc or GIc), may be calculated with Eq 1 or 6.

7.4 Discussion of KIc and Kc Data


Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness, KIc. Review of the data in Tables 7.1 through 7.4 illustrates that values of KIc determined from specimens of various types and sizes are fairly consistent so long as the validity conditions are carefully maintained, especially those regarding specimen size in terms of the plastic-zone size, that is, that specimen thickness, B, and 2 crack length, a, are equal to or greater than 2.5 (KIc/ys) . Rather large variations in KIc will be observed for several quite logical reasons, and it is well to note these: Variations in KIc values are to be expected for different specimen orientations, that is, situations in which different patterns of crack growth are developed with respect to the microstructure. Values are usually highest when stress is applied in the longitudinal direction

86 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

(L-T or L-S) when crack growth is across grain-flow patterns; values are usually lowest when stress is applied normal to the thickness, when crack growth is in the plane of major grain flow (S-L or S-T). Variations in KIc values are to be expected for different products (sheet, plate, forgings, extrusions, etc) and for different thicknesses of the same product when the metallurgical structures produced by the fabrication procedures vary. Greater scatter is to be expected in data from fracture-toughness tests than in data from ordinary tensile or compressive tests because of the greater number of variables and the uncertain nature of some of them (e.g., fatigue-cracking stress, shape of crack front, number of cycles of loading, etc.). The problem is even greater in measurements of Kc than for KIc since the crack length at the onset of rapid fracture must be established (see next paragraph). It is appropriate to note that notched bend and compact tension specimens are now considered the most useful and reliable for determining values of KIc, and are the focus of ASTM Standard Test Method E 399. Measurements from center-cracked panels are least reliable because they depend in large part on the degree of clarity of the initial burst of crack growth, often disguised for aluminum alloys because of the ability of most to plastically deform in the presence of stress raisers. It is also useful to note that specimen-size studies for relatively tough alloys such as 2219-T851 (Ref 47) have indicated that more consistent and reliable values are obtained when specimen thickness, B, and crack length, a, are equal to or greater than 5 (KIc/ys)2 rather than the standard of 2.5; and that when insufficient thickness is available to obtain valid values, reasonable estimates of such values can be obtained if a is maintained at 5 times that of the plastic-zone-size factor. While there was some doubt on the matter in the early days of fracture testing, it is now clear that fatigue precracking is an important prerequisite to useful measures of KIc; values determined without precracking of the specimens would be considered approximations at best, likely to be 5 to 10% higher than the correct values. Plane Stress and Mixed-Mode Fracture Toughness Kc. The data in Tables 7.1 and 7.2 for alloys such as 7075-T6 and 7075-T651 illustrate the fact that the critical stress-intensity factor, Kc, tends to decrease with increase in thickness in the manner illustrated schematically for Gc in Fig. 7.2, discussed previously. The decrease in the value of Kc with increase in thickness reflects the transition from the conditions of plane stress through a mixture of modes moving toward plane-strain conditions and approaching, asymptotically, a minimum value approximately equal to KIc. The rate of decrease will differ for different alloys and tempers, and also for testing direction. For thicknesses up to about

Fracture Toughness / 87

1 in., the Kc values for 7075-T651 plate in the longitudinal direction (L-T) are as high or higher than those for relatively thin 7075-T6 sheet, but at greater thicknesses they decrease toward the plane-strain value; in the transverse direction (T-L), Kc decreases much more rapidly with thickness. It should be noted that values of Kc are more variable than KIc values, at least partly because there may be larger specimen size effects. It is for this reason, among others, that no ASTM standards have ever been developed for measurement of Kc but rather have focused on the measurement of crack resistance curves (see section 7.7). Fatigue precracking, used as a means for developing the initial flaw in fracture toughness specimens, is not necessarily an important factor in determining the critical stress-intensity factor, Kc under mixed-mode or plane-stress conditions. Under such conditions there is an appreciable amount of slow crack growth, and the stress condition at the tip of this crack is practically the same regardless of the original crack starter.

7.5 Industry KIc Database, ALFRAC


As noted previously, an industry-wide effort (Ref 51) was made to build a database of KIc values from regular testing of plant production lots of the higher-toughness aluminum alloys, most notably of those alloys such as 2124-T851 and 7475-T7351 for which fracture-toughness guarantees were to be specified. Great care was taken to detail the factors considered in determining the validity of the data in accordance with the ASTM E 399 standards applicable at the time, and the specific reasons for any individual test result not considered fully valid were documented. Thousands of test results were compiled, and it is beyond the scope of this book to include all of those results herein. An example of the types of data and the analyses carried out is given in the example in Table 7.5. In many cases, these results were later augmented by others, and the total became the basis of the online database known as ALFRAC, distributed for several years online and searchable via the Scientific and Technical Information Network, STN International. (Access to STN International in North America is provided by Chemical Abstracts Service, a division of the American Chemical Society, Columbus, OH.) One of the unique and most useful aspects of this database is the inclusion therein of all of the validity criteria for each test, so that even those results not entirely valid per ASTM Standard E 399 may be judged based upon the reasons for and degree of noncompliance. The typical and specified minimum values of KIc and Kc discussed subsequently came from analyses of data compilations such as those in the ALFRAC database.

88 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

7.6 Typical and Specified Minimum Values of KIc and Kc Fracture Toughness
Typical Values. Based upon testing at a number of laboratories, MILHDBK-5, the design handbook for the Aerospace Industry (Ref 52) has, for a number of years, published typical values of plane-strain fracturetoughness, KIc, for a number of wrought high-strength aluminum alloys. These, combined with those from recent publications by the aluminum industry summarized in Ref 2, are presented in Table 7.6. Specified Minimum Values. In addition, the aluminum industry, through the Aluminum Association, Inc. in cooperation with the aerospace industry standards organizations, has developed specified minimum values of KIc and Kc for high-toughness alloys such as 2124, 7050, and 7475, developed especially for use in fracture-critical applications (Ref 2 and 5356). These values are presented in Tables 7.7 and 7.8 for KIc and Kc, respectively. In these cases, the statistical basis used has been the same as that used for other specified minimum values for the aluminum industry and for MIL-HDBK-5, namely, the values will be equaled or exceeded by 99% of production lots with 95% confidence.

7.7 Crack-Resistance Curves


Representative crack-resistance curves (R-curves) for several hightoughness aluminum alloys are presented in Fig. 7.6 and 7.7 (Ref 2, 57, 58). Crack-resistance curve testing has not reached the stage where statistically significant curves can be presented; rather, the curves, including those in Fig. 7.7 and 7.8, are for individual lots of material that are representative of commercial production of the alloys and tempers for which data are presented. Included among the alloys and tempers for which crack-resistance curves are presented are: Fig. 7.6 Fig. 7.7 2024-T3 and 2524-T3 sheet 7075-T6 and 7475-T6 sheet, and 7075-T651 and 7075-T7351, and 7475-T651, 7475-T7651, and 7475-T7351 plate

Fracture Toughness / 89

400 L-T orientation (60 in. wide panels) 300 Crack-growth resistance, KR, ksi in. Band for C188-T3 clad (5 lots, 0.063 to 0.249 in. gage)

250

200 Band for 2024-T3 clad (5 lots, 0.036 to 0.249 in. gage) Load, P

150

W
100 Alloy 50 2024-T3 clad C188-T3 clad 0 2 Sheet gage 0.063 in. 0.063 in. 4 Specimen ID A601 A602 6

W = 60 in. L = 96 in. 2ac = 0.3W (fatigue precracked)


8 10

2ac

0 Effective half-crack extension, aeff, in. 400 L-T orientation (48 in. wide panels) 300 Crack-growth resistance, KR, ksi in. Band for C188-T3 clad (5 lots, 0.036 to 0.258 in. gage)

P
12

250

200

P
150 Band for 2024-T3 clad (3 lots, 0.036 to 0.251 in. gage)

100

50

b = thickness W = 48 in. L = 96 in. 2ac = 0.3W (fatigue precracked)


0 2 4 6 8 10

2ac

P
12

0 Effective crack extension, aeff, in.

Fig. 7.6

R-curves for 2024-T3 and 2524-T3 clad sheet. Source: Boeing

Each of these sets of R-curves illustrates the benefits of the composition and production-process control used in making the higher-toughness version of each alloy type (2524 vs. 2024, and 7475 vs. 7075), as discussed further in Chapter 11.

90 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

120

100

Crack-growth resistance, KR, ksiin.

5% secant offset 80

60

40

Alloy and Temper 7475-T7351 plate 7475-T7651 plate 7475-T651 plate 7075-T7351 plate 7075-T651 plate

20

25% secant offset

0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 Effective half-crack extension, aeff, in.

Fig. 7.7

R-curves for 7475-T7351, 7475-T7651, 7475-T651, and 7075-T7351, 7075-T651 plate. L-T orientation. Thickness is 0.50 in.; width is 4.00 in.

7.8 Use of Fracture-Toughness Data


While it is beyond the scope of this book to go deeply into fracturemechanics design concepts, it is appropriate to describe them briefly and note that they have considerable value in the design of highperformance aircraft or aerospace structures, where high strength-toweight ratios are essential, and where the initiation and propagation of cracks in regions of high tensile stress must be avoided or adequately taken into account. They are also useful in critical tankage design for other fields, such as for the containment and transportation of liquified gases, where failure might lead to catastrophic losses of property and possibly life. It is improbable that they will ever be needed in the design of a broad range of civil-engineering structures (bridges, buildings, etc.) or in most chemical process equipment, because the materials usually used are generally so tough that this method of stress analysis is not applicable. The fracture-toughness approach to design may be considered ultraconservative (ultrasafe) by some designers, even for high-strength alloys and tempers, Indeed, if internal discontinuities, shear or weld cracks, and

Fracture Toughness / 91

fatigue cracks can be avoided in structures, the allowable stress value may safely exceed that based on the KIc values of the fracture-toughness approach. However, in most cases, there are minimum limits beyond which the size of discontinuities and cracks cannot be detected by practical production and inspection procedures and eliminated, so it is prudent to consider that they might be present. Further, in applications involving cyclic, that is, fatigue loading of any type, some consideration must be given to the consequences of fatigue-crack initiation and growth from any such flaws already present. As indicated previously, the stress-intensity factor, K, is, from the designers viewpoint, a parameter relating fracture stress to the critical size of flaw, design detail, or discontinuity, having sharpness of the ends equal to that of a crack. Representative curves showing the relationship of gross fracture stress and critical crack of flaw size for mixed-mode fracture of 0.063 in. aluminum alloy sheet are shown in Fig. 7.8, and those for plane-strain fracture (independent of thickness) are illustrated in Fig. 7.9. These curves are based on the average values of Kc and KIc from tests of center-notched specimens in Tables 7.1 and 7.2. They were developed for members of infinite width with Eq 5 and its equivalent for plane-strain conditions rewritten in the form:

90

90

c = Gross-section stress at onset of unstable crack growth, c, ksi


80 80

Kc

2 Kc ac + 2 2 ys

70

70

where Kc = criticial stress-intensity factor, ksiin. ys = tensile yield strength, ksi Transverse

60

Longitudinal Kc = 64.4 ksiin. 7075-T6 ys = 75.7 ksi Kc = 48.4 ksiin. 7178-T6 ys = 81.4 ksi

60

50

50

Kc = 62.7 ksiin. 7075-T6 ys = 72.9 ksi Kc = 47.2 ksiin. 7178-T6 ys = 77.9 ksi

40

40

30

30

20

20

10

Kc = 39.2 ksiin. 2020-T6 ys = 76.6 ksi 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

10

Kc = 35.2 ksiin. 2020-T6 ys = 75.8 ksi 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Total crack length at onset of unstable crack growth, 2ac, in.

Fig. 7.8

Gross-section stress at onset of rapid fracture vs. crack lengthinfinitely wide panels, 0.063 in. sheet

92 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

90

90

Ic = Gross-section stress at onset of unstable crack growth under plane-strain conditions, Ic, ksi
80 80

KIc
2

70

70

K Ic ac + 22 ys where KIc = plain-strain stress-intensity factor, ksiin. ys = tensile yield strength, ksi
Transverse

60

Longitudinal

60

50

50

40

KIc = 29.3 ksiin. 7075-T6, T651 ys = 78.5 ksi KIc = 23 ksiin. 7178-T6, T651 ys = 83.7 ksi KIc = 17.9 ksiin. 2020-T6, T651 ys = 74.4 ksi

40

KIc = 24.9 ksiin. 7075-T6, T651 ys = 75.3 ksi K = 20.5 ksiin. 7178-T6, T651 Ic ys = 79.9 ksi KIc = 15.2 ksiin. 2020-T6, T651 ys = 78 ksi

30

30

20

20

10

10

0 0

Total crack length at onset of unstable crack growth under plane-strain conditions, 2ao, in.

Fig. 7.9

Gross-section stress at initiation of slow crack growth or rapid crack propagation under plane-strain conditions vs. crack lengthinfinitely wide panels

sc B

Kc pac Kc2 2s2 ys

(Eq 8)

The curves are cut off at the yield strength of the materials, since failure of the structure with flaws smaller than that at the cut-off point would be by general yielding, and the principles of fracture mechanics would not be applicable. Specifically, fracture toughness data, such as those in Tables 7.6 and 7.7 as well as those from more sophisticated tests developed in recent years, are used for the following purposes: Alloy selection a. By merit rating based on values of Kc and/or KIc b. By determining residual load-carrying capacity with due regard for initial size of the discontinuity, the rate of the fatigue-crack propagation, and the design life of the structure Design of new structures a. By establishing the design stress for a given component consistent with maximum expected crack length

Fracture Toughness / 93

b. By establishing limiting crack length for a component on the basis of a given operating stress c. By establishing inspection criteria (including thoroughness and frequency) consistent with the potential initial crack size and the expected rate of fatigue-crack propagation Evaluation of existing structures a. By estimating residual strength and tolerance for additional loading b. By estimating residual life consistent with observed crack length, rate of fatigue-crack propagation, and critical crack length

It is important to recognize that values of flaws or crack size, as referred to previously, must take into account any design discontinuities to which the real flaw or crack are adjacent or from which they grow. For example, a 316 in. rivet hole, with a 18 in. fatigue crack growing out of one side, constitutes a total flaw size or discontinuity 516 in. in length. Brief comment is given on the approach to three general design problems: Design for large cracks (2a greater than 2t) Design for small flaws or cracks (2a less than 2t) Design for part-through cracks

Internal residual stresses from production of the component are, of course, also a factor in such designs, and they must be considered over and above the analyses given subsequently. Design for Large Cracks (2a greater than t). In a typical situation, the designer of a structure in which unstable crack growth must be considered has a material, a tentative design stress, and an estimate of the width and thickness of the member. Before the designer can complete the fracture analysis, the maximum size of discontinuity that might exist in the structure after fabrication and inspection and the size to which that crack might grow during service before it is detected. With this information and curves of the type shown in Fig. 7.8 and 7.9, the designer can determine whether or not the previous choice of material and tentative design stress is satisfactory. These evaluations are made on the basis of the original design and for the most severe set of expected circumstances, that is, after development of fatigue cracks. The process might be as illustrated in the following example. A designer has selected 0.063 in. 7075-T6 sheet for an application that requires a design stress of 35 ksi (transverse). The inspection department ensures that even in areas hidden from easy view, a crack 1 in. or more in length would be detected, but one 0.75 in. long might not be. In this application, thorough inspections are to be made at intervals of Y hours. Reference to Fig. 7.8 indicates that unstable crack propagation in 7075T6 sheet stressed to 35 ksi in the transverse direction would not be expected until the crack length reached 1.8 in.; with a 1.0 in. crack, the stress

94 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

could safely be as high as 45 ksi. Therefore, the original design would appear to be safe from the aspect of unstable crack growth. On the other hand, the data available on fatigue crack propagation indicate that if a crack 0.75 in. long existed in the original structure, it would grow to 1.9 in. in length in less than Y hours, the time of the next inspection. If this takes place without reduction of the applied stress, catastrophic failure would be expected (Fig. 7.8). Hence, the time between inspections must be shortened, the stress must be lowered, or the material must be changed to one with greater fracture toughness. Design for Small Flaws or Cracks (2a less than 2t). Situations arise in which the designer can be certain of restricting the size of flaws or cracks to a length equal to or less than the thickness of the material, and may only wish to know if it is safe to base the design on the full yield strength. If the maximum anticipated flaw size is to the left of the point of cut-off in Fig. 7.8 or 7.9, or if the critical stress calculated by Eq 3 for the anticipated flaw size is greater than the yield strength, design on the basis of the yield strength is safe. A related approach is to restrict the use of a material to situations where it can sustain a stress equal to the yield strength in the presence of cracks equal in length to at least twice the thickness (2ac 2t), without developing rapid crack propagation (sometimes referred to as the = 2 criterion). This is another way of requiring that the use of a material be restricted to thicknesses less than one-half the crack size associated with the cut-off point in the c versus 2a curves; for example, for 7075-T6 in Fig. 7.10, the greatest thickness allowed would be one-half of 0.22 in., or 0.11 in. The basis of this criterion for crack length is the observation that a part-through crack developing from the inside surface of a pressure vessel has a nearly semicircular shape. Thus, the crack may be expected to be 2t long at the inside surface when it first reaches the outside surface, where it can be detected visually or by leakage. Thus, the requirement for tolerance of a 2t crack theoretically assures the possibility of visual or leakage detection of the crack before catastrophic fracture. Experience has shown that this criterion is often conservative (safe) for aluminum alloys. With this approach, it is useful to know the ac,2t fracture stresses for infinite panels, computed with the equation:
sc,2t B pt Kc Kc 2 2s2 ys

This equation can be developed from Eq 7 by setting 2a equal to 2t. When c,2t exceeds ys, it is safe to base the design on the full yield strength of the material.

Fracture Toughness / 95

Broken fracture-toughness specimen halves L

LT S

Stress relieved

Nonstress relieved

(a)

(b)

(c)

Illustrations of potential residual stresses in fracture toughness specimens. (a) Potential residual stress pattern. (b) Effect of significant residual stresses on fatigue crack front curvature. (c) Likely influence of residual stresses during testing of specimens

Fig. 7.10

Design for Part-Through Cracks. When part-through cracks are involved, the problem may be handled as follows: 1. The situation is first analyzed in terms of KIc with Fig. 7.9. The value of K required for compatibility with the anticipated length and design stress is either calculated with the equation or determined from the position of the point representing these values in Fig. 7.9. If the calculated value of K exceeds KIc for the material involved, or if the plotted point falls above the applicable line in Fig. 7.9, the part-through crack must be considered as being likely to grow rapidly through the member and to at least 2t. If the required value of K is less than KIc for the material, or if the plotted point falls below the applicable line in Fig. 7.9, no additional growth would be expected unless there was fatigue action or an unexpected increase in stress. 2. If the crack is likely to grow through the thickness, the new situation must then be examined in terms of Kc with Fig. 7.8. The new crack length (equal to 2t) and design stress are used to calculate a new required value of K for the through-the-thickness crack or to locate a point in Fig. 7.8. If the new value of K exceeds Kc, or the point falls on or above the line in Fig. 7.8, rapid crack propagation is now a probability, and corrective measures of the type described previously are called for. If the new value of K is appreciably less than Kc (or if the point falls below the line in Fig 7.8), rapid crack propagation is not an immediate possibility, although any growth of the crack by fatigue must still be considered, as in the previous example.

96 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

7.9 Discussions of Individual Alloys


Discussion of the relative performance of specific alloys and tempers, especially those shown to have excellent properties for use in fracture-critical components, are covered under alloy and metallurgical considerations in Chapter 11.

7.10 Understanding the Effect of Residual Stresses on Fracture Toughness Values


The potential role of residual stresses in complicating fracture toughness measurements and interpretation is sufficiently important that this Chapter closes by emphasizing the need to understand these effects. We are indebted to the fine work of Dr. R.J. Bucci and his associates at Alcoa Laboratories (Ref 49, 50) for developing this understanding in their efforts to interpret and deal with the variability of data observed, especially in plane-strain fracture toughness measurements from asymmetrical specimens taken from relatively thick and complex parts, such as forging or those machined from thick plate. Fig. 7.10(a) illustrates the residual stress state commonly found in L-T and T-L compact fracture toughness specimens following their machining from thick plate or forgings. Also illustrated (Fig. 7.10b) is one important result of such residual stresses: the excess curvature of the fatigue crack front following precracking of the specimen. The same residual stress pattern may also result in the equivalent of clamping forces holding the compact specimen arms closed (Fig. 10c), which in turn may result in an artificial elevation of the resultant KIc value when such a specimen is tested. The net result of this type of artifact is likely to be abnormally great scatter in test results from lot to lot and, therefore, somewhat ironically, lower design values because of the effect of the great scatter on the statistical analysis. Bucci and his associates have provided two approaches to minimizing the influence of residual stresses on fracture-toughness measurements: Minimize the residual stresses in the specimen prior to the KIc measurement by making the specimen thickness as small as possible while meeting other validity criteria, and by fatigue precracking at a fatigue-stress ratio of +0.7 rather than +0.1, as has historically been the standard. These practices will not only minimize the residual stresses but also have the benefit of providing straighter fatigue crack fronts in the specimens. Use a post-test correction method to estimate the fracture toughness, Kc or KIc, that would have been obtained had the test specimen been free of residual stress. The need for this correction is usually suggested by substantial curvature in the early part of the load-displacement curve. The details of these methods and appropriate supporting information are included in Ref 50 and are being incorporated in current ASTM standard methods for fracture-toughness testing (Ref 59).

Fracture Toughness / 97

Table 7.1(a) Results of fracture toughness tests of thin, center-cracked panels of aluminum alloy sheet and platelongitudinal (L-T) orientation
At pop-in Ultimate tensile Specimen strength width, (UTS), in. ksi Tensile yield strength Elongation (TYS), in 2 in., ksi % Gross stress (G), ksi At unstable crack growth Gross stress, (G), N / ksi ys(a)

Alloy and temper

Thickness, in.

Crack length, 2a, in.

Crack N / KIc, length, ys(a) ksi 2in. 2a, in.

Kc, ksi 2in.

2014-T6 2014-T651

0.063 0.250

2020-T6(d) 2020-T6 (Alclad)(d) 2020-T651 2024-T351 2024-T81

0.063 0.125 0.250 0.500 0.125

16 4 4 3 16 2 3 3 4 15 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 16 2 2 3 4 4 4 16 3 3 3 4 4 4 15 16 3 4 16 2 3 3 3 4

72.8 69.7 67.8 70.3 81.4 80.2 73.8 81.6 81.6 ... 71.3 71.0 69.6 71.8 73.0 71.6 71.4 71.4 77.2 77.2 72.7 77.0 69.3 ... 69.4 68.0 82.6 82.8 80.7 84.7 83.0 85.0 83.9 ... 72.4 81.1 80.2 88.6 89.4 89.4 89.6 90.0 88.7

67.6 64.3 62.2 65.0 77.2 75.9 68.6 77.4 77.4 ... 65.2 64.9 62.2 65.2 66.4 65.0 66.0 65.8 72.9 72.9 68.0 72.5 57.6 57.6 56.0 55.6 75.7 77.6 73.2 78.0 77.3 78.8 78.2 ... 63.4 75.6 74.7 80.5 82.4 82.4 83.5 83.6 84.3

11.2 11.6 11.0 11.0 8.0 7.8 8.0 8.5 8.5 ... 9.0 9.0 8.1 10.0 8.8 12.3 13.3 13.3 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.2 10.5 ... 10.8 11.0 10.5 11.2 11.5 11.0 14.5 13.5 13.0 ... 11.0 11.5 11.0 11.5 11.5 11.5 12.6 12.2 13.0

... 1.40 1.40 1.16 ... ... 1.20 1.18 1.48 ... 1.08 1.05 1.08 1.41 1.44 1.09 1.06 1.10 ... ... ... ... 1.14 1.50 1.43 1.44 ... ... 1.06 1.15 1.45 1.44 1.39 ... ... ... 1.20 ... ... ... 1.07 1.09 1.42

... 17.9 14.9 18.0 ... ... 11.6 12.4 10.8 ... 17.6 19.7 19.4 16.3 16.2 18.6 18.2 18.2 ... ... ... ... 19.2 17.4 18.1 16.8 ... ... 18.8 19.6 15.8 18.8 20.8 ... ... ... 17.4 ... ... ... 16.7 17.6 13.5

... 0.43 0.37 0.45 ... ... 0.28 0.26 0.22 ... 0.42 0.47 0.48 0.39 0.38 0.40 0.39 0.40 ... ... ... ... 0.54 0.48 0.50 0.47 ... ... 0.40 0.41 0.32 0.37 0.40 ... ... ... 0.33 ... ... ... 0.31 0.33 0.25

... 28.2 23.5 27.2 ... ... 17.2 18.2 17.6 ... 24.4 27.0 26.7 25.8 26.0 26.0 25.0 25.5 ... ... ... ... 27.9 28.8 29.0 27.0 ... ... 25.8 27.9 25.4 30.1 32.8 ... ... ... 25.4 ... ... ... 22.8 24,. 21.5

(b) 2.28 2.31 1.76 (b) 0.85 1.51 1.45 1.66 ... 1.68 1.64 1.74 2.28 2.21 1.61 1.50 1.52 0.86 (b) 0.84 0.85 1.94 2.21 2.57 2.47 (b) 1.44 1.56 1.46 2.11 1.98 1.96 ... (b) 1.48 1.63 (b) 0.81 1.18 1.36 1.37 2.29

(b) 32.0 32.0 30.4 (b) 30.3 21.4 14.8 12.7 ... 33.8 33.4 33.2 30.0 31.3 29.0 28.2 29.4 35.2 (b) 37.4 36.8 32.0 33.2 31.0 30.1 (b) 40.8 37.4 33.8 26.2 33.8 32.3 ... (b) 40.3 26.6 (b) 35.7 31.5 27.6 31.1 21.4

(b) 1.16 1.22 1.14 (b) 0.70 0.63

65.0 (c) (c) (c) 37.4 41.0 37.1

2024-T351

0.250 1.375

2024-T86

0.063

2219-T87

0.250

7075-T6

0.063 0.125

7075-T651

0.250

7079-T6(d) 7079-T651(d) 7178-T6

0.500 0.063 0.125 0.250 0.063

7178-T651

0.125 0.125 0.250

0.37 25.0 0.28 22.2 ... ... 1.16 (e) 1.12 (e) 1.28 (e) 1.08 (e) 1.05 (e) 0.96 (e) 0.88 (e) 0.90 (e) 0.85 52.1(c) (b) 50.9 0.89 53.5(c) 0.90 55.0(c) 1.35 (e) 1.36 (e) 1.55 (e) 1.44 (e) (b) 64.4 1.00 67.4(c) 1.06 (e) 0.84 57.9 0.72 54.8 0.85 67.0(c) 0.81 65.6 ... ... (b) 103.0 1.01 68.5 0.78 48.8 (b) 47.7 0.79 49.0 0.59 44.0 0.62 44.7 0.69 50.5 0.25 48.1

Specimens per Fig. A1.9. Each line of data represents the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of one lot of material. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) N /ys is ratio of net-section stress at instability to tensile yield strength. (b) Average of five tests with different center-crack lengths. (c) Conditions close to general yielding, but value considered indicative. (d) Obsolete alloy. (e) General yielding indicated by ratio N /ys ; no value calculated

98 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 7.1(b) Results of fracture toughness tests of thin, center-cracked panels of aluminum alloy sheet and platetransverse (T-L) orientation
At pop-in Ultimate tensile Specimen strength width, (TYS), in. ksi Tensile yield strength Elongation (TYS), in 2 in., ksi % Gross stress (G), ksi At unstable crack growth

Alloy and temper

Thickness, in.

Crack length, 2a, in.

Gross Crack stress, N / KIc, length, (G), ksi ys(a) ksi 2in. 2a, in.

N / ys(a)

Kc, ksi 2in.

2014-T6 2014-T651

0.063 0.250

2020-T6(c) 2020-T6 (Alclad)(c) 2020-T651 2024-T351 2024-T81

0.063 0.125 0.250 0.500 0.125

16 4 4 3 16 2 3 3 4 15 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 2 16 2 2 3 4 4 4 16 3 3 3 4 4 4 15 16 3 4 16 2 3 3 3 4

72.6 70.0 68.4 69.6 81.8 81.1 73.5 83.1 83.1 68.7 72.5 71.7 70.5 72.0 72.4 71.1 70.2 71.2 75.8 75.8 72.4 76.4 70.2 ... 69.5 69.0 82.2 82.8 82.7 86.9 84.8 85.8 84.0 87.0 73.0 ... 81.0 88.5 88.0 ... 89.8 91.4 90.1

65.6 62.2 60.7 62.8 75.8 75.8 68.4 78.0 78.0 48.6 66.4 66.0 64.1 66.2 65.8 65.5 64.4 65.4 71.3 71.3 67.6 71.6 57.2 57.2 55.9 55.5 72.9 74.1 72.9 77.0 74.2 75.4 72.0 77.2 62.7 73.5 72.6 78.0 77.8 78.8 77.4 79.2 80.4

9.8 10.2 10.0 10.5 7.0 7.5 6.8 6.0 6.0 19.5 8.0 8.2 7.4 8.0 7.5 12.0 10.7 9.3 6.2 6.2 6.0 6.0 10.5 ... 10.0 10.7 10.5 11.5 11.0 10.5 13.0 13.2 13.0 12.2 11.0 11.3 11.5 11.2 11.2 ... 12.8 12.5 12.5

... 1.41 1.42 1.14 ... ... 1.11 1.12 ... 4.98 1.05 1.07 1.06 1.44 1.42 1.11 1.12 1.00 ... ... ... ... 1.14 1.42 1.46 1.44 ... ... 1.11 1.11 1.28 1.44 1.46 ... ... ... 1.18 ... ... ... 1.06 1.09 1.44

... 15.1 14.3 15.0 ... ... 11.9 10.7 ... 15.0 17.6 17.0 17.8 13.0 15.7 15.6 15.4 16.9 ... ... ... ... 19.4 15.2 16.3 16.7 ... ... 18.8 16.1 16.2 15.1 16.9 ... ... ... 14.8 ... ... ... 14.5 15.1 11.5

... 0.37 0.36 0.39 ... ... 0.28 0.22 ... 0.47 0.41 0.40 0.43 0.31 0.37 0.39 0.39 0.41 ... ... ... ... 0.53 0.42 0.46 0.47 ... ... 0.41 0.34 0.38 0.31 0.37 ... ... ... 0.33 ... ... ... 0.30 0.30 0.22

... 24.5 22.7 27.2 ... ... 16.6 15.2 ... 46.4 24.2 23.4 24.7 20.7 25.0 22.1 21.8 23.0 ... ... ... ... 272.0 244.0 265.0 26.8T ... ... 26.6 23.4 24.8 24.2 27.3 ... ... ... 21.7 ... ... ... 21.0 22.0 18.4

(b) 2.14 2.11 1.61 (b) 0.87 1.24 1.14 1.32 8.25 1.49 1.54 1.60 1.94 1.94 1.54 1.47 1.34 0.88 (b) 0.86 0.87 1.71 2.17 2.31 2.24 (b) 1.24 1.37 1.48 1.67 2.05 2.18 6.75 (b) 1.42 1.53 (b) 0.80 1.21 1.36 1.34 2.06

(b) 25.9 26.2 24.3 (b) 26.5 15.5 10.7 13.5 23.7 30.6 30 29.7 23.3 27 24.8 25.5 26.9 31.8 (b) 32.7 33.3 31.8 29 26.6 27.8 (b) 36.2 32.5 27 22.4 25.7 25.6 23.1 (b) 37 20.8 (b) 36.5 28.6 23.5 23.9 15.2

(b) 0.90 0.91 0.84 (b) 0.62 0.41 0.22 0.26 1.10 0.92 0.93 0.99 0.68 0.80 0.78 0.78 0.74 0.80 (b) 0.79 0.82 1.28 1.11 1.13 1.12 (b) 0.83 0.82 0.69 0.68 0.70 0.78 0.33 (b) 0.94 0.58 (b) 0.77 0.63 0.55 0.55 0.39

57.8 64.3(c) 54.7(c) 65.0(c) 34.2 36.1 24.7 15.3 20.4 (d) 50.0(c) 53.1(c) 54.2(c) 45.5 52.6 44.6 42.5 42.9 45.5 46.4 46.0 46.3 (d) (d) (d) (d) 62.3 58.2 52.7 46.3 40.5 52.4 54.9 33.4 82.6 60.5(d) 34.3 46.2 48.2 43.6 39.2 38.1 27.5

2024-T351

0.250 1.375

2024-T86

0.063

2219-T87

0.250

7075-T6

0.063 0.125

7075-T651

0.250

7079-T6(c) 7079-T651(c) 7178-T6

0.500 0.063 0.125 0.250 0.063

7178-T651

0.125 0.125 0.250

Specimens per Fig. A1.9. Each line of data represents the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of one lot of material. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) N/ys is ratio of net-section stress at instability to tensile yield strength. (b) Average of five tests with different center-crack lengths. (c) Obsolete alloy. (d) Conditions close to general yielding, but value considered indicative

Fracture Toughness / 99

Table 7.2(a) Results of fracture toughness tests of 1 20 in. center slotted panels of aluminum alloy sheet and plate center cracked specimenslongitudinal (L-T) orientation
At pop-in Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Gross stress (G), ksi At unstable crack growth Gross Net stress, Stress at (G), fracture N / Kc, ksi N, ksi ys(a) ksi 2in.

Alloy and temper

Thickness, in.

Lot

Elongation in 2 in., %

N / ys(a)

KIc, ksi 2in.

Crack length, 2a, in.

2020-T651 (b)

1.375

2024-T351 2024-T851

1.375 1.375

2219-T851

1.375

7001-T75 (b)

1.375

7005-T6351 7075-T651

1.375 1.375

7075-T7351 7079-T651 (b)

1.375 1.375

7178-T7651

1.375

A B C A A B C A B C A B C A A B C A C A B C A

83.2 81.6 81.9 72.7 72.0 70.7 72.0 66.8 66.4 66.6 81.8 80.6 80.6 54.2 83.9 86.3 86.0 76.7 70.8 84.0 82.8 82.2 80.2

77.5 76.1 76.3 58.2 65.8 65.6 66.1 51.0 50.6 52.0 72.2 70.6 70.6 47.2 76.6 80.3 78.5 66.3 59.1 77.6 76.0 75.2 71.2

6.0 5.8 6.0 13.7 7.8 8.5 8.0 10.2 10.2 11.0 9.5 9.5 9.5 17.0 15.5 14.2 15.2 12.0 12.5 11.5 11.0 11.2 10.2

5.8 6.1 6.1 13.7 7.6 7.2 7.6 11.0 12.0 12.4 6.9 6.7 7.0 14.4 8.6 8.8 8.9 10.2 10.8 9.2 8.4 7.7 8.4

0.07 0.08 0.08 0.24 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.22 0.24 0.24 0.10 0.09 0.10 0.31 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.15 0.18 0.12 0.11 0.10 0.12

20.5 21.3 21.4 48.2 26.5 26.6 25.3 42.7 44.3 39.3 24.2 23.3 24.5 51.1 30.2 30.9 31.1 35.8 38.2 32.1 30.0 30.2 29.5

8.32 9.15 8.20 10.00 9.40 9.77 9.24 9.80 10.20 10.90 8.40 8.46 8.10 12.00 10.80 11.00 10.60 9.54 10.00 10.14 10.22 9.68 8.60

6.8 7.4 7.5 23.0 10.8 11.4 10.0 16.0 19.2 18.4 8.8 9.3 8.1 30.2 17.3 13.6 13.8 19.8 23.6 15.6 12.6 12.9 11.8

11.7 13.7 12.8 46.0 20.4 22.2 18.7 31.6 29.6 28.4 15.1 16.1 13.6 75.5 37.5 30.4 29.5 37.9 47.1 31.4 25.8 25.1 21.0

0.15 26.6 0.18 31.0 0.17 29.3 0.79 102.7(c) 0.31 46.0 0.34 50.0 0.24 42.4 0.62 70.9(c) 0.78 89.9(c) 0.80 86.6(c) 0.21 34.6 0.22 36.7 0.20 31.6 1.60 (d) 0.49 82.3 0.38 65.5 0.38 64.7 0.57 85.2 0.80 105.4 0.41 69.8 0.34 57.4 0.34 56.4 0.29 47.1

Each line of data represents the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of one lot of material. Specimens per Fig. A1.9(b), 1 in. thick, with 7.00 in. long, machinedsharp center slots, with slot-tip radii <0.0005 in. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) G/ys is ratio of gross-section stress at pop-in to tensile yield strength and N/ys is the ratio of net-section stress at fracture instability to tensile yield strength. (b) Obsolete alloy. (c) Conditions close to general yielding, but value considered indicative. (d) Conditions of general yielding; no value calculated

Table 7.2(b) Results of fracture toughness tests of 1 20 in. center-slotted panels of aluminum alloy sheet and plate center cracked specimenstransverse (L-T) orientation
At pop-in Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Gross stress (G), ksi At unstable crack growth Gross Net stress, Stress at (G), fracture N ys ksi N, ksi (a)

Alloy and temper

Thickness, in.

Lot

Elongation in 2 in., %

G / ys(a)

KIc, ksi 2in.

Crack length, 2a, in.

Kc, ksi 2in.

2020-T651 (b)

1.375

2024-T351 2024-T851

1.375 1.375

2219-T851

1.375

7001-T75 (b)

1.375

7005-T6351 7075-T651

1.375 1.375

7075-T7351 7079-T651 (b)

1.375 1.375

7178-T7651

1.375

A B C A A B C A B C A B C A A B C A C A B C A

82.4 82.2 82.2 72.4 71.1 70.2 71.2 66.0 65.6 65.8 80.8 79.9 80.5 53.3 82.9 85.6 86.6 74.9 70.1 83.1 82.5 82.8 79.8

78.4 77.5 77.4 52.0 65.5 64.4 65.4 50.8 51.2 49.3 71.3 69.6 70.6 46.5 73.6 77.4 76.0 64.6 58.5 74.2 72.8 72.6 70.5

1.8 2.6 2.4 16.5 12.0 10.7 9.3 12.0 10.7 9.3 8.8 9.0 8.8 16.2 16.3 14.0 16.5 10.5 11.0 11.2 11.2 11.2 10.3

5.2 5.4 5.6 11.8 6.3 6.4 6.0 10.6 11.2 9.8 6.5 6.4 6.1 13.7 7.8 7.5 7.9 8.8 9.8 7.8 7.6 7.7 6.8

0.07 0.07 0.07 0.23 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.21 0.22 0.20 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.29 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.14 0.17 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.10

19.2 18.5 19.5 41.7 21.3 23.0 22.3 40.0 33.1 38.2 22.8 22.6 21.3 48.4 27.1 26.1 27.8 30.8 34.4 27.4 26.7 27.0 23.9

7.00 7.00 7.00 10.10 9.10 9.13 8.84 9.88 9.91 9.72 7.71 7.90 8.04 12.00 8.66 8.13 8.86 8.82 8.71 9.03 9.30 9.16 8.12

5.2 5.4 5.6 19.9 8.1 7.4 7.9 13.3 14.8 14.9 6.6 7.2 6.4 28.5 9.0 8.0 8.4 11.0 14.4 9.0 8.4 8.6 8.3

8.0 8.3 8.6 40.4 15.1 13.4 14.0 26.0 29.6 29.3 10.2 11.0 10.7 71.1 15.8 13.7 15.2 19.5 26.4 16.5 15.8 15.9 12.7

0.10 0.11 0.11 0.77 0.23 0.20 0.22 0.52 0.57 0.59 0.15 0.17 0.15 1.53 0.22 0.22 0.20 0.31 0.48 0.23 0.22 0.22 0.20

19.2 18.9 19.6 89.7 34.2 32.2 30.5 58.5 65.6 65.2 24.7 27.2 24.5 (c) 36.2 30.9 34.4 44.6 60.4 37.2 35.7 36.2 31.9

Each line of data represents the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of one lot of material. Specimens per Fig. A1.9(b), 1-in. thick, with 7.00-in. long, machined-sharp center slots, with slot-tip radii <0.0005 in. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) G/ys is ratio of gross-section stress at pop-in to tensile yield strength, and N/ys is the ratio of net-section stress at fracture instability to tensile yield strength. (b) Obsolete. (c) Conditions of general yielding; no value calculated

100 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 7.3(a) Results of fracture toughness tests of aluminum alloy sheet and plate, single-edge-cracked specimenslongitudinal (L-T) orientation
At instability Alloy and temper Thickness, in. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in. or 4D, % Specimen width, in. Crack length, 2a, in. Critical net stress, , ksi
N

/ (a)
N ys

KIc, ksi 2in.

2014-T651 2020-T651(c) 2024-T851

7039-T63 7039-T6351 7039-T6 7075-T651 7079-T651(c) X7106-T6351(c) X7139-T6351(c)

7178-T651

0.250 0.500 0.250 0.250 0.250 1.375 0.500 1.000 1.000 0.250 0.250 1.000 0.500 0.750 1.000 0.250 0.625

69.7 69.1 81.6 71.8 73.0 71.4 71.1 65.2 ... 83.9 80.2 ... 70.4 69.9 67.1 88.7 ...

64.3 64.6 77.4 65.2 66.4 65.8 61.8 56.2 ... 78.2 74.7 ... 62.5 61.7 57.8 84.3 ...

11.6 11.7 8.5 10.0 8.8 13.3 14.0 14.0 ... 13.0 11.0 ... 15.0 13.0 14.2 13.0 ...

1.50 2.25 1.50 1.50 1.50 3.00 3.00 3.00 ... 1.50 1.50 ... 3.00 3.00 3.00 1.50 ...

0.56 0.67 0.58 0.57 0.57 1.00 0.98 0.94 ... 0.56 0.56 ... 0.94 0.98 1.01 0.25 ...

55.8 34.0 36.0 41.6 47.6 29.0 48.2 47.0 ... 51.9 43.1 ... 51.3 50.8 42.2 45.6 ...

0.86 0.53 0.46 0.64 0.72 0.44 0.78 0.83 ... 0.66 0.58 ... 0.82 0.82 0.82 0.54 ...

35.8(b) 26.8 22.2 26.0 30.4 26.2 44.6(b) 44.0(b) ... 32.7 27.0 ... 48.0(b) 47.2(b) 44.0(b) 26.6 ...

Specimens per Fig. A1.10. Each line of data represents the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of one lot of material. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) N/ys is ratio of net-section stress at instability to tensile yield strength. (b) Not valid by present criteria; excess deviation from linearity prior to instability. (c) Obsolete alloy

Table 7.3(b) Results of fracture toughness tests of aluminum alloy sheet and plate, single-edge-cracked specimenstransverse (T-L) orientation
At instability Alloy and temper Thickness, in. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in. or 4D, % Specimen width, in. Crack length, 2a, in. Critical net stress, ( ), ksi
N

/ (a)
N ys

, ksi 2in.
Ic

2014-T651 2020-T651(c) 2024-T851

7039-T63 7039-T6351 7039-T6 7075-T651 7079-T651(c) X7106-T6351(c) X7139-T6351(c)

7178-T651

0.250 0.500 0.250 0.250 0.250 1.375 0.500 1.000 1.000 0.250 0.250 1.000 0.500 0.750 1.000 0.250 0.625

... 69.4 ... 72.0 72.4 70.2 71.0 64.0 73.6 84.0 81.0 64.5 68.6 69.0 66.6 ... 89.1

... 62.6 ... 66.2 65.8 64.8 62.8 55.2 67.0 72.0 72.6 56.2 60.3 60.4 57.0 ... 82.9

... 10.3 ... 8.0 7.5 10.7 13.5 13.0 12.6 13.0 11.5 14.2 14.0 12.2 13.0 ... 12.8

... 2.25 ... 1.50 1.50 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 1.50 1.50 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 ... 3.00

... 0.71 ... 0.81 0.55 1.00 0.98 1.00 1.03 0.56 0.55 1.00 1.01 0.96 1.00 ... 1.06

... 31.4 ... 40.3 45.2 24.4 40.5 39.0 33.2 48.8 39.4 42.8 44.5 44.0 38.3 ... 22.4

... 0.50 ... 0.61 0.70 0.38 0.64 0.71 0.50 0.68 0.54 0.76 0.74 0.73 0.68 ... 0.27

... 24.6 ... 19.5 28.9 21.9 37.0(b) 35.9(b) 30.5(b) 30.9 24.8 39.1(b) 40.8(b) 40.6(b) 35.1(b) ... 19.9

Specimens per Fig. A1.10. Each line of data represents the average of duplicate or triplicate tests of one lot of material. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. (a) N/ys is ratio of net-section stress at instability to tensile yield strength. (b) Not valid by present criteria; excess deviation from linearity prior to instability. (c) Obsolete alloy

Table 7.4 Results of fracture toughness tests of aluminum alloy plate and of welds in plate-notched bend (NB) and compact tension (CT) specimens
Alloy and temper Filler alloy Thickness, in. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in. or 4D, % Type of specimen Specimen orientation Fig. A1.2 Specimen width W, in. Initial crack Maximum length, nominal net 2a, in. stress, ksi Specimen strength ratio, Rsb KQ, or Rsc(a) ksi 2in. Kmax, ksi 2in. Valid KIc, ksi 2in.

Unwelded plate 2014-T651 2024-T651 5083-O 5083-O None None None None 1.000 1.375 7.000 7.700 72.0 70.8 45.0 38.0 ... 45.0 38.0 35.6 48.4 48.5 44.7 43.9 42.0 39.3 45.1 45.1 46.4 45.8 59.6 58.5 56.4 86.1 68.2 82.5 65.8 64.4 20.8 17.5 ... 19.7 17.5 16.8 35.9 34.0 29.6 32.3 28.8 26.3 41.9 41.9 41.5 39.6 53.0 51.5 47.5 77.7 56.8 72.8 9.2 7.2 18.8 24.0 ... 24.2 24.0 10.0 15.0 15.0 9.0 17.0 18.0 12.0 15.0 15.0 12.5 10.0 12.0 14.0 7.0 10.8 12.0 11.2 NB NB NB NB NB CT NB NB CT NB NB CT NB NB NB CT NB NB CT NB NB NB T-L T-L T-S T-L T-S L-S T-S S-L L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L S-L L-T L-T T-L S-L L-T T-L S-L T-L T-L T-L 1.00 3.00 3.00 7.70 7.70 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 3.00 6.00 6.00 3.00 3.00 6.00 6.00 3.00 6.00 6.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 0.99 1.51 3.71 4.12 4.20 3.14 3.26 3.21 3.00 3.00 1.50 3.00 3.00 1.50 1.48 3.00 3.00 1.50 3.00 3.00 1.50 1.54 1.53 1.64 ... ... 27.0 22.7 ... ... ... ... 46.6 38.7 29.0 51.6 44.3 33.1 ... 34.7 29 27.7 48.7 40.6 36.1 ... ... ... ... ... 1.30 1.30 ... ... ... ... 1.30 1.14 0.98 1.60 1.54 1.26 ... 0.83 0.70 0.70 0.92 0.79 0.76 ... ... ... 21,200 20,300 ... ... ... ... ... ... 32,200 32,300 21,700 30,100 34,500 23,300 26,500 26,200 26,900 21,300 46,700 40,000 27,600 46,700 46,700 46,700 ... ... 53,300 44,300 48,000 48,600 41,200 36,200 39,100 39,100 23,300 37,800 45,300 25,200 ... 26,200 31,500 21,800 48,400 42,300 28,800 ... ... ... Yes Yes No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) Yes No(b) No(b) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

5083-H321 5086-H32 6061-T6 6061-T6 7005-T6351 7075-T651 7075-T7351 7079-T651 Welded plate 5083-O 5083-O

None None None None None None None None

3.000 3.000 1.500 3.000 3.000 1.375 1.375 1.375

5183 5183 5183 5183

5083-H321 6061-T6

7005-T6351

5183 5356 5556 4043AW 4043 HTAW 5356AW 5356 HTAW 5039AW 5039 HTAW 5356AW 5356 HTAW

7.000 7.000 7.700 7.700 7.700 7.700 7.700 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000 3.000

43.7 38.4 35.8 43.8 41.1 39.9 43.2 40.9 42.1 30.5 37.8 34.8 33.7 46.4 46.5 40.2 38.4

25.0 22.8 22.5 24.5 24.4 19.7 24.0 24.0 24.0 15.0 35.0 20.0 20.0 32.0 35.0 30.0 30.0

16.2 12.7 6.5 23.5 15.5 14.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

NB NB NB NB CT CT CT NB NB NB NB NB NB NB NB NB NB NB

CNT FNT FNT FNT CPT CTP FNT CTL CTL CTL CTL CTL CTL CTL CTL CTL CTL CTL

7.00 7.00 7.70 7.70 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00

3.50 3.48 3.64 3.77 3.55 2.92 3.04 2.51 2.53 2.65 2.72 3.60 2.75 3.58 3.05 3.35 2.77 3.73

... ... ... ... ... ... ... 37.2 36.2 42.9 28.3 31.5 42.0 30.0 45.1 31.5 43.5 54.0

... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.55 1.51 1.79 1.89 0.90 2.10 1.50 1.41 0.90 1.45 1.80

... ... ... ... ... ... ... 27,800 24,300 31,300 19,300 23,000 26,500 22,000 28,200 29,200 29,900 21,800

46,600 50,300 49,200 49,800 58,000 35,800 22,200 43,200 41,600 48,800 31,800 30,500 46,600 29,400 48,800 32,500 48,700 51,700

No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) No(b) 29,200 No(b) No(b)

Fracture Toughness / 101

Specimens per Fig. A1.11 (NB) and A1.12 (CT); each line of data represents the average of four tests of one lot of material. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. KQ = candidate value of KIc. (a) Rsb or Rsc = n/ys = ratio of maximum net-section stress to tensile yield strength. (b) Not valid by present criteria; excessive plasticity and/or insufficient thickness for plane-strain conditions

102 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 7.5 Representative summary of plane-strain fracture toughness test data for 7475-T7351 plate
Typical plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc Alloy and temper L-T, ksi 2in. T-L, ksi 2in. S-T, ksi 2in.

Average value Actual minimum value Number of tests Standard deviation Skewness value A value, normal distribution A value, using skewness(a) B value, normal distribution B value, using skewness(a)

49.2 39.5 137.0 4.5 +0.2 37.4 38.1 42.5 42.6

40.9 34.9 81.0 3.9 +0.8 30.2 32.9 34.8 35.3

32.4 28.0 24.0 1.4 0.4 27.9 27.5 29.8 30.3

From Aluminum Industry Database, ALFRAC. All tests with compact tension specimens per ASTM Standard E399 (of type in Fig. A1.12a). All data included from valid tests per ASTM Standard E 399. (a) Based upon Persons Type III function

Table 7.6 Published typical KIc and Kc values for aluminum alloys
Typical plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc Alloy and temper Product form L-T, ksi 2in. (MPa 2m) T-L, ksi 2in. (MPa 2m) S-T, ksi 2in. (MPa 2m) Reference

2090-T81 2014-T651 2024-T351 2024-T851 2024-T852 2124-T851 2219-T851 2219-T87 2219-T852 2419-T851 6013-T651 6061-T651 7050-T73651,T7451 7050-T7651 7050-T74,T7452 7050-T73652,T7452 7050-T73510,T73511 7050-T76510,T76511 7055-T7751 7055-T7751X 7150-T651 7150-T7751 7150-T6510,T6511 7149-T73 7075-T651

Plate Plate Plate Plate Hand forging Plate Plate Plate Hand forging Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Die forging Hand forging Extrusion Extrusion Plate Extrusion Plate Plate Extrusion Die forging Plate

35 (38) 22 (24) 33 (36) 22 (24) 26 (29) 29 (32) 35 (39) 25 (27) 39 (43) 39 (43) 38 (42) 35 (39) 32 (35) 31 (34) 33 (36) 33 (36) 41 (45) 37 (41) 26 (29) 30 (33) 27 (30) 27 (30) 29 (32) 31 (34) 26 (29) (continued)

... 20 (22) 30 (33) 21 (23) 19 (21) 23 (25) 33 (36) 22 (24) 27 (30) 35 (38) ... ... 27 (30) 28 (31) 23 (25) 21 (23) 29 (32) 26 (29) 24 (26) 25 (27) 24 (26) 24 (26) 23 (25) 22 (24) 23 (25)

... 17 (19) 24 (26) 16 (18) 16 (18) 22 (24) 23 (25) ... 25 (27) 27 (30) ... ... 26 (29) 24 (26) 23 (25) 20 (22) 24 (26) 22 (24) ... ...

... 22 (24) 18 (20)

53 2 2 2 2 2 2, 53 53 53 53 53 53 2 53 2 2 2 2 53 53 53 53 53 2 2, 53

Fracture Toughness / 103

Table 7.6 (continued)


Typical plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc Alloy and temper Product form L-T, ksi 2in. (MPa 2m) T-L, ksi 2in. (MPa 2m) S-T, ksi 2in. (MPa 2m) Reference

7075-T7351 7075-T7651 7075-T7352 7075-T73,T7351 7075-T6510,T6511 7075-T73510,T76511 7175-T736,T73651,T74,T7451 7175-T736,T73652,T74,T7452 7175-T73510,T73511 7475-T651 7475-T7351 7475-T7651

Plate Plate Die forging Hand forging Extrusion Extrusion Die forging Hand forging Extrusion Plate Plate Plate

29 (32) 27 (30) 29 (32) 34 (37) 28 (31) 32 (35) 30 (33) 34 (37) 36 (400 39 (43) 50 (55) 39 (43)

26 (290) 22 (24) 27 (30) 26 (29) 24 (26) 26 (29) 26 (29) 27 (30) 31 (34) 34 (37) 41 (45) 35 (39)

19 (21) 18 (20) 26 (29) 21 (23) 19 (21) 20 (22) 26 (29) 24 (26) ... 29 (32) 33 (36) 28 (31)

2 2, 53 2 2 2 2 2 2, 53 53 2 2 2

Typical plane-stress fracture toughness, Kc Alloy and temper Product form L-T, ksi 2in. (MPa 2m) T-L, ksi 2in. (MPa 2m) S-T, ksi 2in. (MPa 2m) Reference

2090-T83 2090-T84 2024-T3 Alclad 2024-T351 Alclad 2524-T351 6013-T6 6061-T6 7055-T7751 7150-T651 7170-T77511

Sheet Sheet Sheet Sheet Sheet Sheet Sheet Plate Plate Extrusion

40 (44) 65 (71) ... ... 134 (147) 73 (80) 85 (93) 95 (104) 95 (104)

... ... 128 (141) 128 (140) 158 (175) 133 (146) 70 (77) 42 (46) 60 (66) 60 (66)

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

53 53 53 56 56 53 53 53 53 53

Table 7.7 Published minimum values of plane-strain fracture toughness for aluminum alloys
Minimum planestrain fracture toughness, KIc Alloy and temper Product form Thickness, in. L-T, T-L, S-L, ksi 2in. ksi 2in. ksi 2in. Reference Thickness, in. L-T, T-L, S-L, MPa 2m MPa 2m MPa 2m Reference

2014T651 2014T652 2024T351 2024T851 2124T8151

Plate Hand forging Plate Plate Plate

2124T851 2219T851 7149T73511 7050T7451

Plate Plate Extrusion Plate

7050T7651

Plate

>0.499 >0.499 >0.999 >0.499 1.5002.000 2.0014.000 4.0016.000 1.5006.000 >0.999 Up through 5.000 1.0002.000 2.0013.000 3.0014.000 4.0015.000 5.0016.000 1.0002.000 2.0013.000

19 24 27 15 26 26 25 24 33 26 29 27 26 25 24 26 24

18 18 ... ... 23 22 21 20 29 19 25 24 23 22 22 24 23

... ... ... ... 13 20 21 18 22 19 ... 21 21 21 21 ... 20

52(a) 52(a) 52(a) 52(a) 13 13 13 12(b) 52(a) 13 12(b) 12(b) 12(b) 12(b) 12(b) 12(b) 12(b)

>12.5 >12.5 >25 >12.5 >40.050.0 >50.0100.0 >100.0160.0 >35.0155.0 >25 >19.0 >25.050.0 >50.080.0 >80.0100.0 >100.0130.0 >130.0150.0 >25.050.0 >50.080.0

19 24 27 15 29 29 27 26 33 29 32 30 28 27 26 28 26

18 18 ... ... 25 24 23 22 29 21 27 26 25 24 24 26 25

... ... ... ... 21 22 23 20 22 21 ... 23 23 23 23 ... 22

(c) (c) (c) (c) 13 13 13 12(b) (c) 13 12(b) 12(b) 12(b) 12(b) 12(b) 12(b) 12(b)

(continued)
(a) For those alloys for which near 100 lots or more were analyzed. Note: MIL-HDBK-5 values are not guaranteed values. (b) Values from Ref 12 are specification limits. (c) Calculated using standard metric conversion from standard values.

104 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 7.7 (continued)


Minimum planestrain fracture toughness, KIc Alloy and temper Product form Thickness, in. L-T, ksi T-L, ksi S-L, ksi 2in. 2in. 2in. Reference Thickness, in. L-T, T-L, S-L, MPa 2m MPa 2m MPa 2m Reference

7050T7452 7050T76510, T76511 7150T6151 7150T651 7150T7751 7150-T61510, T61511 7075T651 7075T7651 7475T651 7475T7351 7475T7651

Die forging Extrusion

Plate Plate Plate Extrusion Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate

0.7503.500 3.5017.000 Up through 5.000, 32 in.2 max 0.7501.500 0.7501.500 ~1.000 0.7501.500 >0.499 >0.499 0.2501.000 1.2501.500 1.2502.499 2.5994.000 0.2501.000 1.2501.500

27 25 28

19 19 ...

19 19 ...

13 13 13

>19.090.0 >90.0160.0 Up to 120.0 20,000 mm2 >20.040.0 >20.040.0 25.0 >20.040.0 >12.5 >12.5 0.2501.000 >30.035.9 >30.065.0 >65.0100.0 >25.030.0 >30.035.0

30 27 31

21 21 ...

21 21 ...

13 13 13

22 22 22 21 26 29 30 30 40 40 33 33

... ... ... ... 22 23 28 28 33 33 30 30

... ... ... ... 20 20 ... ... ... 25 ... ...

13 13 53 13 52(a) 52(a) 13 12(b) 12(b) 12(b) 13 12(b)

24 24 24 23 28 32 33 33 44 44 36 36

... ... ... ... 24 25 31 31 36 36 33 33

... ... ... ... 22 22 ... ... ... 27 ... ...

13 13 (c) 13 (c) (c) 13 12(b) 12(b) 12(b) 13 12(b)

(a) For those alloys for which near 100 lots or more were analyzed. Note: MIL-HDBK-5 values are not guaranteed values. (b) Values from Ref 12 are specification limits. (c) Calculated using standard metric conversion from standard values.

Table 7.8 Published specified minimum values of plane-stress fracture toughness, Kc, for aluminum alloys
Plane stress fracture toughness, Kc Alloy and temper Product form Thickness, in. L-T, ksi 2in. T-L, ksi 2in. Thickness, L-T, mm MPa 2m T-L, MPa 2m Reference

7475-T61 Alclad 7475-T61 7475-T761

Sheet Sheet Sheet

Alclad 7475-T761 Sheet

0.0400.125 0.1260.249 0.0400.125 0.1260.249 0.0400.125 0.1260.249 0.0400.125 0.1260.249

... 60 ... ... ... ... 100 ...

75 60 75 60 87 80 87 80

>1.003.20 >3.206.30 >1.003.20 >3.206.30 >1.003.20 >3.206.30 >1.003.20 >3.206.30

... 66 ... ... 110 ... 110 ...

82 66 82 66 96 88 96 88

12(a) 12(a) 13 13 12(a) 12(a) 13 13

(a) Values from Ref 12 are specification limits.

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p105-110 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p105

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

Interrelation of Fracture Characteristics


IT WAS NOTED in Chapter 3 that elongation and reduction in area from the tensile test are broad indicators of ductility for certain purposes, but that there are no consistent and reliable correlations between these properties and the more definitive toughness parameters, including notch toughness, tear resistance, and fracture toughness. One illustration of this was the rather broad relationship between elongation and unit propagation energy in Fig. 6.7; it is further illustrated in Fig. 8.1, showing notch-yield ratio against both elongation and reduction in area from a series of tests in which each were measured for the same lots (Ref 19). Again, both show a broad correlation, but not of tightness adequate for correlative purposes. On the other hand, there are fairly well-defined and useful correlations between both notch-yield ratio (NYR) and unit propagation energy (UPE)
3.2 2.8 2.4 Notch-yield ratio Notch-yield ratio Diagonal through point indicates transverse test 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 (b) 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 0 (a) 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 0 10 20 Diagonal through point indicates transverse test 30 40 50 60

Elongation in 2 in. (4D), %

Reduction of area, %

Fig. 8.1

Notch-yield ratio in relation to elongation and reduction of area for aluminum alloy plate. Notch-yield ratio is notch tensile strength/tensile yield strength. Notched specimens, Fig. A1.7(a)

106 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

and the fracture-toughness parameters, Kc and KIc (Ref 1, 24, 36, 37). For example, NYR and UPE correlate well with Kc from the same lots of material, as illustrated in Fig. 8.2 and 8.3. The relationship between UPE and KIc has been refined over the years for predictive purposes, as illustrated in Fig. 8.4; this relationship is sufficiently well defined that in situations where fully valid KIc values cannot be determined or when the greater expense of the more complicated tests must be avoided, tear test results can be used to estimate plane-strain fracture toughness values.
60 Critical stress-intensity factor, Kc, ksi in.

50

40

30 L T EN CC EN CC 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.250 in. plate 0.125 in. sheet

20

10

0 0

0.8

1.0

1.2

Notch-yield ratio

Critical stress-intensity factor, Kc vs. notch-yield ratio (edge-notched specimen) for aluminum alloy and plate. EN, edge notched, Fig. A1.5; CC, center cracked, Fig. A1.6. Notch-yield ratio is notch tensile strength/tensile yield strength.
70 Plane-strain stress-intensity factor, KIc, ksi in. 2020-T651 2024-T351 2024-T851 2219-T851 5456-O 5456-H321 7001-T75 X7005-T6351 7075-T651 7075-T7351 7079-T651 7178-T7651 140 Critical stress-intensity factor, Kc, ksi in., 1 in. plate 1200

Fig. 8.2

60

120

50

100

40

80

30 Slash line indicates transverse direction

60

20

40

10

20

0 0

200

400

600

800

1000

0 0

200

400

600

800

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Fig. 8.3

KIc and Kc for 1 in. thick panels (Fig. A1.9b) vs. unit propagation energy from tear tests for aluminum alloy plates

Interrelation of Fracture Characteristics / 107

70 Plane-strain stress-intensity factor, KIc, ksi in.

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

Fig. 8.4

Relationship between plane-strain fracture toughness and unit propagation energy from tear tests for aluminum alloy products

These correlations are not surprising since the notch tensile, tear, and fracture toughness tests were all designed to measure the same material behavior from different perspectives: the ability to resist crack development and/or growth by plastic deformation at the site of severe stress raisers, including preexisting cracks. The fracture toughness test permits a calculation of the amount of stored elastic strain energy required to produce unstable crack growth. The tear test is a direct measurement of the external energy that is required to produce the crack growth; this is most useful when the energy is normalized based on crack growth area, as with the UPE. Thus, while the fracture toughness test has the limitation that the specimens must be large enough to provide plane-strain conditions and enough recoverable elastic strain energy to produce unstable crack growth in an elastic stress field (a severe limitation for tough aluminum alloys, requiring massive specimens, if, indeed, the condition can ever be achieved), the tear test is limited only by the capacity of the source of external loading. Therefore, the tear test has been quite useful in screening tests for alloy development (Ref 19, 37), which is discussed in more detail in Chapter 11. In addition, it can even be used by extrapolation to estimate the fracture toughness of those materials that could rarely, if ever, be measured in a manner meeting all validity requirements. Additional use has been made of these correlations through the use of notch-tensile testing as quality control for fracture toughness for those alloys where fracture toughness values are included in purchase specifications, as illustrated in Fig. 8.5 and 8.6 for 2124-T851 and 7475-T7351, respectively (Ref 60). In these cases, the relatively less-expensive notchtensile test is sometimes used in plant production testing and fracture

108 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

40

30

12.8%

KIc, ksi in.

20

10

2X24-T851

LT TL SL

0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Notch-yield ratio, N/ys D = 1/2 in.

1.5

Fig. 8.5

Correlation of plane-strain fracture toughness and notch-yield ratio (specimens per Fig. A1.7a) for 2024 and 2124 plate

50

7X75

Temper T651 T7651 T7351

40

KIc, ksi in.

30 12.8% 20

10

0.7

0.9

1.1

1.3

1.5

1.7

Notch-yield ratio, N/ys D = 1/2 in.

Fig. 8.6

Correlation of plane-strain fracture toughness with notch-yield ratio (specimens per Fig. A1.7a) for 7075 and 7475 plate

toughness testing is used only for those lots for which meeting the appropriate specifications is in doubt. At higher toughness levels especially, the correlation is weaker and the amount of retesting required by this approach may be unacceptable. Several other interesting relationships have been observed (Ref 2, 19) that enable the results of notch-tensile and tear tests to be used to estimate behavior under dynamic/fatigue loading: The relationship between the NYR and the ratio of notch-fatigue strength to the tensile yield strength appears useful for estimating fatigue life in the presence of notches from notch-tensile tests, as

Interrelation of Fracture Characteristics / 109

illustrated in Fig. 8.7. In this illustration, the notch fatigue strengths are for sharply notched rotating beam fatigue specimens. The value of this relationship can be rationalized on the basis that both tests measure in different ways the ability of materials to resist crack initiation and propagation in the presence of severe stress raisers. The relationship between tear resistance, as measured by UPE, and fatigue-crack growth rate is sufficiently well defined, as in Fig. 8.8, to potentially be useful for estimating the growth rate in terms of
0.7 Longitudinal Transverse

Ratio, fatigue strength, notched specimens, 107 cycles/tensile yield strength

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0 0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

Notch-yield ratio

Fig. 8.7

Relationship between ratio of fatigue strength of notched specimens to tensile yield strength and notch-yield ratio for aluminum alloy plate. Notch-yield ratio is notch tensile strength/tensile yield strength. Fatigue specimens were R.R. Moore rotating beam specimens; notched tensile and fatigue specimens were notched as in Fig. A1.7.

400 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 2219-T851 300 7075-T7351 200 7075-T651 100 2024-T851 7001-T75 2020-T651 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Fatigue-crack growth rate, in./cycle

Fig. 8.8

Relationship between unit propagation energy and fatigue-crack growth rate, where Kmax is 15 ksi 2in. and stress ratio is + 0.33

110 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

stress-intensity factor in cases where fatigue-crack growth rate measurements are not available. For the record, there does not appear to be any relationship between any measures of fracture toughness and resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (Ref 2, 19). This is well illustrated by looking at the relationship between plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc, and the threshold stress-intensity factor for the initiation of stress-corrosion crack growth from tests of precracked specimens, Kith, in Fig. 8.9.
120

100

2219-T87 2021-T81

6061-T651

7050-T73651

80

7075-T7351 2024-T851

5456-H117

KIth, % of KIc (S-L)

60 2014-T651 7050-T7651X 40 7039-T6351 7079-T651 20 7075-T651 2024-T351 2219-T37 (invalid KQ)

18

20

22

24

26

28

KIc, ksi in. (S-L)

Comparison of fracture toughness and stress-corrosion resistance for some aluminum alloys. Stress-corrosion data are from ringloaded 12 to 34 in. thick specimens in salt dichromate acetate-corrodent formula: 0.6M (312%) NaCl + 0.02M Na2Cr2O7 + 0.07M NaC2H3O2 at a pH of 4. KIth, threshold stress intensity for stress-corrosion crack growth. KQ, candidate value of KIc, invalid in instance shown

Fig. 8.9

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p111-145 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p111

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures


THE NOTCH-TENSILE, tear, and fracture toughness tests described previously have been widely and effectively used to determine the effect of both subzero and relatively high temperatures on the toughness of aluminum alloys. A number of aluminum alloys, both wrought and cast, and welds in both wrought and cast alloys have been tested over a wide range of temperatures (Ref 2535, 6164), and the results are included in the following tables at the end of this Chapter. Notch toughness Table 9.1 Wrought alloys; 1 in. wide, edge-notched specimens (Fig. A1.4a); 423 F to room temperature (RT) Table 9.2 Wrought alloys; 12 in. diam specimens (Fig. A1.7a); 452 F to RT Table 9.3 Welds in wrought alloys; 1 in. wide, edge-notched specimens (Fig. A1.4b); 423 F to RT Table 9.4 Welds in wrought alloys; 12 in. diam specimens (Fig. A1.7b); 452 F to RT Table 9.5 Cast alloys; 12 in. diam specimens (Fig. A1.7a); 452 F to RT Table 9.6 Welds in cast alloys; 12 in. diam specimens (Fig. A1.7b); 452 F to RT Tear resistance (Fig. A1.8) Table 9.7 Wrought alloy sheet; 320 F to 500 F Table 9.8 Wrought alloy plate; 452 F to RT Table 9.9 Welds in wrought alloys; 320 F to RT Fracture toughness Table 9.10 Wrought alloys and welds in wrought alloys (Fig. A1.11, A1.12); 320 F to RT

112 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Key parameters from these tests are plotted in the following figures as a function of test temperature and, in the case of elevated temperatures, the time at temperature: Fig. 9.1 Fig. 9.2 Fig. 9.3 Fig. 9.4 Fig. 9.4(a) Fig. 9.4(b) Fig. 9.4(c) Fig. 9.5 Fig. 9.6(a) Fig 9.6(b) Fig. 9.7 Fig. 9.8 Notch-yield ratio: wrought alloy sheet; 1 in. wide, edge-notched specimens Notch-yield ratio; wrought alloy plate; 12 in. diam specimens Notch-yield ratio; welds in wrought alloy sheet; 1 in. wide, edge-notched specimens Notch-yield ratio; cast alloys; 12 in. diam specimens Sand-cast alloys Permanent-mold cast alloys Premium-strength sand-cast alloys Notch-yield ratio; welds in wrought and cast alloys; 12 in. diam specimens Unit propagation energy; wrought alloy sheet (320 F to RT) Unit propagation energy; wrought alloy sheet (320 F to 400 F) Unit propagation energy; welds in wrought alloy plate (320 F to RT) Fracture toughness; (320 F to RT)

For all of the test results included in these tables and figures, the subzero temperatures were achieved by immersing the specimens in cryostats containing liquefied gases as follows: For 112 F, liquefied petroleum gas For 320 F, liquefied nitrogen For 423 F, liquefied hydrogen For 452 F, liquefied helium

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 113

In all such cases, tensile yield strengths and crack-opening displacements were measured by the use of extensometers incorporated into strain-transfer devices mounted directly on the specimens.

1.4

2219-T62 1.2
7039-T

6061-T6

5456-H321

61

5456-H32
7039-T6

1.0

5456-H343 7075-T73 2219-T87

Notch-yield ratio

2014-T6

0.8 7075-T6 0.6 7079-T6

7178-T6 0.4

0.2 500 400 300 200 Temperature, F 100 0 100

Notch-yield ratios (notch tensile strength/tensile yield strength) for 18 in. aluminum alloy sheet (average for longitudinal and transverse directions) at various temperatures. Specimens per Fig. A1.4(a)

Fig. 9.1

114 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

4.4 2014-T651 2024-T851 4.0 2219-T851 2219-T87 2618-T651 3.6 5083-O 5083-H321 Notch-yield ratio 3.2 5454-O 5454-H32 5456-O 5456-H321 6061-T651 7005-T5351

2.8

2.4

2.0

1.6

1.2

0.8 500

400

300

200

100

100

Temperature, F

Fig. 9.2

Notch-yield ratios (notch tensile strength/tensile yield strength) for plate at various temperatures. Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a)

1.8

1.6

1.4 Notch-yield ratio

1.2

1.0

0.8

0.6 0.4 500

5456-H343 5456-H321 2219-T62 6061-T6 2219-T62 RHA 2219-T87

2219-T37A 7079-T6 7178-T6 2014-T6 2014-TA 7075-T6

400

300

200

100

100

Temperature, F

Notch-yield ratios (notch tensile strength/tensile yield strength) for welds in 18 in. aluminum alloy sheet at various temperatures (aswelded, unless noted otherwise; average for longitudinal and transverse directions). A, aged after welding; RHA, reheated and aged after welding. Specimens per Fig. A1.4(b)

Fig. 9.3

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 115

2.2 2.0 1.8 295.0-T6 1.6 Notch-yield ratio Notch-yield ratio 1.4 A612.0-F 1.2 1.0 208.0-F 0.8 0.6 520.0-T4 240.0-F
Solid symbol indicates actual ratio lower than plotted value

2.2 100, 200, and 600 alloys B535.0-F 1.8 356.0-T4 1.6 242.0-T77 356.0-T71 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 500 400 300 200 100 Temperature, F 356.0-T7 A356.0-T7 356.0-T6 X335.0-T6 2.0 300 alloys

0.4 500 400 300 200 100 Temperature, F

100

100

Fig. 9.4(a)

Notch-yield ratio for sand cast aluminum alloy slabs at various temperatures. Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a)

3.2 A444.0-F

2.8

2.4 Notch-yield ratio

2.0 X335.0-T61 A356.0-T7 356.0-T7 1.6 A356.0-T61 A356.0-T62 1.2 354.0-T62 0.8 359.0-T62 356.0-T6

0.4 500

400

300

200 100 Temperature, F

100

200

Fig. 9.4(b)

Notch-yield ratio for permanent mold cast aluminum alloy slabs at various temperatures. Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a)

116 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

2.0

1.8 C355.0-T61 Notch-yield ratio 1.6 A356.0-T61 1.4 A357.0-T61 1.2 A357.0-T62 1.0

0.8 500 400 300 200 100 Temperature, F 0 100

Fig. 9.4(c)
4.8

Notch-yield ratio for premium strength cast aluminum alloy slabs at various temperatures. Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a)
4.8

4.4

Post-weld thermal Symbol Wrought alloy Filler alloy treatment 2219-T62 2219-T851 3003-H112 5083-O 5083-H321 5083-H321 5083-H321 5454-H32 6061-T6 6061-T6 2319 2319 1100 5183 5183 5356 5556 5554 4043 5356 Yes No No No No No No No No; Yes No; Yes

4.4

Symbol

Cast-to-cast or cast-to-wrought alloy combination Filler alloy A444.0-F/A444.0-F A444.0-F/6061-T6 A444.0-F/5456-H321 354.0-T62/354-T62 354.0-T62-6061-T6 354.0-T62/5456-H321 C355.0-T61/6061-T6 C355.0-T61/5456-H321 4043 4043 5556 4043 4043 5556 4043 5556

4.0

4.0

3.6

3.6

Notch-yield ratio

3.2

3.2

2.8

2.8

2.4

2.4

2.0

2.0

1.6

1.6

1.2 Wrought alloys 0.8 500 400 300 200 100 0 100

1.2 Casting alloys 0.8 500 400 300 200 100 0 100

Temperature, F

Temperature, F

Fig. 9.5

Notch-yield ratio (notch-tensile strength/joint yield strength) for groove welds in wrought and casting alloys at various temperatures. Specimens per Fig. A1.7(b)

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 117

1600

6061-T6
1400 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2 6061-T6 1200 5454-H34 1000 5083-H113 800 5456-H321 600 400 200 2024-T81 X7106-T6 2219-T81 2024-T3 2219-T87 7039-T6 2014-T6 7079-T6 7075-T73 200 100 2219-T81 X7106-T6 2024-T3 2219-T87 7039-T6 2014-T651 7075-T73 30 40 50 60 70 2024-T81 7079-T6 7075-T6 80 90 100 5454-H34 5083-H113 5456-H321 Temperature, 320 F

0
500 400

7075-T6 0 100

300

Temperature, F

Tensile yield strength, ksi

Fig. 9.6(a)

Tear resistance of sheet and plate of aluminum alloys at various temperatures (transverse direction). Specimens per Fig. A1.8

1600
1/2 hour

at elevated temperatures

1400

1200 Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

1000 6061-T6 800 7075-T6

600 2024-T3 400 2618-T6 200 2014-T6 0 400 X2020-T6 300 200 100 0 100 200 Temperature, F 300 400 500

Fig. 9.6(b)

Tear resistance of aluminum alloy sheet at high temperatures. Specimens per Fig. A1.8

118 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

2000 Filler alloy 1100 2319 5052 5154 5183 5039 5356 5456, 5556

1800

1600

Unit propagation energy, in.-lb/in.2

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0 400

300

200

100

100

Temperature, F

Fig. 9.7

Unit propagation energy for welds in wrought aluminum alloy plate at various temperatures. Specimens per Fig. A1.8

9.1 Wrought Alloys at Subzero Temperatures


As the data for notch-yield ratio (NYR) (Fig. 9.1 and 9.2), unit propagation energy (UPE) (Fig. 9.6), and fracture toughness, KIc (Fig. 9.8) indicate, the toughness of most 2xxx, 5xxx, and 6xxx wrought alloys remains about the same or decreases gradually as temperature decreases below room temperature (RT), even down to temperatures as low as 423 F (Fig. 9.1) or 452 F (Fig. 9.2). For the 7xxx wrought alloys, the values of NYR and UPE decrease more significantly with decrease in temperature, though even for these alloys, some toughness parameters like KIc (Fig. 9.8) remain about the same at subzero temperatures as at RT. Looking for indications of the most desirable alloys for cryogenic service, it is helpful to look at the low-temperature behavior as a function of tensile yield strength level at the more extreme temperatures. For example,

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 119

30 KIc, ksi in.

25 20 15 400

2014-T651 2024-T851

300

200 100 Temperature, F

100

40 6061-T651 30 KIc, ksi in. Not meaningful because specimen thickness was slightly less than required by ASTM Method 6 30 7075-T7351 KIc, ksi in. 25 7079-T651 7075-T651 20

20

10

0 400

300

200 100 Temperature, F

100

15 400

300

200

100

100

Temperature, F

Fig. 9.8

Plane-strain fracture toughness of aluminum alloy plate at various temperatures. Specimens per Fig. A1.11(a), A1.12(a)

NYR is plotted as a function of tensile yield strength for sharply notched sheet-type specimens at 423 F in Fig. 9.9 and for notched round specimens at 452 F in Fig. 9.10; unit propagation energy is plotted as a function of yield strength at 320 F in the right-hand part of Fig. 9.6(a). In general, the wrought alloy data fit fairly tight relationships indicating a trade-off of toughness with increasing strength. Based upon the data at 452 F (Fig. 9.10), the 5xxx alloys in the annealed (O) temper have the highest overall toughness indices. Among the higher-strength combinations, 2219 in various tempers and 6061-T6 generally perform well. In particular, the toughness of the 5083 and most other 5xxx alloys in the annealed (O) temper is outstanding at subzero temperatures (Ref 45, 6164). This has been further confirmed by the testing of very large, thick notch bend and compact tension fracture toughness specimens (Fig. A1.11b, A1.12b, c) at temperatures as low as 320 F, the results of which are included in Table 9.11. It is appropriate to note that even with fracturetoughness specimens as thick as 8 in., plane-strain conditions were still not encountered with 5083-O, and fully plastic tearing fracture was observed even at the lower temperature. From the combination of notch tensile, tear, and fracture toughness tests of 7.0 and 7.7 in. thick 5083-O plate and of 5183 welds in that 5083-O plate, as illustrated in the summary that follows, KIc can conservatively be estimated to be approximately 45 to 50 ksi 2in. in the L-T and T-L orientations, and Kc can be conservatively

120 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

1.8 1.6

Sheet

1.4 Notch-yield ratio at 423 F 1.2 Welded Panels 1.0 0.8 2014-T3/4043 2014-T3/4043/A 2014-T6/4043 2219-T37/2319 2219-T37/2319/A 2219-T62/2319 2219-T62/2319/RHA 2219-T86/2319 5456-H321/5556 5456-H343/5556 7075-T6/4043 7079-T6/4043 7178-T6/4043 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

2014-T3 2014-T6 2219-T37 2219-T62 2219-T87 5456-H321 5456-H323 5456-H343 6061-T6 7039-T6 7039-T61 7075-T6 7075-T73 7079-T6 7178-T6

0.6

0.4 0.2 0

100

110

120

Tensile yield strength, 1000 psi, at 423 F

Fig. 9.9

Notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for 18 in. aluminum alloy sheet at 423 F. Specimens per Fig. A1.4(a)

estimated to be at least 100 ksi 2in. (Ref 62, 63). That Kc value leads to the stress-versus-flaw size diagram in Fig. 9.11 and the finding that even at stresses up to the tensile yield strength of the material at 320 F, cracks with lengths in excess of 12 in. would not lead to unstable crack growth. It was on the basis of such information that thick 5083-O plate with 5183 welds was chosen for the shipboard transportation of liquefied natural gas held in 125 ft diameter tanks at 260 F, as illustrated by the cross section in Fig. 9.12. Assembly of the highly stressed girth supports required welded 5083-O plate as thick as 7.7 in., and the majority of the tank walls ranged from 2 to 4 in. in thickness. The added confidence required for the safety of this approach was gained by large-scale fracture toughness tests (Fig. A1.11b and A1.12b, c) that permitted estimates of both Kc or KIc for thick plate at temperatures as low as 320 F, described previously. While even in the largest scale tests conducted, no unstable crack growth conditions were ever experienced for this alloy and weld combination, the results of these tests combined with the extrapolative techniques using notch-tensile and tear tests led to estimates of the toughness of the material that showed that even at its tensile yield strength, very thick 5083-O plate and 5183 welds in the walls of the tanks will support part-through cracks of any depth and through cracks more than 12 in. in length without unstable crack growth. Leak-before-break is assured by the analysis.

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 121

3.5 Notch-yield ratio, NTS/TYS at 452 F 5454-O 5083-O 3003-H14 5454-H34 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 6061-T651 X7005-T6351 2219-T851 2618-T651 2219-T87
2XXX alloys 3XXX alloys 5XXX alloys 6XXX alloys 7XXX alloys

3.0 2.5

Casting alloys

5456-O 5083-H321 5456-H321 A356-T6 7039-T6151 X149-T63 7039-T6 7039-T6351 2014-T651 10 20 30 40

2021-T81 2024-T851 X7007-T6 7075-T651

7075-T7351 7079-T651 110 120 130

0 50 60 70 80 90 100 Tensile yield strength at 452 F, ksi

Fig. 9.10

Notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for aluminum alloys at 452 F. Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a)
60 Typical Specified minimum Room-temperature tensile strength = 30 Kc a ; Kc = 100 ksi Room-temperature tensile yield strength 20

Cross-section stress at instability, , ksi

50

40

10

12

16

20

24

Crack length at instability, a, in.

Fig. 9.11

Estimated (conservative) fracture stress vs. flaw size relationship for 5083-O plate and 5183 welds

These findings are supported by totally independent studies, one by the Naval Research Laboratories (Ref 65) involving dynamic tear tests, and the other by Battelle Columbus (Ref 66) involving burst tests of pressure vessels at 220 F. From the Naval Research Laboratories tests, the investigators concluded that the critical flaw sizes for 5083/5183 were huge and that there is no need to calculate critical flaw sizes. From the Battelle burst tests, Kc values in the range from 125 to 165 ksi 2in. were

122 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Cross section of 125 ft diam tank for shipboard transportation of liquefied natural gas. Tank is fabricated of 5083-O plate welded with 5183 filler alloy

Fig. 9.12

estimated for the 5083/5183 vessels, totally supporting the patterns indicated by the smaller scale notch-tensile and tear tests as well as the largescale fracture toughness tests.

9.2 Wrought Alloys at Elevated Temperatures


As would be expected, the toughnesses of most aluminum alloys at temperatures above RT, as represented by UPE (Fig. 9.6b), are higher than at RT with the difference increasing with temperature and, generally, with time at temperature. Among the alloys tested, no great increase was noted for only 2024-T3, but that is to be expected because 2024-T3 age hardens with high-temperature exposure; however, even in the aged condition after exposure at 300 and 400 F, the UPE for 2024-T3 was as high as at RT. Elevated temperature exposure does not appear to pose any serious toughness problems for aluminum alloys, though the effects of age hardening of susceptible tempers of heat treatable alloys (e.g., T3, T4 types) must always be considered.

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 123

9.3 Cast Alloys at Subzero Temperatures


Among the cast alloys (Fig. 9.4a, b, and c), the 3xx.x alloys consistently retain their toughness at subzero temperatures, even to 423 and 452 F. Alloy 444.0-F (Fig. 9.4a), with its relatively low yield strength, showed an exceptionally high NYR, at or above 2.5, even at 320 F. From the notchtensile data in Fig. 9.4(c), it is also clear that A356.0-T6 performed quite well even at 452 F. Other casting alloys, notably the 2xx.0 and 5xx.0 series, generally show relatively lower toughness at the lower temperatures, or more rapidly decreasing toughness with decrease in temperature. When the notch-yield ratios for cast alloys are viewed on the basis of yield strength level (Fig. 9.13), A444.0-F still exhibits exceptionally high toughness. Among the higher strength alloys, the premium strength cast alloys (i.e., those cast with special attention to chill rates in critical regions) have the most consistently superior strength toughness combination, similar to the case at RT. Permanent mold castings yield performance close to the premium strength castings, and in fact, A356.0 permanent mold castings essentially match the performance of the premium strength castings. The sand castings generally exhibit the poorest performance. When selecting cast alloys for cryogenic service, it seems especially important to pay careful attention to the casting process as well as the alloy itself; high-quality casting processes involving higher chill rates in areas that will experience the most critical service exposure yield superior combinations of strength and toughness.

9.4 Welds at Subzero Temperatures


For welds in wrought alloys, (Fig. 9.5 for NYR and 9.7 for UPE), both NYRs and UPEs tend to remain about the same or decrease very gradually as temperature decreases below RT, at least to 320 F. Among the exceptions were (a) those joints made with 1100, 5052, and most with 2319 filler alloy, which have UPEs substantially higher at 320 F than at RT, and (b) 5039 welds in 7005, for which the UPE at 320 F was well below the values at RT and 112 F. At temperatures below 320 F, there is a greater tendency for NYRs to decrease below the RT value, even for the toughest filler alloys such as 3003 and 5183. However, for all alloys except 4043 and 5039, NYRs were about 1.3 or higher and UPEs were above 600 in.-lb/in.2 at all temperatures for which values were measured. From the plot in Fig. 9.9 of NYR versus TYS (tensile yield strength) for aluminum alloy sheet at 423 F, it is clear that in general, welds in 2xxx, 5xxx, and 6xxx aluminum alloy sheet provide about the same combination

124 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

4.0
Sand

3.6
320 F 3.2

2.8

Notch-yield ratio

2.4

208.0-F 240.0-F 242.0-T777 295.0-T6 B535.0-F 520.0-T4 X335.0-T6 356.0-T4 356.0-T6 356.0-T7 356.0-T71 A356.0-T7 A612.0-F

Permanent mold Premium strength X335.0-T61 C355.0-T6 A444.0-F A356.0-T61 354.0-T62 A357.0-T61 356.0-T6 A357.0-T62 A356.0-T7 A356.0-T61 A356.0-T62 A356.0-T7 359.0-T62

423 F

2.0

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Tensile yield strength at indicated temperature

Fig. 9.13

Notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for cast aluminum alloys at 320 and 423 F. Specimens per Fig. A1.7(a)

of strength and toughness at that temperature as does unwelded sheet. However, welds in the high-strength 7xxx alloys fall below the band of other data, indicating poorer toughness at a given strength level. As for the case at RT, welds made with filler alloys 2319 and 5556 provide higher toughness levels at subzero temperatures than do welds made with 4043 filler alloy. These same trends exist for welds in wrought and cast alloys 452 F as illustrated in Fig. 9.14. This plot also illustrates that postweld heat treatment of welded 2219-T62 plate provides a superior combination of strength and toughness. Both 5183 welds in 5083-O and postweld heat treated 6061-T6 welds performed relatively well at 452 F. For welds in cast alloys (Fig. 9.5, right), both 4043 and 5556 welds exhibited NYRs about the same at temperatures down to 320 F as at RT. However, at lower temperatures, both filler alloys exhibited some significant reduction; in all cases, NYRs were above 1.0 at 452 F.

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 125

2.8 Band for wrought alloys Ratio, notch tensile strength/joint yield strength

2.4

5183 5083-O 2319-2219-T62 postweld heat treated

2.0

1.6 4043, 6061-T6 1.2 5556, 6061-T6 postweld heat treated

0.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Joint yield strength at 452 F, ksi

Fig. 9.14

Joint yield strength vs. notch-yield ratios for groove welds in wrought and cast aluminum alloys at 452 F. Specimens per Fig. A1.7(b). Open symbols, wrought, as-welded; slash symbols, wrought, postweld heat treated; solid symbols, casting, as-welded. See Fig. 9.5 for symbol identification.

126 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9.1(a) Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheettype tensile specimens from 0.125 in. sheet at subzero temperatures, longitudinal
Test temperature, F Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

2014-T3

2014-T6

2219-T37

2219-T62

2219-T87

5456-H321

5456-H323

5456-H343

6061-T6

7075-T6

7075-T73

7079-T6(a)

7178-T6

RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423

66.0 85.4 106.8 70.2 87.2 100.6 57.1 76.0 99.4 58.3 74.1 92.2 68.2 84.1 99.1 57.4 76.6 96.4 56.5 76.4 93.0 58.2 77.1 82.3 44.9 61.0 75.8 82.1 100.2 113.2 73.0 91.9 106.3 77.5 94.8 114.9 90.0 107.7 123.1

46.7 61.1 73.3 65.8 78.7 85.5 48.3 61.1 74.3 39.0 50.3 54.0 57.5 68.2 73.4 39.5 46.7 52.6 42.1 49.0 53.5 46.1 51.4 56.8 40.8 48.6 55.3 74.4 91.0 105.2 61.8 74.8 77.6 72.3 85.6 95.5 83.6 99.6 111.6

20.4 30.8 21.9 10.3 13.5 10.5 15.9 32.2 19.8 11.0 14.5 14.0 11.6 12.3 16.4 14.5 26.8 21.7 11.2 23.3 13.3 8.3 18.5 ... 13.8 23.3 18.3 11.2 14.3 6.3 12.8 13.8 15.5 11.5 14.3 15.8 12.2 9.5 8.2

53.2 66.8 76.7 65.3 61.4 65.8 53.6 66.7 76.2 47.9 58.1 67.4 61.0 67.1 69.5 47.6 52.7 56.7 46.9 50.8 56.0 48.7 53.3 59.0 46.2 55.3 57.0 68.4 42.5 40.4 65.4 55.0 49.1 70.8 60.5 59.6 51.8 35.5 31.5

0.81 0.78 0.72 0.93 0.70 0.65 0.94 0.88 0.77 0.82 0.78 0.73 0.89 0.80 0.70 0.83 0.69 0.59 0.83 0.66 0.60 0.84 0.69 0.72 1.03 0.91 0.75 0.83 0.42 0.36 0.90 0.60 0.46 0.91 0.64 0.46 0.58 0.33 0.26

1.14 1.09 1.05 0.99 0.78 0.77 1.11 1.09 1.03 1.23 1.16 1.25 1.06 0.98 0.95 1.21 1.13 1.08 1.11 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.04 1.04 1.14 1.03 2.00 0.92 0.47 0.38 1.06 0.74 0.63 0.98 0.71 0.62 0.62 0.36 0.28

Specimens per Fig. A1.4(a). Each line represents average of three tests for a single lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. RT, room temperature. (a) Obsolete alloy

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 127

Table 9.1(b) Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens from 0.125 in. sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse
Test temperature, F Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

2014-T3

2014-T6

2219-T37

2219-T62

2219-T87

5456-H321

5456-H323

5456-H343

6061-T6

7039-T6

7039-T61

7075-T6

7075-T73

7079-T6(a)

7178-T6

RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423 RT 320 423

66.0 84.2 104.5 73.1 88.6 95.1 60.3 78.9 103.8 57.4 74.3 90.6 70.1 87.1 103.0 57.9 72.5 88.9 56.6 74.1 88.3 59.7 75.4 85.1 44.3 59.2 68.3 63.0 80.8 92.7 60.5 77.6 91.8 83.7 101.0 116.5 74.6 95.6 110.0 79.3 95.2 112.5 91.4 110.3 130.0

40.8 52.2 64.4 66.2 76.8 82.2 46.7 57.6 71.0 38.2 49.3 52.4 58.4 69.6 75.8 39.6 46.7 54.1 40.1 46.2 50.3 43.0 49.6 54.7 38.0 44.0 50.5 54.2 64.3 65.5 46.0 55.8 59.7 71.8 86.7 101.5 61.1 74.0 77.0 71.4 81.0 90.9 79.2 93.8 112.2

20.5 26.8 19.5 11.8 12.5 7.6 13.3 24.6 12.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 10.8 13.7 15.2 17.5 23.5 14.8 13.5 21.7 13.4 12.6 18.3 19.5 14.0 23.5 14.3 11.0 14.0 17.5 14.2 23.5 18.5 13.0 7.0 6.2 10.8 12.3 11.8 11.3 12.8 9.5 12.5 5.8 4.2

50.3 63.4 69.0 58.5 53.1 58.4 54.9 66.3 74.0 46.1 56.0 58.2 57.4 63.5 68.0 48.2 53.1 56.4 46.7 48.4 52.5 47.6 51.4 54.7 45.6 54.5 55.3 60.2 56.8 60.4 55.2 57.8 60.6 60.5 41.9 37.4 62.4 48.7 45.5 61.5 43.7 43.4 46.9 33.7 32.0

0.76 0.75 0.66 0.80 0.60 0.61 0.91 0.84 0.72 0.80 0.75 0.64 0.82 0.73 0.66 0.83 0.73 0.63 0.83 0.65 0.57 0.80 0.68 0.64 1.03 0.92 0.81 0.96 0.70 0.65 0.91 0.74 0.66 0.72 0.41 0.32 0.84 0.51 0.41 0.78 0.46 0.39 0.51 0.31 0.25

1.23 1.21 1.07 0.88 0.69 0.71 1.18 1.15 1.04 1.21 1.14 1.11 0.98 0.91 0.90 1.22 1.14 1.04 1.16 1.05 1.04 1.11 1.04 1.00 1.20 1.24 1.10 1.11 0.88 0.92 1.20 1.04 1.03 0.84 0.48 0.37 1.02 0.66 0.59 0.86 0.54 0.48 0.59 0.36 0.29

Specimens per Fig. A1.4. Each line represents average of three tests for a single lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. RT, room temperature. (a) Obsolete alloy

128 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9.2(a) Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 0.5 in. diam, round specimens from aluminum alloys at subzero temperatures, longitudinal
Test temperature, F Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength, (TYS), ksi Reduction of area, % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

2014-T651

2021-T8151

2024-T851

2219-T851

2219-T87

2618-T651

3003-H14 5083-O

5083-H321

5454-O

5454-H32

5456-O

5456-H321

6061-T651

7005-T5351

7005-T6351

7005-T6351

RT 320 423 452 RT 112 320 423 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 423 452 RT 112 320 423 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 452 RT 320 423 452 RT 320 423 452 RT 320 452 RT 320 452 RT 320 452 RT 320 452 RT 320 452 RT 112 320 423 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 452

69.0 84.0 95.6 95.4 74.4 79.4 90.2 101.6 72.0 77.8 99.8 104.4 67.6 71.4 82.5 95.6 95.7 67.4 72.0 83.5 98.6 97.8 62.4 68.2 78.0 87.6 22.9 58.1 46.8 63.0 85.2 80.8 48.6 66.1 90.0 85.8 35.8 54.3 73.9 40.9 61.1 82.3 49.0 66.0 84.4 56.3 73.6 92.6 44.9 58.3 70.1 62.0 67.8 83.9 102.5 97.6 56.8 65.4 78.0 87.9 52.6 61.4 70.5 85.6

63.5 76.1 80.2 81.8 66.6 69.5 78.9 86.1 65.8 71.3 83.3 90.7 53.8 57.6 63.8 68.8 70.3 56.2 59.9 67.0 72.4 74.2 57.6 62.5 68.7 72.3 21.1 30.1 20.4 23.0 25.2 25.8 34.1 39.7 41.8 40.5 16.7 19.4 24.1 28.9 34.5 39.4 23.2 26.1 29.5 34.5 40.1 46.5 42.2 48.9 55.0 55.0 58.6 67.5 73.4 75.6 49.4 52.7 59.3 63.9 46.0 50.9 53.7 60.9

10.2 12.0 15.0 12.8 8.0 9.5 11.0 12.5 7.8 6.0 7.7 9.5 11.0 11.5 13.8 16.0 15.0 11.8 12.0 14.0 15.2 15.2 10.8 10.7 13.3 15.0 16.8 32.0 19.5 34.0 32.00 32.0 15.0 31.5 30.0 29.0 24.5 39.5 34.3 15.7 32.0 28.6 21.8 34.5 30.7 13.5 27.0 23.6 16.5 23.0 25.5 15.0 14.0 17.0 18.5 17.0 18.0 16.5 18.0 16.5 19.8 18.0 19.0 19.5 (continued)

24 22 23 20 8 17 19 20 17 14 13 14 27 28 30 28 26 28 28 28 21 23 32 27 26 23 68 49 26 34 24 33 23 33 24 33 48 49 35 32 40 31 31 35 24 16 28 25 50 48 42 43 30 27 28 22 50 41 34 29 52 44 34 25

82.8 99.6 10.3 102.2 84.6 95.8 106.1 116.4 83.8 84.2 90.4 106.3 79.4 84.3 94.5 103.5 102.1 82.3 82.8 91.5 102.5 100.2 81.2 87.1 92.0 98.7 ... 65.1 54.0 61.0 59.3 62.3 61.1 70.4 72.8 73.7 48.1 60.2 65.6 56.2 69.2 77.7 50.9 59.6 60.9 59.7 66.2 75.8 69.2 83.4 89.9 86.2 92.1 99.1 107.5 106.9 81.3 88.4 98.3 99.9 79.2 86.4 93.2 94.6

1.20 1.19 1.08 1.07 1.14 1.21 1.18 1.15 1.17 1.08 0.91 1.02 1.12 1.18 1.15 1.08 1.06 1.22 1.15 1.09 1.04 1.03 1.3 1.28 1.18 1.13 ... 1.0 1.16 0.97 0.70 0.77 1.26 1.06 0.81 0.86 1.34 1.11 0.89 1.37 1.13 0.94 1.04 0.89 0.72 1.06 0.90 0.82 1.54 1.43 1.28 1.39 1.36 1.18 1.05 1.09 1.43 1.35 1.26 1.14 1.51 1.41 1.32 1.10

1.30 1.31 1.28 1.25 1.27 1.38 1.34 1.35 1.28 1.18 1.09 1.17 1.48 1.46 1.48 1.5 1.48 1.46 1.38 1.37 1.42 1.37 1.41 1.39 1.34 1.37 ... 2.16 2.65 2.65 2.36 2.42 1.80 1.77 1.74 1.82 2.88 3.04 2.72 1.94 2.00 1.97 2.19 2.29 2.02 1.71 1.65 1.63 1.64 1.71 1.63 1.59 1.57 1.47 1.46 1.41 1.65 1.68 1.66 1.56 1.72 1.70 1.74 1.56

Specimens per Fig. A1.7. Each line represents average of three tests for a single lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. RT, room temperature. (a) Obsolete alloy

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 129

Table 9.2(a) (continued)


Test temperature, F Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength, (TYS), ksi Reduction of area, % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

7007-T651(a)

7039-T6151 7039-T6351

7075-T651

7075-T7351

7079T651(a)

RT 112 320 452 RT 320 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 452

77.0 87.5 101.4 116.1 61.9 83.1 94.2 67.2 75.4 88.4 103.1 88.8 95.2 110.9 120.5 76.2 83.4 98.2 110.0 84.2 113.9

73.1 81.3 89.3 98.1 51.8 62.9 69.0 56.5 62.1 67.8 76.4 80.4 88.6 100.9 112.1 66.2 72.3 82.5 88.1 76.8 104.9

13.0 11.2 12.8 14.2 13.5 15.0 15.5 14.5 14.5 17.0 17.5 9.8 10.0 9.0 8.0 10.2 10.0 10.7 11.0 10.0 6.5

30 20 19 15 34 24 22 32 23 20 19 14 11 10 9 22 17 14 12 20 6

107.4 104.0 95.2 94.0 81.6 87.3 89.1 88.6 91.9 85.4 89.5 103.6 98.4 81.8 80.2 93.4 93.0 84.4 94.0 103.9 75.9

1.40 1.19 0.94 0.81 1.32 1.39 0.95 1.32 1.22 0.97 0.87 1.17 1.03 0.74 0.67 1.23 1.12 0.86 0.85 1.23 0.67

1.47 1.28 1.07 0.96 1.61 1.39 1.29 1.57 1.48 1.26 1.17 1.29 1.11 0.80 0.72 1.41 1.29 1.02 1.07 1.35 0.72

Specimens per Fig. A1.7. Each line represents average of three tests for a single lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. RT, room temperature. (a) Obsolete alloy

Table 9.2(b) Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 0.5 in. diam, round specimens from aluminum alloys at subzero temperatures, transverse
Test temperature, F Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength, (TYS), ksi Reduction of area, % Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

2014-T651

2219-T851

6061-T651

7005-T6351

7005-T6351

7007-T651(a)

7039-T6151

7039-T6351

7075-T651

RT 320 423 452 RT 112 320 423 452 RT 320 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 320 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 452

69.5 85.1 96.4 96.9 66.4 71.0 83.0 96.7 95.6 44.9 58.8 70.4 54.8 64.1 75.0 84.6 53.3 61.9 72.8 86.3 73.8 82.3 95.2 107.1 60.4 80.0 90.8 66.5 72.8 87.1 101.4 86.6 92.8 105.4 ...

62.7 74.4 77.4 84.8 51.2 55.0 61.1 67.5 69.8 40.4 46.6 52.6 46.0 50.9 53.7 60.9 46.4 51.2 57.1 62.7 68.8 74.4 84.5 91.8 50.2 60.9 66.0 56.6 61.4 69.0 77.7 77.4 84.6 94.2 104.0

8.8 9.0 11.0 10.2 10.2 10.5 12.2 15.8 13.0 15.2 20.5 22.8 19.8 18.0 19.0 19.5 18.0 14.8 16.5 16.5 13.0 10.8 11.2 11.5 13.0 15.5 12.5 13.0 12.5 13.5 13.0 10.0 9.5 6.0 ...

16 12 15 12 22 22 24 25 20 42 39 34 52 44 34 25 44 33 25 20 37 20 14 14 30 23 15 33 23 19 15 18 12 8 ...

79.8 83.1 ... 93.7 77.0 81.5 90.5 96.5 96.5 67.8 80.5 87.2 79.2 86.4 93.2 94.6 79.4 86.4 89.9 91.6 100.6 86.9 81.6 85.4 80.0 80.8 85.0 88.0 84.7 75.1 80.6 95.2 83.2 71.0 75.3

1.15 0.98 ... 0.97 1.16 1.15 1.09 1.0 1.01 1.51 1.37 1.24 1.51 1.41 1.32 1.10 1.49 1.40 1.23 1.06 1.36 1.06 0.86 0.80 1.33 1.01 0.94 1.32 1.16 0.86 0.79 1.10 0.90 0.67 ...

1.27 1.12 ... 1.15 1.50 1.48 1.48 1.43 1.38 1.68 1.73 1.66 1.72 1.70 1.74 1.56 1.71 1.69 1.57 1.46 1.46 1.16 0.96 0.93 1.60 1.33 1.29 1.55 1.38 1.09 1.04 1.23 0.98 0.75 0.72

Specimens per Fig. A1.7. Each line represents average of three tests for a single lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. RT, room temperature. (a) Obsolete alloy

130 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9.3(a) Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens from welds in 0.125 in. aluminum alloy sheet at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld)
Longitudinal, transverse weld Postweld heat treatment Ultimate Test tensile temperature, strength F (UTS), ksi Joint yield strength (JYS), ksi Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Parent alloy and temper

Filler alloy

Elongation in 2 in., %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

2014-T3

4043

2014-T3

4043

2014-T6

4043

2219-T37

2319

2219-T37

2319

2219-T62

2319

2219-T62

2319

2219-T87

2319

5456-H321

5556

5456-H343

5556

6061-T6

4043

RT 320 423 Aged to T6 RT 320 423 None RT 320 423 None RT 320 423 Aged to T87 RT 320 423 None RT 320 423 ReheatRT treated to T62 320 423 None RT 320 423 None RT 320 423 None RT 320 423 None RT 320 423

None

50.0 61.1 65.8 54.8 62.9 66.9 46.3 60.9 60.0 41.8 58.6 58.5 43.2 54.6 63.0 44.0 54.3 64.0 60.5

41.5 50.8 62.3 54.8(a) 62.9(a) 62.3(a) 37.8 46.8 51.0 28.7 35.5 43.5 39.1 48.3 51.9 30.5 39.7 50.0 43.5

2.8 2.2 0.7 (a) (a) (a) 2.8 2.0 1.2 4.0 6.9 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.3 2.7 2.3 6.0 7.5

47.4 57.4 61.4 52.9 61.2 68.4 42.9 45.7 50.9 36.0 49.4 54.4 43.7 55.6 55.3 47.3 56.5 59.2 59.5

0.95 0.94 0.93 0.97 0.97 1.02 0.93 0.75 0.85 0.88 0.84 0.93 1.01 1.02 0.88 1.08 1.04 0.92 0.98

1.14 1.13 0.99 0.97 0.97 1.10 1.13 0.98 1.00 1.28 1.39 1.25 1.12 1.15 1.07 1.55 1.42 1.18 1.37

75.2 81.6 45.3 59.2 65.9 51.9 63.7 59.1 51.9 59.1 58.8 32.2 47.4 65.5

51.8 58.5 32.8 39.0 45.3 32.6 37.7 49.5 30.7 34.1 38.6 23.2 28.8 32.0

7.5 4.0 2.3 3.0 2.3 13.0 15.8 3.8 7.0 6.5 3.0 5.3 10.5 10.8

73.0 78.7 41.7 53.8 57.8 54.4 59.7 59.7 53.2 59.0 59.9 34.1 38.0 41.8

0.97 0.96 0.92 0.91 0.88 1.05 0.94 1.01 1.03 1.00 1.02 1.06 0.80 0.64

1.41 1.35 1.27 1.38 1.28 1.67 1.58 1.21 1.73 1.73 1.55 1.47 1.32 1.31

Specimens per Fig. A1.4. Each line represents average for three tests for a single lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2% in 2 in. gage length. RT, room temperature. (a) No joint yield strength or elongation identified

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 131

Table 9.3(b) Results of tensile tests of smooth and notched 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet-type tensile specimens from welds in 0.125 in. aluminum alloy sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld)
Transverse (longitudinal weld) Postweld heat treatment Ultimate Test tensile temperature, strength F (UTS), ksi Joint yield strength (JYS), ksi Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Parent alloy and temper

Filler alloy

Elongation in 2 in., %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

2014-T3

4043

2014-T3

4043

2219-T37

2319

2219-T37

2319

2219-T62

2319

2219-T62

2319

2219-T87

2319

5456-H321

5556

5456-H343

5556

RT 320 423 Aged to T6 RT 320 423 None RT 320 423 Aged to T87 RT 320 423 None RT 320 423 Reheat-treated RT to T62 320 423 None RT 320 423 None RT 320 423 None RT 320 423

None

47.6 56.4 61.0 49.3 58.8 67.6 42.7 56.1 55.8 42.7 53.4 56.8 45.2 58.1 60.0 60.2 73.8 79.4 44.6 58.0 62.2 51.7 63.2 62.1 51.8 63.7 60.9

38.6 47.6 58.6 49.3(a) 58.8(a) 67.6(a) 27.4 36.6 42.8 38.2 44.7 48.2 30.8 35.6 41.5 42.8 51.1 57.1 31.0 34.6 44.8 30.3 35.8 55.0 30.1 34.3 39.2

1.0 1.3 0.5 (a) (a) (a) 4.0 4.0 1.6 2.3 1.7 1.0 3.5 4.7 2.0 9.2 6.2 4.3 2.2 4.1 2.1 8.5 9.5 5.0 7.3 7.2 3.5

49.5 57.0 64.1 48.9 60.9 65.2 38.3 49.9 54.0 41.1 52.6 54.8 44.9 56.7 59.8 58.0 70.0 74.4 44.2 55.1 59.0 51.8 57.1 55.8 54.0 57.5 57.5

1.04 1.01 1.05 0.99 1.04 0.96 0.90 0.89 0.97 0.96 0.99 0.96 0.99 0.98 1.00 0.96 0.95 0.94 0.99 0.95 0.95 1.00 0.90 0.90 1.04 0.90 0.94

1.28 1.20 1.09 0.99 1.04 0.96 1.40 1.36 1.26 1.08 1.18 1.14 1.46 1.00 1.44 1.36 1.37 1.30 1.43 1.59 1.32 1.71 1.59 1.01 1.79 1.68 1.47

Specimens per Fig. A1.4. Each line represents average for three tests for a single lot of material. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2% in 2 in. gage length. RT, room temperature. (a) No joint yield strength or elongation identified

132 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9.4 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diam, notched round specimens from welds in aluminum alloys at subzero temperatures
Base alloy and temper Ultimate Tensile Joint Notch Postweld Test tensile yield strength tensile thermal temperature, strength strength Elongation Reduction efficiency, Location of strength treatment F (UTS), ksi (TYS), ksi in 2 in., % of area, % % fracture(a) (NTS), ksi NTS/TS NTS/YS

Filler alloy

1100-H112 2219-T62

2218-T851

3003-H112

5052-H112

5083-O

5083-H321

5086-H32 5154-H112 5454-H32

5456-O 5456-H321 6061-T6

RT 320 2319 Aged to T62 RT 112 320 452 2319 None RT 112 320 423 1100 None RT 112 320 452 5052 None RT 320 5154 None RT 320 5183 None RT 112 320 452 5183 None RT 112 320 452 5356 None RT 112 320 452 5556 None RT 112 320 452 5356 None RT 320 5154 None RT 320 5554 None RT 112 320 452 5456 None RT 320 5556 None RT 320 4043 None RT 320 423 452 4043 None RT 320 4043 Aged to T6 RT 112 320 452 4043 HTA RT 320 5356 None RT 112

1100 None

11.6 11.6 57.3 60.4 68.9 72.0 32.7 40.8 51.7 59.6 16.1 19.3 33.7 51.1 29.1 45.8 29.2 45.9 42.5 43.9 58.2 55.3 44.2 47.0 64.7 66.1 41.5 43.9 61.9 66.0 44.4 46.3 65.3 68.8 38.5 52.8 32.6 48.7 33.9 36.0 54.7 61.4 43.9 57.2 44.6 59.0 31.0 34.6 44.0 49.1 26.1 38.8 43.3 47.8 57.3 65.6 43.2 53.4 32.7 37.1

6.1 6.1 40.2 40.5 46.6 51.5 26.8 25.0 28.0 40.2 7.6 8.3 10.8 18.5 13.9 16.3 13.7 16.5 20.1 20.7 22.4 25.2 26.0 26.2 31.4 35.7 24.3 27.0 29.1 34.1 25.6 26.7 30.6 34.6 19.1 20.3 14.5 16.9 17.1 17.4 22.5 26.1 21.7 24.8 22.5 26.2 20.9 23.6 25.8 37.6 15.2 18.2 35.9 38.3 42.3 44.8 38.6 46.8 22.6 24.7

26.5 26.5 7.5 6.5 5.5 3.5 2.0 4.0 3.5 2.5 24.0 26.5 31.0 28.0 18.0 25.0 15.0 26.0 21.5 31.0 19.0 27.0 14.0 19.0 19.0 9.0 13.5 14.5 15.5 9.0 14.0 18.5 20.5 13.0 16.0 17.0 17.0 27.5 18.0 22.0 29.0 14.5 13.0 18.0 13.0 14.5 6.0 6.0 5.5 4.5 12.0 7.5 11.0 21.5 16.5 15.0 2.0 3.0 8.0 9.0 (continued)

(b) (b) 7 8 6 5 5 15 10 10 67 66 52 25 (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) 44 20 37 39 48 23 14 47 52 33 17 36 46 26 17.0 (b) (b) (b) (b) 42 47 29 (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) 19 19 12 9 (b) (b) 44 38 12 16 (b) (b) 31 36

(b) (b) 99 96 94 80 50 57 62 62 100 (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) 100 100 99 69 96 98 100 80 90 91 97 80 97 96 100 83 (b) (b) (b) (b) 85 86 93 90 (b) (b) (b) (b) 69 71 75 63 (b) (b) 96 98 97 63 (b) (b) 73 76

(b) (b) C C C C C C C C C C C C (b) (b) (b) (b) A C A B C A A A A A A C A A A A (b) (b) (b) (b) A A A A (b) (b) (b) (b) C A A A (b) (b) B B A A (b) (b) A B

17.8 17.8 63.7 68.6 74.8 82.8 40.7 48.3 48.5 52.7 22.7 ... ... 39.8 32.8 45.5 32.1 45.7 44.7 49.9 50.1 53.9 54.5 59.5 62.4 58.8 53.8 57.5 60.6 57.7 53.7 58.1 60.5 57.9 41.4 48.4 34.1 43.0 39.3 ... 52.8 47.9 40.7 48.5 45.2 52.4 34.0 38.6 39.6 39.9 27.5 33.8 57.5 61.5 64.8 67.2 42.3 47.9 46.9 50.1

1.53 1.53 1.11 1.14 1.09 1.15 1.24 1.18 0.94 0.88 1.41 ... ... 0.78 1.13 0.99 1.10 1.00 1.05 1.14 0.86 0.98 1.23 1.27 0.96 0.89 1.30 1.31 0.98 0.87 1.21 1.26 0.93 0.84 1.07 0.92 1.05 0.88 1.16 ... 0.97 0.78 0.93 0.85 1.01 0.89 1.10 1.12 0.90 0.81 1.05 0.87 1.31 1.27 1.13 1.02 0.98 0.90 1.44 1.35

2.92 2.92 1.58 1.69 1.61 1.61 1.52 1.93 1.73 1.31 3.00 ... ... 2.15 2.36 2.79 2.34 2.76 2.22 2.41 2.24 2.14 2.10 2.27 1.98 1.65 2.22 2.13 2.08 1.69 2.10 2.19 1.98 1.68 2.17 2.38 2.35 2.54 2.30 ... 2.35 1.91 1.87 1.95 2.01 2.00 1.63 1.64 1.54 1.06 1.81 1.86 1.57 1.60 1.53 1.50 1.10 1.02 2.07 2.03

Specimens per Fig. A1.7(b). Each line represents average of two or three tests for one lot of material. For joint yield strength, offset is 0.2%, over a 2 in. gage length. Joint efficiencies based upon typical values for parent alloys. (a) Location of A, through weld; B, 12 to 212 in. from center of weld, in or near weld heat-affected zone; C, edge of weld. (b) Not recorded

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 133

Table 9.4 (continued)


Base alloy and temper Ultimate Tensile Joint Notch Postweld Test tensile yield strength tensile thermal temperature, strength strength Elongation Reduction efficiency, Location of strength treatment F (UTS), ksi (TYS), ksi in 2 in., % of area, % % fracture(a) (NTS), ksi NTS/TS NTS/YS

Filler alloy

5356 Aged to T6

7005-T53

5039 None

7005-T6351

5039 None

5356 None

320 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 452

47.0 57.7 40.5 46.4 57.1 69.1 48.3 57.0 56.8 60.0 48.4 55.2 55.8 68.8 42.1 47.4 60.3 66.8

27.3 35.3 29.3 35.1 33.9 44.5 32.2 37.8 43.3 48.4 32.3 35.4 40.8 53.9 28.2 30.2 34.0 45.2

13.5 13.5 9.5 12.0 20.0 19.0 12.2 10.0 3.5 3.5 11.5 11.0 3.8 3.5 6.8 8.3 6.7 3.5

39 24 33 44 29 24 (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b)

80 84 90 95 97 89 78 84 68 61 85 85 77 77 74 73 77 76

B A B A B A (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b) (b)

54.1 53.3 ... 57.8 66.4 60.8 59.0 64.7 53.7 55.5 57.6 63.6 63.4 55.8 52.7 59.7 64.0 62.5

1.15 0.92 ... 1.25 1.16 0.88 1.83 1.71 1.24 1.15 1.78 1.80 1.55 1.04 1.87 1.98 1.88 1.38

1.98 1.50 ... 1.65 1.96 1.37 1.85 1.71 1.24 1.15 1.78 1.81 1.55 1.04 1.87 1.97 1.88 1.38

Specimens per Fig. A1.7(b). Each line represents average of two or three tests for one lot of material. For joint yield strength, offset is 0.2%, over a 2 in. gage length. Joint efficiencies based upon typical values for parent alloys. (a) Location of A, through weld; B, 12 to 212 in. from center of weld, in or near weld heat-affected zone; C, edge of weld. (b) Not recorded

Table 9.5 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diam, notched round specimens from aluminum alloy castings at subzero temperatures (former alloy designation in parentheses)
Test temperature, F Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper Sand casting

Elongation in 2 in., %

Reduction of area, %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

208.0-F (108-F) 240.0-F (A140-F) 242.0-T77 (142-T77) 295.0-T6 (195-T6) X335.0-T6 (X335-T6) 356.0-T4 (356-T4) 356.0-T6 (356-T6) 356.0-T7 (356-T7) 356.0-T71 (356-T71) A356.0-T7 (A356-T7)

RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320

25.0 26.2 30.65 33.8 32.8 36.8 29.8 32.8 32.8 42.0 45.5 53.7 37.3 42.3 51.6 31.1 36.6 40.8 38.6 43.1 47.5 37.8 41.4 45.1 28.8 32.2 37.4 37.1 40.0 45.6

18.5 21.7 30.2 26.0 22.7 32.4 20.4 22.7 26.8 27.1 32.0 39.9 23.4 27.4 32.1 19.8 23.4 27.2 32.6 35.8 39.2 33.7 34.4 38.8 20.2 22.2 25.3 30.5 31.7 35.2

1.8 2.0(a) 1.3 1.4 (b) (b) 2.1 (b) (b) 6.4 6.0 5.0 8.6 8.0 7.6 4.4 4.4 2.7 2.2 2.7 2.7 1.6 2.0 1.3 5.0 4.4 3.0 4.4 4.4 3.4 (continued)

2 0(a) 0 2 (b) (b) 4 (b) (b) 10 5 5 12 10 10 6 6 3 3 2 2 2 2 0 ... 5 2 7 5 4

25.2 21.6 21.7 29.9 19.4 17.4 29.0 26.0 27.7 43.5 58.0 58.0 38.2 43.0 45.6 31.6 37.6 42.2 37.4 40.0 44.0 34.5 38.8 43.1 32.0 29.6 34.4 44.9 41.0 44.0

1.01 0.82 0.71 0.88 <0.58 <0.47 0.97 <0.81 <0.84 1.04 1.08 1.08 1.02 1.02 0.88 1.02 1.04 1.04 0.97 0.93 0.93 0.91 0.94 0.96 1.11 0.92 0.92 1.21 1.02 0.96

1.36 1.00 0.72 1.15 0.75 0.54 1.42 1.17 1.03 1.60 1.45 1.45 1.63 1.57 1.42 1.60 1.61 1.55 1.15 1.12 1.13 1.02 1.13 1.11 1.59 1.34 1.36 1.47 1.29 1.25

Tests of single specimens per Fig. A1.7 at each temperature. For yield strength, offset is 0.2%. RT room temperature. (a) Broke outside middle third. (b) Broke in threads. (c) Broke before reaching 0.2%

134 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9.5 (continued)


Test temperature, F Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Notch tensile strength (NTS), ksi

Alloy and temper

Elongation in 2 in., %

Reduction of area, %

NTS/TS

NTS/YS

520.0-F (220-F) B535.0-F (B218-F) A612.0-F (A612-F)

RT 112 320 RT 112 320 423 RT 112 320

34.2 41.6 39.6 41.2 41.6 37.3 30.8 43.1 45.5 53.2

31.6 37.4 39.6(c) 21.2 22.3 25.5 28.1 34.8 41.0 49.0

2.1 1.3 0.7 12.9 10.0 3.7 0.8 3.2 2.7 2.4

2 1 0 13 11 5 1 7 2 3

38.4 27.9 27.2 43.8 42.4 35.5 20.0 45.5 50.8 51.0

1.12 0.79 0.69 1.06 1.06 0.95 0.65 1.05 1.12 0.96

1.22 0.75 0.69 2.07 1.90 1.39 0.71 1.31 1.24 1.04

Permanent-mold casting

X335.0-T61 (X335-T61) 354.0-T62 (354-T62) 356.0-T6 (356-T6) 356.0-T7 (356-T7) A356.0-T61 (A356-T61) A356.0-T62 (A356-T62) A356.0-T7 (A356-T7) 359.0-T62 (359-T62) A444.0-F (A344-F)

RT 112 320 423 RT 112 320 423 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 423 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320

40.8 40.1 45.7 54.0 50.1 54.4 61.0 60.2 36.8 42.0 45.7 28.4 32.6 37.3 39.4 41.9 49.4 40.9 45.2 48.6 5.5 28.2 35.4 42.7 46.2 52.4 57.7 23.2 26.2 37.6

28.4 29.2 31.0 35.8 45.5 45.6 48.7 56.1 31.1 34.1 36.5 21.4 24.3 25.6 30.8 32.6 35.8 36.7 39.6 41.4 45.3 21.4 25.8 28.5 43.2 47.3 49.5 9.7 10.0 12.1(a)

8.5 4.6 5.3 5.0 1.1 1.3 1.3 0.8 1.0 3.7 3.2 4.3 3.7 3.0 4.3 3.7 4.4 2.1 3.0 3.0 3.5 5.3 5.7 6.4 1.2 2.0 1.6 22.2 19.7 13.3(a)

13 7 5 ... 3 2 2 1 ... 5 4 7 5 4 ... 6 6 6 5 5 3 9 8 7 3 4 4 37 24 12(a)

45.7 47.2 53.4 58.3 54.2 53.2 56.4 57.2 43.0 41.4 45.0 35.3 37.2 39.9 47.8 47.7 52.6 46.2 49.8 57.9 63.3 36.9 43.9 47.1 49.7 49.8 49.8 28.6 30.4 32.0

1.12 1.18 1.18 1.08 1.08 0.98 0.92 0.95 1.17 0.98 0.98 1.24 1.14 1.07 1.21 1.14 1.07 1.13 1.10 1.19 1.15 1.31 1.24 1.10 1.08 0.95 0.86 1.23 1.16 0.85

1.61 1.62 1.72 1.63 1.19 1.17 1.16 1.02 1.38 1.21 1.23 1.65 1.53 1.56 1.55 1.46 1.47 1.26 1.26 1.40 1.40 1.72 1.70 1.65 1.15 1.05 1.01 2.95 3.04 2.64

Premium-strength casting

C355.0-T61 (C355-T61) A356.0-T61 (A356-T61) A357.0-T61 (A357-T61) A357.0-T62 (A357-T62)

RT 112 320 RT 112 320 452 RT 112 320 RT 112 320

43.6 48.4 54.4 41.6 48.2 51.7 66.0 51.2 54.4 61.5 51.2 53.1 62.2

30.3 33.2 39.4 30.2 34.8 38.0 48.0 40.0 43.4 47.0 44.4 46.7 49.3

6.4 7.5 5.4 8.8 8.9 4.0 7.1 11.4 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.1 2.5

8 8 6 10 10 4 9 13 5 4 4 3 4

52.6 56.6 62.7 51.4 55.2 59.8 71.9 56.2 58.2 59.4 55.4 55.2 59.7

1.21 1.17 1.15 1.23 1.15 1.15 1.09 1.10 1.08 0.96 1.08 1.04 0.96

1.74 1.7 1.59 1.7 1.59 1.57 1.50 1.41 1.35 1.27 1.25 1.18 1.21

Tests of single specimens per Fig. A1.7 at each temperature. For yield strength, offset is 0.2%. RT room temperature. (a) Broke outside middle third. (b) Broke in threads. (c) Broke before reaching 0.2%

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 135

Table 9.6 Results of tensile tests of smooth and 0.5 in. diam, notched round specimens from welds in aluminum alloy sand castings at subzero temperatures
Alloy and temper combination Joint Post Ultimate yield weld tensile strength Filler thermal Test (UTS), (JYS), alloy treatment temperature, ksi ksi Notch Joint tensile Elongation Reduction strength Location strength in 2 in., of area, efficiency, of fracture (NTS), % % % (a) ksi NTS/TS NTS/YS

A444.0-F to A444.0-F

4043

None 320 452 None 452 None 320 452 None 320 452 None 320 452 None 320 452 None 452 None 452

A444.0-F to 6061-T6 A444.0-F to 5456-H321

4043

5556

354.0-T62 to 354.0-T6

4043

354.0-T62 to 6061-T6

4043

354.0-T62 to 5456-H321

5556

C355.0-T61 to 6061-T6 C355.0-T61 to 5456-H321

4043

5556

RT 112 33.5 48.6 RT 320 45.5 RT 112 33.4 37.2 RT 112 48.9 55.0 RT 112 43.1 45.9 RT 112 47.6 47.7 RT 320 52.3 RT 320 48.3

23.8 26.1 11.5 18.0 24.0 34.7 28.5 24.1 27.0 16.1 25.4 37.8 40.4 24.1 38.3 30.8 35.8 23.0 35.7 37.7 42.1 30.4 37.6 28.9 44.4 38.6 35.4 45.6 40.8

9.5 10.0 6.4 10.0 11.4 14.8 7.1 12.2 15.0 5.7 4.3 21.5 22.9 5.0 4.3 19.0 21.8 5.0 2.9 24.6 27.1 3.6 2.9 19.3 23.3 6.4 24.4 29.3 2.9

12.1 14.3 9 13 5.7 7.1 8 12.1 5.0 8 7 6.4 5.7 8 7 9.3 7.1 7 4 3.6 3.6 5 3 7.1 7.9 8 3.6 4.3 5

22 26 89 (b) 23 9 (b) 27 14 89 (b) 10 11 84 (b) 39 7 71 (b) 5 6 78 (b) 32 19 (b) 5 7 (b)

100 100 B A 100 92 B 100 100 C C 76 74 A A 62 66 A A 75 77 A A 66 82 A 81 84 C

B B 38.1 40.4 B B 36.9 B B 34.3 36.4 A A 36.9 42.3 C A 34.7 37.4 A A 39.5 41.3 C A 40.4 A C 45.5

27.5 31.7 1.14 0.83 29.3 34.1 0.81 29.5 31.1 1.03 0.98 32.0 33.0 0.76 0.72 28.7 31.5 0.81 0.82 37.7 35.7 0.83 0.87 34.5 38.9 0.78 40.5 45.0 0.94

1.15 1.21 3.31 2.24 1.22 0.98 1.29 1.22 1.15 2.13 1.43 0.85 0.82 1.53 1.05 0.93 0.88 1.51 1.05 1.00 0.85 1.30 1.10 1.19 0.88 1.05 1.15 0.99 1.12

2.90 3.17

2.51 2.30 2.42 2.08

1.48 1.44

1.51 1.44

1.53 1.42

1.79 1.67 1.66 1.54

Specimens per Fig. A1.7(b). Each line represents the average of duplicate tests on one lot of material. For joint yield strength, offset is 0.2%, over a 2 in. gage length. Joint efficiencies based upon typical values for parent alloys. RT, room temperature. (a) Location of fracture of unnotched specimens: A, through weld; B, approximately 0.5 to 2.5 in. from weld; C, edge of weld. (b) Not recorded; no parent metal tests for comparison

136 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9.7 Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy sheet at various temperatures
Tensile tests Tear Test

Alloy and temper

Energy required to: Ultimate Tensile Ratio Unit Test Exposure Time at tensile yield Elongation Tear tear Initiate Propagate Total propagation temperature, temperature, temperature, strength strength in 2 in., strength, strength crack, crack, energy (UPE), F F h (UTS), ksi (TYS) ksi % ksi to yield in.-lb in.-lb in.-lb in lb/in.2

2014-T6

320 112 RT RT RT 212 300

320 112 RT 212 300 212 300

2020-T6(b)

400 320 112 RT RT RT

400 320 112 RT 212 300

212 300

212 300

2024-T3

320 112 RT RT

320 112 RT 212

RT RT 212 300

300 400 212 300

2024-T81

400 320 112 RT RT RT RT 212 300 400 320 112 RT RT RT

400 320 112 RT 212 300 400 212 300 400 320 112 RT 212 300

2024-T86

(a) (a) ... 0.5 96 0.5 16 96 0.5 96 0.5 16 96 0.5 (a) (a) ... 0.5 480 0.5 96 480 0.5 480 0.5 96 480 (a) (a) ... 0.5 96 960 0.5 96 0.5 0.5 96 0.5 96 480 0.5 (a) (a) ... 0.5 0.5 1000 0.5 0.5 1000 0.5 1000 0.5 (a) (a) ... 0.5 0.5 1000

86.0 ... 73.3 72.8 73.5 72.4 73.0 71.9 66.1 66.6 57.6 58.3 59.5 ... 95.5 87.5 81.1 81.2 83.3 81.6 82.1 80.7 74.1 75.4 67.1 67.3 65.1 83.2 ... 67.8 70.2 70.6 70.0 67.8 70.9 69.4 65.6 65.2 60.2 63.0 64.9 54.0 87.1 77.5 72.7 72.2 72.0 70.8 71.5 66.6 66.6 60.1 57.9 51.4 94.5 83.3 77.5 77.5 77.2 74.0

72.8 ... 63.8 63.6 65.1 63.4 65.3 65.7 59.3 60.8 52.2 53.1 55.0 ... 87.2 80.9 75.8 75.8 77.1 76.0 76.8 74.8 71.4 72.7 64.9 64.6 62.6 60.5 ... 48.2 48.2 48.2 48.2 46.3 53.4 49.5 46.5 46.4 43.0 50.1 61.7 49.1 76.5 73.0 67.5 67.2 67.2 64.8 66.4 62.2 63.3 56.9 54.3 48.2 85.2 76.8 72.8 72.2 72.2 67.3

10.0 ... 35.1 ... 13.0 ... 5.0 5.5 5.2 ... 34.5 ... 11.5 ... 2.3 5.0 7.5 7.0 6.5 7.0 6.0 6.5 9.5 9.0 8.0 9.0 9.5 11.5 ... 18.5 19.0 20.5 19.0 18.5 16.3 12.5 17.0 17.0 19.5 15.5 8.5 10.5 8.0 6.0 5.5 5.5 6.0 6.0 6.0 7.5 7.5 10.0 10.0 8.0 7.5 5.5 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.5

67.0 64.1 62.1 65.0 66.0 62.5 61.0 63.4 73.0 67.0 68.0 67.0 65.5 57.7 35.4 39.5 41.6 41.3 40.5 48.8 38.2 44.7 49.5 52.7 56.8 56.8 61.3 82.0 77.7 75.1 ... 75.6 72.0 75.1 75.5 76.1 72.5 73.5 71.1 73.5 65.0 64.5 62.6 57.8 53.4 55.6 58.3 59.9 61.7 61.2 57.9 69.0 65.2 64.3 59.6 58.7 60.9 56.5 62.3 57.0

0.92 ... 0.97 1.03 1.01 0.98 0.94 0.96 1.23 1.10 1.28 1.26 1.19 ... 0.41 0.49 0.55 0.54 0.52 0.64 0.50 0.60 0.69 0.72 0.88 0.88 0.98 1.36 ... 1.56 ... 1.57 1.50 1.62 1.41 1.28 1.55 1.58 1.66 1.47 1.05 1.31 0.76 0.79 0.79 0.83 0.87 0.92 0.93 0.98 0.91 1.21 1.20 1.33 0.70 0.76 0.84 0.78 0.86 0.85

8 8 8 5 11 7 5 8 12 8 12 11 8 12 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 5 5 6 5 16 18 19 ... 14 17 17 13 17 11 14 15 10 8 10 6 6 6 5 6 7 8 6 5 13 9 14 5 5 6 5 6 7

13 13 11 14 15 12 13 11 14 14 24 20 24 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 32 33 ... 35 34 35 27 32 31 28 32 29 19 31 10 9 8 10 12 17 16 15 10 20 24 33 11 11 9 10 11 12

21 21 19 19 25 19 18 21 26 22 36 31 32 43 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3 5 5 6 5 38 50 52 ... 49 51 52 40 49 42 42 47 39 27 41 16 15 14 15 18 24 24 21 15 33 33 47 16 16 15 15 17 19

200 205 172 220 228 186 206 172 215 215 374 313 372 480 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 363 520 540 ... 565 552 565 443 526 507 457 522 465 308 497 155 150 135 165 195 270 250 245 155 330 390 525 175 175 145 160 170 195

(continued)
Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Results of single test at each time-temperature combination. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. All specimens from transverse direction. RT, room temperature. (a) Tested immediately upon reaching temperature; time at temperature has no known effect (b) Obsolete alloy

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 137

Table 9.7 (continued)


Tensile tests Tear Test

Alloy and temper

Energy required to: Ultimate Tensile Ratio Unit Test Exposure Time at tensile yield Elongation Tear tear Initiate Propagate Total propagation temperature, temperature, temperature, strength strength in 2 in., strength, strength crack, crack, energy (UPE), F F h (UTS), ksi (TYS) ksi % ksi to yield in.-lb in.-lb in.-lb in lb/in.2

RT 212 300 400 320 112 RT RT RT RT 212 300 2618-T6 400 320 112 RT RT RT

400 212 300 400 320 112 RT 212 300 400 212 300 400 320 112 RT 212 300

2219-T87

212 300

212 300

5454-O

5454-H34

5456-H343

320 112 RT RT RT RT 212 300 400 320 112 RT RT RT RT 212 300 400 320 112 RT RT RT RT 212 300 400

320 112 RT 212 300 400 212 300 400 320 112 RT 212 300 400 212 300 400 320 112 RT 212 300 400 212 300 400

0.5 0.5 0.5 1000 0.5 (a) (a) ... 0.5 0.5 1000 0.5 0.5 1000 0.5 1000 0.5 (a) (a) ... 0.5 480 0.5 96 480 0.5 480 0.5 96 480 (a) (a) ... 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 (a) (a) ... 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 (a) (a) ... 0.5 0.5 1000 0.5 0.5 0.5 1000 0.5

76.2 71.1 64.3 60.5 55.0 91.0 77.9 72.4 72.2 72.4 67.6 70.6 63.8 63.2 55.1 51.6 44.4 74.5 ... 60.6 59.7 60.2 59.8 60.2 60.1 56.2 56.3 50.5 51.1 50.6 53.1 39.3 35.8 36.5 36.7 36.7 36.9 29.1 21.2 61.8 47.7 46.6 46.2 45.9 44.5 46.0 40.5 31.5 71.7 59.4 57.4 56.7 56.1 50.0 53.6 53.9 44.3 38.5 32.4

70.6 67.2 61.4 57.4 50.2 70.7 62.6 59.8 59.6 59.6 53.4 56.7 55.0 54.7 49.2 45.0 39.7 63.0 ... 54.2 53.1 53.4 53.3 54.0 53.3 51.4 51.7 46.9 47.5 46.9 19.2 18.3 17.5 17.0 16.8 16.0 16.9 16.8 14.9 42.8 37.4 36.8 36.3 36.1 35.0 36.5 35.1 22.2 49.7 43.9 43.5 43.5 42.9 35.3 39.6 42.0 37.5 32.8 19.8

5.5 7.5 10.0 10.5 6.5 11.5 9.0 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 13.5 13.5 15.5 16.0 ... 11.5 ... 6.0 7.0 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.0 7.5 7.5 12.0 11.0 13.5 28.5 29.0 21.5 22.0 20.5 23.5 26.5 40.5 45.5 19.5 12.5 11.5 10.5 10.5 12.0 11.0 25.5 27.5 10.0 10.5 10.0 9.5 10.5 10.0 12.0 16.5 27.5 28.5 23.5

62.2 64.5 67.1 71.1 67.5 76.4 71.7 65.7 66.2 68.2 68.7 69.2 70.0 67.5 66.5 65.4 57.2 77.6 66.2 58.8 60.8 63.0 65.5 64.3 65.5 62.8 62.8 66.6 69.2 68.1 55.3 49.1 47.0 47.5 46.8 46.4 45.3 43.1 36.0 79.9 71.3 65.0 66.9 67.8 65.5 65.0 62.8 46.1 51.8 62.5 59.6 63.8 63.8 57.8 62.8 73.0 65.9 59.2 44.1

0.88 0.96 1.09 1.24 1.35 1.08 1.14 1.10 1.11 1.14 1.29 1.22 1.27 1.24 1.35 1.45 1.44 1.22 ... 1.09 1.15 1.18 1.23 1.19 1.23 1.22 1.22 1.42 1.46 1.45 2.88 2.68 2.68 2.79 2.79 2.81 2.68 2.56 2.42 1.86 1.90 1.77 1.84 1.88 1.87 1.78 1.79 2.08 1.04 1.43 1.37 1.47 1.49 1.64 1.58 1.74 1.76 1.80 2.23

8 7 11 12 16 11 9 9 8 11 12 13 11 9 13 15 16 11 8 8 8 7 6 8 8 10 8 13 15 14 59 54 47 47 42 48 43 56 60 31 24 19 18 23 24 15 30 36 6 10 9 13 14 12 14 22 36 36 45

11 ... 22 26 34 15 14 15 14 20 30 19 21 14 34 36 36 23 16 15 15 19 18 16 19 20 19 28 42 36 107 113 89 85 84 83 87 122 175 68 64 40 48 44 50 44 90 169 10 20 18 ... 21 26 31 24 42 98 165

19 ... 33 38 50 26 23 24 22 31 42 32 32 23 47 51 52 34 24 23 23 26 24 24 27 30 27 41 56 50 166 167 136 132 126 131 130 178 235 99 88 59 66 67 74 59 120 205 16 30 27 ... 35 38 45 46 78 134 210

180 ... 355 425 540 240 220 230 225 310 460 295 330 225 530 560 555 353 250 234 245 292 285 248 300 311 291 445 648 570 1650 1745 1375 1315 1300 1285 1345 1890 2710 1055 995 625 740 680 765 685 1390 2620 150 300 280 ... 320 385 465 360 640 1445 2500

(continued)
Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Results of single test at each time-temperature combination. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. All specimens from transverse direction. RT, room temperature. (a) Tested immediately upon reaching temperature; time at temperature has no known effect (b) Obsolete alloy

138 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9.7 (continued)


Tensile tests Tear Test

Alloy and temper

Energy required to: Ultimate Tensile Ratio Unit Test Exposure Time at tensile yield Elongation Tear tear Initiate Propagate Total propagation temperature, temperature, temperature, strength strength in 2 in., strength, strength crack, crack, energy (UPE), F F h (UTS), ksi (TYS) ksi % ksi to yield in.-lb in.-lb in.-lb in lb/in.2

6061-T6

320 112 RT RT

320 112 RT 212

RT RT 212 300

300 400 212 300

7075-T6

400 320 112 RT RT RT RT 212 300

400 320 112 RT 212 300 400 212 300 400 320 112 RT 212 300 400 212 300 400 320 112 RT 212 300 400 212 300 400

7079-T6(b)

400 320 112 RT RT RT RT 212 300 400 320 112 RT RT RT RT 212 300 400

7178-T6

(a) (a) ... 0.5 96 960 0.5 96 0.5 0.5 96 0.5 396 480 0.5 (a) (a) ... 0.5 96 960 0.5 96 0.5 0.5 96 0.5 96 0.5 (a) (a) ... 0.5 0.5 1000 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 (a) (a) ... 0.5 0.5 1000 0.5 0.5 0.5 1000 0.5

60.1 ... 45.6 45.8 46.1 46.0 45.7 45.5 43.9 41.9 41.8 37.3 38.4 37.9 ... 98.7 90.4 84.6 82.2 84.3 85.1 82.2 76.2 71.1 75.0 74.9 60.7 56.7 42.0 95.9 83.6 78.3 77.6 76.5 59.8 67.5 70.7 59.5 42.3 10.5 93.5 87.9 87.8 86.1 58.6 74.8 79.9 67.4 39.4 46.6

47.1 ... 40.8 40.8 41.0 41.0 40.9 40.9 39.1 38.3 38.5 34.6 35.9 35.1 ... 87.5 79.9 75.5 72.7 75.6 76.5 72.7 64.2 58.7 70.5 70.4 55.1 51.0 37.6 82.1 74.9 69.8 68.9 67.3 44.4 54.4 63.6 54.5 38.3 91.6 83.5 78.0 77.7 75.9 43.5 63.6 71.7 61.4 36.8 42.7

16.0 ... 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 11.5 13.0 13.0 15.5 16.0 15.0 ... 5.0 12.0 11.0 10.5 11.0 12.0 10.5 10.0 10.5 12.5 12.5 16.0 19.5 11.0 8.0 12.0 10.5 10.0 10.0 9.5 10.5 13.0 16.0 11.0 5.0 11.0 11.5 11.0 11.5 9.5 9.5 15.0 18.5 26.0 ...

82.5 74.2 66.5 ... 69.7 65.0 70.4 68.9 68.9 64.0 64.0 59.5 60.6 ... 51.2 39.6 61.9 63.6 73.0 72.6 63.4 70.4 68.6 71.3 81.1 77.6 79.0 77.1 64.3 37.3 62.6 71.3 71.3 74.4 67.3 71.5 82.2 77.8 60.9 32.7 49.80 58.5 63.5 65.0 63.6 66.6 80.4 82.5 61.3 63.5

1.75 ... 1.63 ... 1.70 1.59 1.72 1.69 1.76 1.67 1.66 1.72 1.69 ... ... 0.45 0.78 0.84 1.00 0.96 0.83 0.98 1.07 1.22 1.15 1.10 1.43 1.51 1.71 0.45 0.84 1.02 1.04 1.10 1.52 1.32 1.29 1.43 1.59 0.36 0.60 0.75 0.82 0.86 1.46 1.05 1.12 1.34 1.67 1.49

34 19 23 ... 18 20 19 17 19 14 17 17 18 ... 17 4 7 8 11 10 7 9 8 10 16 9 18 19 21 2 8 12 11 14 14 16 20 24 27 2 5 6 7 8 12 10 14 21 23 20

89 60 49 ... 51 47 51 50 55 53 50 67 68 ... 72 0 0 11 9 11 12 10 12 17 18 18 53 59 59 0 2 16 17 13 30 25 24 59 74 0 0 4 7 7 26 8 ... 47 70 61

123 79 72 ... 69 67 70 67 74 67 67 82 86 ... 90 4 7 19 20 21 19 19 20 27 34 27 71 78 80 2 10 28 28 27 44 41 47 83 101 2 5 10 14 15 38 18 ... 68 93 81

1395 940 772 ... 800 732 796 780 868 835 787 1021 1058 ... 1400 0 0 173 149 179 184 159 192 275 292 285 846 950 945 0 30 240 250 195 445 375 345 870 1085 0 0 64 105 115 400 120 ... 730 1085 950

Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Results of single test at each time-temperature combination. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. All specimens from transverse direction. RT, room temperature. (a) Tested immediately upon reaching temperature; time at temperature has no known effect (b) Obsolete alloy

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 139

Table 9.8(a) Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy plate at subzero temperatures, longitudinal
Tensile tests Tear test

Alloy and temper

Ratio tear Energy required to: Ultimate Tensile strength Unit Test tensile yield to yield Total propagation Thickness, temperature, strength strength, Elongation Tear strength Initiate a Propagate a energy, energy in. F (UTS), ksi (TYS), ksi in 2 in., % strength, ksi (TYR) crack, in.-lb crack, in.-lb in.-lb (UPE), in.-lb/in.2

5083-O 5083-H321

0.75 0.38 0.38 0.75

5086-O 5154-O 5356-O 5356-H321 5454-O

0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.38 0.50

5454-H34

0.38 0.50

5456-O

0.38 0.75

5456-H321

0.38 0.50 0.75

RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320

45.5 62.9 49.9 70.8 (a) (a) (a) (a) 41.7 58.5 35.1 53.1 43.5 61.9 53.3 71.6 38.8 58.6 39.2 59.2 41.1 63.3 41.6 64.1 50.0 (a) 49.9 66.1 52.9 73.6 56.3 73.6 57.5 (a)

20.4 23.8 34.5 40.5 (a) (a) (a) (a) 20.5 23.3 16.1 18.6 18.9 25.0 34.7 39.0 22.7 26.6 23.6 27.6 27.1 32.0 35.0 41.3 26.6 (a) 23.4 26.1 34.2 39.7 34.5 33.6 35.6 (a)

20.5 33.0 14.5 27.0 (a) (a) (a) (a) 25.0 42.0 30.7 45.0 28.8 44.0 16.0 16.0 21.2 26.0 20.8 26.0 20.0 35.0 15.2 32.0 20.8 (a) 22.5 22.0 16.0 22.0 13.5 19.0 14.8 (a)

54.0 62.6 66.0 76.0 63.4 74.0 64.4 74.6 46.5 53.8 45.1 60.8 50.8 54.8 65.6 82.2 51.9 82.2 53.9 82.2 55.0 70.6 61.6 78.2 58.6 66.2 51.6 58.0 60.6 71.2 68.4 78.6 68.8 79.6

2.45 2.63 1.91 1.88 ... ... ... ... 2.27 2.31 2.80 3.27 1.76 2.19 1.89 2.11 2.29 3.09 2.28 2.98 2.03 2.21 1.76 1.89 2.20 ... 2.21 2.22 1.77 1.79 1.98 2.34 1.93 ...

54 82 45 59 42 60 38 57 66 101 80 106 65 84 60 86 69 96 78 110 72 103 43 81 57 56 44 52 42 52 54 54 47 62

112 148 112 133 85 127 82 112 114 175 135 202 141 190 87 170 107 190 120 199 111 172 92 149 99 127 99 121 92 110 104 128 75 114

166 230 157 192 127 187 120 169 179 276 215 308 206 274 147 256 176 286 199 309 183 275 135 220 157 183 142 173 114 162 158 182 122 176

1120 1480 1125 1330 855 1270 820 1120 1135 ... 1350 2020 1405 1900 865 1700 1070 1900 1205 1990 1110 1720 920 1490 995 1270 985 1210 920 1100 1040 1280 750 1140

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; average of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig. A1.8, generally 0.100 in. thick; in a few cases, 0.063 in. thick specimens were used. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. RT, room temperature. (a) Not reported

140 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9.8(b) Results of tensile and tear tests of aluminum alloy plate at subzero temperatures, transverse
Tensile tests Tear tests Ratio tear Energy required to: Ultimate Tensile strength Unit Test tensile yield to yield Total propagation Thickness, temperature, strength strength, Elongation Tear strength Initiate a Propagate a energy, energy in. F (UTS), ksi (TYS), ksi in 2 in., % strength, ksi (TYR) crack, in.-lb crack, in.-lb in.-lb (UPE), in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper

5083-O 5083-H321

0.75 0.38 0.38 0.75

5086-O 5154-O 5356-O 5356-H321 5454-O

0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.38 0.50

5454-H34

0.38 0.50

5456-O

0.38 0.75

5456-H321

0.38 0.50 0.75

RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320

45.9 62.4 50.1 66.4 (a) (a) (a) (a) 41.1 58.7 36.1 54.3 44.7 62.5 51.8 60.7 38.4 58.4 38.6 58.7 40.7 57.8 42.6 60.5 50.4 (a) 50.4 65.8 52.7 68.9 55.9 69.9 55.8 (a)

20.5 24.8 34.3 40.3 (a) (a) (a) (a) 20.6 23.5 16.2 18.0 21.7 24.5 33.2 24.5 23.2 27.8 23.8 28.6 26.4 30.9 33.9 39.7 27.4 (a) 23.7 26.7 34.4 39.6 33.6 39.2 34.4 (a)

25.0 35.0 16.1 24.0 (a) (a) (a) (a) 27.8 42.5 29.6 42.5 27.7 35.5 21.0 35.5 24.0 26.5 22.8 26.0 24.4 35.0 16.8 32.0 21.2 (a) 22.3 22.0 17.2 24.5 19.0 25.5 19.3 (a)

54.0 61.6 63.2 73.0 61.6 71.8 63.0 71.0 46.0 54.0 44.1 60.0 49.2 55.6 62.1 75.2 52.8 75.2 55.0 75.2 57.5 68.0 62.3 75.0 58.1 66.0 49.2 55.6 61.0 68.6 66.0 76.7 62.0 72.4

2.63 2.48 1.84 1.81 ... ... ... ... 2.23 2.30 2.72 3.33 2.27 2.27 1.87 3.07 2.28 2.71 2.31 2.63 2.18 2.20 1.84 1.89 2.12 ... 2.08 2.08 1.77 1.73 1.96 1.96 1.80 ...

56 62 43 57 43 57 38 36 64 108 77 90 58 78 46 52 76 108 79 108 72 94 48 73 50 60 42 49 46 49 48 52 35 42

96 132 84 108 81 97 74 82 92 171 115 186 114 166 70 98 107 158 120 171 120 154 65 127 91 110 82 104 79 91 81 92 62 66

152 194 127 165 124 154 112 118 156 279 192 276 172 244 116 150 183 266 198 279 192 249 113 200 142 170 124 153 125 140 129 144 97 108

960 1320 840 1080 805 970 740 820 920 1710 1145 1140 1660 700 980 1075 1580 1200 1710 1200 1540 650 1270 910 1100 820 1040 785 910 810 920 620 660

Each line of data represents a separate lot of material; average of duplicate or triplicate tests. Specimens per Fig. A1.8, generally 0.100 in. thick; in a few cases, 0.063 in. thick specimens were used. For yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. RT, room temperature. (a) Not reported

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 141

Table 9.9(a) Tensile tests of groove welds in wrought aluminum alloy sheet and plate at subzero temperatures
Alloy and temper combination Sheet, plate thickness,.in Specimen orientation Joint yield Postweld thermal Test temperature, Ultimate tensile strength Elongation Filler alloy treatment F strength (UTS), ksi (TYS), ksi in 2 in., %

1100-H112 As-welded 3303-H112 As-welded 2219-T62 Postweld heat treated 2219-T81 As-welded 2219-T81 Postweld aged 2219-T81 As-welded 2219-T81 Postweld aged 5052-H112 As-welded 5154-H112 As-welded 5083-O As-welded 5083-H113 As-welded 5083-H113 As-welded 5456-O As-welded 5456-H321 As-welded 7005-T63 As-welded

1.00 1.00 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 1.00 1.00 0.38 1.00 0.88 0.38 1.00 1.25

Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld

1100 1100 2319 2319 2319 2319 2319 5052 5154 5183 5183 5556 5556 5456 5039

None None HTA None Aged None Aged None None None None None None None None

7005-T6351 As-welded

1.25

Cross weld

5356

None

RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320

11.6 22.8 16.1 33.7 61.4 79.4 46.6 67.8 48.4 67.2 46.2 67.2 52.6 69.9 29.1 45.8 32.6 48.7 42.4 ... 43.1 ... 41.2 60.1 46.8 ... 46.8 ... 48.4 55.2 55.8 42.1 47.4 60.3

6.1 8.0 7.6 10.8 42.8 53.9 33.2 39.0 40.2 49.9 31.8 37.2 40.4 45.0 13.9 16.3 14.5 16.9 (a) (a) (a) (a) 21.2 24.7 (a) (a) 30.4 (a) 32.3 35.4 40.8 28.2 30.2 34.0

26.5 31.0 24.0 31.0 8.8 10.8 1.8 3.2 1.5 2.2 2.2 3.5 2.0 2.0 18.0 25.0 17.0 27.5 ... ... ... ... 12.5 20.0 ... ... 6.8 ... 11.5 11.0 3.8 6.8 8.3 6.7

Each line represents average results of tests of duplicate specimens at each temperature. All specimens from welds were cross weld, with crack moving along weld centerline. RT, room temperature. (a) Joint yield strength not determined. Matching tear test data are presented in Table 9.9(b).

142 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9.9(b) Tear tests of groove welds in wrought aluminum alloy sheet and plate at subzero temperatures
Sheet, plate thickness, in. Ratio tear Energy required to: Unit strength propagation yield Initiate a Propagate a Total energy strength crack, crack, energy, (UPE), (TYR) in.-lb in.-lb in.-lb in.-lb/in.2

Alloy and temper combination

Specimen orientation

Postweld Test Filler thermal temperature, alloy treatment F

Tear strength, ksi

1100-H112 Aswelded 3303-H112 Aswelded 2219-T62 Postweld heat treated 2219-T81 Aswelded 2219-T81 Postweld aged 2219-T81 Aswelded 2219-T81 Postweld aged 5052-H112 Aswelded 5154-H112 Aswelded 5083-O Aswelded 5083-H113 Aswelded 5083-H113 Aswelded 5456-O Aswelded 5456-H321 Aswelded 7005-T63 Aswelded 7005-T6351 Aswelded

1.00 1.00 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 0.063 1.00 1.00 0.38 1.00 0.88 0.38 1.00 1.25 1.25

Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld Cross weld

1100 1100 2319 2319 2319 2319 2319 5052 5154 5183 5183 5556 5556 5456 5039 5356

None None HTA None Aged None Aged None None None None None None None None None

RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320

19.5 32.2 24.0 43.5 87.2 104.8 70.8 82.9 74.1 91.0 67.0 89.6 72.4 87.9 37.0 50.7 36.2 43.9 50.2 54.6 51.6 57.2 48.2 55.5 51.7 56.8 51.7 58.2 60.0 65.2 51.6 51.4 53.4 58.4

3.20 4.02 3.16 4.02 2.04 1.94 2.13 2.12 1.84 1.82 2.10 2.41 1.79 1.95 2.66 3.11 2.50 2.60 (a) (a) (a) (a) 2.25 2.27 (a) (a) 1.70 (a) 1.86 1.84 1.26 1.82 1.77 1.72

48 82 40 93 33 35 31 28 20 32 24 33 17 25 45 85 50 50 38 33 33 34 36 33 38 36 46 40 30 40 11 28 36 33

76 122 78 126 44 39 20 60 23 74 22 80 26 64 108 178 104 107 97 74 99 70 85 83 91 76 92 116 95 93 24 94 112 85

124 204 118 219 77 74 51 88 43 106 46 113 43 89 153 263 154 157 135 107 132 114 121 116 129 112 138 156 125 131 34 122 146 118

755 1220 785 1260 705 624 324 948 363 1180 352 1780 419 1032 1085 1780 1040 1070 970 740 990 700 850 830 910 760 920 1160 950 930 335 945 1125 855

Specimens per Fig. A1.8. Each line represents average results of tests of duplicate specimens of each temperature. All specimens from welds were cross weld, with crack moving along weld centerline. RT, room temperature; HTA, heat treated and artificially aged after welding. (a) Joint yield strength not determined; ratio of test strength to yield strength not available. Matching tensile test data are presented in Table 9.9(a).

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 143

Table 9.10(a) Results of tensile tests of aluminum alloy plate at subzero temperatures
Alloy and temper Unwelded plate Thickness, in. Test temperature, F Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), ksi Tensile yield strength (TYS), ksi Elongation in 2 in. or 4D, %

Filler alloy

2014-T651

None

1.000

2024-T651

None

1.375

5083-O

None

7.000

5083-O

None

7.700

6061-T6

None

1.500

7075-T651

None

1.375

7075-T7351

None

1.375

7079-T651(b)

None

1.375

RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 260 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320

72.0 ... 86.0 70.8 ... 72.0 45.0 56.4 60.0 38.0 50.9 38.0 50.9 41.1 54.3 38.0 50.9 35.6 45.8 51.0 50.1 57.9 86.1 91.4 104.0 68.2 73.8 87.4 82.5 89.9 100.6

65.8 ... 75.0 64.4 ... 65.8 20.8 23.8 23.6 17.5 ... 17.5 ... 18.7 21.1 17.5 ... 16.8 19.6 43.4 45.5 47.2 77.7 82.8 92.0 56.8 59.1 66.0 72.08 81.2 90.6

9.2 ... 10.0 7.2 ... 9.2 18.8 24.0 24.5 24.0 15.5 24.0 15.5 15.0 15.0 14.0 15.5 10.0 11.7 12.0 12.0 16.8 10.8 9.2 5.8 12.0 11.0 10.8 11.2 10.2 4.5

Welded plate

5083-O

5183

7.000

5083-O

5183

7.700

RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320

43.7 60.3 38.4 49.4 35.8 57.0 35.8 57.0 43.8 58.0 41.1 55.6 39.9 51.5

25.0 30.1 22.8 26.2 22.5 27.3 22.5 27.3 24.5 28.1 24.4 27.7 19.7 25.8

16.2 19.0 12.7 9.8 6.5 15.0 6.5 15.0 23.5 15.5 15.5 15.0 14.0 10.5

Matching fracture toughness data are presented in Table 9.10(b).

144 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 9.10(b) Results of notched bend and compact tension fracture-toughness tests of aluminum alloy sheet and plate at subzero temperatures
Alloy and temper Filler alloy Thickness, in. Type of specimen Specimen Test Specimen width W, in. Initial crack length, 2a, in. KQ, ksi 2in. Kmax, Valid orientation temperature,F ksi 2in. KIc, ksi 2in.

Unwelded plate

2014-T651

None

1.000

NB

T-L

2024-T651

None

1.375

NB

T-L

5083-O

None

7.000

NB

T-S

5083-O

None

7.700

NB NB CT

T-L T-S L-S T-S S-L

6061-T6

None

1.500

NB

L-T

7075-T651

None

1.375

NB

T-L

7075-T7351

None

1.375

NB

T-L

7079-T651(b) None

1.375

NB

T-L

RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 260 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320 RT 112 320

2.00 ... 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 7.70 7.70 7.70 7.70 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

0.99 ... 1.02 1.51 1.54 1.48 3.71 3.72 3.73 4.12 3.97 4.20 4.11 3.14 3.24 3.26 3.26 3.21 3.23 1.47 1.49 0.99 1.54 1.52 1.58 1.53 1.39 1.58 1.64 1.67 1.51

21.2 ... 26.1 20.3 22.0 22.2 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 26.5 30.1 21.2 20.5 22.6 25.1 28.2 28.2 29.2 23.6 26.1 26.7

... ... ... ... ... ... 53.3 67.2 67.1 44.3 55.8 48.0 59.0 48.6 56.0 41.2 47.9 36.2 41.8 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Yes ... Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Welded plate

5083-O

5183

7.000

NB NB

CNT FNT CNT FNT CPT CTP FNT

5083-O

5183

7.700

NB NB CT CT CT

RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320 RT 320

7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.70 7.70 7.70 7.70 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00

3.50 3.50 3.48 3.48 3.64 3.78 3.77 3.64 3.55 3.67 2.92 3.08 3.04 3.44

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

46.6 57.9 50.3 62.7 49.2 62.5 49.8 113.6 58.0 64.4 35.8 45.6 22.2 26.7

No ... No No No No No No No No No No No No

Specimens per Fig. A1.11(a) or (b) and A1.12(a) or (b). Each line of data represents the average of four tests of one lot of material. For tensile yield strengths, offset is 0.2%. Rsc or Rsb = sN/sys, which is ratio of maximum net-section stress to tensile yield strength. NB, notched bend; RT, room temperature; CT, compact tension.(a) Not valid by present criteria; excessive plasticity and/or insufficient thickness for plane-strain conditions. (b) Obsolete alloy. Matching tensile test data are presented in Table 9.10(a).

Toughness at Subzero and Elevated Temperatures / 145

Table 9.11 Summary of toughness parameters for thick 5083-O plate and 5183 welds in 5083-O plate
Estimated fracture toughness(c) Unit propagation energy (UPE), in.-lb/in.2(b) RT 320 F Plane stress/mixed Plane strain (KIc ), ksi-in.2 mode (Kc ), ksi-in.2 RT 320 F RT 320 F

Alloy and temper

Specimen orientation (Fig. A.1.2)

Notch-yield ratio (NYR)(a) RT 320 F

5083-O

5183 welds

L-T, L-S T-L, T-S S-L, S-T Cross or through weld Along root pass Heat-affected zone

2.41 2.35 (d) 2.09

2.51 (d) (d) 2.21

850 730 500 1090

1280 1020 590 1065

50 45 35 50

60 50 40 45

>100 100 (e) >100

>100 >100 (e) >100

(d) (d)

(d) (d)

865 830

985 1065

40 50

45 60

>100 >100

>100 >100

RT, room temperature. (a) Specimens per Fig. A1.4(a, b). (b) Specimens per A1.7(a, b). (c) Estimated utilizing correlations in Fig. 8.3 and 8.4. (d) Not determined. (e) Kc not applicable to S-L, S-T orientations

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p147-165 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p147

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

10
Subcritical Crack Growth

IN MOST APPLICATIONS, structures do not experience complete fracture from the initial design discontinuities or internal flaws (metallurgical discontinuities) that are present when some component of the structure goes into service. It is likely that with whatever discontinuity or localized stress raiser is present, the structure will perform for some time in service without change. After more time in service, the structure is likely to experience some time-dependent or temperature-dependent growth of whatever discontinuity was originally present. Eventually, if not discovered and repaired, the original discontinuity may grow to a critical length, that is, a length as predicted by fracture-toughness testing that is likely to cause unstable crack growth to complete fracture. Unstable crack growth generally occurs by one of three mechanisms: Fatigue crack propagation (see section 10.1) Creep crack propagation (see section 10.2) Stress-corrosion cracking (see section 10.3)

It is beyond the scope of this book to provide a summary of data on subcritical crack growth rates for aluminum alloys; it is appropriate, however, to provide some representative data and amplify further on their relationship of subcritical crack growth data to fracture toughness data. Readers are referred to the excellent discussion by Bucci, Nordmark, and Starke in Volume 19 of ASM Handbook (Ref 2).

10.1 Fatigue Crack Growth


As noted previously, in designing fracture-critical structures, it is important to consider the case when a fatigue crack may have been initiated and

148 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

is growing from an internal discontinuity of some type in the stress field. Discontinuities may be metallurgical in nature (e.g., forging defect, porosity) or design based (e.g., rivet hole or window). For fracture-mechanics analyses of such situations, it is appropriate to consider that whatever size of flaw or discontinuity cannot be ruled out reliably by nondestructive testing may well be present somewhere in the structure and may serve as the initiation site of fatigue crack growth that could lead to complete fracture. Data from fracture-mechanics-based presentations such as those in Fig. 10.1 and 10.2 (Ref 2) would be used to estimate how fast that crack might grow and if/when that crack might grow to a length predicted by fracture toughness parameters to initiate unstable crack growth to failure. In fracture-mechanics-based presentations of fatigue crack growth, such as those in Fig. 10.1 and 10.2, the data are presented in terms of the rate of crack growth as a function of the stress-intensity factor, K, and so, as the crack grows, it may be tracked in the same terms as those used to define the conditions for unstable fracture, Kc or KIc, depending upon the material thickness and stress state. As the crack grows longer, the stress intensity increases, and, at some point, potentially approaches the limiting critical conditions predicted from the fracture toughness tests at which complete fracture must be expected.
K, MPa m 103 1.1 11 111

Average curve for T-L 2024-T851 CN specimens tested in ambient air 102

da/dN, in./cycle

10

0.1 1 10 K, ksi in.

102

Fatigue crack growth rate data for 2124-T851 plate and comparison to data for 2024-T851 plate. Aluminum alloy 4.5 in. 2124T851 plate, T-L direction, center-notched (CN) specimen; W = 3 in., B = 0.75 in.; R = 1.3; t = 5.2 Hz; RT constant load tests. K is the stress intensity range during fatigue cycling; da/dN is the increment of crack growth per cycle of loading.

Fig. 10.1

Subcritical Crack Growth / 149

K, MPa m 103 1 2 3 5 10 20 30

Symbol 104

Specimen location T/2 T/4

105

106 105 a/N, in./cycle a/N, m/cycle 107 106 108 107 109 108 1010 109

5 K, ksi in.

10

20

30

Fatigue crack growth rates for 7050-T7451 plate (5.67 and 5.90 in. thick). Long transverse, T/2 and T/4 test locations, R = 0.33, humid air (relative humidity > 90%)

Fig. 10.2

Thus, fatigue crack growth data and fracture toughness data represent two components of the continuum of analysis of the life of a structure by fracture-mechanics methods. There are two additional potential modes of subcritical crack growth that should be considered in such life analyses: sustained load or creep crack growth, and stress-corrosion crack (SCC) growth, as covered in sections 10.2 and 10.3, respectively.

10.2 Creep Crack Growth


Evaluations of notched tensile and compact tension specimens under sustained loads have shown that some aluminum alloys widely used in high-temperature applications may experience some time-dependent crack growth at certain temperatures, referred to as creep crack growth. This phenomenon has been observed in at least one of the alloys of the 2xxx (aluminum-copper) series, namely 2219, which is highly recommended for elevated temperature service (Ref 67). Data in Fig. 10.3 present creep crack growth rates, da/dt, for 2124-T851 and 2219-T851 at 300 F in terms of the applied stress intensity factor, KI. As in the case of fatigue crack growth rates, presentation in this format

150 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

101

Band of 2219 results Band of 2124 results

102

da/dt, in./h
103 104 15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

KI, ksi in.

Fig. 10.3

Crack growth rates (da/dt) for 2124-T851 and 2219-T851 plate at 300 F. KI is the instantaneous stress intensity

permits tracking of the crack growth in fracture-mechanics terms, relatable to the critical fracture conditions defined by fracture toughness tests. Of the two alloys shown in Fig. 10.3, 2219-T851 exhibited considerably faster crack growth at 300 F than did 2124-T851, even though 2219-T851 has the higher fracture toughness over the whole temperature range, as shown in Fig. 10.4. Parallel to the case with fatigue crack growth, total life of a structure under sustained loading may be estimated by assuming that some initial
Crack orienation LT TL LT TL 0.5 h 100 h Specimen, thickness, in. 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 2219-T851 (L-T) 0.5 h 35 2219-T851 (T-L)

Alloy 2124 2124 2219 2219

Symbol

Thickness, in. 1.750 1.750 3.000 3.000

Klc, ksi in.

30

25 L-T T-L 0 100 2124-T851 (0.5 h) 200 Temperature, F 300 400

Fig. 10.4

KIc vs. temperature for 2124-T851 and 2219-T851 plate

Subcritical Crack Growth / 151

metallurgical or design flaw may be present and that it may grow at the rate predicted by data of the type in Fig. 10.3 from the creep crack growth tests. The possibility of fracture must be assumed when the time-dependent stress-intensity value approaches that determined in the fracture toughness tests (Fig. 10.4) at that temperature. In the case of the two alloys for which data are presented, it is clear that the apparent advantage suggested for 2219-T851 by its higher fracture toughness values may not always be borne out when the potential for a higher rate of time-dependent crack growth is considered. It is interesting to note that the results of stress-rupture tests of smooth and notched tensile specimens may provide a clue to those alloys for which the previously mentioned behavior might be expected. The results of such tests of 2219-T851 are presented in Fig. 10.5; after about 25 h, the stress-rupture lives of notched specimens are shorter than those of smooth specimens. For some other alloys, such as 5454-O and 5454-H32 for which data are shown in Fig. 10.6, the rupture lives of notched specimens remain about equal to or greater than those of smooth specimens. It is important to note that the specific relationships of notched-to-smooth specimen lives will depend upon the notch geometry, and that it is relative performance that is important in such cases. Regrettably, stress-rupture test data for notched specimens of 2124-T851 are not available to complete the comparisons referred to previously.

80

70

Tensile strength after holding 1/ 2 h at 300 F

Notched

60 Stress, ksi

50 Smooth 40

30

20 102

101

10 Elapsed time, h

102

103

104

Effects of notches on stress-rupture strengths of 2219-T851 plate (1 in. thick) at 300 F. Specimens were 0.5 in. diameter smooth and notched (Fig. A1.7a) and taken in the longitudinal direction of rolling.

Fig. 10.5

152 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

60 Smooth 50 Tensile strength after holding 1/ 2 h at 300 F 40 Stress, ksi Notched 30 Notched Temper O H32

20 Smooth 10 (Longitudinal) 0 102 101 102 103 104

10 Elapsed time, h

Effects of notches on stress-rupture strengths of 5454-O and 5454-H32 plate (0.750 in.) at 300 F. Specimens were 0.5 in. diameter smooth and notched (Fig. A1.7a), taken in the longitudinal direction.

Fig. 10.6

10.3 Stress-Corrosion Cracking


For certain 2xxx and 7xxx aluminum alloys, especially when subjected to stresses in the short-transverse (through-the-thickness) direction of thick plate, forgings, and extrusions, the potential for intergranular SCC growth must be considered (Ref 2). While this phenomenon has long been studied with tensile loading of smooth specimen subjected to exposure in potentially troublesome environments, it also can be examined in fracturemechanics terms of the rate of crack growth, da/dt, as a function of the applied stress-intensity factor, KI. Representative data of this type are shown in Fig. 10.7 for several aluminum alloys (Ref 2). Such presentations are similar to those for fatigue and creep crack growth, except that a more pronounced upper limit to the rate of crack growth is apparent; at stress intensities beyond the bend in the curve, crack growth continues, but at a rate no longer greatly dependent on the instantaneous applied stress intensity. Once again, it should be assumed when designing with these alloys under short-transverse stresses that the largest crack that cannot be detected reliably may be present in the stress field; the crack growth rate data can be used to determine how rapidly that crack may grow to the critical size indicated by the fracture toughness tests. Thus, presentation of SCC growth data, like fatigue and creep crack growth data, provides a means of estimating life expectancy of structures potentially susceptible to such phenomena.

Subcritical Crack Growth / 153

106 Stress-corrosion crack velocity. m/s 2014-T451 2219-T37 2014-T651 2024-T351

107

108

109

2048-T851 2021-T81 2219-T87

1010 2124-T851 2618-T6 2048-T851

1011

1012

10

20

30

40

Stress intensity, K, MPa m

Crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion tests using precracked thick, double-cantilever beam specimens of highstrength 2xxx series aluminum alloy plate, TL (S-L) orientation. Specimens were wet twice a day with an aqueous solution of 3.5% NaCl, 23 C.

Fig. 10.7(a)

105 7079-T651 106 7039-T64

Stress-corrosion crack velocity, m/s1

107

7075-T651, 7178-T651 108

109

7049-T73

7175-T74

1010 7050-T74 1011 0 5 10 15

7075-T73

20

25

30

Stress intensity, K, MPa m

Crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion tests using precracked specimens of 7xxx series aluminum alloys; 25 mm thick, double-cantilever beam, short-transverse orientation of die forging, long transverse orientation of hand forgings and plate. Specimens were subject to alternate immersion tests, 3.5% NaCl solution, 23 C. Source: M.O. Speidel, Met. Trans., Vol 6A, 1975, p 631

Fig. 10.7(b)

154 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

For non-fracture-mechanicians, there is a particularly useful way of dealing with design against SCC growth that combines the results of conventional smooth-specimen and pre-cracked specimen SCC testing, as illustrated in Fig. 10.8 (Ref 2, 60). It has been the experience of investigators in stress-corrosion testing of smooth tensile specimens that there are thresholds of applied stress below which SCC growth and failure are not likely to occur. Combining such results with the safe stress-flaw size results from fracture-mechanics types of SCC tests leads to the dual treatment in Fig. 10.8. On the left side of the chart in Fig. 10.8, where flaw size is quite small, SCC growth is governed by stress, and levels above line A-B are to be avoided. On the right side of the chart, for larger flaw sizes, SCC growth is governed by stress-intensity factor, and stresses above line D-B are to be avoided. Representative presentations of this type for aluminum alloys 2219-T87 and 7075-T651 are presented in Fig. 10.9.

Log tensile stress

A
Apparent threshold stress from tests of smooth (unnotched) tensile specimens

D
From apparent thresold stress intensity factor, tests of precracked compact, double cantilever beam, or cantilever bend specimens

"Safe zone"

Log flaw or crack size

Stress-corrosion safe-zone plot. Apparent threshold stress is maximum stress at which tensile specimens do not fail by stresscorrosion cracking when stressed in environment of interest. Apparent threshold stress intensity factor is maximum stress intensity at which no significant stresscorrosion crack growth takes place in precracked fracture specimens, environment of interest.

Fig. 10.8

Subcritical Crack Growth / 155

Flaw depth, mm 0.25 102 th 43 ksi 2c > a 2.5 Flaw type 2c 25 700

KIth = 20 ksi in.


th = 10 ksi Stress critical

10

70 7075-T651

KIth = 4 ksi in.

Region of resistance to SCC

Stress intensity critical 7 1

1 102

101 Flaw depth, in.

Composite stress-stress intensity-SCC threshold safe-zone plot for two aluminum alloys exposed in a salt-dichromate-acetate solution. th is threshold of applied tensile stress for SCC in smooth specimens. Kth is threshold of applied stress intensity for SCC in notched or precracked specimens.

Fig. 10.9

Gross section stress, MPa

Gross section stress, ksi

2219-T87

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p157-165 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p157

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

11

Metallurgical Considerations in Fracture Resistance

11.1 Alloy Enhancement


THE APPLICATION OF toughness testing to alloy development has led to a number of high-strength aluminum alloys and special tempers of some alloys with outstanding combinations of strength and toughness. An underlying basis of such work arose from the findings of Staley et al. (Ref 2, 37, 5154) that the presence of large amounts of impurity elements such as iron and silicon, in high-strength alloys provides sites for potential crack initiation and growth as well as paths for more rapid crack growth than would otherwise be expected. The elimination of these sites would be expected to improve the toughness of the nominal composition, a concept borne out by many experiments. The combination of this principle with other optimization of compositions and thermomechanical treatments has led to the development of high-toughness alloys 2124, 2324, and 2524, all superior to 2024, and of high-toughness alloys 7175 and 7475, both substantial improvements on 7075. Similar principles have been applied to the development of newer alloys such as 7050 and 7055. The advantages these high-toughness alloys hold over the older, conventional compositions may be seen from the following illustrations from Ref 2 and 52: 2124-T851 versus 2024-T851: Fig. 11.1 illustrates a comparison of KIc values for 2124-T851 plate with data for 2024-T851 plate from a consistent series of tests; KIc is 3 to 5 ksi 2in. higher for the 2124-T851

158 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

30

L-T T-L S-L

33

KIc, ksi in.

20

22

10

11

0 2024-T851 2124-T851

Fig. 11.1

Average plane-strain fracture toughness data for production lots of 4 to 5.5 in. thick 2024 plate

in all test orientations included, and the difference is greatest in the often-critical short-transverse (S-L) orientation. 2524-T3 versus 2024-T3: A comparison of the crack resistance curves for these two alloys is presented in Fig. 7.6, demonstrating the advantages of the composition and processing controls for 2524-T3. 2419-T851 versus 2219-T851: Fig. 11.2 illustrates a comparison of KIc values for 2419-T851 plate with data for 2219-T851 plate. KIc is about 3 to 5 ksi 2in. higher for the 2419-T851 in all test orientations included, and once again, the percentage difference is greatest in the short-transverse (S-L/S-T) orientations. 7050-T73651 (now T7451) versus conventional high-strength alloys: Fig. 11.3 illustrates the range of KIc data for production lots of 7050-T73651 plate in the L-T orientation compared with a band of data for conventional high-strength aluminum alloys. The amount of
50 45 40 35 L-T, L-S T-L, T-S S-L, S-T 55 50 44 39 33 28 22 17 11 6 0 2419-T851 plate 2219-T851 plate

KIc, MPa m KIc, MPa m

KIc, ksi in.

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Fig. 11.2

Comparisons of KIc values for commercial production lots of 2419-T851 and 2219-T851 plate

Metallurgical Considerations in Fracture Resistance / 159

60 50

350

Tensile yield strength, MPa 420 490

560

66 55

Band for conventional alloys

30 20 10 0 40

33 22 11 0 90

50

60 70 Tensile yield strength, ksi

80

Fig. 11.3

Plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc, for production lots of 7075T73651 plate in L-T orientation

Al2CuMg content present in 7050 has a significant effect on the strength-toughness combination. 7175-T66 and T736 (now T74) versus 7075-T6 and T73: Fig. 11.4 shows the results of comparison tests of die forgings of exactly the same configuration of 7175 and conventional alloy 7075. The 7175 data in both the T66 and T736 (T74) tempers consistently exhibit a superior combination of strength and fracture toughness. 7475 versus 7075: Fig. 11.5 through 11.8 illustrate the advantages of 7475 sheet and plate in various tempers compared with 7075 and other alloys in comparable tempers. Figure 11.5 compares representative KIc data for production lots of 7475-T651 and T7651 with the range
Tensile yield strength, MPa 350 60 420 490 560 , , 630 700 Plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc, ksi in. Plane-strain fracture toughness, MPa m 350 60 50 Tensile yield strength, MPa 420 490 560 , , 630 700 Plane-strain fracture toughness, MPa m

Plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc, ksi in.

50

7075-T6 7175-T66

KIc, MPa m
7075-T73 7175-T736

KIc, ksi in.

40

44

55

55

40

Longitudinal (RW) Flange

44

40 Flange 30

Longitudinal (RW)

44

30 Web 20 Across parting plane (TR) flange 10

33

33 Web

22

20 Across parting plane (TR) flange 10

22

11

11

0 50

60 70 80 90 Tensile yield strength, ksi

100

0 50

60 70 80 90 Tensile yield strength, ksi

100

Fig. 11.4

Plane-strain fracture toughness of 7075 and 7175 die forgings of the same configuration

160 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

60 50

100

200

Yield strength, MPa 300 400 500

600

66 55

KIc (or KQ), ksi in.

40 30 20 10 0 10

Range of data for conventional, high-strength aluminum alloys

44 33 22

7475-T7351 7475-T7651 7475-T651 20 30 40 50 60 70 Yield strength, ksi 80

11 0 90

Fig. 11.5

Plane-strain fracture toughness, KIc, of 7475 plate compared to band of data for conventional high-strength aluminum alloys

of data for 7075 in comparable tempers. Fig. 11.6 shows a similar comparison for 7475 sheet, where the combination of toughness and strength of 7475 is greatly superior to those of a variety of aluminum alloys, including 2024-T3, long renowned for its high toughness. The significance of this comparison is seen in the stress-flaw-size graphs in Fig. 11.7; at any stress, 7475 will tolerate cracks three to four times
Tensile yield strength, MPa 200 300 400 500 600

Range of data for 160 7475-T61 7475-T761 177

140 Range of data for conventional, high-strength aluminum alloys 120

Kc, ksi in.

KIc (or KQ), MPa m


155 133 111 89 66 44 90 22

2024-T3 100 6061-T6 80 4 in. 60 (10 cm) 44 in. (1.1 m) 40 Test panel without antibuckling guides 30 40 50 60 70 80 2024-T86 7178-T6 16 in. (40 cm) 7075-T73 2014-T6

7075-T6

20 20

Tensile yield strength, ksi

Fig. 11.6

Critical stress-intensity factor, Kc, vs. tensile yield strength for 0.040 to 0.188 in. aluminum alloy sheet

Kc, MPa m

Metallurgical Considerations in Fracture Resistance / 161

Stress at onset of unstable crack propagation, c, kg/mm2

50 7475-T61 40

30

7475-T761

c =

Kc
ac

20

2024-T3 7075-T6 2a

10

0 0 40 80 120 160 200 Crack length, 2a, mm

W
240 280

Alloy

Kc, ksi in. 55 85 95 85

Kc, MPa m 195 300 340 300

7075-T6 7475-T61 7475-T761 2024-T3

Gross section stress at initiation of unstable crack propagation vs. crack length for wide sheet panels of four aluminum alloy/temper combinations. W is total panel width; is uniform applied stress.

Fig. 11.7

longer than 7075-T6, and at a given flaw size, 7475 will safely tolerate almost twice the stress. The advantages shown in the crack resistance curves in Fig. 7.7 for 7475 are borne out in totally independent crack growth-resistance curve tests carried out by other investigators, shown in Fig. 11.8. Several more general metallurgical trends regarding toughness have been confirmed by extensive fracture testing, including: Finer, recrystallized grain size leads to higher toughness in comparable products. As noted earlier, total iron + silicon content is directly related to the toughness of 2xxx and 7xxx alloys; the same effect leads to the toughness advantage that A356.0 sand and permanent-mold castings hold over 356.0 castings in corresponding tempers. While artificial aging 7xxx alloys past peak strength (i.e., overaging) leads to higher toughness, the strength-toughness relationship suffers; the strength of T73-type tempers is reduced to a greater extent than toughness is enhanced. Warm-water quenching of 7075-type alloys leads to an inferior combination of strength and toughness than cold-water or room temperature water quenching.

162 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Crack extension, a, mm 5.1 220 (Wang) 7475-T761 temper 0.063 in. (1.6 mm) thick T-L orientation 36 and 120 in. (914.4 and 3048 mm) wide CLWL specimen 240 15.2 25.4 35.6 45.7

200

180

(Heyer and McCabe) 7475-T61, T761 tempers 0.063 in. (1.6 mm) thick T-L orientation 10.2 in. (259.1 mm) wide CLWL specimen

200

160 160 Crack resistance, KR, MPa m Crack resistance, KR, ksi in.

140

120 120 100 (Alcoa) 7475-T761, temper 0.063 in. (1.6 mm) thick L-T and T-L orientation 16 in. (406.4 mm) wide CCT specimen

80

60 (Heyer and McCabe) 7075-T6 temper 0.063 in. (1.6 mm) thick T-L orientation 5.1 in. (129.5 mm) wide CLWL specimen 0 0.2 0.6 1.0

(Heyer and McCabe) 7475-T761, T761 tempers 0.091 in. (2.3 mm) thick T-L orientation 10.2 in. (259.1 mm) wide CLWL specimen

80

40

40

20

1.4

1.8

Crack extension, a, in.

Fig. 11.8

Crack resistance curves for 7475 sheet. Specimen type: CLWL is crack line wedge loaded; CCT is center crack tension.

11.2 Enhancing Toughness with Laminates


The early recognition of the limitations of the toughness of traditional high-strength aluminum alloys for aerospace applications led to studies of the effect of interleaving layers of high-strength aluminum alloy sheet with polymers (Ref 68). Center-notched panels of 0.063 in., 0.125 in., 0.250 in., and 0.500 in. thickness 7075-T6 sheet and plate were tested in full thickness. Then panels of the various thicknesses were produced by laminating the sheets and plates together to produce comparable thicknesses to the monolithic samples and tested using identical procedures as for the monolithic panels. A two-part epoxy was used to produce the multilayered panels. Center-slotted specimens of the type in Fig. A1.9(a) with very sharp notch-tip radii, and from each monolithic layer and each composite were tested. The specimens were instrumented, and both KIc and Kc values were measured. The KIc values were obtained using the loads observed at

Metallurgical Considerations in Fracture Resistance / 163

pop-in type of behavior; even with the thinnest sheet specimens, the pop-in and/or the initial deviation from elastic behavior was clear enough with high-strength alloy 7075-T6, T651 to permit comparative measurements of relative plane-strain behavior. The Kc values were generated using the crack lengths and loads at fracture instability. The results of the tests of these center-slotted panels are summarized in Table 11.1 and are plotted in Fig. 11.9. The tests of the monolithic panels reflected the thickness insensitivity of the plane-strain KIc toughness level as well as the gradual decrease in stress/mixed mode toughness Kc values with increasing thickness, approaching the KIc values at the 0.500 in. thickness. These represent classic behavior for 7075-T6, T651. Most importantly, the tests of the laminated panels indicated clearly that the higher toughness of the individual thinner layers is retained in the multilayered panels, even when four layers of 0.063 in. material was used to produce 0.500 in. thick panels. The Kc values for the 0.500 in. thick, multilayered panel were about twice those of the monolithic panels of the same total thickness. It is clear that for high-strength aluminum alloys, the metallurgical advantages of thin sheets of high-strength aluminum alloys may be retained in relatively thick panels by producing the required thicknesses of multilayered panels of the thinner sheet. The higher-level plane-stress or mixed mode toughness levels of the thinner sheet are retained in the thicker panel, provided that the layers are built up by a means (such as epoxy bonding) that permits the individual layers to deform plastically locally rather than acting monolithically in the thick panel. While the type of specimen design used in this study would not meet the desired rigor of the standard methods of today, the findings are unambiguous and meaningful.
80 Nominal net stress (original dimensions), ksi 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Panel thickness, in. 0.5 Plane-strain (pop-in), NIc Stress intensity factor, ksi in. Critical, NIc (fracture strength) 80 70 60 0.125 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Panel thickness, in. 0.5 Critical, Kc Plane-strain (pop-in), KIc 0.250 0.500 Thickness of individual layers, in. 0.063

Results of fracture toughness tests of plain and laminated panels of 7075-T6 and 7075-T651 sheet and plate (transverse). Solid symbols, single thickness; open symbols, multilayered

Fig. 11.9

164 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

Table 11.1(a) Results of fracture toughness tests of 7075-T6 and 7075-T651 sheet, plate, and multilayered adhesive-bonded panels bonded with two-part epoxy, transverse direction (at initial pop-in instability)
Planestrain stressintensity factor, ksi 2in., KIc Planestrain strainenergy release rate, in.-lb/in.,2 GIc

At pop-in instability Total nominal thickness, in. Thickness, t, in. Represented by Width, W, in. Includes adhesive Total crack length, in. Original, 2ao Critical, 2ac Load, P , lb Ic Stress, ksi Gross, Ic Net(a) NIc

Net

0.063

0.063 in. sheet

0.125

0.125 in. sheet

Two layers of 0.063 in. sheet

3.99 4.00 Average 4.00 4.00 Average 4.00 3.99 Average 3.99 4.00 Average 4.00 4.00 Average 4.00 4.00 Average 4.00 4.00 Average 3.99 4.00 Average 4.00 3.99 Average 4.00 4.00 Average

... ... ... ... 0.131 0.132 ... ... 0.254 0.254 0.268 0.273 ... ... 0.520 0.517 0.526 0.522 0.562 0.562

0.062 0.062 0.122 0.122 0.124 0.124 0.253 0.253 0.244 0.244 0.248 0.248 0.500 0.500 0.506 0.506 0.488 0.488 0.496 0.496

1.72 1.72 1.72 1.71 1.71 1.70 1.70 1.71 1.70 1.71 1.71 1.70 1.71 1.72 1.70 1.71 1.71 1.71 1.70 1.72

2.05 2.08 1.96 1.89 1.96 2.08 2.06 2.11 1.96 2.10 2.07 2.09 1.86 2.00 2.05 2.00 1.94 1.92 2.10 2.11

3,800 3,800 7,950 7,700 7,500 8,500 18,220 16,710 15,900 16,050 15,050 16,400 31,700 33,600 31,600 31,200 31,300 31,300 35,200 31,200

15.4 15.3 16.3 15.8 15.1 17.2 18.0 16.5 16.3 16.4 15.2 16.5 15.8 16.8 15.7 15.4 16.0 16.1 17.7 15.7

27.1 27.0 28.6 27.6 26.4 29.9 31.5 28.9 28.3 28.7 26.5 28.8 27.7 29.5 27.3 26.9 28.0 28.1 30.8 27.6

28.1 28.0 28.0 29.8 28.7 29.2 27.5 31.3 29.4 32.8 30.1 31.4 29.5 29.9 29.7 27.6 30.0 29.8 28.8 30.6 29.7 28.3 28.0 28.2 29.2 29.3 29.2 32.4 28.8 30.6

68 68 68 77 71 74 65 85 75 94 78 86 76 78 77 66 78 72 72 81 76 70 68 69 73 74 74 91 71 81

0.250

0.250 in. plate

Two layers of 0.125 in. sheet

Four layers of 0.063 in. sheet

0.500

0.500 in. plate

Two layers of 0.250 in. plate

Four layers of 0.125 in. plate

Eight layers of 0.063 in. sheet

Specimens per Fig. A1.9. (a) Based on original cross section, (W2ao)t; nominal net fracture strength

Metallurgical Considerations in Fracture Resistance / 165

Table 11.1(b) Results of fracture toughness tests of 7075-T6 and 7075-T651 sheet, plate, and multilayered adhesive-bonded panels bonded with two-part epoxy, transverse direction (measurements at fracture instability)
At fracture instability Stress, ksi Total nominal thickness, in. Thickness, t, in. Total crack length, in. Represented by Width, W, in. Includes adhesive Original, 2ao Critical, 2ac Load, P , lb c Gross, c Net(a) (nominal), Nc Critical stressintensity Net(b) factor, (actual), ksi 2in., N Kc Critical energy release rate, in.-lb/in.,2 Gc N /ys

Net

0.063

0.125

0.250

0.500

3.99 ... 4.00 ... Average 0.125 in. sheet 4.00 ... 4.00 ... Average Two layers of 4.00 0.131 0.063 in. sheet 3.99 0.132 Average 0.250 in. 3.99 ... plate 4.00 ... Average Two layers of 4.00 0.254 0.125 in. sheet 4.00 0.254 Average Four layers 4.00 0.268 of 0.063 in. sheet 4.00 0.273 Average 0.500 in. plate 4.00 ... 4.00 ... Average Two layers of 3.99 0.520 0.250 in. plate 4.00 0.517 Average Four layers of 4.00 0.526 0.125 in. plate 3.99 0.522 Average Eight layers 4.00 0.562 of 0.063 in. sheet 4.00 0.562 Average

0.063 in. sheet

0.062 0.062 0.122 0.122 0.124

1.72 1.72 1.72 1.71 1.71

2.05 2.08 1.96 1.89 1.96

7,250 7,250 13,625 12,325 14,500

29.4 29.2 27.9 25.3 29.2

51.8 51.4 49.0 44.2 51.1

60.3 60.5 60.4 54.7 47.9 51.3 57.3

67.1 67.3 67.2 59.6 51.4 55.6 63.8

437 440 438 345 256 300 395

0.86

0.69

0.124 0.253 0.253 0.244

1.70 1.70 1.71 1.70

2.08 2.06 2.11 1.96

14,675 21,250 21,300 26,125

29.6 21.1 21.0 26.8

51.7 36.7 36.8 46.6

62.0 60.1 43.5 44.5 44.0 52.5

69.3 66.6 45.2 46.2 45.7 56.7

467 431 198 207 202 312

0.85

0.59

0.244 0.248

1.71 1.71

2.10 2.07

27,025 29,750

27.7 30.0

48.3 52.4

58.3 55.4 62.2

63.2 60.0 69.9

387 350 474

0.75

0.248 0.500 0.500 0.506

1.70 1.71 1.72 1.70

2.09 1.86 2.00 2.05

30,150 34,300 34,300 41,550

30.4 17.1 17.1 20.6

52.9 30.0 30.0 35.8

63.6 62.9 32.1 34.3 33.2 42.4

72.0 71.0 33.3 35.3 34.3 43.9

503 488 108 121 114 187

0.88

0.45

0.506 0.488

1.71 1.71

2.00 1.94

41,200 53,650

20.4 27.5

35.5 48.0

40.7 41.6 53.3

42.4 43.2 57.9

175 181 326

0.56

0.488 0.496

1.71 1.70

1.92 2.10

52,950 61,550

27.2 31.0

47.6 53.9

52.4 52.8 65.3

56.8 57.4 74.5

312 319 539

0.71

0.496

1.72

2.11

61,250

30.8

54.2

65.3 65.3

74.4 74.4

537 538

0.93

Specimens per Fig. A1.9. (a) Based on original cross section, (W 2ao)t; nominal net fracture strength. (b) Based on cross section at onset of rapid fracture, (W2ac)t

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p167-168 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p167

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

12
Summary

NOTCH-TENSILE, tear, and fracture toughness tests have been most widely used to evaluate the resistance of aluminum alloys to unstable crack growth. These tests and the parameters determined from them and a representative set of each type of data for a broad range of aluminum alloys, tempers, and products have been covered herein. Relative ratings of the various alloys and tempers are provided based upon the key parameters from these tests, the effects of temperature are described, and the role of alloy development and process control are discussed. The specific types of tests may be summarized and categorized as follows: Tests providing relative toughness indicators ASTM E 338: Sharp-notch tensile testsheet-type specimens ASTM E 602: Sharp-notch tensile testcylindrical specimens ASTM B 871: Kahn-type tear test

Tests providing fracture toughness parameters ASTM E 399: Plain-strain fracture toughness test (thick sections) as augmented by ASTM B 645 and B 646 for aluminum alloys ASTM E 561: Crack-resistance curve test (thin sections) as augmented by ASTM E 646, Section 7

Other ASTM standard methods are available for the measurement of fracture characteristics of metals, such as E 23, Notched Bar Impact Testing; E 436, Drop-Weight Tear Testing for Indicator Purposes; and E 813, J-Integral for Direct Measurements. However, these tests are not widely used for aluminum alloys and therefore, are not covered herein. Notch-yield ratio (notch tensile strength/tensile yield strength) from the notch-tensile test and unit propagation energy from the tear tests provide the most useful and consistent relative indications of the overall levels of toughness of aluminum alloys. These indices generally correlate well with direct measures of toughness, such as Kc and KIc, from the fracture

168 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

toughness tests. Fracture toughness parameters, Kc and KIc, and complete crack-resistance curves are the most useful measures of fracture toughness because they allow designers to directly relate existing or potential discontinuities in the stress fields to safe, applied stresses and to consider the effects of repeated loading (fatigue), environmental exposure (stresscorrosion cracking), or long, sustained loading (creep cracking) on component or structure life expectancy. While many aluminum alloys are too tough for fully valid measurements of fracture toughness parameters, Kc or KIc values of such parameters may often be estimated from the results of notch-tensile and tear tests, and such estimates conservatively applied can provide useful projections to designers of the conditions under which unstable fracture might be experienced. Representative data from all of these types of tests are presented herein, in some cases as a function of temperatures as low as 452 F and in a few cases at temperatures up to 500 F. Among the most important trends illustrated by the data are: For fracture-critical structural, tankage, and transportation applications, high-strength aluminum-magnesium (5xxx) alloys such as 5083-O provide exceptional toughness at a moderate strength level. The choice of this alloy and temper for shipboard liquefied natural gas tankage is a good illustration of this advantage. For fracture-critical aerospace applications, alloys 2124, 2524, 2419, 7050, 7150, 7175, and 7475, providing both composition control and thermomechanical practices to achieve superior combinations of strength and toughness, are highly recommended. Among alloys for cast components, premium quality sand and permanent-mold castings of alloys such as A356.0 and A357.0 consistently exhibit superior combinations of strength and toughness to those of conventional sand castings; if strength is not an issue, casting alloys A444.0-F and B535.0-F offer exceptional toughness. Welds made with 5xxx filler alloys consistently provide superior combinations of strength and toughness to those in most other filler alloys, the only exception being when they are used to weld high-siliconbearing castings, in which case the lower toughness of the highsilicon composition dilutes the positive effect of the high-magnesium alloys.

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p169-174 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p169

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER

13
References

CITED REFERENCES 1. J.G. Kaufman and M. Holt, Fracture Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys, Aluminum Company of America, Pittsburgh, PA, 1960 2. R.J. Bucci, G. Nordmark, and E.A. Starke, Jr., Selecting Aluminum Alloys to Resist Failure by Fracture Mechanisms, Fatigue and Fracture, Vol 19, ASM Handbook, ASM International, 1996, p 771812 3. D.G. Altenpohl, Aluminum: Technology, Applications, and Environment: A Profile of a Modern Metal Aluminum from Within, The Aluminum Association and TMS, 1998 4. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, published annually 5. Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials, E23, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, published annually 6. Sharp-Notch Tensile Testing of High-Strength Sheet Materials, E338, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, published annually 7. Sharp-Notch Testing with Cylindrical Specimens, E602, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, published annually 8. Tear Testing of Aluminum Products, B871, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, published annually 9. Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of Metallic Materials, E399; Practice for R-Curve Determination, E561; Practice for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of Aluminum Alloys, B645; and Practice for Fracture Toughness Testing of Aluminum Alloys, B646, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, published annually 10. Tension Testing of Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys (English/Engineering and Metric Versions), B557 and B557M, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, published annually 11. SI Quick Reference Guide: International System of Units (SI) the Modern Metric System IEEE/ASTM Standard SI-10, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, ASTM, published annually

170 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

12. Aluminum Standards and Data, Standard and Metric ed., The Aluminum Association, published periodically 13. The Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Registrations Records: International Alloy Designations and Chemical Composition Limits for Wrought Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, The Aluminum Association, July 1998; Designations and Chemical Composition Limits for Aluminum Alloys in the Form of Castings and Ingot, The Aluminum Association, Jan 1996; Tempers for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Products, The Aluminum Association, Feb 1995 14. D. Zalenas, Ed., Aluminum Casting Technology, 2nd ed., The American Foundrymens Society, Inc., 1993 15. Standards for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Castings, The Aluminum Association, published periodically 16. The NFFS Guide to Aluminum Casting Design: Sand and Permanent Mold, Non-Ferrous Founders Society, 1994 17. J.G. Kaufman, Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers, ASM International, 2000 18. J.G. Kaufman, Properties of Aluminum Alloys: Tensile, Creep and Fatigue Data at High and Low Temperatures, The Aluminum Association and ASM International, 1999 19. M. Holt and J.G. Kaufman, Indices of Fracture Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys Under Different Types of Loading, Curr. Eng. Pract., Vol 16 (No. 3), JulyAug 1973 20. N.A. Kahn and E.A. Imbembo, A Method of Evaluating the Transition from Shear-to-Cleavage-Type Failure in Ship Plate, Weld. J., Vol 27, 1948 21. W.S. Pellini, Notch Ductility of Weld Metal, Welding Research Supplement, May 1956, p 217s 22. T.W. Crooker et al., Metallurgical Characteristics of High Strength Structural Materials, NRL Report 6196, Sept 1964 (also related NRL reports) 23. H. Neuber, Theory of Notch Stresses, McGraw-Hill, 1946; R.E. Peterson, Stress-Concentration Design Factors, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1953 24. J.G. Kaufman and E.W. Johnson, The Use of Notch-Yield Ratio to Evaluate the Notch Sensitivity of Aluminum Alloy Sheet, ASTM Proc., Vol 62, ASTM, 1962, p 778791 25. J.G. Kaufman, Sharp-Notch Tension Testing of Thick Aluminum Alloy Plate with Cylindrical Specimens, ASTM STP 514, ASTM, 1972, p 8297 26. J.G. Kaufman and E.W. Johnson, Notch Sensitivity of Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Plate at 320 F Based Upon Notch-Yield Ratio, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol 8, 1963, p 678685 27. M.P. Hanson, G.W. Stickley, and H.T. Richards, Sharp-Notch Behavior of Some High-Strength Sheet Aluminum Alloys and Welded Joints at 75, 320, and 423 F, Low-Temperature Properties of

References / 171

High-Strength Aircraft and Missile Materials, ASTM STP 287, ASTM, 1960, p 315 28. J.G. Kaufman and G.W. Stickley, Notch Toughness of Aluminum Alloy Sheet and Welded Joints at Room and Subzero Temperatures, Cryogenic Technol., July/Aug 1967 29. J.G. Kaufman, F.G. Nelson, and E.W. Johnson, The Properties of Aluminum Alloy 2219 Sheet, Plate, and Welded Joints at Low Temperatures, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol 8, 1963, p 661670 30. W.A. Anderson, J.G. Kaufman, and J.E. Kane, Notch Sensitivity of Aluminum-Zinc-Magnesium Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol 9, 1964, p 104111 31. F.G. Nelson, J.G. Kaufman, and E.T. Wanderer, Tensile Properties and Notch Toughness of Groove Welds in Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol 14, 1969, p 7182 32. J.W. Coursen, J.G. Kaufman, and W.E. Sicha, Notch Toughness of Some Aluminum Alloy Castings at Cryogenic Temperatures, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol 12, 1967, p 473483 33. F.G. Nelson, J.G. Kaufman, and E.T. Wanderer, Tensile, NotchTensile, and Tear Properties of Groove Welds in X7005-T63 Plate and 7005-T53 Extrusions at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures, Proceedings of the XIIIth International Conference of Refrigeration (Washington, DC), Vol 1, 1971, p 655672 34. F.G. Nelson, J.G. Kaufman, and M. Holt, Fracture Characteristics of Welds in Aluminum Alloys, Weld. J., July 1966, p 311 35. J.G. Kaufman, K.O. Bogardus, and E.T. Wanderer, Tensile Properties and Notch Toughness of Aluminum Alloys at 452 F in Liquid Helium, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol 13, 1968, p 294308 36. J.G. Kaufman and A.H. Knoll, Tear Resistance of Aluminum Alloy Sheet as Determined from Kahn-Type Tear Tests, Materials Research and Standards, Vol 4 (No. 4), April 1964, p 151155 37. J.G. Kaufman and H.Y. Hunsicher, Fracture-Toughness Testing at Alcoa Research Laboratories, Fracture-Toughness Testing and Its Applications, ASTM STP 381, April 1965, p 290309 38. A.A. Griffith, The Phenomenon of Rupture and Flow in Solids, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. (London), A221, 1920 39. G.R. Irwin, Fracturing and Fracture Mechanics, T and AM Report Number 202, Department of Applied Mechanics, University of Illinois, Oct 1961 40. Fracture Testing of High-Strength Sheet Materials: A Report of a Special ASTM Committee, ASTM Bulletin, No. 243, Jan 1960, p 2940; No. 244, Feb 1960, p 1828

172 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

41. Fracture-Toughness Testing and Its Applications, ASTM STP 381, ASTM, April 1965 42. W.F. Brown and J.E. Srawley, Fracture-Toughness Testing, Fracture Toughness Testing and Its Applications, ASTM STP 381, ASTM, April 1965, p 133196 43. Progress in Measuring Fracture Toughness and Using Fracture Mechanics, Materials Research and Standards, Vol 4 (No. 3), March 1964, p 107118 44. H.Y. Hunsicher and J.A. Nock, Jr., High-Strength Aluminum Alloys, J. Met., Vol 15 (No. 3), March 1963, p 216224 45. J.G. Kaufman, F.G. Nelson, Jr., and M. Holt, Fracture Toughness of Aluminum Alloy Plate Determined with Center-Notch Tension, Single-Edge-Notch Tension, and Notch-Bend Tests, Eng. Fract. Mech., Vol 1, 1968, p 259274 46. J.G. Kaufman, F.G. Nelson, Jr., and E.T. Wanderer, Mechanical Properties and Fracture Characteristics of 5083-O Products and 5183 Welds in 5083 Products, Proc. of the XIIIth International Congress of Refrigeration (Washington, DC), Vol 1, 1971, p 651658 47. F.G. Nelson, Jr., P.E. Schilling, and J.G. Kaufman, The Effect of Specimen Size on the Results of Plane Strain Fracture Toughness Tests, Eng. Fract. Mech., Vol 4, 1972, p 3350 48. J.G. Kaufman, Fracture Toughness of Aluminum Alloy Plate from Tension Tests of Large Center-Slotted Panels, ASTM STP 601, ASTM, July 1967, p 889914 49. R.J. Bucci, R.W. Bush, and G.W. Kuhlman, Damage Tolerance Characterization of Thick Wrought Aluminum Products With and Without Stress Relief, paper presented at the 1997 USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program Conference, 24 Dec 1997 (San Antonio), U.S. Air Force 50. R.J. Bucci and R.W. Bush, Purging Residual Stress Effects from Fracture Toughness Measurements, 94th MIL-HDBK-5 Coordination Meeting (Williamsburg, VA) 15 Oct 1997 51. J.G. Kaufman and S.F. Collis, A Fracture Toughness Data Bank, ASTM J. Test. Eval., March 1981, p 121126; and S.F. Collis, D.J. Brownhill, and R.H. Wygonik, Fracture Toughness Data Bank for Aluminum Alloy Mill Products, Final Report, Alcoa Laboratories for the Metals Properties Council (New York), 8 Aug 1979. J.G. Kaufman and S.F. Collis, A Fracture Toughness Data Bank, ASTM J. Test. Eval., March 1961, p 121126 52. Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures, MIL-HDBK-5H, CD version, Battelle, 1 Dec 1998 53. 2124 Plate; 6013-T6; 7050 Plate; 7075 Plate; 7475 Plate, Alcoa Aerospace Technical Fact Sheets, Aluminum Company of America (Bettendorf, IA), issued periodically

References / 173

54. J.G. Kaufman, Design of Aluminum Alloys for High Toughness and High Fatigue Strength, AGARD Conf. Proc. No. 185, Alloy Design for Fatigue and Fracture Resistance, Advisory Group, 1975 55. R.J. Bucci, C.J. Warren, and E.A. Starke, Jr., Need for New Materials in Aging Aircraft Structures, J. Aircr., Vol 37 (No. 1), JanFeb 2000, p 122129 56. J. Liu and M. Kulak, A New Paradigm in the Design of Aluminum Alloys for Aerospace Applications, Proc. of the 7th International Conf. on Aluminum Alloys (ICAA7): Their Physical and Mechanical Properties, 914 April 2000 (Charlottesville, VA) 57. R.J. Bucci et al, New Aluminum Aircraft Alloys for Damage Tolerant Stiffened Skins, paper presented at the 1994 USAF Structural Integrity Program Conference, 68 Dec 1994 (San Antonio, TX) 58. G.H. Bray, R.J. Bucci, J.R. Yeh, and Y. Macheret, Prediction of WideCracked-Panel Toughness from Small Coupon Tests, paper presented at Aeromat 94 Advanced Aerospace Materials Conference, 69 June 1994 (Anaheim, CA), ASM International 59. Standard Guide for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness Testing of NonStress Relieved Aluminum Products, Designation BXXX-XX, ASTM draft 60. J.G. Kaufman, G.T. Sha, R.F. Kohm, and R.J. Bucci, Notch-Yield Ratio as a Quality Control Index for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness, ASTM STP 601, ASTM, July 1976, p 169190 61. J.G. Kaufman and M. Holt, Evaluation of Fracture Characteristics of Aluminum Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol 10, 1965 62. J.G. Kaufman, F.G. Nelson, and R.H. Wygonik, Large-Scale Fracture Toughness Tests of Thick 5083-O Plate and 5183 Welded Panels at Room Temperature, 260 F, and 320 F, ASTM STP 556, ASTM, 1974 63. J.G. Kaufman, F.G. Nelson, and R.H. Wygonik, Mechanical Properties and Fracture Characteristics of 5083-O and 5183 Welds in 5083 Products, Proc. 13th International Conf. on Refrigeration, Vol 1, International Institute of Refrigeration, 1971 64. R.A. Kelsey, R.H. Wygonik, and P. Tenge, Crack Growth and Fracture of Thick 5083-O Plate Under Liquified Natural Gas Ship Spectrum Loading, ASTM STP 556, ASTM, 1974 65. R.W. Judy, Jr., R.J. Goode, and C.N. Freed, Fracture Toughness Characterization Procedures and Interpretations to Fracture-Safe Design for Structural Aluminum Alloys, Naval Research Laboratory Report 6871, 31 March 1969 66. R.L. Lake, F.W. DeMoney, and R.J. Eiber, Burst Tests of Pre-Flawed Welded Aluminum Alloy Pressure Vessels at 220 F, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol 13, 278293, 1967

174 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

67. J.G. Kaufman and J.R. Low, Jr., The Micro Mechanism of Sustained Load Crack Growth (Creep Cracking) in Al-Cu Alloys 2124 and 2219 at 300 F, Proc. Second International Conf. on Mechanical Behavior of Materials, 1620 Aug 1976, ASM International, 1978, p 415472 68. J.G. Kaufman, Fracture Toughness of 7075-T6 and T651 Sheet, Plate, and Multilayered Adhesive-Bonded Panels, J. Basic Eng. (Trans. ASME), No. 67-Met-4, 19 Jan 1967

SELECTED REFERENCES
The Aluminum Design Manual, The Aluminum Association, Washington D.C., 1999 J.R. Kissell and R.L. Ferry, Aluminum Structures, A Guide to Their Specifications and Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995 M.L. Sharp, Behavior and Design of Aluminum Structures, McGrawHill, Inc., 1993 M.L. Sharp, G.E. Nordmark, and C.C. Menzemer, Fatigue Design of Aluminum Components and Structures, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1996 Fatigue Design Handbook, SAE AE-10, 2nd ed., Society of Automotive Engineers, 1988 H.E. Boyer, Ed., Atlas of Fatigue Curves, ASM International, 1986 H.E. Boyer, Ed., Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, ASM International, 1990 H. Chandler, Ed., Heat Treaters Guide: Practices and Procedures for Nonferrous Alloys, ASM International, 1996 B.D. Craig, Ed., Handbook of Corrosion Data, ASM International, 1990 J.R. Davis, Ed., Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, ASM Specialty Handbook, ASM International, 1994 R.H. Jones, Ed., Stress-Corrosion Cracking: Materials Performance and Evaluation, ASM International, 1992 K. Laue and H. Stenger, Extrusion, ASM International, 1981 J.D. Minford, Handbook of Aluminum Bonding Technology and Data, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1993

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p175-182 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p175

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

APPENDIX

Notch-Tensile, Tear, and Fracture Toughness Specimen Drawings

Long-transverse, LT (width of principal section)

Short-transverse

Longitudinal, L (direction of major grain structure, e.g., rolling, forging, extrusion)

Shorttransverse, ST (thickness of principal section)

Long-transverse

Longitudinal

Fig. A1.1

Orientations of tear specimens in aluminum alloy products

176 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

L T-S L-S T-L S-T L-T S-L


idt h, lon

Longitudinal Rolling direction Extrusion direction Axis of forging

gt

LT
ra ns ve rse

ort sh s, se s ne er ick sv Th tran

ST

Fig. A1.2(a)

Crack plane orientation code for fracture toughness specimens from rectangular sections

Weld zone

CPT FNT CTP S T L

Crack plane orientation code for fracture toughness specimens from welded plate. First letter designates crack tip location. Second letter designates direction of principal stress at crack tip with respect to weld. Third letter designates direction of crack growth. C, center of weld; H, heat-affected zone; F, fusion zone; P, parallel; N, normal; T, through
Notch-tip radius, 0.001 in. 60 0.250 in. 0.500 in.
1/2 3/4

Fig. A1.2(b)

in.

in. R

11/8 in.

11/8 in. 33/8 in.

Sheet thickness

33/8 in.

21/4 in. 9 in.

Fig. A1.3

Sheet-type notch-tensile specimen, 12 in. wide test section. Notch-tip radius 0.001 in.

Notch-Tensile, Tear, and Fracture Toughness Specimen Drawings / 177

Notch-tip radius, 0.001 in. 60 1 in. diam 0.70 in. 1 in. 2 in.

13/ 8 in. 3 in.

1 in. R 15/ 8 in. 2 in. 8 in.

1 in.

1 in. R 15/ 8 in. 3 in.

13/ 8 in.

Fig. A1.4(a)

Sheet-type notch-tensile specimen, 1 in. wide test section. Notch-tip radius <0.001 in.

"A" surfaces

Location of weld beads on specimens from welds 32

1.00 1 in. R 0.50 1.38 1.63 2.00 8.00 + 1.63 1.00

2.00

"A" surfaces true to centerline within 0.001 in.

60

1.00

1.00

0.70 1.00

2.00

Notch radius <0.001

1.38

1.63

1.00 1.00 8.00

+ 1 in. R 1.63

Fig. A1.4(b)

Sheet-type notch-tensile specimen, 1 in. wide test section, from welded panels. Notch-tip radius <0.0005

178 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

60 11/ 2 in. diam 3 in. 2 in. 4 in.

1/2

in. R 13/ 4 in. 21/ 4 in. 4 in.

21/ 4 in. 4 in.

13/ 4 in.

3 in. 6 in. 14 in.

Sheet-type notch-tensile specimen, 3 in. wide test section. Notches to be symmetrical about centerline within +0.002 in. and notch-tip radii <0.0005 in.

Fig. A1.5

45 3 in. 1 in.

11/ 2 in. diam 4 in.

1/ 8

in.

21/ 4 in. 4 in.

13/ 4 in.

1/ 2 in.

3 in. 6 in. 14 in.

13/4 in.

21/ 4 in. 4 in.

Fig. A1.6

Center-slotted sheet-type notch-tensile specimen, 3 in. test section. Fatigue-cracked

Notch-tip radius, 0.0005 in. 60 0.353 in. diam


3/ 4

0.500 in. diam


19/ 32

in. diam

in. diam

11/ 8 in. 1 in.


5/ 8

11/ 8 in.
5/ 8

in.

21/ 4 in. 51/ 2 in.

in.

1 in.

Fig. A1.7(a)

Cylindrical notch-tensile specimen, 12 in. test section. Notch-tip radius <0.0005 in.

Notch-Tensile, Tear, and Fracture Toughness Specimen Drawings / 179

0.500 in. 4 1/ 4 in.


3/ 4

10

R = 0.001 0.0005 in. 60

0.500 in. 0.353 in.

Fig. A1.7(b)

Cylindrical notch-tensile specimen, 12 in. test section, from welded panels. Notch-tip radius <0.0005 in.

5/ 16 in.

diam
5/ 8 in.

1 1/ 8 in. 60 1 in. 1 1/ 8 in.


5/ 8 in.

Weld

1 in. 17/ 16 in.

7/ 16

in.

Along weld

Across weld

Weld

2 1/ 4 in.

Weld

Fusion line

Fig. A1.8

Tear specimen from unwelded and welded panels. Notch-tip radius <0.001 in.

Notch A
1/ 8 in.

51/ 2 in.

2 in.

Notch A 4 in.

2 in. diam

23/ 4 in.

0.015 in. 40 1.25 in. 0.015 in. 20

2 in.
3/ 4 3/ 4 in. R 4 in.

3 in.

21/ 2 in. 91/ 2 in.

in. R 4 in.

21/ 2 in. 91/ 2 in.

3 in. 0.25 in. Notch must be centered on centerline of holes 0.0005 in.

19 in.

Fig. A1.9(a)

Small center-notched fracture toughness specimen. Specimen was subsequently fatigue-precracked to about 1.33 in. total center-slot length.

23/ 4 in.

180 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

40

R 0.0005 in.

0.010 in. Location of weld in welded panels

20

0.3 width

Sawcut

0.166 in. diam

5/ 16

in.

0.3 width (slot is 0.3 of width measurement) L/2 L/2

4064 in.

Fig. A1.9(b)

Large center-slotted fracture toughness specimen

3/ 4

in.

40

11/ 2 in.

3 in.

3/ 4 5/ 16

in.

in. 5 in. 1 in. 0.25 in. to 0.50 in.

1 in.

5 in.

12 in.

Fig. A1.10

Single-edge-notched fracture toughness specimen. Subsequently fatigue precracked to length of approximately 1.0 to 1.5 in.

11/ 2 in.

3.0 in.

6.0 in.

45 About 3.0 in.

12.50 in.

12.50 in. 3.0 in.

Fig. A1.11(a)

Notched-bend fracture toughness specimen. Subsequently fatigue precracked to length of approximately 3 in.

1620 in.

Notch-Tensile, Tear, and Fracture Toughness Specimen Drawings / 181

75 7.7 in.

18 in. 36 in.

18 in.

7.7 in.

Large notched-bend fracture toughness specimen used for 5083-O plate. Subsequently fatigue precracked to length of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 in.

Fig. A1.11(b)

1.500 in. 0.750 in. 0.625 in.

1.250 in.

A
2.50 in. 1.37 in.

30 3.125 in.

45 45

Section BB enlarged

B A
0.625 in. diam

Fig. A1.12(a)

Compact tension fracture toughness specimen. Subsequently fatigue precracked to length of approximately 1.3 in.

7.2 in. 3.6 in. 0.90 in.

1.80 in.

A F
7.20 in. 6.00 in.

45 45

1.50 in. diam

Section AA

Small compact tension fracture toughness specimen used for 5083-O plate. Subsequently fatigue precracked to length of approximately 3.3 in.

Fig. A1.12(b)

182 / Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys

45 in. 3 in. 3 in. 36 in.

29 in. 22.50 in. 11.25 in. 27 in. 43.25 in. 6.5 in.

Large-plate 4 in. thick, compact tension specimen used for 5083-O plate. Subsequently fatigue precracked to length of approximately 10 to 12 in.

Fig. A1.12(c)

Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys J. Gilbert Kaufman, p183 DOI:10.1361/fraa2001p183

Copyright 2001 ASM International All rights reserved. www.asminternational.org

APPENDIX

Metric (SI) Conversion Guidelines


Because the majority of the data presented herein were generated in an environment of the usage of English/engineering units, and because of the mass of data involved, almost the entire book is presented in those units. While the customary ASM International and Aluminum Association, Inc. policies are to present engineering and scientific data in both Standard International (SI) and English/engineering units, in this case it would have involved a considerable amount of time, effort, and expense to perform the conversions, to expand, reformat, and reset the tables, and to add the substantial number of pages to the book. In addition, foregoing conversion avoids the inevitable compromises surrounding rounding techniques for relatively complex conversions with a multitude of units. For those interested in the properties in metric/SI units and who would like to make their own conversions, the following applicable conversion factors from English/engineering units to SI units are presented from the ASTM standard on such conversions (Ref 11):
1 ksi = 6.897 MPa 1 lbf = 4.45 N 1 in.-lb = 113 mN-m 1 ksi 2in. = 1.1 MPa 2m 1 in. = 25.4 mm

For additional information on such conversions, readers are referred to that ASTM standard.

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)

www.asminternational.org

Alloy Index
Cast Alloys
108.0-F notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 113.0-F notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 A140.0-F notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 142.0-T77 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 X149.0-T63 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 C188.0-T3 crack-resistance curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 195.0-T6 energy to fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 2xx.x series fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 208.0-F notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 A218.0-F tear testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 tensile testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . 71 unit propagation energy, plate with sand castings welded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 B218.0-F notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 unit propagation energy, sand-cast alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sand castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 220.0-F tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 220.0-T4 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 240.0-F notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 242.0-T77 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 242.0-T777 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 295.0-T6 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . 124

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186 / Alloy Index

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295.0-T6 (continued) tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 3xx.x series fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 308.0-F tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 X335.0-T6 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 tensile testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . 71 unit propagation energy, sand-cast alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 X335.0-T61 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 notch-yield ratio, permanent-mold castings at various temperatures . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, permanent-mold castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of permanent-mold castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, permanent-mold castings . . 71 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 A344.0-F tensile testing, notched round specimens of permanent-mold castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 A344.0-T4 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 354.0-T6 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 354.0-T62 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

notch-yield ratio, permanent-mold castings at various temperatures . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, permanent-mold castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove), at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 tear testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens of permanent-mold castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings, subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 tensile testing, permanent-mold castings . . 71 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 45 C355.0-T6 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, premium-strength castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 C355.0-T61 notch-yield ratio, premium-strength sand castings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove), at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 tear testing, premium strength castings . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings, subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 tensile testing, notched round specimens of premium-strength castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, premium strength castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 C355.0-T7 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 tear testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, permanent-mold castings . . 71 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold castings, welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 356.0 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)

www.asminternational.org
Alloy Index / 187

A356.0 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 strength and fracture toughness. . . . . . . . 168 356.0-T4 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 tear testing, welds (groove) in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 tensile testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . 71 unit propagation energy, sand-cast alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sand castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 356.0-T6 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 20 notch-yield ratio, permanent-mold castings at various temperatures . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, permanent-mold castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 sand castings welded to plate, tear resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 tear testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . 71 tear testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 tear testing, welds (groove) in permanentmold castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 tear testing, welds (groove) in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of permanent-mold castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 tensile testing, permanent-mold castings . . 71 tensile testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . 71 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold castings, welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

unit propagation energy, plate with permanent-mold castings welded . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy, sand-cast alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sand castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 A356.0-T6 fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 tear testing, premium strength castings . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, premium strength castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 A356.0-T61 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 notch-yield ratio, permanent-mold castings at various temperatures . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio, premium-strength sand castings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, permanent-mold castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, premium-strength castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . 71 tear testing, welds (groove) in permanentmold castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of permanent-mold castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, notched round specimens of premium-strength castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, permanent-mold castings . . 71 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold castings, welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 A356.0-T62 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 notch-yield ratio, permanent-mold castings at various temperatures . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, permanent-mold castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of permanent-mold castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, permanent-mold castings . . 71

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)
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www.asminternational.org

A356.0-T62 (continued) unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold castings, welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 356.0-T7 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 notch-yield ratio, permanent-mold castings at various temperatures . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 sand castings welded to plate, tear resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 tear testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . 71 tear testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 tear testing, welds (groove) in permanentmold castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 tear testing, welds (groove) in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of permanent-mold castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 tensile testing, permanent-mold castings . . 71 tensile testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . 71 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold castings, welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy, plate with permanent-mold castings welded . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy, sand-cast alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sand castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 A356.0-T7 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 notch-yield ratio, permanent-mold castings at various temperatures . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, permanent-mold castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . 71 tear testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 tear testing, welds (groove) in permanentmold castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of permanent-mold castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 tensile testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 tensile testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . 71 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy, sand-cast alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sand castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 C356.0-T7 tear testing, welds (groove) in permanentmold castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 356.0-T71 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 tear testing, welds (groove) in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 tensile testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . 71 unit propagation energy, plate with sand castings welded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy, sand-cast alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sand castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 A357.0 strength and fracture toughness. . . . . . . . 168 A357.0-T61 notch-yield ratio, premium-strength sand castings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, premium-strength castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, premium strength castings . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of premium-strength castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

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tensile testing, premium strength castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 A357.0-T62 notch-yield ratio, premium-strength sand castings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, premium-strength castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, premium-strength castings . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of premium-strength castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, premium-strength castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 A357.0-T7 tear testing, welds (groove) in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 359.0-T62 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 notch-yield ratio, permanent-mold castings at various temperatures . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, permanent-mold castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of permanent-mold castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 unit propagation energy, permanent-mold cast alloys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 45 444.0-F fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 A444.0-F fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 20 notch-yield ratio, permanent-mold castings at various temperatures . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 20 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, permanent-mold castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove), at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 tear testing, permanent-mold castings . . . . 71 tear testing, welds (groove) in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings, subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 tensile testing, notched round specimens of permanent-mold castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, permanent-mold castings . . 71 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 45 A444.0-T4 tear testing, premium strength castings . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, premium-strength castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 45 5xx.x series fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 520.0-F tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 520.0-T4 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 B535.0-F fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 20 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tear testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 tensile testing, sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . 71 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44, 45 A612.0-F notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

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A612.0-F (continued) notch-yield ratio, sand castings at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, sand castings at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 tensile testing, notched round specimens of sand castings at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 M700-T5 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 unit propagation energy, sand-cast alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sand castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Wrought Alloys
1xxx series tear resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy vs. elongation, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 1100 as filler alloy, for groove welds. . . . . . . . 116 as filler alloy for welds, unit propagation energy at various temperatures . . . . . . 118 as filler alloy, fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures . . . . . . 123 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, welds. . . . 4546 tear testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 1100-H112 tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 tensile testing, of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 1100-H14 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 1100-H18 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 1100-O notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 1350-H12 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 2xxx series as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 fracture toughness, alloy enhancement advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

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Alloy Index / 191

fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures. . . . . . . . . . 123124 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 19 stress-corrosion cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 tear resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy vs. elongation, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2014-TA notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 2014-T3 aged to T6, tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 aged to T6, tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . 130 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . 131 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edgenotched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . 24, 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edgenotched sheet, transverse. . . . . . . . . 26, 34 2014-T451 crack propagation in stress-corrosion testing, plate, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 2014-T6 critical stress-intensity factor vs. tensile yield strength, sheet . . . . . 159162 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing. extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . 130 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 26 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy at high temperatures, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, forgings, stress relieved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

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192 / Alloy Index

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2014-T651 crack propagation in stress-corrosion testing, plate, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, unwelded plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, transverse . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, unwelded sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 144 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . 128 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . 129 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 tensile testing, unwelded plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 2014-T652 plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forging, minimum value . . . . . . . . . . . 103

tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Alclad 2014-T3 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 Alclad 2014-T6 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 2020-O tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2020-T4 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 2020-T6 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 gross-section stress at initiation of slow crack growth or rapid crack propagation under plane-strain conditions vs. crack length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

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gross-section stress at onset of rapid fracture vs. crack length, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 notch-yield ratio, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . 12 stress-strain curve area for sheet plate. . . . 12 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edgenotched sheet, transverse. . . . . . . . . 25, 26 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 unit propagation energy, plate. . . . . . . . . . 12 unit propagation energy, sheet . . . . . . . . . 12 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 yield strength to tensile strength ratio, sheet plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1112 X2020-T6 unit propagation energy at high temperatures, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 2020-T61 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 2020-T651 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, longitudinal. . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, transverse . . . 100 gross-section stress at initiation of slow crack growth or rapid crack propagation under plane-strain conditions vs. crack length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

notch-yield ratio, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . 12 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 stress-strain curve area for sheet plate. . . . 12 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, plate. . . . . . . . . . 12 unit propagation energy, sheet . . . . . . . . . 12 unit propagation energy vs. fatigue-crack growth rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 yield strength to tensile strength ratio, sheet plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2020-T6510 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 Alclad 2020-O tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Alclad 2020-T6 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 26

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Alclad 2020-T6 (continued) tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 2021-T81 crack propagation in stress-corrosion testing, plate, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength as subzero temperature . . . . . 121 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 2021-T8151 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 2024 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . . . 158 2024-T3 crack-resistance curve, clad sheet . . . . 8889 critical stress-intensity factor vs. tensile yield strength, sheet . . . . . 159162 fracture toughness, alloy enhancement advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 fracture toughness, at elevated temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 plane-strain fracture toughness, sheet . . . 103 stress at onset of unstable crack propagation vs. crack length, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159162 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

unit propagation energy at high temperatures, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 2024-T351 crack propagation in stress-corrosion testing, plate, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, longitudinal. . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . 99 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2024-T36 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54, 55 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 51, 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54, 55 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 2024-T4 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62

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tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 2024-T42 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 2024-T6 tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 2024-T62 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 2024-T651 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, unwelded plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 fracture toughness testing, unwelded sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 tensile testing, unwelded plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 2024-T81 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 26 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 2024-T851 fatigue crack growth, plate . . . . . . . . . . . 148 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, longitudinal. . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, transverse . . . 100 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 plane-strain fracture toughness, thick plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157158 plane-strain fracture toughness vs. notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . 107108 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round pate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)
196 / Alloy Index

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2024-T851 (continued) tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy vs. fatigue-crack growth rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 2024-T8511 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 2024-T852 plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 tear testing, die forgings, longitudinal. . . . 68 tear testing, die forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, die forgings, longitudinal. . 68 tensile testing, die forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 2024-T86 critical stress-intensity factor vs. tensile yield strength, sheet . . . . . 159162 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136, 137 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136, 137 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 Alclad 2024-T3 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Alclad 2024-T351 plane-strain fracture toughness, sheet . . . 103 Alclad 2024-T36 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 Alclad 2024-T4 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

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tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 Alclad 2024-T81 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 Alclad 2024-T86 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 2025-T6 tear testing, die forgings, longitudinal. . . . 68 tear testing, die forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, die forgings, longitudinal. . 68 tensile testing, die forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 2048-T851 crack propagation in stress-corrosion testing, plate, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 2090-T81 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 2090-T83 plane-strain fracture toughness, sheet . . . 103 2090-T84 plane-strain fracture toughness, sheet . . . 103 2124 aerospace alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 168 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 plane-strain fracture toughness, minimum values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 transportation alloy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2124-T851 crack propagation in stress-corrosion testing, plate, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 creep crack growth, plate . . . . . . . . 149150 fatigue crack growth, plate . . . . . . . . . . . 148 fracture toughness vs. temperature, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

plane-strain fracture toughness testing . . . 87 plane-strain fracture toughness, thick plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157158 plane-strain fracture toughness vs. notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . . 107-108 2124-T8151 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 2218-T851 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 2219 creep crack growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 2219-T31 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2219-T37 aged after welding, notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 aged to T87, tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 aged to T87, tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 crack propagation in stress-corrosion testing, plate, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

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2219-T37 (continued) tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . 130 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . 131 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 2219-T4 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 2219-T6 tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 2219-T62 aged to T62, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 heat treated and aged (HTA), notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . 113, 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove), at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 parent alloy, tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . 73 parent alloy, tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 post-weld heat treated, joint yield strength vs. notch-yield ratios for groove welds at subzero temperature . . . 124, 125 post-weld heat treated, tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 post-weld heat treated, tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 post-weld heat treated, tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 post-weld heat treated, tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 reheated and aged after welding, notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 reheat-treated to T62, tensile testing, edgenotched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 reheat-treated to T62, tensile testing, edgenotched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127

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tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . 130 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . 131 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2219-T81 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 parent alloy, tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . 73 parent alloy, tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions 72 post-weld aged, tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 post-weld aged, tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 post-weld aged, tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 post-weld heat treated, tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 2219-T851 creep crack growth, plate . . . . . . . . 149150 energy to fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 fracture toughness, plate, alloy enhancement advantages. . . . . . . . . . . 158 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, longitudinal. . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . 99 fracture toughness vs. temperature, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150, 151 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove), at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . . . . 86 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 stress-rupture testing, plate . . . . . . . . . . . 151 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . 129 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)
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2219-T851 (continued) tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy vs. fatigue-crack growth rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 2219-T8511 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 2219-T852 plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 2219-T87 crack propagation in stress-corrosion testing, plate, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 parent alloy, tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . 73 parent alloy, tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 stress-corrosion cracking, in saltdichromate-acetate solution. . . . . 154, 155 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126

tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . 130 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . 131 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet from welds, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet from welds, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 2319 as filler alloy, for groove welds. . . . . . . . 116 as filler alloy for welded panels, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature . . . . . . . . 120 as filler alloy for welds, unit propagation energy at various temperatures . . . . . . 118 as filler alloy, fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures. . . 123, 124

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Alloy Index / 201

as filler alloy, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 as filler alloy, tensile testing of edgenotched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 as filler alloy, tensile testing of edgenotched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 as filler alloy, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, welds. . . . 4546 2319-T62 aged, unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 heat treated and aged, unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . 42 post-weld heat treated, joint yield strength vs. notch-yield ratios for groove welds at subzero temperature . . . 124, 125 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2319-T851 aged, unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 heat treated and aged, unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2319-T87 aged, unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 heat treated and aged, unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2324 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 2419 aerospace alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 2419-T851 fracture toughness, plate, alloy enhancement advantages. . . . . . . . . . . 158 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 2524 aerospace alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 168 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 transportation alloy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2524-T3 crack-resistance curve, clad sheet . . . . 8889

fracture toughness, alloy enhancement advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Alclad 2524-T351 plane-strain fracture toughness, sheet . . . 103 2618-T6 crack propagation in stress-corrosion testing, plate, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy at high temperatures, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2618-T651 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3xxx series tear resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy vs. elongation, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3003 as filler alloy, fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures . . . . . . 123 tear testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3003-H112 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove), at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

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3003-H112 (continued) tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3003-H14 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 3003-H18 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3003-H34 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 3003-O notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 3004-H34 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3004-H38 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 3004-O notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 Alclad 3105-H14 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4043 as filler alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 as filler alloy, effect on notch-yield ratio of welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 21 as filler alloy, for groove welds. . . . . . . . 116

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as filler alloy for welded panels, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature . . . . . . . . 120 as filler alloy, fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures. . . 123, 124 as filler alloy, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, permanent-mold castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 as filler alloy, sand castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 as filler alloy, tear resistance of welds. . . . 45 as filler alloy, tensile testing of edgenotched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 as filler alloy, tensile testing of edgenotched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 as filler alloy, tensile testing of notched round specimens from welds, subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 as filler alloy, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 as filler alloy, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, welds. . . . 4546 heat treated and aged, unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . 42 joint yield strength vs. notch-yield ratios for groove welds at subzero temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124, 125 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 5xxx series chemical storage alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 as filler alloy, high toughness . . . . . . . . . . . 2 as filler alloy, superior strength and fracture toughness except for welding highsilicon-bearing castings. . . . . . . . . . . . 168 as filler alloy, tear resistance of welds. . . . 45 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118, 119 fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures. . . . . . . . . . 123124

notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 19 structural alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 subzero temperature applications . . . . . . . . 2 tankage alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 tear resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 transportation alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 168 unit propagation energy vs. elongation, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 5039 as filler alloy for welds, unit propagation energy at various temperatures . . . . . . 118 as filler alloy, fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures . . . . . . 123 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, tensile testing of notched round specimens from welds, subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, welds. . . . 4546 5050-H34 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5050-H38 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5050-O tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5052 as filler alloy for welds, unit propagation energy at various temperatures . . . . . . 118

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5052 (continued) as filler alloy, fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures . . . . . . 123 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4546 5052-H112 tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 5052-H34 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5052-H38 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5052-O tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in., non-heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5083 fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 5083-H113 tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 5083-H115 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5083-H12 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5083-H131 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5083-H14 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5083-H24 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

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tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5083-H32 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5083-H321 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, unwelded plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, welded plate . . . 101 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove), at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5083-H34 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5083-H343 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5083-O fracture toughness at subzero temperatures, plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119, 120, 121122 fracture toughness parameters for plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 fracture toughness testing, compact tension fracture of plate . . . . . . . . . . . 181 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, unwelded plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, welded plate . . . 101 fracture toughness testing, notched-bend plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 fracture toughness testing, thick plate compact tension specimen . . . . . . . . . 182 fracture toughness testing, unwelded sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 fracture toughness testing, welded sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 144 joint yield strength vs. notch-yield ratios for groove welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124, 125 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove) at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 storage tank alloy for liquefied natural gas, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120122 structural alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 tankage alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 tear testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139

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5083-O (continued) tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 59 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tear testing, welds (groove) in extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tear testing, welds (groove) in plate . . . . . 73 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, unwelded plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 tensile testing, welded plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 tensile testing, welds (groove), extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 tensile testing, welds (groove) in plate . . . 72 transportation alloy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5086-H32 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, unwelded plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57

tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5086-H34 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5086-O tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60

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tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5154 as filler alloy for welds, unit propagation energy at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, welds . . . . 45-46 5154-H112 tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 5154-H32 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5154-H34 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5154-H38 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 50 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49, 50 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5154-H39 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5154-O notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

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5154-O (continued) tear testing, plate at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5183 as filler alloy, for groove welds. . . . . . . . 116 as filler alloy for welds, unit propagation energy at various temperatures . . . . . . 118 as filler alloy, fracture toughness, welds in plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119, 120, 121122 as filler alloy, fracture toughness, welds in subzero temperatures . . . . . . 123 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, welds. . . . 4546 fracture toughness, parameters for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 joint yield strength vs. notch-yield ratios for groove welds at subzero temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124, 125 storage tank alloy for liquefied natural gas, filler alloy for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120122

5183-H321 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 5356 as filler alloy, effect on notch-yield ratio of welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 21 as filler alloy, for groove welds. . . . . . . . 116 as filler alloy for welds, unit propagation energy at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 133 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, welds. . . . 4546 5356-H321 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 5356-O tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)

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tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5454-H32 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove), at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 stress-rupture testing, notched plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151, 152 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5454-H34 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 5454-O notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 stress-rupture testing, notched plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151, 152 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, sheet, as various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

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210 / Alloy Index

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5454-O (continued) tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5456 as filler alloy for welds, unit propagation energy at various temperatures . . . . . . 118 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, welds. . . . 4546 5456-H117 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. lanestrain fracture toughness . . . . . . . . . . . 110 5456-H12 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5456-H14 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5456-H24 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5456-H311 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 5456-H32 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 5456-H321 energy to fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove) to castings, at various temperatures . . . . . 116 notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 58 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tear testing, wrought alloys with castings welded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)

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Alloy Index / 211

tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . 131 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . 130 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds to sand castings, subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 58 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, plate with permanent-mold castings welded . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy, plate with sand castings welded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117

5456-H323 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5456-H34 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5456-H343 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . 130 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . 131 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)
212 / Alloy Index

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5456-H343 (continued) tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 5456-O notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tear testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 57 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . 139 tensile testing, plate, at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 140 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 57 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, non-heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 5554 as filler alloy, for groove welds. . . . . . . . 116 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 5556 as filler alloy, for groove welds. . . . . . . . 116 as filler alloy, for welded panels, notchyield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 as filler alloy for welds, unit propagation energy at various temperatures . . . . . . 118 as filler alloy, effect on notch-yield ratio of welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 21 as filler alloy, fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures . . . . . . 124 as filler alloy, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings . . . . . . . . . 35 as filler alloy, notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength for welds . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 as filler alloy, permanent-mold castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 as filler alloy, sand castings welded to plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 as filler alloy, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 as filler alloy, tensile testing of edgenotched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

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as filler alloy, tensile testing of edgenotched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 as filler alloy, tensile testing of notched round specimens from welds, subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 as filler alloy, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 as filler alloy, unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4546 post-weld heat-treated, joint yield strength vs. notch-yield ratios for groove welds at subzero temperature . . . 124, 125 5556-H321 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 5556-H343 unit propagation energy, castings welded to castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 6xxx series fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures. . . . . . . . . . 123124 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 19 tear resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy vs. elongation, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 6005-T51 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 6005-T6 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 6013-T6 plane-strain fracture toughness, sheet . . . 103 6013-T651 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 6051-T6 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 6061-T4 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 6061-T51 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 6061-T6 aged to T6, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132, 133 critical stress-intensity factor vs. tensile yield strength, sheet . . . . . 159162 energy to fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 fracture toughness at subzero temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, unwelded plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, welded plate . . . 101 fracture toughness testing, unwelded sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 heat-treated and aged, tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . 132 joint yield strength vs. notch-yield ratios for groove welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124, 125 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 notch-yield ratio, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove), at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 notch-yield ratio, welds (groove) to castings, at various temperatures . . . . . 116 notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . 12 plane-strain fracture toughness, sheet . . . 103 plate welded to sand castings, tear resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 post-weld heat-treated, joint yield strength vs. notch-yield ratios for groove welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124, 125

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6061-T6 (continued) post-weld heat-treated, tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 post-weld heat-treated, tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 stress-strain curve area for sheet plate. . . . 12 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55, 56 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tear testing, wrought alloys with castings welded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet from welds at subzero temperatures, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . 130 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round specimens from welds in sand castings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds at subzero temperatures . . 132 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds to sand castings, subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edgenotched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . 24, 25 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55, 56 tensile testing, unwelded plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 unit propagation energy at high temperatures, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, plate. . . . . . . . . . 12 unit propagation energy, plate with permanent-mold castings welded . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy, plate with sand castings welded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy, sheet . . . . . . . . . 12 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 yield strength to tensile strength ratio, sheet plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12 6061-T651 notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 notch-yield ratio, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 stress-strain curve area for sheet plate. . . . 12 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 58 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . 129 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 58 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 unit propagation energy, plate. . . . . . . . . . 12 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, sheet . . . . . . . . . 12 yield strength to tensile strength ratio, sheet plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Alclad 6061-T6 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 52, 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

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tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 52, 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 6062-T6 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 6063-T4 tear testing, wrought alloys with castings welded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 unit propagation energy, plate with sand castings welded . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 6063-T5 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 6063-T6 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 6066-T6 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 6066-T6511 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 6070-T6 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 6071-T4 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 6071-T6 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 6071-T69 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 6101-T6 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 6151-T6 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 62 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 62 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 6351-T51 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . 62, 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62, 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 6351-T6 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 7xxx series fracture toughness, alloy enhancement advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 fracture toughness at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

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7xxx series (continued) fracture toughness of welds in subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18, 19 stress-corrosion cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 tear resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 unit propagation energy vs. elongation, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 7001-T6 tear testing, die forgings, long transverse 69 tear testing, die forgings, longitudinal. . . . 68 tear testing, die forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 65 tensile testing, die forgings, longitudinal. . 68 tensile testing, die forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, die forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 65 7001-T651 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7001-T73 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 7001-T75 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, longitudinal. . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . 99 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 tear testing, die forgings, longitudinal. . . . 68 tear testing, die forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 58 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, die forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, die forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66

tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 58 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy vs. fatiguecrack growth rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 7001-T7551 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 58 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 58 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 X7002-T6 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 7005 fracture toughness of welds at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 7005-T53 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds, subzero temperatures . . . . 133 X7005-T53 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 7005-T5351 notch-yield ratio, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 7005-T6 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66 X7005-T6 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

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tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 7005-T63 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66 tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 7005-T6351 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, longitudinal. . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, unwelded plate . 101 fracture toughness testing, notched and compact tension, welded plate . . . . . . 101 tear testing of welds (groove), in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 142 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 58 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 60 tear testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter notched round specimens from welds. . . . . . . . . 35 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . 129 tensile testing, notched round specimens from welds, subzero temperatures . . . . 133 tensile testing of welds (groove) in sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . 141 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 58 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 60 tensile testing, welds (groove) in sheet, plate, and extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 X7005-T6351 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40

X7006-T53 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66 X7006-T63 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66 X7007-T6 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 7007-T651 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . 129 7039-T53 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 7039-T6 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, transverse . . . 100 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 X7039-T6 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 7039-T61 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

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7039-T61 (continued) notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature . . 120 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 7039-T6151 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . 129 7039-T63 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, transverse . . . 100 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 7039-T6351 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, transverse . . . 100 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . 129 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 7039-T64 crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion testing, die forgings, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 7049-T73 crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion testing, die forgings, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 7050 aerospace alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 168 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 plane-strain fracture toughness, minimum values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 transportation alloy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7050-T73510 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7050-T73511 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

7050-T73651 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102, 158159 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. planestrain fracture toughness . . . . . . . . . . . 110 7050-T73652 plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7050-T74 crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion testing, die forgings, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7050-T7451 fatigue crack growth, plate . . . . . . . . . . . 149 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102, 158159 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7050-T7452 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings, minimum value . . . . . . . . . . 104 plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7050-T7651 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7050-T7651X threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 7050-T76510 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions, minimum value . . . . . . . . . 104 7050-T76511 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions, minimum value . . . . . . . . . 104 7055 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 7055-T7751 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102, 103 7055-T7751X plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7075 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157, 161 7075-T6 fracture toughness enhanced with laminates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162163 fracture toughness testing, center-notched plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

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fracture toughness testing, centernotched sheet and thin plate . . . . . . 8687 fracture toughness testing, centernotched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, centernotched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 gross-section stress at initiation of slow crack growth or rapid crack propagation under plane-strain conditions vs. crack length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 gross-section stress at onset of rapid fracture vs. crack length, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 plane-strain fracture toughness, 0.063 in. sheet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9394 residual stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94, 95 tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

tensile testing, 1 in. wide, edge-notched sheet from welds, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edgenotched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . 24, 25 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy at high temperatures, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, forgings, stress relieved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 7075-T6 crack resistance curve, sheet . . . . . . 159162 critical stress-intensity factor vs. tensile yield strength, sheet . . . . . 159162 fracture toughness testing, sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 162, 163 fracture toughness testing, sheet, plate and multilayered panels, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164, 165 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 stress at onset of unstable crack propagation vs. crack length, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159162 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 7075-T651 crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion testing, die forgings, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 crack-resistance curve, plate . . . . . 8889, 90 fracture toughness enhanced with laminates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162163

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7075-T651 (continued) fracture toughness testing, centernotched plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8687 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, longitudinal. . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, unwelded plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 fracture toughness testing, sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162, 163 fracture toughness testing, sheet, plate, and multilayered panels, transverse . . 164, 165 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, transverse . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, unwelded sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 gross-section stress at initiation of slow crack growth or rapid crack propagation under plane-strain conditions vs. crack length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 plane-strain fracture toughness vs. notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . 107108 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 stress-corrosion cracking, in saltdichromate-acetate solution. . . . . 154, 155 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 58 tear testing, plate, transverse . . . . . . . . 60, 61 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 58 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . 60, 61 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 tensile testing, unwelded plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy vs. fatigue-crack growth rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 7075-T651X tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 63 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 63 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66 7075-T6510 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7075-T6511 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7075-T652 tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 7075-T73 crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion testing, die forgings, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 critical stress-intensity factor vs. tensile yield strength, sheet . . . . . 159162 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)

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Alloy Index / 221

tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edgenotched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . 24, 25 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, forgings, stress relieved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 7075-T7351 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, longitudinal. . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, unwelded plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 fracture toughness testing, unwelded sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 103 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

plane-strain fracture toughness vs. notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . 107108 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 58 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 61 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 58 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 61 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 tensile testing, unwelded plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy vs. fatiguecrack growth rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 7075-T7351X tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . 63, 64 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 66 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63, 64 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 66 7075-T73510 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7075-T7352 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 7075-T76 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 7075-T7651 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 103 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

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7075-T7651 (continued) plane-strain fracture toughness vs. notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . 107108 7075-T7651X tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 64 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . 66, 67 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 64 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse. . 66, 67 7075-T76511 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Alclad 7075-T6 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 7076-T61 tear testing, die forgings, longitudinal. . . . 68 tear testing, die forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, die forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, die forgings, longitudinal. . 68 tensile testing, die forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, die forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 7079-T6 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature . . 120 notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 tear testing, die forgings, longitudinal. . . . 68 tear testing, die forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 64 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 67 tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, die forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, die forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 64 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 67 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edgenotched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . 24, 25 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, forgings, stress relieved. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 7079-T651 crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion testing, die forgings, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, longitudinal. . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, notched bend and compact tension, unwelded plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

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fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, transverse . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, unwelded sheet and plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength at subzero temperature. . . . . . 121 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 58 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 61 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, 0.5 diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 tensile testing, notched round specimens at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . 129 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 58 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 61 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 tensile testing, unwelded plate at subzero temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 threshold stress-intensity factor vs. plane-strain fracture toughness . . . . . . 110 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7079-T652 tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Alclad 7079-T6 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 7080-T7 tear testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . 68 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tear testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 tensile testing, hand forgings, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, short transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 X7080-T7 unit propagation energy, forgings . . . . . . . 42 X7106-T53 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 64 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 67 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 64 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 67 X7106-T6 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edgenotched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . 24, 25 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 unit propagation energy, sheet, at various temperatures, transverse . . . . . 117 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 unit propagation energy vs. tensile yield strength, sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . 117 X7106-T6351 fracture toughness testing, singleedge-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, singleedge-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 58 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 61 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 58

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X7106-T6351 (continued) tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 61 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 X7106-T6352 tear testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 tensile testing, hand forgings, long transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 X7107-T6351 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 X7139-T6 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edgenotched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . 24, 25 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 X7139-T53 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 64 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 67 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 64 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 67 X7139-T63 tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 64 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 67 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 64 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 67 X7139-T6351 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, transverse . . . 100 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 58 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 61 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 58 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 61 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7149-T73 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7149-T73511 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions, minimum value . . . . . . . . . 103

7150 aerospace alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 7150-T6151 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 7150-T61510 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions, minimum value . . . . . . . . . 104 7150-T61511 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions, minimum value . . . . . . . . . 104 7150-T651 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102, 103 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 7150-T6510 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7150-T6511 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 7150-T7751 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 7170-T77511 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7175 aerospace alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 168 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 transportation alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 7175-T66 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 7175-T73510 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7175-T73511 plane-strain fracture toughness, extrusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7175-T736 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103, 159 plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7175-T73651 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7175-T73652 plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7175-T74 crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion testing, die forgings, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103, 159

2001 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Fracture Resistance of Aluminum Alloys (#06042G)

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Alloy Index / 225

plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7175-T7451 plane-strain fracture toughness, die forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7175-T7452 plane-strain fracture toughness, hand forgings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 7178-T6 critical stress-intensity factor vs. tensile yield strength, sheet . . . . . 159162 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 gross-section stress at initiation of slow crack growth or rapid crack propagation under plane-strain conditions vs. crack length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 gross-section stress at onset of rapid fracture vs. crack length, 0.063 in. sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17, 21 notch-yield ratio, 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 notch-yield ratio vs. tensile yield strength, 1/8 in. sheet at subzero temperature . . 120 notch-yield ratio, welds in 1/8 in. sheet at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 tear testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, center-notched sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet, at subzero temperatures, longitudinal . . . 126 tensile testing, edge-notched sheet at subzero temperatures, transverse. . . . . 127 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 0.5 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet from welds, longitudinal (transverse weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet from welds, transverse (longitudinal weld) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edgenotched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . 24, 25 tensile testing, 1 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 tensile testing, sheet, at various temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 7178-T651 crack propagation rates in stress-corrosion testing, die forgings, double-cantilever beam specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, longitudinal. . . . . . 97 fracture toughness testing, center-notched sheet and thin plate, transverse . . . . . . . 98 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 fracture toughness testing, single-edgenotched sheet and plate, transverse . . . 100 gross-section stress at initiation of slow crack growth or rapid crack propagation under plane-strain conditions vs. crack length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 notch-yield ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . 58, 59 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 61 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . 58, 59 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 61 tensile testing, 3 in. wide edge-notched sheet, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7178-T651X tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 64 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 67 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 64 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 67 7178-T76 unit propagation energy, extrusions. . . . . . 41 7178-T7651 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, longitudinal. . . . . 99 fracture toughness testing, center-notched thick sheet and plate, transverse . . . . . . 99 plane-strain stress-intensity factor vs. unit propagation energy, plate . . . . . . . 106 tear testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . 59 tear testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . . . 61 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 tensile testing, 0.5 in. diameter, notched round plate, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

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226 / Alloy Index

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7178-T7651 (continued) tensile testing, plate, longitudinal . . . . . . . 59 tensile testing, plate, transverse. . . . . . . . . 61 unit propagation energy, 0.75 to 1.5 in. plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7178-T7651X tear testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . . . 64 tear testing, extrusions, transverse. . . . . . . 67 tensile testing, extrusions, longitudinal . . . 64 tensile testing, extrusions, transverse . . . . 67 Alclad 7178-T6 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tear testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heat-treated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, longitudinal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 tensile testing, 0.063 in. sheet, heattreated, transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 unit propagation energy, 0.063 in. sheet . . 40 7475 aerospace alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12, 168 fracture toughness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 plane-strain fracture toughness, minimum values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 transportation alloy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 7475-T61 crack-resistance curve, sheet . . . . . . 159162 critical stress-intensity factor vs. tensile yield strength, sheet . . . . . 159162 plane-stress fracture toughness, sheet, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 stress at onset of unstable crack propagation vs. crack length, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159162 7475-T651 crack-resistance curve, plate . . . . . 8889, 90 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103, 159162

plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 plane-strain fracture toughness vs. notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . 107108 7475-T7351 crack-resistance curve, plate . . . . . 8889, 90 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103, 159162 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 plane-strain fracture toughness testing . . . 87 plane-strain fracture toughness testing, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 plane-strain fracture toughness vs. notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . 107108 7475-T761 crack-resistance curve, sheet . . . . . . 159-162 critical stress-intensity factor vs. tensile yield strength, sheet . . . . . 159162 plane-stress fracture toughness, sheet, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 stress at onset of unstable crack propagation vs. crack length, sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159162 7475-T7651 crack-resistance curve, plate . . . . . 88-89, 90 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103, 159162 plane-strain fracture toughness, plate, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 plane-strain fracture toughness vs. notch-yield ratio, plate . . . . . . . . 107108 Alclad 7475-T61 plane-stress fracture toughness, sheet, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Alclad 7475-T761 plane-stress fracture toughness, sheet, minimum value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

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