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Field Manual 90-13 MCWP 3-17.

1
Marine Corps Warfighting Publication 3-17.1 Headquarters

Department of the Army


Commander, US Marine Corps
Washington, DC, 26 January 1998.

FM 90-13
RIVER-CROSSING OPERATIONS

Table of Contents

COVER

PREFACE

CHAPTER 1. CONCEPTS

General
Types of Crossings

Hasty
Deliberate
Retrograde
Crossing Fundamentals

Surprise
Extensive Preparation
Flexible Plan
Traffic Control
Organization
Speed

CHAPTER 2. TERRAIN AND ENEMY

General
Estimate of the Situation
Tactical Requirements
Terrain

Characteristics
Military Aspects
Current
Water Measurements
Water Changes
Obstructions
The Friendly Shore
The Enemy Shore
Intelligence

Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIR)


Information Collection
Threat

River Defense
Offensive River Crossing

CHAPTER 3. COMMAND AND CONTROL

General
Organization
Control Elements

Division Headquarters
Brigade Headquarters
Communications
Control Measures

Release Lines (RLs)


Crossing Areas
Waiting Areas
Engineer Equipment Parks (EEPs)
Traffic-Control Posts
Engineer Regulating Points
Crossing Plan
Crossing Control

Assault Across the River


Crossing-Area Operations
Transfer of Support Forces to Division
Movement Control
Retrograde Crossings

CHAPTER 4. PLANNING

General
The Planning Process

Analyzing the Mission


Developing COAs
Analyzing COAs
Comparing COAs
Producing Orders

CHAPTER 5. DIVISION DELIBERATE RIVER CROSSING

General
Phases of a Deliberate River Crossing
The River Crossing

Advance to the River (Phase I)


Assault Across the River (Phase II)
Advance From the Exit Bank (Phase III)
Secure the Bridgehead Line (Phase IV)
Continuation of the Attack

CHAPTER 6. RETROGRADE OPERATIONS

General
Retrograde Types

Delay
Withdrawal
Retirement
Denial Measures
Planning

CHAPTER 7. CROSSING SITES

General
Crossing-Site Selection
Planning
Requirements

Entry/Exit Routes or Paths


Routes and Approaches
Waiting Areas
River Conditions
Banks
Bottoms
Enemy Situation
Site Analysis
Field Calculations

Measuring the Current's Velocity


Determining Slopes and Degrees
Measuring the River's Width
Calculating Downstream Drift
Rafts

Site Preparation
Rafting Sites
Rafting Operations
Maintenance and Refueling
Bridges

Site Organization
Night Operations
Actions Under Fire
Vehicle Recovery
Other Gap-Crossing Equipment

CHAPTER 8. ASSAULT CROSSING

General
Types of Assault Crossings

Rubber-Boat Crossing
Air-Assault Crossing
Vehicle-Swim Crossing
Organization

Support Force
Assault Force
Engineers
Preparation Phase of the Operation
Far-Shore Reconnaissance
Far-Shore Preparation
Nearshore Reconnaissance
Assault-Force Rehearsal
Execution Phase of the Operation

Attack-Position Procedures
Embarking Procedures
Tactical Control Afloat
Watermanship
Obscuring With Smoke
Direct-Fire Reaction
Indirect-Fire Reaction
Debarking Procedures
Boat Return
Motor Procedures
Cargo Procedures
Casualty Procedures
Safety

CHAPTER 9. ENGINEER OPERATIONS

General
ERP Operations

Rafting Operations
Bridge Operations
Swimming Operations
Engineer Contingency Bridging Operations

Assault Bridges, Long-Term Use


Maintenance
Anchorage
Protective Systems
Approaches
Long-Term Gap-Crossing C2
Multirole Bridge Company (MRBC)

Organization
Basic Concept
Implications
Training

APPENDIX A. METRIC CONVERSION CHART

APPENDIX B. ENGINEER-PLANNING CALCULATIONS


General
Engineer Planning

APPENDIX C. CROSSING MEANS

General
Descriptions of Crossing Means

Fording Vehicles
Amphibious Vehicles
Aircraft
Boats
Assault Launched Bridges
Rafts
Bridges

GLOSSARY

REFERENCE

AUTHENTICATION
CHAPTER 1

CONCEPTS

GENERAL

The purpose of any river crossing is to project combat power across a water obstacle to
accomplish a mission. A river crossing is a unique operation. It requires specific procedures for
success because the water obstacle prevents normal ground maneuver. It also requires detailed
planning and control measures and different technical support than other tactical operations
require. The nature and size of the obstacle, the enemy situation, and available crossing assets
limit the tactical commander's options.

The challenge is to minimize the river's impact on the commander's ability to maneuver. The
force is vulnerable while crossing, as it must break its movement formations, concentrate at
crossing points, and reform on the far shore before continuing to maneuver. The tactical
commander cannot effectively fight his force while it is split by a river. He must reduce this
vulnerability by decreasing his force's exposure time. The best method is to cross rivers in stride
as a continuation of the tactical operation, whether in the offense or retrograde. Only as a last
resort should the force pause to build up combat power or crossing means before crossing. This
chapter introduces river-crossing operations by discussing the characteristics of this special,
difficult, and dangerous task.

TYPES OF CROSSINGS

Units expected to conduct a river crossing anticipate and plan for it in advance. All river
crossings require detailed planning. The planning requirements and engineer technical support
are similar, whether the crossing is hasty, deliberate, or retrograde.

HASTY

A hasty river crossing is a continuation of an attack across the river with no intentional pause at
the water to prepare, so that there is no loss of momentum. This is possible when enemy
resistance is weak and the river is not a severe obstacle.

A hasty river crossing is preferable to a deliberate crossing. A hasty river crossing features
decentralized control at the brigade level. The brigade may use organic, existing, or expedient
crossing means, but additional support from the division or corps is often necessary due to the
bridge companies being controlled at corps level. That support is only available when those
headquarters have taken purposeful action to position the assets at the right time and place to
make a brigade hasty crossing feasible. Coordination for support must be made early in the
planning process.
Small gaps that prohibit vehicles from self-bridging are encountered more frequently than large
gaps that require extensive bridging. Each maneuver force should task-organize itself with
organic mobile crossing assets that enable it to install bridges quickly, cross small gaps, and
recover the bridges for future crossings. Follow-on bridges, such as the medium-girder bridge
(MGB), may need to be positioned before assault bridges are removed at these minor gaps. The
two types of hasty crossings are the dry- and wet-gap crossings.

HASTY DRY-GAP CROSSING

Antitank (AT) ditches and craters are normally what maneuver forces encounter as a dry-gap-
crossing obstacle. Dry riverbeds may also present a crossing problem. Maneuver forces can use
the M9 armored combat earthmover (ACE) to push down the sides of ditches or to fill in craters.
Substantial fill material placed in the dry gaps allows the passage of combat tracked vehicles.
The crossing site can be improved and maintained for wheeled-traffic use by follow-on forces.

The armored vehicle-launched bridge (AVLB) is particularly suited for spanning streambeds, AT
ditches, craters, canals, partially blown bridges, and similar obstacles. It can be launched and
recovered in less than 5 minutes. The AVLB, like the M9 ACE, is organic to combat engineer
companies for use in hasty crossings of short gaps. The AVLB should be left in place across the
gap only as long as it takes to cross the maneuver unit it is traveling with, then replaced with
other fixed bridging, if necessary.

HASTY WET-GAP CROSSING

The depth and width of the wet gap, bank conditions, and the current's velocity will determine if
the maneuver force can cross by fording, swimming, or employing the AVLB or if other
bridging assets are required. Identifying wet gaps early and deploying the required resources
allow hasty crossings of known or anticipated gaps to occur. Two factors should be considered
when swimming vehicles through wet gaps-the current's velocity and the bank conditions.

Because vehicles drain rapidly when exiting, initially firm banks tend to deteriorate rapidly from
multiple uses of the same exit point. The existence of mud or surface irregularities further
degrades the percent of the slope that the swimming vehicle can overcome. When selecting a
fording site in a wet-gap crossing, the depth of the water is the most significant factor. The depth
of the water in one crossing area may change due to bottom surface mud or irregularities
(boulders or pot holes). The AVLB is ideally suited to allow hasty wet-gap crossings, requiring
only that the supported maneuver force eliminate enemy direct and observed indirect fires. The
crossing means will need to be replaced by other bridging assets as soon as possible to allow the
AVLB to remain with its supported unit.

If possible, the force crosses the water obstacle at multiple points across a broad front. It makes
the crossing as soon as its elements reach the obstacle, whether by day or night. As the bulk of
the force crosses the water, minimum forces remain to secure the crossing sites.

Expedient crossing means may be used if readily available and can be transported to the crossing
site. The reconnaissance party should note material or existing features that could be used as
expedient crossing devices. These include culvert pipe, lumber or cut timber, or war-damaged
equipment. The pipe fascines system (PFS), which consists of bundles of 8-inch, high-density,
plastic pipes chained together, can fill gaps up to 9 meters deep and support up to 70 tons. The
PFS is transported by an AVLB after the bridge is downloaded and emplaced into the gap.

A well-practiced standing operating procedure (SOP) reduces the necessary planning and
preparation time. A concise order, clearly articulating the commander's intent, allows
exploitation wherever subordinate units successfully force a crossing. When possible, advance
elements seize existing crossing means intact and ahead of the main body.

When facing negligible or light enemy resistance on both banks, the force does not have to clear
all enemy forces from the river to conduct a hasty crossing. It capitalizes on the speed of the
crossing and the limited ability of the enemy to effectively oppose the crossing.

DELIBERATE

A deliberate river crossing is conducted when-

A hasty crossing is not feasible.


A hasty crossing has failed.

Opposition from a strong defending enemy can require a deliberate crossing. A deliberate river
crossing is an attack across the river after a halt to make the detailed preparations necessary to
ensure success. It is characterized by-

A significant water obstacle.


Strong enemy resistance.
The necessity to clear entry and/or exit banks of enemy forces.

A deliberate river crossing involves the following:

Centralized division planning and control.


Thorough preparations, to include the time to perform extensive reconnaissance and full-
scale rehearsals, develop alternate traffic routes, and stockpile logistics.
The massing of forces and crossing equipment.

The deliberate river-crossing organization is as follows:

An assault force that seizes the far-shore objective and eliminates direct fire on the
crossing site.
A maneuver-support force that consists of corps combat engineers, bridge companies,
military police (MP), and chemical units which provide crossing means, traffic control,
and obscuration.
A bridgehead force that attacks from the far-shore objective to secure the bridgehead,
eliminating direct fire and observed indirect fire on the crossing area.
Once the river crossing is complete (bridgehead line is secured), a breakout force crosses the
river behind the bridgehead force and attacks out of the bridgehead. This force is normally not a
part of the unit that conducted the river crossing.

The two types of deliberate crossings are wet- and dry-gap crossings.

DELIBERATE WET-GAP CROSSING

The deliberate wet-gap crossing is divided into the following three phases: assault, rafting, and
bridging. These phases may occur in sequence or concurrently. The objective in deliberate wet-
gap crossings is to project combat power to the exit bank at a faster rate than the enemy can
concentrate forces for a counterattack. To do this, the commander may elect to first construct
rafts for nonswimming vehicles while swimming the fighting vehicles across. Bridge
construction is started when observed indirect fire has been eliminated. If the tactical situation
allows the elimination of the rafting phase, bridging efforts should begin immediately. This may
be a suitable option considering the high speed of employing systems like the ribbon bridge.

DELIBERATE DRY-GAP CROSSING

Deliberate dry-gap crossings are generally determined by the strength of the enemy's defenses or
the magnitude of the gap. If possible, using the M9 ACE or the AVLB is preferred. The MGB,
the Bailey bridge, the M4T6 dry-span bridge and, in the near future, the heavy dry-support
bridge (HDSB) are used to span larger dry gaps. These assets are labor-intensive and expose
personnel to enemy fire during construction but provide stable gap-crossing support for
continuous operations.

RETROGRADE

A retrograde river crossing is a movement to the rear across a water obstacle while in contact
with the enemy. The forces conducting the crossing establish a defense on the exit bank or
continue the retrograde to the defensive positions beyond the water obstacle. A retrograde river
crossing features centralized planning and control because of the limited crossing means. It has
the same amount of detailed planning as for a deliberate offensive crossing. Failure of a
retrograde crossing may lead to losing a significant amount of friendly forces.

CROSSING FUNDAMENTALS

River-crossing fundamentals are the same for all river crossings, but their application varies. For
example, traffic control is a key fundamental. The commander maintains it in a hasty crossing by
using the unit's SOP and a fragmentary order (FRAGO). In a deliberate crossing, he uses a
traffic-control organization, such as the MP, that implements a detailed movement plan. Crossing
fundamentals must be applied to ensure success when conducting a river crossing. These
fundamentals include-

Surprise.
Extensive preparation.
Flexible plan.
Traffic control.
Organization.
Speed.

SURPRISE

The range and lethality of modern weapons allow even a small force to defeat a larger exposed
force caught in an unfavorable position. A river provides this possibility by-

Limiting a force to a small number of crossing sites.


Splitting the force's combat power on separate banks.
Exposing the force to fires while on the water.

Surprise minimizes these disadvantages; forces that fail to achieve surprise may also fail in the
crossing attempt.

A deception plan is a key element of surprise. It reinforces the enemy's predisposition to believe
that the force will take a particular course of action (COA). The enemy usually expects a
crossing; however, it does not know where or when. A deception plan that employs
reconnaissance, site preparations, force buildup, and preparatory fires at a time or location other
than the intended crossing area may delay an effective enemy response to the true crossing.

The usual operations security (OPSEC) measures are also important. Commanders enforce
camouflage, noise, thermal, electromagnetic, and light discipline. In particular, commanders
closely control movement and concealment of river-crossing equipment and other obvious river-
crossing preparations. Despite modern intelligence-gathering technology, the skillful use of
night, smoke, fog, and bad weather for obscuration is still effective.

EXTENSIVE PREPARATION

Comprehensive intelligence of the enemy's composition and disposition and crossing-area terrain
must be developed early, since planning depends on an accurate and complete intelligence
picture.

Supporting forces, which typically include engineer battalions, bridge companies, air-defense
batteries, smoke-generation companies, and MP companies, must link up early. They
immediately begin crossing preparations and are available to train the crossing force during
rehearsals.

Commanders plan and initiate deceptive operations early to mask the actual preparation. These
operations should conceal both the time and location of the crossing, so they begin before and
continue throughout the preparation period.
Work necessary to improve routes to handle the traffic volume of the crossing operation should
occur early enough not to interfere with other uses of the routes. This requires a detailed traffic
plan carefully synchronized with the deception plan.

Full-scale rehearsals are essential to clarify roles and procedures, train personnel, inspect
equipment, develop teamwork, and ensure the unity of effort.

FLEXIBLE PLAN

Even successful crossings seldom go according to plan. A flexible plan enables the crossing
force to adapt rapidly to changes in the situation during execution. It allows the force to salvage
the loss of a crossing site or to exploit a sudden opportunity. A flexible plan for a river crossing
is the result of thorough staff planning, not chance. Such a plan features-

Multiple approach routes from assembly areas (AAs) to crossing sites.


Lateral routes to redirect units to alternate crossing sites.
Alternate crossing sites and staging areas to activate if enemy action closes the primaries.
Crossing equipment held in reserve to replace losses or open alternate sites.

TRAFFIC CONTROL

A river is a significant obstacle that slows and stops units, thus impeding their ability to
maneuver. Units are restricted to moving in column formations along a few routes that come
together at the crossing sites. Traffic control is essential to cross units at the locations and in the
sequence desired. Maximum crossing efficiency is achieved through traffic control. It also
prevents the formation of targets that are susceptible to destruction by artillery or air strikes. In
addition, effective traffic control contributes to the flexibility of the plan by enabling
commanders to change the sequence, timing, or site of crossing units. The traffic-control
organization can switch units over different routes or hold them in waiting areas as directed by
the tactical commander.

ORGANIZATION

Commanders use the same C2 nodes for river crossings as they do for other operations. These
nodes, however, take on additional functions in river crossings. For this reason, commanders
specify which nodes and staff positions have specific river-crossing planning and control duties.
This may require some temporary collocation of headquarters cells (or individual augmentation)
and an increase in communications means.

The tactical commander organizes his units into assault, maneuver-support, and bridgehead
forces. He organizes support forces consisting of engineer, MP, and chemical units, as well as
other combat-support units, into a crossing organization. This organization reports to the tactical
commander's controlling headquarters. Since this is a temporary grouping, procedures that the
controlling headquarters establishes must be clear, simple, and rehearsed by all elements to
ensure responsive support of the plan and the unity of command.
Terrain management is an integral part of the crossing operation. The controlling headquarters
assigns space for support forces to work on and for assault forces to concentrate on before
crossing. Otherwise, they interfere with each other and become lucrative targets for indirect fires
and enemy air attacks.

SPEED

A river crossing is a race between the crossing force and the enemy to mass combat power on the
far shore. The longer the force takes to cross, the less likely it will succeed, as the enemy will
defeat, in detail, the elements split by the river. Speed is so important to crossing success that
extraordinary measures are justified to maintain it. The commander must allow no interference
with the flow of vehicles and units once the crossing has started.
CHAPTER 2

TERRAIN AND ENEMY

GENERAL

Commanders maneuver their forces into positions of advantage over the enemy. Engineers
analyze the terrain to determine the maneuver potential, ways to reduce natural and enemy
obstacles, and how they can deny freedom of maneuver to the enemy by enhancing the inherent
obstacle value of the terrain.

ESTIMATE OF THE SITUATION

Commanders and staffs develop estimates of the situation, described in FM 101-5, during the
military decision-making process. Terrain and enemy aspects that are applicable to estimates for
river-crossing operations are discussed in this chapter. Much of this information directly applies
to the intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB). Refer to FM 34-130 for more information
on the IPB process.

TACTICAL REQUIREMENTS

Although terrain characteristics have a strong influence, tactical requirements ultimately


determine the location of the crossing site(s). River conditions must allow the employment of
available crossing means and the tactics required for the operation.

The far-shore terrain must support mission accomplishment; otherwise, crossing the river there
serves little purpose. Crossing sites must also support the rapid movement of units to the far
shore, or the enemy can win the force buildup race. Commanders balance the tactical use of the
far-shore terrain against technical crossing requirements at the river to determine suitable
crossing locations.

Nearshore terrain must support initial assault sites, rafting and bridging sites, and the assembly
and staging areas used by the force. Routes to and from the river must support the quantity of
traffic that is necessary for the operation and for the sustainment of the force in subsequent
operations.

The enemy's disposition of forces may limit options for the commander. Because the river
physically splits his force, he should execute his crossing operation where the enemy is most
vulnerable or least able to react. This gives the commander time to mass his force on the far
shore before the enemy can concentrate against it.

TERRAIN
The engineer is the terrain expert. He must work closely with the Intelligence Officer (US Army)
(S2) during the planning process to determine advantages and disadvantages the terrain gives to
both friendly and enemy forces.

CHARACTERISTICS

Rivers form unique obstacles. They are generally linear and extensive and normally cannot be
bypassed. Meandering bends in rivers provide far-shore defenders with opportunities for flanking
fires and observation of multiple crossing sites. The combined-arms team, as normally
configured for combat, needs special preparation and equipment to carry it across river obstacles.
After the attacking force crosses the river, it remains an obstacle for all follow-on forces.

A formation cannot breach a river wherever desired, as it can with most field obstacles. Likely
crossing sites can be few and equally obvious to both the attacker and defender.

A river provides excellent observation and fields of fire to both the attacker and defender. It
exposes the force on the water and makes it vulnerable while entering and leaving the water. It is
also an aerial avenue of approach, allowing enemy aircraft low-level access to crossing
operations.

Force buildup on the far shore is a race between the defender and the attacker. The river can be
an obstacle behind the initial assault force, allowing the enemy to pin and defeat it in detail while
preventing rapid reinforcement.

MILITARY ASPECTS

Terrain analysis for a river crossing includes the following military aspects of terrain:
observation, cover and concealment, obstacles, key terrain, and avenues of approach (OCOKA).
However, many details are peculiar to river crossings. These details include the specific technical
characteristics of the river as an obstacle.

CURRENT

The current of a river is a major limiting factor. It imposes limits on all floating equipment,
whether rubber assault boats, swimming armored vehicles, rafts, or bridges. The current's
velocity determines the amount of personnel/equipment each type of floating equipment can
carry or if it can operate at all. Current affects the distance that the floating equipment will drift
downstream. Therefore, commanders must either select an offset starting point upstream to reach
a desired point on the far shore or take additional time to fight the current. High current
velocities make control of a heavy raft difficult; therefore, landings require skilled boat operators
and raft commanders and more time.

Current causes water pressure against floating bridges. Bridge companies use boats or an
anchorage system to resist this pressure. The higher the current the more extensive the anchorage
system must be. Higher currents provide velocity to floating objects, which can damage or
swamp floating equipment.
Current can be measured easily (for example, by timing a floating stick) but is normally not
constant across the width of the river. Generally, it is faster in the center than along the shore. It
is also faster on the outside of a curve than on the inside. A factor of 1.5 times the measured
current should be used for planning purposes.

WATER MEASUREMENTS

The depth of the water influences all phases of a river crossing. If the water is shallow enough
and the riverbed will support traffic, fording is possible. If the force uses assault boats and the
water becomes shallow in the assault area, the force will have to wade and carry their equipment.
Shallow water also causes difficulty for swimming vehicles, as the rapidly moving tracks can dig
into a shallow bottom and ground the vehicle. The water must be deep enough to float bridge
boats and loaded rafts on their crossing centerlines and deep enough in launch areas to launch
boats and bridge bays. The depth of the water is not constant across a river. It is generally deeper
in the center and in high-velocity areas. Either a bottom reconnaissance with divers or sounding
from a reconnaissance boat is necessary to verify the depth.

The width of a river is a critical dimension for bridges (especially, when it determines how much
equipment is necessary) and for rafts. The distance a raft must travel determines its round-trip
crossing time, which in turn determines the force buildup rate on the far shore.

WATER CHANGES

A swell is the wave motion found in large bodies of water and near the mouths of rivers. It is
caused by normal wave action in a larger body, from tidal action, or from wind forces across the
water. A swell is a serious consideration for swimming armored vehicles and is less important
for assault boats, heavy rafts, and bridges. Hydrographic data and local residents are sources of
information on swells. Direct observation has limited use, as a swell changes over time with
changing tide and weather conditions.

Tidal variation can cause significant problems. The depth and current of water change with the
tide and may allow operations only during certain times. Tidal variation is not the same every
day, as it depends on lunar and solar positions and on the current's velocity. Planners need tide
tables to determine the actual variation, but they are not always available for rivers. Another tidal
phenomenon found in some estuaries is the tidal bore, which is a dangerous wave that surges up
the river as the tide enters. It seriously affects water operations. This reverse flow may require
that float bridges be anchored on both sides.

Rivers may be subject to sudden floods due to heavy rain or thawing upstream. This will cause
bank overflow, higher currents, deeper water, and significant floating debris. If the enemy
possesses upstream flood-control structures or dams, it can cause these conditions also.

OBSTRUCTIONS

Most rivers contain sand or mud banks. They are characteristic of low-current areas along the
shore and on the inside of the curves of a river, but they can be anywhere. Since they cause
problems for swimming vehicles, assault boats, outboard motors, bridge boats, and rafts, troops
must find them through underwater reconnaissance or sounding.

Rocks damage propellers, boats, and floating bridges and ground rafts. They cause swimming
armored vehicles to swamp if the vehicle body or a track rides up on them high enough to cant
the vehicle and allow water into a hatch or engine intake. They can also cause a fording vehicle
to throw a track. Rocks are found by underwater reconnaissance or sounding.

Natural underwater obstructions and floating debris can range from sunken ships to wreckage
and snags. The current in large waterways can carry significant floating debris, which can
seriously damage boats and floating equipment. Usually, debris can be observed after flooding or
rapidly rising waters. Underwater reconnaissance or bottom-charting sonar is the only way to
locate underwater obstructions.

Man-made underwater obstacles can be steel or concrete tetrahedrons or dragon's teeth, wood
piles, or mines. The enemy places them to deny a crossing area and designs them to block or
destroy boats and rafts. Underwater reconnaissance or bottom-charting sonar can locate these
obstacles.

Vegetation in the water can snag or choke propellers and ducted impellers on outboard motors
and bridge boats. Normally, floating vegetation is not a significant problem. Thick vegetation
beds that can cause equipment problems are found in shallow water and normally along the
shore. As thick vegetation must extend to within 30 to 60 centimeters of the surface to hinder
equipment, it can normally be seen from the surface.

THE FRIENDLY SHORE

Concealment is critical to the initial assault across the river. The assault force must have
concealed access to the river. It must also have concealed attack positions close to the river from
which to prepare assault boats. The overwatching unit prepares concealed positions along the
friendly shore, taking full advantage of vegetation and surface contours. Overwatching units
must be in position to engage the most likely enemy position(s) on the enemy shore.

Dominant terrain formed by hill masses or river bluffs provides direct-fire overwatch positions.
If the dominant terrain is along the shore, it also covers attack positions, AAs, and staging areas.
Air-defense (AD) sites should be located on terrain that dominates aerial avenues of approach
(one of which is located along the river). When selecting a crossing site, consider the following:

Dismounted avenues of approach that allow silent and concealed movement of assault
battalions to the river.
Concealed attack positions that are very close to the water along the dismounted avenue.
Approaches from the attack positions to the water that have gradual slopes and limited
vegetation to allow the assault force to carry inflated assault boats.
Bank conditions that are favorable. Dismounted forces must be able to carry assault boats
to the water, and engineer troops must be able to construct and operate rafts with little
bank preparation.
Road networks that feed the crossing sites and support the lateral movement of vehicles
between sites. These road networks must be well constructed to carry large amounts of
heavy vehicle traffic.
Potential staging areas that can support large numbers of tracked and wheeled vehicles
without continual maintenance.
Helicopter landing zones (LZs) for embarkation of the assault force.

THE ENEMY SHORE

River meanders form salients and reentrant angles along the shore. A salient on the enemy shore
is desirable for the crossing area, as it allows friendly fires from a wide stretch of the near shore
to concentrate against a small area on the far shore and limits the length of enemy shore that
must be cleared to eliminate direct fire and observation (see Figure 2-1)

Dominant terrain is undesirable on the enemy shore. Any terrain that permits direct or observed
indirect fires onto crossing sites is key terrain. Friendly forces must control it before beginning
the rafting or bridging phases.

Natural obstacles must be minimal between the river and the bridgehead objectives. River
valleys often have parallel canals, railroad embankments, flood-control structures, swamps, and
ridges that can impede more than the river itself. Obstacles perpendicular to the river can help
isolate the bridgehead.

Exits from the river must be reasonably good without preparation. Initially, the bank should
allow the assault force to land and dismount from the assault boats. This requires shallow banks
with limited vegetation. The assault force also requires concealed dismounted avenues up from
the river. Bank conditions must allow vehicles to debark from rafts and move up from the river.
If banks require earthwork, at least one unimproved crossing site must allow the landing of
earthmoving equipment. The most important far-shore requirement is a road network to carry
high volumes of heavy vehicletraffic.

INTELLIGENCE

Detailed knowledge of the river and adjacent terrain is critical to both tactical planning and to
engineer technical planning. The keys are early identification of intelligence requirements and an
effective collection plan. Space-based imaging and weather systems can provide invaluable
information to the terrain database. Multispectral imagery (MSI) from satellites can give the
engineer terrain detachment a bird's-eye view of the area of operations. Satellite images, the
largest 185 by 185 kilometers, can be used to identify key terrain and provide crossing locations.
These images can provide information concerning the depth and turbidity of the river and can be
used to identify the line of site for weapons and communications systems. With MSI products,
prospective construction materials, the locations of existing crossing sites, and nearshore and far-
shore road networks can be identified and exploited.

When the MSI is combined with satellite weather receivers, data processors, and the terrain
database, it can be used to identify mobility corridors and establish floodplain trafficability.
When these space systems are used together, the effects of the weather on terrain can be
analyzed and used to develop decision-support products for the commander.

The terrain database is the starting point for obtaining terrain information. Hydrographic studies
exist for most rivers in potential theaters of operation around the world. Many of these studies
have sufficient detail for identifying feasible crossing sites. Modern information-collection and -
storage technology permits frequent revision of existing data.

Engineer terrain detachments at corps and division maintain the terrain database and provide
information in the form of topographic products. These products are used with other tools, such
as computers and photography, to develop terrain intelligence for staff planners. The planners, in
turn, determine initial crossing requirements and estimated crossing rates from their terrain
analyses.

Early in the mission analysis, planners identify further terrain-intelligence needs for the crossing.
They provide this to the Assistant Chief of Staff, G2 (Intelligence) (G2) for inclusion in the
intelligence-collection plan. The plan specifies that intelligence systems are used to gather
essential terrain information for a more detailed analysis. Information on specific river segments
and the surrounding terrain is obtained and verified by aerial and ground reconnaissance.

PRIORITY INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS (PIR)

The following tactical and technical information is often PIR for executing a successful crossing:

Enemy positions that can place direct or observed indirect fires on crossing sites and
approaches.
The location and type of enemy obstacles, particularly mines, in the water and on exit
banks.
The location of enemy reserves that can counterattack assault units.
The location of enemy artillery that can range crossing sites, staging areas, and
approaches.
The location and condition of existing crossing sites.
The width, depth, and velocity of the river.
The condition and profile of the river's bottom.
The height, slope, and stability of the bank.
The condition of nearshore and far-shore road networks.
Previous enemy tactics for defending water obstacles.
Floodplain trafficability.

INFORMATION COLLECTION

Engineer units have the primary responsibility to collect the terrain information needed for river
crossings. If the river is under friendly control, engineer units collect river, bank, and route
information. If it is not, space- (satellite) or computer-based intelligence should be accessed, or
maneuver units with attached engineer reconnaissance teams should conduct reconnaissance
operations to obtain needed information. Engineer light diving teams obtain far-shore, nearshore,
river-bottom, and underwater-obstacle information. Local inhabitants provide additional
information about bridges, the flow of a river and the stability of its banks, road networks, ford
sites, and other river conditions. Aviation assets can provide aerial and video reconnaissance to
greatly enhance the IPB for river-crossing operations. Normal intelligence-collection assets
develop the picture of the enemy's defense that is necessary for templating.

THREAT

Leaders who understand enemy tactics can defeat the enemy at the river for a successful
crossing. Many potential enemies use doctrine from the former Soviet Union, making their
tactics the most likely ones US forces must overcome during a crossing. Therefore, the
discussion in the following paragraphs describes an opposing-force (OPFOR)-style defense and
an attack at a river as the most likely threat. See US Army Training and Doctrine Command
(TRADOC) Pamphlet 350-14 for details on an OPFOR defense and TRADOC Pamphlet 350-16
for OPFOR water crossings.

RIVER DEFENSE

The threat considers a water obstacle to be a natural barrier, enabling a strong defense on a wide
front with small forces. Units must be prepared to conduct operations in a high level of mission-
oriented protective posture (MOPP). The threat prefers to defend on a riverbank that is under its
complete control. It can, however, defend forward or to the rear of a river. Its choice depends on
the terrain, the forces available to it, and their strengths. The threat considers the defensive
characteristics of the terrain. It weighs the severity of the obstacle, the effect of lost crossing
sites, and the possibility of severed supply lines.

The threat may defend forward when the terrain is favorable, when it has sufficient reserve
combat power, or when it plans to resume the offense immediately. When defending forward, it
intends to defeat the crossing force before it reaches the river. The threat will place its defensive
forces as far forward of the river as possible.

First-echelon regiments of a division in the main defensive belt forward of a river establish initial
defensive positions 10 to 15 kilometers from the river. Second-echelon regiments occupy
positions within a few kilometers of the river. These positions are astride major avenues of
approach to block attacking forces so that a counterattack can destroy them.

When defending along a river, the threat places most of its forces as close to the exit bank as
defensible terrain permits. Their mission is to protect the crossing sites and defeat the crossing
force while it is divided by the river. The arrangement of defensive belts is similar to the defense
forward of the river, except that the distance between first- and second-echelon regiments may
be less. This concentrates more force to defeat assault forces on the exit bank.

Threat engineers destroy existing bridges and mine known crossing sites. They keep only a few
sites open for the withdrawal of the predominantly amphibious security force. Threat engineers
also emplace obstacles along approach and exit routes, including the riverbanks. As time and
assets permit, they add obstacles such as floating mines and underwater obstructions to further
disrupt crossing efforts.

First-echelon defensive forces maneuver to bring maximum defensive fire on the crossing force.
These defensive forces engage the crossing force with all possible organic and support weapons
at crossing sites while it is crossing. Their mission is to defeat the crossing force before it can
establish a bridgehead.

Second-echelon battalions, astride major egress routes from the river, block assault elements so
counterattacking forces can engage and destroy battalion or smaller assault elements. Second-
echelon regiments occupy positions 4 to 5 kilometers behind the first echelon. They provide
depth to the defense. It is from this area that the threat launches local counterattacks.

The threat undertakes a defense to the rear of a river when time or terrain precludes a defense
forward of the river or on the exit bank. In this situation, security elements deploy on the exit
bank to harass and disrupt the attacker's assault and support forces. These security elements
delay the attacker to provide time to establish the main defense.

A significant threat capability against a river crossing is artillery. Therefore, if the S2 indicates
that the threat has formed artillery groups (regimental artillery groups [RAGs], division artillery
groups [DAGs], or Army artillery groups [AAGs]), then it has the capability to saturate crossing
sites. In this case, it is not sufficient to eliminate the threat's observation of the river before
building bridges, as the concentration of artillery fires can deny an entire bridging site without
the necessity for observed fires. The threat can also place rafting operations at risk, as it can
place artillery fires on the entrance bank, the exit bank, and the raft centerline simultaneously.
Therefore, this requires counterbattery fire to be planned and coordinated to counter threat
artillery attacks on the crossing sites.

OFFENSIVE RIVER CROSSING


The threat's offensive river-crossing capability has a significant effect on retrograde crossings by
US forces. Threat doctrine espouses direct and parallel pursuit. The threat's ability to force a
crossing on a flank and cut off friendly elements before they can complete the retrograde
crossing is a major concern.

The threat is well prepared to cross water obstacles. On the average, it anticipates that a
formation on the offense will cross one water obstacle of average width (100 to 250 meters) and
several narrower ones each day. It considers the crossing of water obstacles to be a complex
combat mission but regards this as a normal part of a day's advance.

The threat has two assault-crossing methods. The first one is an assault crossing from the line of
march. This it does on the move, having prepared its subunits for the crossing before they
approach the water obstacle. The other method is the prepared assault crossing-the main forces
deploy at the water obstacle and cross after making additional preparations. The success of the
threat's crossings is determined by the following:

Careful preparation.
Reconnaissance of opposing forces and the water obstacle.
Surprise.
Air superiority.
Destruction of opposing forces by fire.
Timely advance of crossing resources.
Personnel and equipment control at the crossings.
Strict compliance with safety measures.

Threat doctrine calls for relentless pursuit to prevent the opponent from disengaging, to seize
available crossing sites quickly, and to cross the obstacle on the heels of withdrawing forces.
Forward detachments and advanced guards have a large role in this. A forward detachment
reaches the water obstacle as quickly as possible, bypassing strongpoints, and captures existing
bridges or river sections suitable for an assault crossing. It crosses the water, seizes key terrain
on the opposite bank, and holds it until the main force arrives.

The threat achieves protection from its opponent along routes to the river by using concealing
terrain and creating vertical screens out of vegetation and metallic camouflage nets. Once the
crossing begins, the threat uses smoke and thermal decoys to defeat precision-guided munitions.

Threat tactical doctrine recognizes that time is a decisive factor in the success of an assault
crossing from the line of march. The threat anticipates that it should take a forward detachment
(battalion) 1 to 1 1/2 hours, a first-echelon regiment 2 to 3 hours, and a division 5 to 6 hours to
cross a river of moderate width (100 to 250 meters).

When an assault crossing from the line of march is not feasible, the threat uses the prepared
assault crossing. Here, the main force deploys at the water obstacle with subunits in direct
contact with the opponent. The threat then makes more thorough preparation for the crossing.
Success depends on covertness, so the crossing usually takes place at night.
CHAPTER 3

COMMAND AND CONTROL

GENERAL

Unity of effort is established by the C2 emplaced on the maneuver units, the crossing-force headquarters,
and the supporting units. Unit organization and traffic control are fundamental to successful river-
crossing operations. They enable the commander to apply the tactics discussed in Chapters 5 and 6. This
chapter covers the techniques and procedures used to establish the crossing organization, maintain
control of forces, and hand off responsibilities between echelons as the operation progresses.

ORGANIZATION

Division and brigade commanders organize their forces into assault, maneuver-support, bridgehead, and
breakout forces for river-crossing operations. Assault forces seize the far-shore objective to eliminate
direct fire on the crossing sites. Maneuver-support forces consist of corps combat engineers, bridge
companies, MP, and chemical units that provide crossing means, traffic control, and obscuration.
Bridgehead forces secure the bridgehead. Breakout forces cross the river behind the bridgehead forces
and attack out of the bridgehead.

CONTROL ELEMENTS

Division and brigade commanders are responsible for crossing their formations. They organize their
staffs and subordinate commanders to help them control the crossing (see Table 3-1.) Division and
brigade headquarters operate from echeloned CPs. They are the tactical, main, and rear CPs and provide
the staff and communications support for planning and executing river crossings. The CPs may need
some temporary augmentation or realignment of internal staff elements for the crossing. Figures 3-1
and 3-2 show the necessary control elements for deliberate and retrograde river-crossing operations.
Each of the control elements is discussed below.

Table 3-1. CP tasks (deliberate crossing)


Advance to Assault Across Advance From Secure the Continue the
Phases CPs
the River the River the Exit Bank Bridgehead Line Attack

DTAC (crossing Coordinates Coordinates Coordinates the Coordinates the Controls the
force's the lead the lead lead brigade's lead brigade's breakout force's
headquarters) brigade's brigade's seizure of exit- seizure and attack out of the
seizure of dismounted bank and securing of bridgehead and
nearshore assault of the intermediate bridgehead passes the crossing
objectives river to seize objectives objectives and force's
the far-shore prepares to cross responsibilities to
objectives the reserve the DREAR
brigade
(breakout forces)

Coordinates Coordinates Coordinates


deep deep deep Coordinates deep
Coordinates
operations to operations to operations to operations to
deep operations
DMAIN isolate the isolate the isolate exit- isolate the enemy's
to isolate the
division's crossing area bank and attack against
bridgehead
advance to the and far-shore intermediate corps objectives
river objectives objectives

Assumes the role


Sustains the Sustains the Sustains the of the crossing
DREAR Sustains the fight
fight fight fight force's
headquarters

Coordinates Prepares to
Coordinates the
Coordinates the reorganize and
TF's attack to Coordinates the
the lead TF's dismounted follow the
seize and TF's seizure and
seizure and assault crossing breakout force's
BTAC secure exit- securing of
securing of of the river to attack out of the
bank and bridgehead
nearshore secure the far- bridgehead toward
intermediate objectives
objectives shore the division's deep
objectives
objectives objectives

Coordinates Controls the


Moves into the
assault crossing Controls follow- passage of the
crossing area
means for TFs on TFs passing brigade's units Passes crossing-
BMAIN to provide
dismounted through the through the area control to the
(crossing-area traffic control,
and controls crossing area crossing area supporting corps's
headquarters) crossing
obscuration of into attack and prepares to engineer battalion
means, and
the crossing positions cross breakout
obscuration
sites forces
DIVISION HEADQUARTERS

The division tactical CP (DTAC) controls the lead brigades' (bridgehead force) attack across the river,
since this is the division's close fight. It may reallocate crossing means or movement routes to the river
between brigades as the battle develops. The DTAC is the crossing-force headquarters.

The division main CP (DMAIN) prepares the river-crossing plan. It also directs the division's
deep operations to isolate the bridgehead from enemy reinforcements and counterattacking
formations. As a guide, the DMAIN displaces across the river after the division reserve. For
division crossings, a traffic-control cell schedules, routes, and monitors traffic behind the lead
brigades. The cell collocates with the DMAIN. The Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics) (G4)
provides the cell nucleus.

The division rear CP (DREAR) sustains the crossing for other division operations. Once the
DMAIN displaces across the river, the crossing becomes a rear operation that the DREAR
controls.

CROSSING-FORCE COMMANDER(CFC)
The division commander normally designates an assistant division commander (ADC) as the CFC to take
charge of controlling the division crossing.

CROSSING-FORCE ENGINEER(CFE)

A crossing division receives support from a CFE, who is normally the commander of an

engineer group from the corps engineer brigade. He provides additional staff planners for the
CFC and coordinates engineer support to the crossing-area commanders (CACs).

BRIGADE HEADQUARTERS

Each brigade headquarters operates from echeloned CPs, the brigade tactical CP (BTAC), and the brigade
main CP (BMAIN). The BTAC controls the advance to and the attack across the river. It displaces across
the river as soon as practical after the assault across the river to control the fight for exit-bank,
intermediate, and bridgehead objectives.

The BMAIN controls the crossing of the rest of the brigade. It prepares the brigade crossing plan
and provides the staff nucleus to coordinate it. For brigade crossings, the Supply Officer (US
Army) (S4), assisted by the supporting MP unit leader or engineers if available, organizes a
small, temporary traffic-control cell collocated with the BMAIN.

CROSSING-AREA COMMANDER

Once the lead battalions assault across the river and secure the far-shore objective, the crossing area is
activated. The CAC, normally the brigade's executive officer (XO), controls the movement of forces
inside the crossing area. The BMAIN controls the maneuver-support force that consists of corps
engineers, bridge companies, and MP and chemical units. This leaves the brigade commander free to
direct key activities while an officer who is directly responsible to him runs the crossing. The CAC
controls-

The movement and positioning of all elements transiting or occupying positions within the
crossing area.
Security elements at crossing sites.
Maneuver-support forces, such as engineer, MP, and chemical units within the crossing area.

CROSSING-AREA ENGINEER(CAE)

Each forward brigade will normally be supported by a direct-support engineer battalion from the corps.
The engineer battalion commander is responsible to the CAC for the engineer crossing means and sites.
He informs the CAC of changes, due to technical difficulties or enemy action, that render a crossing
means inoperable or reduce its capacity. He commands those engineers tasked to move the force across
the river; they remain there as the attack proceeds beyond the exit-bank objectives. The division
engineer battalion focuses on supporting the lead brigades at exit-bank, intermediate, and bridgehead
objectives and is not normally involved in the river crossing.

CROSSING-SITE COMMANDER(CSC)

Each crossing site has an engineer, either a company commander or a platoon leader, who is responsible
for crossing the units sent to the site. Normally, the CSC is the company commander for the bridge unit
operating the site. He commands the engineers operating the crossing means and the engineer
regulating points (ERPs) at the call-forward areas for that site. He maintains the site and decides on the
immediate action needed to remove broken-down or damaged vehicles that interfere with activities at
the site. He is responsible to the CAE and keeps him informed on the status of the site.

UNIT-MOVEMENT-CONTROL OFFICER

Each battalion and separate unit commander designates a movement-control officer, who coordinates
the unit's movement according to the movement-control plan. He provides staff planners with detailed
information on the unit's vehicle types and numbers.

COMMUNICATIONS

Figures 3-3 and 3-4 depict the communications networks within a crossing area. In the hasty-crossing
example, a brigade making a supporting attack conducts a crossing with its normal slice of combat-
support forces plus a corps bridge company. More assets are available from the division and corps in the
deliberate-crossing example. Wire is the preferred means of communications in a river crossing when
there is sufficient time to prepare it. The corps engineer battalion will establish wire communications
with the nearshore crossing area according to the crossing plan.
CONTROL MEASURES

The commander uses control measures to delineate areas of responsibility for subordinates and to ease
traffic control. Figure 3-5 illustrates the control measures described below.
RELEASE LINES (RLS)

As used in river-crossing operations, RLs are used to delineate the crossing area. RLs are located on both
the far and near shores and indicate a change in the headquarters that is controlling movement. RLs are
normally located within 3 to 4 kilometers of the river and on easily identifiable terrain features, if
possible.

CROSSING AREAS

Crossing areas are controlled access areas that decrease congestion at the river. This permits swift
movement of forces. Each lead brigade has a crossing area on both sides of the river that is defined by
brigade boundaries and RLs. Crossing areas normally extend 3 to 4 kilometers on each side of the river,
depending on the terrain and the anticipated battle.

WAITING AREAS
Waiting areas are located adjacent to the routes or axes of advance. Commanders use the following
waiting areas to conceal vehicles, troops, and equipment while waiting to resume movement or to make
final crossing preparations:

Staging areas.
Call-forward areas.
Holding areas.
Attack positions.
AAs.

STAGING AREAS

Staging areas are battalion-size waiting areas outside the crossing area where forces wait to enter the
crossing area. The brigade traffic-control cell handles units' movement into staging areas. The CAC
controls movement from the staging areas into the crossing areas. MP operate traffic-control posts
(TCPs) at staging areas according to the crossing and traffic-circulation plans. They emplace temporary
signs along the route from the staging area through the crossing area to guide convoys. Units make
crossing preparations and receive briefings on vehicle speed and spacing in the staging areas. Staging
areas-

Are located to support the crossing concept.


Are far enough back to permit the rerouting of the battalion along other roads or to alternate
crossing sites.
Are easily accessible from major routes.
Have sufficient area for dispersing a battalion-size unit.
Provide concealment.

CALL-FORWARD AREAS

Call-forward areas are company-size waiting areas located within the crossing area. Engineers use them
to organize units into raft loads, or crews use them to make final vehicle swimming preparations. The
CAC controls movement from the staging area to the call-forward area. The CSC directs movement from
the call-forward area to the crossing site and on to the far-shore attack position. As a minimum, each
CSC operates his own call-forward area. Call-forward areas-

Are located to support the crossing plan.


Are company size within the crossing area.
Are easily accessible from routes.
Are planned with a minimum of one per crossing site.
Have ERPs collocated with them.
Are used to organize units into raft loads.
Are the final preparation areas before going to the crossing site.
Are normally operated by engineers.

HOLDING AREAS
Holding areas are waiting areas that forces use during traffic interruptions. Units move into these areas
when directed by TCP personnel and disperse rather than stay on the roads. Holding areas are battalion
size outside of the crossing area and company size within it. Far-shore holding areas are used to
organize return traffic. MP and engineers, if available, operate holding areas according to the crossing
and traffic-circulation plans. Established as needed on both sides of the river, holding areas-

Are used as call-forward areas for return traffic from the far shore.
Are located to support the crossing plan.
Are easily accessible from routes.
Have sufficient area for dispersion.
Provide cover and concealment.
Are defensible.
Maximize traffic flow with minimum control.

ATTACK POSITIONS

Attack positions are the last positions occupied or passed through by the assault echelon or attacking
force before crossing the line of departure. Within the bridgehead, the attack position is the last
position before leaving the crossing area or bridgehead line.

ASSEMBLY AREAS

AAs are areas in which a force prepares or regroups for further action.

ENGINEER EQUIPMENT PARKS (EEPS)

EEPs are areas located a convenient distance from bridging and rafting sites for assembling, preparing,
and storing bridge equipment and material. They are at least 1 kilometer from the river and hold spare
equipment and empty bridge trucks that are not required at the crossing sites. EEPs should be located
where they do not interfere with the traffic to the crossing sites and where equipment can be concealed
and dispersed. Ideally, routes leading from EEPs to the crossing sites are not the same routes used by
units crossing the river.

TRAFFIC-CONTROL POSTS

In river crossings, TCP personnel assist the crossing-area headquarters in traffic control by reporting and
regulating the movement of units and convoys. TCP personnel relay messages between the crossing-
area headquarters and moving units. The provost marshal identifies locations that need or require TCPs.
MP or engineers, if available, operate TCPs on both banks of the river to control traffic moving toward or
away from it. TCPs are additionally operated at major or critical crossroads and road junctions, staging
areas, holding areas, and ERPs.

ENGINEER REGULATING POINTS


ERPs are technical checkpoints which are used to ensure that vehicles do not exceed the capacity of the
crossing means. They help maintain traffic flow. Vehicles which will not be allowed to cross are removed
so that they do not cause a traffic backup at the actual crossing site. Engineers man the ERPs and report
to the CSC. TCPs are collocated with the ERPs to ensure that all vehicles clear the call-forward areas. An
additional duty of ERP personnel is to give the drivers final instructions on site-specific procedures and
other information such as speed and vehicle intervals. As a minimum, each crossing site requires an ERP
at its own call-forward area. If sufficient engineer assets are available, ERPs may be established at far-
shore holding areas to regulate rearward traffic.

CROSSING PLAN

The crossing plan is integrated throughout the division's and brigade's operation orders (OPORDs) and is
as detailed as time permits. The crossing annex to the OPORD contains much but not all of the plan. It
has the crossing overlay and the crossing synchronization matrix.

The crossing overlay shows the crossing areas, the crossing sites, the routes leading up to them
from waiting areas, and all the control measures necessary for the crossing (see Figure 3-6). The
crossing synchronization matrix is a tool to adjust the crossing plan as the battle develops. It
shows crossing units in relation to their planned crossing times and locations. See Appendix B for
an example matrix.
The task organization paragraph and paragraph 5 of the OPORD contain the organization and
command portions of the crossing plan. For more information on the development of the
crossing plan, see Chapter 4.

CROSSING CONTROL

Commanders use control measures to operate, delegate authority, and lead from any critical point
during the river-crossing operation while synchronizing other critical actions throughout their area of
operations.

ASSAULT ACROSS THE RIVER

Battalion task forces (TFs) conducting the assault across the river move to it under the direct control of
their brigade commanders. The assault TFs using rubber boats 15 (RB15s) follow the procedures in
Chapter 8. The brigade commander keeps the remainder of the brigade back from the river to avoid
congestion. Elements not engaged in security or supporting the crossing occupy AAs and prepare for
movement across the river.
CROSSING-AREA OPERATIONS

After the assault across the river, the brigade has an initial position on the far shore and is no longer
fighting to seize the exit bank. The brigade needs its follow-on forces across as quickly as possible. The
battalions can now cross without engaging in combat at the river. The brigade commander activates the
crossing area to move forces rapidly and efficiently. The urgent need to get tanks across the river means
the rafting stage often begins before terrain on the far shore is secure to the planned RL. Therefore, the
crossing area is initially limited to the near shore. The first fighting vehicles swimming or rafting across
under this circumstance have limited space to regroup before commitment to the fight.

As the initial battalions cross, they gain terrain to the necessary depth, and as control elements
cross to the far shore, the brigade commander extends the crossing area out to the planned RL.
Thereafter, units move completely through the crossing area under the CAC's control and exit it
in a tactical move.

When rafting, the crossing flow for the follow-on units is generally from a staging area, through
the call-forward area and crossing site into an attack position, and then on to a subsequent
objective. While bridging, the flow is from a staging area, through the crossing site, and then out
of the crossing area.

Figure 3-7 illustrates the traffic flow for a follow-on battalion TF during the rafting. This
procedure avoids congestion close to the crossing site and helps maintain unit integrity while the
battalion rafts. The battalion occupies staging area Green 31 and organizes an internal unit
crossing order based on its mission on the far shore. When concurrently swimming and rafting
vehicles of the same battalion, the swimming vehicles form up separate from nonswimming
vehicles for movement to the crossing sites and reform into a tactical formation at the far-shore
attack position. ERP personnel at the call-forward area check to determine the correct load
classification and proper loading sequence for each vehicle. When instructed by the CAC, the
battalion sends one company at a time (or the equivalent) from the staging area. TCP personnel
guide the company's movement en route to a call-forward area where it comes under the
movement control of the CSC.
n the call-forward area at site Green 33, ERP personnel organize individual vehicles into raft
loads. They guide the raft loads down to the raft centerlines as directed by the CSC. In the call-
forward area at site Green 21, vehicle crews make the final vehicle swimming preparations. ERP
personnel send the vehicles down to the swimming site when directed by the CSC.

Vehicles remain under the control of the CSC until they are on the far shore. There they proceed
to attack position 6, where they regroup as a company/team. When ready, the TF commander,
under the tactical control of the brigade commander, controls the movement of the vehicles.

During bridging operations, the CAC normally directs the follow-on battalions to move in
company serials from the staging area. Each serial moves down to the bridge site, crosses the
river, and continues on to the attack position. The CAC directs an interval between serials that
keeps continuous traffic across the bridge without gaps or traffic jams. A call-forward area
remains established in the event that the bridge becomes damaged and units must be held until
raft operations resume.
Units in the support-by-fire position on the near shore are already inside the crossing area when
the crossing operation starts. They remain in this position until the CAC directs them to cross the
river, and then they move directly to previously selected call-forward areas or start points (SPs)
by company or platoon.

TRANSFER OF SUPPORT FORCES TO DIVISION

Once the bridgehead forces are across the river, the crossing sites are relatively secure. Since ground
maneuver is no longer close to the crossing area, the operation at the river becomes predominantly a
bridging and traffic-scheduling problem. The division headquarters moves the RL at the rear of the
bridgehead force to the far shore. The crossing areas come under direct division control. As directed by
the ADC, the brigade commander turns over his crossing area to another officer, normally the CAE, who
becomes responsible for the crossing area. The CAE then reports through the CFE to the ADC at the
DREAR. The CAE's unit headquarters becomes the crossing-area headquarters.

MOVEMENT CONTROL

Movement control is vital to efficiently move units and material up to the crossing area in the sequence
needed by the commander. The traffic-control cells at the division and brigade headquarters exercise
movement control through TCPs. The division controls movement from its rear boundary up to the
brigade rear, and the brigade controls movement from the rear boundary up to the bridgehead line.

The division transportation officer (DTO) develops the division movement plan according to the
movement priorities that the Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations and Plans) (G3) and the G4
establish. The S4 prepares the brigade movement plan according to the priorities that the
Operations and Training Officer (US Army) (S3) establishes. Each unit-movement officer,
normally the battalion S4, provides the unit's vehicle information to the planning headquarters.

The movement plan normally consists of a traffic-circulation overlay and a road-movement table
found in the movement annex to the division's or brigade's order.

RETROGRADE CROSSINGS

A retrograde river crossing has most of the same control features as an offensive crossing. The
commander responsible for a crossing area has the same authority as he does in an offensive crossing.
When a brigade establishes a defense along the river concurrent with the crossing, the commander
coordinates crossing activities to avoid conflicts with defensive preparations. For this reason, the
responsible officer and his staff should be familiar with both the delaying and defending commanders'
tactical plans. He coordinates optimum use of crossing sites by delaying forces. As the delaying forces
disengage, they must rapidly pass through the defending force and cross the river. The commander
responsible for the crossing area reports to the division CP controlling the operation. If the main CP is
forward of the river, C2 is usually at the DREAR until the main CP displaces behind the river.When the
river is in the division rear area at the start of the retrograde, the crossing begins as a rear operation.
The senior corps engineer commander supporting the division becomes the CFE and establishes division
crossing areas with corps engineer and MP units. He identifies engineer commanders, as directed by the
commanding general, to quickly organize the crossing areas and initiate crossing control. These crossing
areas correspond to the brigade boundaries planned by the G3 for the defense along the river.

Each brigade commander establishing a defense at the river appoints an XO to control the
crossing area in his sector. When the river is in the brigade's sector at the start of the retrograde,
this officer can immediately take charge and organize the crossing area. If the division initially
organizes the crossing area through the CFE, it directs the defending brigade to take charge of
the crossing area once it has established its hasty defense at the river. Then the engineer who was
responsible for the crossing area becomes the CAE. The brigade XO coordinates with the
DMAIN, which retains centralized control of the crossing until only the defending brigade's units
remain to cross in that area. The crossing area is used until the commander directs the bridges to
be destroyed or removed. At that time, the crossing area ceases to exist.

Turnover of the sites from the CAC to the defending battalion commanders is by mutual
agreement or when directed by the brigade commander. Simultaneous handoff between or within
defensive sectors is not essential. Depending on the tactical situation, the division commander
may not allow crossing equipment to remain in place, even though the defending brigade
commander desires its retention. Normally, the CAC retains control of the crossing means until
delaying forces cross the river. He then orders the removal of the tactical bridging assets. Control
of the remaining fixed bridges then passes to the defending commanders. They are responsible
for their defense and ultimate destruction, as discussed in Chapter 6.
CHAPTER 4

PLANNING

GENERAL

Units plan river crossings the same as any tactical operation, with one major difference. Force allocation
against enemy units has an added dimension of time. Friendly forces can only arrive on the battlefield at
the rate at which they can be brought across the river. This rate changes at different times throughout
the operation. This chapter outlines the detailed planning necessary because of this difference.

The corps allocates support elements to the division and provides terrain and enemy analyses. It
assigns mission objectives to the division. For operations where the corps is crossing the river, it
may assign the bridgehead line.

The division assigns mission objectives to the brigades and specifies the bridgehead line. It may
assign bridgehead objectives to the brigades. The division allocates maneuver and maneuver-
support forces to the brigades and develops coordination measures, such as movement schedules,
that apply to more than one brigade. The division also provides terrain and enemy analyses to the
brigades.

The senior corps engineer headquarters, allocated to the division for the crossing, assists the
division engineer section with detailed crossing plans. The lead brigade develops the tactical
plans that it will execute. It develops the crossing objectives in order to attain its mission
objective.

The headquarters of the corps engineer battalion, assigned to support each brigade crossing,
develops the detailed crossing plan. The battalions develop the tactical plan necessary to seize
assigned objectives.

The actual planning process for a river crossing is the same as for any tactical operation.
Differences occur primarily because of the complexity of crossing a river (which makes
extensive calculation necessary) and the need to balance tactics with crossing rates.

Planners do crossing calculations twice. Crossing calculations are critical to COA evaluation.
They are required to ensure that force buildup supports the COA. For initial planning, simple
calculations and rules of thumb are used to produce quick force-buildup information. Once a
commander selects a specific COA, planners make detailed crossing calculations to produce the
crossing plan.
THE PLANNING PROCESS

The staff planning process produces a best possible solution to accomplish the unit's mission. This
chapter discusses those parts of planning that are necessary for a river crossing. It does not attempt to
discuss the larger planning process necessary for full mission accomplishment.

In the following paragraphs, the planning process is described in steps and by echelons. The
shadowed text in the tables shows the step in the planning process being discussed, with the
battle staff and engineer planning requirements alongside. A detailed discussion that is primarily
aimed at the division and brigade echelons follows. In general, the corps identifies the crossing
requirement and provides assets, the division conducts a detailed terrain analysis and develops
rough crossing plans, and the brigade develops detailed crossing plans.

ANALYZING THE MISSION

The first step is to recognize that a river crossing is necessary (see Table 4-1). Once the mission is
received, the staff develops and conducts a mission analysis. This is done to-

Understand the purpose of the mission and the intent of the commander and the commander
two levels up.
Review the area of operations.
Identify tasks (both specified and implied), assets available, constraints, restraints, and an
acceptable level of risk

Table 4-1. Step 2 - analyze the mission


Military Decision-
Actions to be Taken
Making Process

Receive the mission The battle staff-

Analyze the mission Identifies critical facts and assumptions.


Conducts an initial IPB by- - Identifying key terrain affecting the
Develop COAs crossing.

Analyze COAs - Templating enemy river defenses.

Compare COAs - Estimating the crossing capability of the area to be crossed, using
terrain data and available crossing means.
Approve a COA
- Calculating force crossing rates for each crossing area, using the
troop list.
Produce orders
- Templating enemy obstacle systems.

- Reviewing available bridging assets.

Determines specified, implied, and essential tasks.


Recognizes that a river-crossing operation is necessary.
Issues a WO.
Determines the CCIR as pertaining to the river crossing.

A mission analysis is conducted according to FM 101-5. Corps planners normally identify river-crossing
requirements when assigning missions to the division. The corps plan will then provide river-crossing
assets to the division and may specify crossing the river as one of the tasks assigned to the division. If
the mission the corps is assigning does not require a division-level river crossing, it may not specify a
crossing. The troop list includes necessary crossing assets, however.

Normally, if the corps identifies the requirement for a river crossing, its warning order (WO)
includes it. The topographic company supporting the corps provides detailed river data and
crossing-area overlays. The topographic company automatically provides necessary topographic
data to the division terrain team. See FM 100-15 for more details on planning at the corps level.

The division discovers that it must cross a river by receiving a specified task in the corps's order
or by developing an implied task during mission analysis. The division engineer's section always
examines all rivers in the division's area of operations during the mission-analysis process. The
division terrain team maintains a terrain database that includes river data and potential crossing
sites for the division's area of operation.

NOTE: Upon identifying a river- crossing task, the division engineer and terrain team
immediately determine potential crossing sites.

INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD

The battle staff, including the staff engineer's help, analyze the existing situation. This analysis includes
the enemy, friendly troops, terrain, and time available for the mission. This step is primarily designed to
acquire the data necessary for the following planning steps, but some early analysis is necessary to
generate critical information. The engineer staff officer must very quickly convert raw terrain data and
friendly information into crossing rates. This allows the planners to make intelligent decisions about
supportable schemes of maneuver.

As a part of the IPB process, the G2 leads the staff development of a defensive situational
template along the entire river that the division must cross. The template focuses attention on
possible areas of weakness, counterattack forces, and artillery.

The G2, with the division engineer's help, develops obstacle templates from the line of contact
through to division objectives. He provides the templates to the brigade intelligence sections for
their planning and analysis. The division engineer provides enemy obstacle information
(particularly along the river) to the brigade engineers.

The division provides the brigade staff with templates that it refines and further develops for the
enemy force in its area of operation. The S2 develops intelligence requirements and a detailed
intelligence-collection plan, with specific emphasis on the far shore. Reconnaissance teams seek
information to fill those requirements. Obstacle templates are verified by active air and ground
reconnaissance, as directed in Chapter 2.

FRIENDLY TROOPS

The division engineer coordinates for corps engineer units to cross the force, using the simple rule of
thumb that every forward brigade requires two bridges. Insufficient bridging assets limit possible COAs.

The brigade engineer identifies the crossing sites required for the brigade and for each battalion
based on the number of vehicles. This calculation is based on simple assumptions. From it, the
brigade engineer determines the approximate time necessary to cross the entire brigade (see
Appendix B). The crossings required are important during COA development. The brigade
engineer also determines the amount of bridging available, the number of possible heavy rafts,
and the number of assault boats. This information is forwarded to the CAE, who is responsible
for the control of all crossing means.

TERRAIN

The division engineer ensures that adequate information is in the crossing-site database for planning at
brigade level. The division terrain team generates crossing-site overlays, site data files, and road and
cross-country-movement overlays for the crossing areas.

The division engineer ensures that sufficient assault, raft, and bridge sites are available within
each assault-brigade area. Generally, a main attack brigade requires assault sites for two
dismounted battalions and at least two raft or bridge sites.

The brigade engineer, coordinating with the CAE, evaluates all potential crossing sites from both
technical and tactical considerations, including-

Entry- and exit-road networks.


Cross-country movement.
The width, velocity, and depth of the river.
The conditions of the bank.
The vegetation along the shore.
The obstacles in or along the river.
Possible attack positions and routes to the river.
Possible call-forward areas.
The brigade engineer, coordinating with the CAE, then analyzes each site to arrive at a rough crossing-
rate capability and the effort necessary to open the site. Operational planners use this information to
develop possible COAs.

The division engineer, coordinating with the CFC, ensures that the crossing requirements of the
lead brigades and breakout force are adequately resourced to satisfy each COA.

The BMAIN evaluates the terrain along the river in terms of OCOKA. The intent is to
understand the terrain along the river so that potential COAs can be devised with crossing
objectives. The operations planners combine this knowledge with the crossing-site comparisons
and enemy templates to develop possible COAs.

DEVELOPING COAs

The G3, along with key members of the battle staff, sketches out possible COAs to accomplish the
mission of the division (see Table 4-2). COAs must include-

Assigned crossing areas for each brigade.


Brigade boundaries that include terrain which is necessary to defend the bridgehead against
enemy counterattacks.

Table 4-2. Step 3 - develop COAs


Military
Decision-
Actions to be Taken
Making
Process

Receive the
mission

Analyze the The battle staff-


mission
Sketches out, with the commander's assistance, several COAs to develop.
Develop COAs Develops the scheme of maneuver, fire plan, and support plan for each COA,
considering crossing capability and the order of crossing. The engineer selects
Analyze COAs sites, determines rafting and bridging configurations and bank-preparation
requirements, and task-organizes the engineers for each COA.
Compare COAs

Approve a COA
Produce orders

Looking two levels down, the division staff plans an assault-crossing site for each anticipated
assault battalion in a brigade's area. A brigade should also have two bridging or rafting sites
within its boundaries.

The S3 looks closely at the avenues leading to brigade mission objectives, particularly at
crossing sites feeding the avenues. Developing practicable COAs is normally an iterative
process. The division staff first develops a scheme of maneuver to take the final objective, then
verifies that the force build-up rate across the river is adequate for the scheme of maneuver. If so,
the S3 expands the COAs to include the tactics required for the crossing.

The tactics required for the crossing are based on enemy defenses near the crossing sites, enemy
reaction forces and earliest employment times, and crossing rates at each site. The COAs must
include exit-bank, intermediate, and bridgehead objectives.

The S3, working with the brigade engineer and CAE, develops the control measures, crossing
graphics, and crossing time line for each COA (see Figure 4-1)

ANALYZING COAs

The staff at both the division and brigade war-game each COA against likely enemy reactions (see Table
4-3). They then attempt to counter each enemy response.
Table 4-3. Step 4 - analyze COAs
Military Decision-
Actions to be Taken
Making Process

Receive the mission

Analyze the mission

Develop COAs

The battle staff war-games each COA against possible enemy responses. The
Analyze COAs
engineer war-games each COA against terrain changes and equipment loss.

Compare COAs

Approve a COA

Produce orders

The engineer-

War-games against other variables outside his control, such as terrain difficulties and crossing-
equipment losses.
Considers what will happen-

- If it takes longer to open a crossing site.


- If damage slows progress over entrance and exit routes.

- If the conditions of the river change.

Considers what will happen if enemy action shuts down a crossing site or forces its relocation.
Must consider the consequences of equipment failure or loss to enemy action.
Evaluates the most likely of these against all COAs and develops, within his means, necessary
counters to include alternate sites and routes.

COMPARING COAs

The division staff examines each COA against both the immediate and follow-on missions (see Table 4-
4). The division is particularly concerned with the movement of reserve and support forces and
compares COAs against these requirements.
Table 4-4. Step 5 - compare COAs
Military Decision-
Actions to be Taken
Making Process

Receive the mission

Analyze the mission

The battle staff-


Develop COAs

Compares and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of the


Analyze COAs
COAs.
Recommends one COA to the commander. The commander selects a
Compare COAs COA and issues a FRAGO.

Approve a COA

Produce orders

The brigade staff considers the ability of each COA to handle enemy responses, support follow-on
missions, provide brigade flexibility, and allow for crossing redundancy.

PRODUCING ORDERS

The battle staff converts the selected COA into a plan with sufficient detail for synchronized execution
(see Table 4-5). The staff engineer conducts an extensive analysis to develop a unit-by-unit crossing plan
and movement schedule in conjunction with the G3, G4, and DTO. From this analysis, he develops the
crossing-capability chart (see Appendix B) and the crossing overlay (see Figure 3-6, Chapter 3). These are
his primary execution tools. The staff engineer develops the crossing-synchronization matrix as a
primary execution tool for the S3 (see Appendix B). He also helps the traffic-control cell work out the
traffic-circulation plan.

Table 4-5. Step 6 - produce orders


Military Decision-
Actions to be Taken
Making Process

Receive the mission


The battle staff converts the selected COA into an executable plan. The
engineer develops a detailed crossing plan.
Analyze the mission
Develop COAs

Analyze COAs

Compare COAs

Approve a COA

Produce orders

While detailed planning is underway, the CAE initiates far-shore and nearshore reconnaissance
to develop sufficient detail for battalion-level planning. He converts this planning into a detailed
engineer task list and develops an engineer execution matrix to synchronize it (see Appendix B).
CHAPTER 5

DIVISION DELIBERATE RIVER CROSSING

GENERAL

A division deliberate river crossing is an operation conducted as part of an offensive operation.


The intent of a deliberate river crossing is to quickly cross a river and rapidly secure the
bridgehead line. It is meticulously planned and coordinated with all concerned elements. A
deliberate river crossing requires thorough reconnaissance and extensive evaluation of all
intelligence. It requires detailed planning and preparation, centralized control, and extensive
rehearsals. A deliberate river crossing is costly in terms of manpower, equipment, and time. It is
generally conducted against a well-organized defense when a hasty river crossing is not possible
or when one has failed. A deliberate river crossing requires the concentration of combat power
on a narrow front, capitalizing on the element of surprise. The phases, echelons, organizations,
and C2 of a division deliberate river crossing are discussed in detail in this chapter.

PHASES OF A DELIBERATE RIVER CROSSING

An offensive deliberate river-crossing operation has four phases. They are distinct phases for
planning, but there is no pause between them in execution. The phases are as follows:

Advance to the river (Phase I). The first phase is the attack to seize the nearshore
objective.
Assault across the river (Phase II). The second phase involves units assaulting across the
river to seize the far-shore objective, eliminating direct fire on the crossing sites.
Advance from the exit bank (Phase III). The third phase is the attack to secure exit-bank
and intermediate objectives that eliminate direct and observed indirect fires into the
crossing area.
Secure the bridgehead line (Phase IV). The final phase involves units that secure
bridgehead objectives to protect the bridgehead against a counterattack. This gains
additional time and space for the buildup of forces for the attack out of the bridgehead.

These phases are followed immediately by an attack out of the bridgehead by follow-on forces to
defeat enemy forces at subsequent or final objectives. Figure 5-1 relates the crossing phases to
the objectives described in this chapter.
THE RIVER CROSSING

The following section describes a deliberate river-crossing operation from the division's and
brigade's perspectives. It details the actions that are required in deep, close, and rear operations
by phase (see Figure 5-2).
A division is normally the smallest organization that can conduct a deliberate river-crossing
operation. It is usually an implied task in a larger mission given by the corps. The river crossing
is not the objective but is part of the scheme of maneuver and overall offensive action against the
enemy. The enemy will normally use the river as a tactical obstacle system to slow and gain
positional advantage against the division's advance. The intent of the division is to maintain its
momentum through the crossing.

Mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available (METT-T) dictate the force allocation
required during each phase of the operation. Aside from the normal planning, detailed march
tables are required for the rapid passage of units through the crossing area into the bridgehead.
Detailed plans are disseminated before the execution to ensure an uninterrupted operation. River-
crossing operations normally restrict movement to four to six routes. This requires disciplined
and controlled movement to ensure that combat power builds in the bridgehead faster than the
enemy's ability to react.

An integral part of the river-crossing operation is the deception plan. The corps will plan,
resource, and control all of the requirements to execute a believable deception so that the enemy
does not know where the division will conduct the deliberate river-crossing operation.

To conduct the deliberate river crossing, the division requires augmentation from the corps. The
corps must provide bridge companies that are in direct support to the division for the river-
crossing operation in addition to other combat engineers that are required to operate assault
boats, provide C2, and so forth. An assault float bridge (AFB) company must have an engineer
group or ad hoc battalion staff that can support the deliberate river-crossing operation and can
remain in place after the division continues the attack to subsequent corps objectives. Engineer
groups should include one corps combat engineer battalion and two AFB companies for each
lead brigade. The corps normally provides a corps engineer light diving team to-

Conduct nearshore and far-shore reconnaissance.


Perform bottom-composition surveys.
Neutralize underwater obstacles.
Construct underwater bridge structures, obstacles, and floating barriers.
Perform in-water repair to bridges and watercraft.
Recover sunken equipment.
Search for and recover casualties. Additionally, the corps normally provides a corps MP
company to assist the division in regulating the traffic and conducting route security in
the crossing area. The corps also allocates additional smoke units to assist the division
chemical company in obscuring the river-crossing area. Finally, the corps will provide
short-range air-defense (SHORAD) and high-to-medium air-defense altitude (HIMAD)
air-defense artillery (ADA) support to protect the bridgehead from air interdiction.

ADVANCE TO THE RIVER (PHASE I)

Once the division has planned the operation, the first phase is initiated (see Chapter 4). The
division will attack to seize nearshore terrain that includes favorable crossing sites and road
networks. Normally, the division advances with two brigades abreast and a reserve brigade
trailing. The cavalry squadron can provide a forward or flank screen (see Figure 5-3). The
DTAC controls the efforts of the lead brigades (see FM 71-100).
Well before the division reaches the river, the cavalry squadron moves ahead of the main body to
conduct a reconnaissance of the near shore and predetermined crossing sites. Engineer
reconnaissance teams may need to be allocated to the division cavalry squadron to assist in the
reconnaissance of crossing sites. If the tactical situation prohibits the cavalry squadron from
moving to reconnoiter the crossing sites, one or both of the lead brigades must conduct the
reconnaissance. As the division arrives at the river, the lead brigades establish security on the
near shore. The lead brigades develop hasty defensive positions to protect the crossing area and
cover the crossing sites with direct and indirect fires.

During the advance to the river, the DMAIN coordinates counterfires, close air support (CAS),
and support of the division aviation brigade against deep targets. By effectively using these
assets, the DMAIN fights the deep battle and isolates the bridgehead.

The DREAR sustains the division's advance. It ensures that key classes of supplies are pre-
positioned forward. Priority is shifted to the maintenance of the bridging assets and those of the
units supporting the crossing area.

The BTAC controls the fight of the TFs within its brigade. The brigade travels in a formation
that is METT-T driven. The brigade seizes objectives that secure the near shore (see Figure 5-4)
.

Each BMAIN is the crossing-area headquarters. The crossing area is bounded by RLs on the
friendly and enemy sides of the river. The RL on the friendly side is usually set 2 to 3 kilometers
from the exit bank, out of the range of enemy direct-fire weapons. The RL on the enemy side
delineates an area large enough for forces to occupy battalion-sized attack positions. The
BMAIN is responsible for controlling units that provide the crossing means, traffic management,
and obscuration. Normally, corps assets are task-organized by the division in direct support of
the forward brigades to perform these functions. The BMAIN controls these assets. Once the
brigade has secured the near shore, MP and engineers mark routes from the staging area to the
crossing sites; lay out staging, holding, and call-forward areas; and set up ERPs and TCPs.

Once the near shore is secured, the DTAC becomes the crossing-force headquarters responsible
for coordinating the close operations of the committed brigades within the bridgehead and
crossing area. The bridgehead is the area on the far shore that is required to provide space and
time for the buildup of combat power to continue offensive combat operations. The crossing area
is the area, bounded on either side of the river by RLs, in which units move on predetermined
routes and use the time tables that are specified in the division's order.

The DTAC coordinates the efforts of the lead brigades as they prepare to assault across the river.
ASSAULT ACROSS THE RIVER

(PHASE II) The DMAIN continues to control deep-fire assets to isolate the bridgehead. As units
advance, deep fires shift to subsequent targets. The division coordinates with the corps for
SHORAD and HIMAD coverage to protect the bridgehead from enemy air interdiction. The
corps normally provides Patriot and Hawk support. The division AD battalion provides local AD
coverage. The river creates lucrative targets at relatively fixed locations that are easily targeted
by enemy air. Therefore, approaches; holding, staging, and call-forward areas; and crossing sites
along the river are the highest priority for AD during the crossing. AD units occupy positions to
engage aircraft with massed fires before the aircraft can reach weapons release points (RPs).

The DTAC coordinates the actions of the brigades conducting the assault across the river (see
Figure 5-5). The crossing sites are chosen because of available concealment, a good route
system, and sufficient space for AAs on the near shore. These sites also have defensible terrain
on the far shore of the river to provide a secure base for continuing the operation.

The DREAR begins to push packages of Class IV and V supplies to support the hasty defense to
secure the bridgehead line.
The BTACs control their own respective assault-crossing elements, which normally consist of
dismounted infantry. A corps combat engineer company, operating assault boats (RB15s) from
the corps bridge companies, transports the dismounted soldiers of the assault force to the far
shore. The dismounted element crosses the river and secures terrain for the reinforcing armored
vehicles. The assault across the river can also be an air-assault operation. The dismounted assault
forces are supported by the tanks and infantry fighting vehicles from their TF and by other
combat units in support-by-fire positions. Heavy rafts are prepared to transport tanks and infantry
fighting vehicles to the far shore for reinforcing the dismounted infantry. M9 ACEs/dozers are
transported to prepare the far-shore exit sites. Rapid reinforcement of dismounted assault forces
with armored vehicles may be so critical, based on the METT-T, that it justifies using any
expedient method to get the first few armored vehicles across. This includes winching, towing,
or pushing the first ones across normally unsuitable places while engineers improve entry and
exit points for the rest.

Each BMAIN controls smoke to obscure crossing sites on the river. When employed, the smoke
blanket covers several kilometers of the river and river approaches to conceal the actual crossing
locations, but not as to obscure the bridge crewmens' vision. The crossing-area headquarters uses
smoke generators, smoke pots, and smoke munitions from the division and corps. The BMAIN
controls the use of MP and corps engineer units to establish nearshore waiting areas, mark routes
to the crossing sites, and begin constructing heavy rafts and/or bridges.

The intent of this phase is to rapidly place combat power on the far shore to eliminate the
enemy's direct fire onto the crossing sites and secure terrain for attack positions. Brigades
normally establish limits of advance (LOAs) and fire-support coordination lines (FSCLs) for the
dismounted TFs conducting the assault. These lines establish an LOA that encompasses the far-
shore objective. Enemy indirect fire into the crossing area will probably continue; however, each
crossing site within the crossing area must be isolated from direct fire to enable the construction
and operation of rafts. These rafts will then be used to transport armored vehicles for rapid
reinforcement of the dismounted infantry TF. Within the crossing area, secured attack positions
allow units to form into combat formations before continuing the attack.

Commanders may consider immediate construction of a bridge during this phase without ever
conducting rafting operations. The advantage is that combat power can be massed on the far
shore at a much faster rate. The risk that the commander takes in making this decision is that a
large amount of bridging assets is exposed to enemy fire before the elimination of enemy indirect
fires on the crossing area.

ADVANCE FROM THE EXIT BANK

(PHASE III) The division continues its attempt to secure the bridgehead line by attacking to
seize and secure exit-bank and intermediate objectives. The intent is to eliminate direct and
observed indirect fires from the crossing area (see Figure 5-6)
.

The division commander selects exit-bank and intermediate objectives based on METT-T. The
river splits the attacking force, limiting massed direct fires beyond the exit bank. Therefore, these
objectives are usually smaller and not as far from the attack positions as the objectives used in
other offensive operations.

Once the exit banks are secured, the division cavalry squadron crosses either by swimming or
rafting their cavalry fighting vehicles. They then conduct normal screening operations for the
division as the armored reinforcements are crossing the river and preparing to advance from the
exit bank.

The DTAC controls the coordinated attack of the lead brigades and the cavalry squadron to seize
exit-bank and intermediate objectives. The DMAIN controls deep fires that aviation, artillery,
and CAS provide to block enemy counterattacks into the bridgehead as requested by the DTAC.

The DREAR prepares to push packages of Class III and V supplies that will support the attack
out of the bridgehead. They also begin to push Class IV and V supplies for the hasty defense
during the last phase of the river-crossing operation.
The BMAINs control the movement of their follow-on TFs from the staging areas across the
river to their attack positions on the far shore. They control the upgrade of crossing sites from
assaults boats (RB15s) to heavy rafts and/or bridging to ensure that the force buildup can support
the advance from the exit bank to intermediate objectives. MP and, if available, corps combat
engineers assist in movement control through the crossing area.

During this phase, limited two-way traffic begins to return disabled equipment and casualties.

The BTAC controls the movement out of the attack positions to exit-bank and intermediate
objectives. Exit-bank objectives are those positions that, when seized, eliminate the enemy's
ability to use direct-fire weapons on the crossing area. Intermediate objectives are those positions
from which the enemy can provide observation for indirect-fire weapons. This enables the
expansion of SHORAD coverage, allowing more time to engage aircraft in air avenues of
approach on the far shore (see Figure 5-7).
The TF that conducted the dismounted assault across the river continues to cross armored
vehicles and remount their dismounted soldiers in preparation for continued offensive operations.

The brigade commanders establish the order of raft loads based on the division's crossing
priorities. Bridge companies run heavy raft sites and begin to construct ribbon bridges. MP mark
routes and control holding areas on the far shore to ensure rapid transit within the crossing area.

SECURE THE BRIDGEHEAD LINE

(PHASE IV) The bridgehead must be defendable and large enough to accommodate forces that
will break out to continue offensive combat operations. The lead brigades attack to secure the
final objectives within the bridgehead to prevent the enemy from successfully counterattacking
against forces within the bridgehead line by rapidly building enough combat power to establish a
hasty defense in the sector. The cavalry squadron conducts a screen mission. The lead brigades
maintain continuous far-shore security to prevent bypassed enemy elements from infiltrating
back to the river and disrupting activities at the crossing sites (see Figure 5-8).
The DTAC controls the lead brigades and the cavalry squadron as they secure the bridgehead
objectives (see Figure 5-8) and prepare to move the reserve brigade or other corps forces
(breakout forces) into attack positions within the bridgehead. Once the bridgehead objectives are
secured, the lead brigades establish a hasty defense in sector.

The DREAR begins to push forward Class III and V supplies that are needed for the attack out of
the bridgehead.

The BMAIN continues to upgrade and monitor the crossing sites and control the movement of
forces through the crossing area. The far-bank RL, defining the crossing area, is moved just past
the intermediate objectives (see Figure 5-8) to provide space for the breakout forces. Once the
bridgehead line is secure, the DTAC controls the movement of the breakout forces through the
crossing area to attack positions within the bridgehead. During this phase, specific bridges and/or
rafts are designed for full-time return traffic. This ensures that resupply and the evacuation of
wounded soldiers and disabled equipment occur.

The DMAIN controls the aviation, artillery, and available CAS sorties to screen the flanks and
interdict enemy counterattacks. Deep operations play a key role in the bridgehead defense by
targeting enemy formations as they move to counterattack. They also eliminate effective artillery
fire within range of the bridgehead and destroy other enemy artillery forces moving up to the
fight.

The lead brigade elements that secure the bridgehead line must control the avenues of approach
into the bridgehead and be large enough to defeat counterattacks. After the bridgehead is secure,
the division commander commits the breakout force to attack position within the bridgehead.
The bridgehead needs enough space (20 to 30 kilometers deep) to accommodate both the lead
brigades and the breakout force with their combat service support (CSS). The bridgehead line
must also be deep enough to employ AD systems against hostile aircraft before they reach
weapons RPs to attack crossing sites.

CONTINUATION OF THE ATTACK

Once the division has secured the bridgehead, the division river crossing is complete. Crossing-
area control will be passed to the DREAR and ultimately to the corps. The breakout force must
complete its passage before continuation of offensive operations. The lead brigades must
reorganize and prepare to follow the breakout force as the division or corps reserve. Security
forces from the corps must come forward to relieve the lead brigades from their bridgehead
security mission.

As the breakout force crosses into attack positions, the DTAC begins to focus on the attack out
of the bridgehead. Therefore, the DREAR assumes the role of the crossing-force headquarters.
This allows the DTAC to focus completely on the attack out of the bridgehead, which is usually
led by the division cavalry squadron.

The DREAR controls the breakout force's movement through the crossing area to the attack
positions and two-way traffic facilitating the return of wounded soldiers and disabled equipment.
The corps must provide other forces for bridgehead security before the lead brigades reorganize
to resume their mission as the division reserve.
CHAPTER 6

RETROGRADE OPERATIONS

GENERAL

The goal of a retrograde river-crossing operation is to cross a river while preserving the
integrity of the force. A retrograde operation is an organized movement to the rear or away from
the enemy.

This chapter describes only those tactics and techniques used by a division in a retrograde river-
crossing operation that are different from those used in an offensive crossing. A retrograde
crossing features centralized control at division level. Detailed planning and preparation of
engineer assets are a critical consideration within the time available. A retrograde crossing
differs from an offensive crossing in several aspects:

Both banks of the river initially are under friendly control. Accordingly, detailed
information concerning the river and the area over which the retrograde is conducted
should be readily available to the commander.
All existing bridges and other crossing sites are available to the retrograde force to
expedite the crossing.
Relative combat power favors the enemy in most cases. Units conducting retrograde
operations then must retain a mobility advantage over the enemy.

Deception is always planned and executed to deceive the enemy and to protect the force during a
retrograde operation. As a minimum, these plans seek to conceal the extent of the operation and
the actual crossing sites. Smoke, electronic deception, and dummy sites reduce the enemy's
capability to disrupt the crossing.

The same control measures are used in retrograde operations as in offensive operations. Figure
6-1 shows an example. See Chapter 3 for a discussion of each control measure and a C2
diagram.
.

RETROGRADE TYPES

A retrograde operation may be forced by enemy action or by a higher headquarters. A well-


planned, well-organized, and ag-gressively executed retrograde operation provides opportunities
for the division to inflict heavy damage on enemy troops and equipment while continuing to
maintain its fighting integrity. The three types of retrograde operations are delay, withdrawal,
and retirement.

DELAY

Units conduct delays when their strength is insufficient to attack or defend or when they want to
maneuver the enemy into an area for a subsequent counterattack. A delay is an operation in
which the unit, under enemy pressure, trades space for time by inflicting maximum damage on
the enemy without being decisively engaged in combat. Flexible planning allows the units
conducting a river crossing to adapt quickly to changes during execution. Some important
features of a flexible plan include-

Multiple approach routes from battle positions to crossing sites.


Lateral routes between crossing sites.
Alternate crossing sites if enemy actions close primary sites.
Crossing equipment held in reserve to replace losses or open alternate sites.
Preplanned engagement areas (EAs) to block enemy advances.
A delay combined with a retrograde river crossing has the following phases:

Delay.
Crossing.
Defense.

Each phase is separate only in planning; they overlap during execution. Employing military
crossing equipment in the retrograde is the reverse of the method used in a deliberate, offensive
river-crossing operation. Figure 6-2 relates the retrograde sequence to the crossing stages.

DELAY PHASE

The delay phase provides security for the main body and allows the delaying force to gain
enough time for the main body to accomplish its mission (cross the river). For this reason,
delaying forces take some risk. The delaying force must deceive the enemy and keep it from the
river, allowing the main body to cross and establish the exit-bank defense.

The division commander establishes a holding line on defensible terrain between the river and
the enemy. Its location precludes direct and observed indirect fires in the crossing area.

Forces not assigned tasks in the delay, including those forces with a mission to support crossing
areas or establish the defense on the exit bank, execute a planned retirement or withdrawal and
cross the river as rapidly as possible. To preclude early enemy detection of the retrograde, the
forces follow a movement-control plan that supports the deception plan.

The delay phase continues until the battle is within communications and fire-support range of the
exit-bank defense. The delaying force must be strong enough to hold the enemy until other forces
establish the defense. The defending force assumes responsibility for the battle as the delaying
force completes a rearward passage of lines through the defending force.

Figure 6-3 shows an example of a retrograde crossing. In this case, the 3rd brigade is the
delaying force. It occupies battle positions to the rear of the 1st and 2nd brigades at RL Plum, the
initial-delay position (IDP), to help them withdraw. The 3rd brigade delays the enemy forward of
the holding line until the rest of the division crosses the river and the 1st and 2nd brigades
reestablish the defense along the river.
CROSSING PHASE

In contrast to normal offensive crossing operations, friendly forces initially control retrograde
crossing sites, which may be insufficient in number. The enemy usually knows where the logical
crossing sites are and attacks them early in the operation, but it must not be allowed to capture
them. Friendly forces should develop additional sites to provide flexibility against this
possibility.

The commander should attempt to salvage tactical bridges and rafts for future use; however, it
may be necessary to use them for the crossing and then destroy them to prevent capture. Fixed
bridging must be prepared for destruction and also be protected against ground and air attacks.
This requires close coordination with the delaying force to preclude cutting off friendly forces or
allowing enemy seizure of sites intact.

The BMAIN, commanded by the brigade XO (CAC), is responsible for the passage of all units
through the crossing area.

Traffic control up to and through the crossing area is a critical problem in crossing operations.
For this reason, plans for movement must be detailed, and movement control is essential. This
control is exercised by the CAC with assistance from the delaying-force commander (brigade
commander). The CAC controls all movement within the crossing area to include retrograde
forces.
It is the responsibility of the CAC to ensure the continuous and orderly flow of the retrograde
elements across the river. His control includes both the ERPs, which ensure that all vehicles are
of the proper class and size, and also all waiting areas that feed vehicles through the crossing
area. To assist the CAC, MP and, if available, engineers establish and operate TCPs to manage
the traffic flow. CSCs oversee the crossing means. The CAC and his staff must synchronize the
crossing plan with the commander's tactical plan.

Activity within the crossing area begins with two-way crossings by CSS units evacuating
nonessential supplies or restocking the delaying force. During the early stages of the retrograde,
the existing crossing means may be supplemented by tactical bridging. As a minimum, additional
tactical bridging assets must be planned and available.

Initially, the force crosses on fixed and floating bridges. It crosses on bridges as long as possible,
since this is the most rapid means. Once the bridges become vulnerable to capture, air attack, or
observed indirect fires, they may be converted to rafts or removed. Vehicles continue to cross by
using rafts or by swimming. The crossings are made under the suppressive fires of the defending
force's direct- and indirect-fire weapons.

The forces cross the river in an orderly flow while conserving combat power. The retrograde
crossing begins as a rear-area operation for the division. Initially, it is a traffic-scheduling
problem, centrally controlled by the division. The division establishes crossing areas before
crossing maneuver brigades. Crossing-area operations are the same as for offensive crossings
(see Chapter 5). Even when the division has to establish the crossing areas quickly, under
adverse circumstances, it synchronizes crossing-support activities with those of the defense force
that is preparing to close the routes in the crossing areas.

Crossing sites need the highest priority for AD. This is particularly critical when the enemy has
air superiority or when air parity exists. The sequence for crossing AD units should account for
the need to provide continuous coverage of crossing sites.

The division engineers are fully committed to the delay. As a result, engineers under the control
of the CAE run the crossing sites and support initial preparation of exit-bank defenses. Engineers
focus on enemy engineer breaching assets and the interdiction capabilities needed to support
enemy maneuver.

DEFENSE PHASE

The defense phase stops the enemy by keeping it out of the crossing area, denying it crossing
sites upstream or downstream, and destroying its attempts to cross the river. In particular, the
defense phase targets potential enemy crossing assets. Whether continuing the retrograde further
or defending along the river, the division establishes a strong exit-bank defense. The defending
force protects the delaying force as it crosses the river after battle handover. The rearward
passage of lines by the delaying force is a normal defensive operation, complicated by the river.

Initially, the defending force is small. It consists of combat and combat-support units not
involved in the delay as well as augmentation from corps reserves. Because enough forces are
not available to defend all points along the river, the defense depends on rapid lateral movement
to concentrate at vulnerable points. In particular, it orients on and protects the crossing sites
against the enemy's forward detachments and heliborne forces.

After battle handover from the delaying force, the defending force is responsible for the area
between the holding line and defensive positions on the exit bank. The defending force masses
fires to help its elements in contact forward of the river to withdraw, thereby complicating the
retrograde crossing.

The defending force accepts battle hand-over from the last of the delaying force at the holding
line and covers its crossing over a fixed bridge that is prepared for demolition. Friendly forces at
the river prevent the enemy from crossing at the site of a demolished fixed bridge so that
companies securing the crossing site can safely withdraw in turn.

WITHDRAWAL

A withdrawal differs from a delay in that it is an operation in which the unit in contact
disengages from an enemy force and moves to the rear. Withdrawals are executed when the
commander desires to withdraw to control future tactical operations without being forced to do
so by enemy pressure. A withdrawal follows the same sequence as a delay. The only difference
is that the unit may or may not be in enemy contact.

During a withdrawal, the enemy usually does not pressure withdrawing units. Also, other
friendly units do not normally assist in withdrawals. Care must be taken to ensure that the enemy
does not try to isolate and encircle units during river-crossing operations. If a unit has difficulty
breaking with the enemy in a withdrawal, it can request help from a higher level. The assisted
withdrawal will be a rearward passage of lines. Exchange of information on obstacles, indirect-
fire targets, and routes in the sector must be coordinated before conducting the passage of lines.
The assisting unit provides mobility support along cleared routes and corridors in its sector for
the passing unit.

Engineers must complete clearing operations before the passage begins. The assisting unit also
closes the lanes once passage is complete. The passing unit must plan and organize for
conducting internal breaching and river-crossing operations before initiating the passage of lines.
This should ensure responsive mobility operations if the enemy blocks routes during the passage.

RETIREMENT

Retirements are rearward movements away from the enemy by a force not in contact. Typically,
another unit's security forces cover their movement as they conduct a tactical road march. A
retirement follows the same sequence as a delay. Speed is important; therefore, engineers should
focus on mobility for the retiring unit and expect operations such as route clearance and route
repair.

DENIAL MEASURES
Denial measures are actions taken to hinder or deny enemy use of resources or facilities. In
retrograde crossings, the commander includes bridges and crossing sites in his denial measures.

The laws of war require that denial operations, particularly against civilian resources such as
existing bridges, be carefully considered and that execution authority to destroy the structure be
maintained at the highest level.

A defending-force commander is responsible for preparing existing bridging and other crossing
means in his sector, such as ferries, for destruction to prevent their use by the enemy. The CAE
controls the engineers who prepare those targets. The timing of their destruction depends on their
use in supporting the crossing. When the tactical situation dictates that crossing sites are no
longer needed or the risk of capture outweighs their usefulness, the defending force must destroy
them.

Use of bridges in the retrograde requires a redundant means of bridge destruction and a robust
demolition guard with an engineer demolition party (see FM 5-250). Engineer light diving teams
can be used to survey and emplace, prime, and detonate explosives on bridge supports to deny
enemy access during retrograde operations. Because of the severe consequences of a premature
decision to destroy a site, the division commander usually designates sites as reserve targets and
issues specific orders stating under what conditions and by whose authority this destruction can
be done.

Engineers destroy military bridges that they cannot recover quickly. Bridge stocks are in short
supply; therefore, if existing bridges are sufficient to support the retrograde, the engineers
recover military bridges early. In addition, the denial of major existing bridges can be so
important that the commander may choose to destroy them early and rely on military bridges to
cross the remainder of his force. The ribbon bridge is preferred for this crossing because of its
recovery speed. Engineers either recover lines of communication (LOC) bridges well before the
enemy arrives or destroy those left in place after the delay.

PLANNING

The division commander identifies the holding line and the units required to fight the delay and
defense battles. The division engineer, in conjunction with the G3, identifies crossing sites and
required crossing assets. The division staff coordinates for additional corps assets. The staff uses
the planning process identified in Chapter 4.

The commander uses deception to conceal the extent of the operation and the actual crossing
sites. Smoke, electronic warfare, and dummy sites reduce the enemy's capability to disrupt the
crossing. OPSEC keeps the enemy-intelligence collectors from identifying the time and place of
the crossing. The commander may consider retaining fixed bridges in defense of the river line if
he anticipates future counterattacks back across the river. He may also partially destroy bridges
to ease restoration in future offensive operations, weighing this decision against the enemy's use
of the bridges.
Denial operations are somewhat restrictive. Only those civilian targets with a clearly identified
military value can be destroyed or removed. Coordination between the theater command and the
host-nation government is important in the policy-development process.
CHAPTER 7

CROSSING SITES

GENERAL

The following paragraphs supplement the general descriptions of acceptable crossing sites in
Chapter 2. Selection of crossing sites is primarily based on the-

Existing situation and anticipated scheme of maneuver.


Physical characteristics of the available sites, road networks, and surrounding terrain.
Availability and capabilities of crossing means.
Availability of engineer support.

Conflicts between tactical and technical requirements frequently occur. Commanders evaluate
the factors bearing on the problem to determine the best overall solution.

CROSSING-SITE SELECTION

Each crossing means, except air assault, requires a type of crossing site. They can be identified
as fording, assault-boat, swimming, rafting, or bridging sites. Assault battalions use either a
fording or an assault-boat site (or sometimes a swimming site) as an assault site.

Both the desired scheme of maneuver and available crossing means influence crossing-site
selection. The division assigns a crossing area to each lead brigade. The brigade chooses which
crossing sites to use within its area. When a particular site is important to the division's tactical
concept, such as for the movement of breakout forces, the division either coordinates with the
affected brigade to open that bridge site or moves a bridge to that site once the brigade hands
over the crossing area to the division.

Brigade commanders select final crossing sites based on tactical intelligence and their desired
schemes of maneuver. Each site's physical characteristics, required engineer support, and
available crossing means influence the decision, but tactical requirements are the most important.

The goal when selecting assault sites is to pick those that allow the lead battalions to cross
unopposed and seize far-shore objectives rapidly. If unsuccessful at finding undefended crossing
sites, the lead battalions cross under enemy fire while overwatch units provide direct and indirect
suppressive fires. Assault sites may or may not coincide with rafting or bridging sites.

When selecting swimming sites, the goal is to pick those that permit fighting vehicles to rapidly
enter, swim across, and exit the water with minimum assistance.

The goal when selecting rafting and bridging sites is to pick those that support the greatest
volume of vehicle traffic consistent with the scheme of maneuver. Rafting and bridging sites are
usually on or near major roads to minimize route preparation and maintenance. When the sites
are located close together, the bridging site must be upstream of the rafting site. This will avoid
potential damage that may be caused by disabled rafts drifting into the bridge.

Regardless of the crossing means, each site needs engineer reconnaissance swimmers or an
engineer light diving team to cross early, reduce obstacles, and develop exit points on the far
bank. Riverbanks at otherwise suitable crossing sites often need work for access to the river.
Most natural soil becomes unstable under heavy traffic. This condition worsens as fording,
swimming, and rafting activities carry water onto it. The required engineer effort varies with soil
type, crossing means, and vehicle density. An engineer vehicle that is capable of maintaining the
exit bank should be one of the first vehicles across.

Natural conditions vary widely. Banks may require little preparation, or they may be so
restrictive that they limit feasible sites. Desirable site characteristics include-

Minimum exposure to enemy direct-fire weapons.


Covered and concealed access to the river's edge.
Firm and gently sloping banks that allow rapid entry and exit at multiple points.

Initial and subsequent entry points can vary. Available locations seldom have all the desired
tactical and technical characteristics. The best routes through the crossing area normally cross the
river at the technically best crossing sites. The best technical sites may not be the best tactical
sites because they are well known and are heavily defended by the enemy. Forces initially
crossing at less desirable locations are most likely to avoid detection and gain surprise. Moving
laterally along the exit bank, forces attack the flank or rear of enemy units to seize the better
crossing locations. Use of these sites allows rapid buildup of combat power.

PLANNING

Planners need information of potential crossing sites to evaluate their compatibility with
proposed crossing plans. Generally, planners need to know-

Friendly and enemy capabilities and probable COAs.


Site capacity for the crossing of troops, equipment, and supplies using various crossing
means.
Engineer support that is required to develop, improve, and maintain each site.

More specifically, planners need to know the-

Condition of the bottom, banks, and water of the river.


Impact of forecasted or past seasonal weather conditions.
Location of defensible terrain, covered and concealed areas, and natural or enemy-
emplaced obstacles on both sides of the river.
Amount of time and effort that is required to develop sites, assemble rafts, and construct
bridges.
Entry/exit routes and off-road trafficability.
Road networks.
Capabilities of friendly forces to deny observation, suppress fires, and provide site
protection.

REQUIREMENTS

Discussed in the following paragraphs are some of the requirements necessary for crossing sites.

ENTRY/EXIT ROUTES OR PATHS

A desired feature of all sites is readily accessible entry/exit routes or paths on either bank. The
approaches to the banks are checked for their ability to support the requirements (width, slope,
and trafficability) of the wheeled and tracked vehicles of the crossing element. Covered and
concealed approaches enhance surprise and survivability; however, multiple routes, free from
obstruction, will increase crossing speed and flexibility. Exit-bank conditions often take
precedence over entry-bank conditions until equipment and troops can be crossed to develop and
improve the site. See Table 7-1 for depth requirements.

ROUTES AND APPROACHES

Depending on the crossing operation that is used, the following considerations must be given to
routes and approaches:

Fording. Dismounted forces may use approaches with steep slopes and heavy vegetation,
while vehicle fording requires paths or roads to approach fording sites.
Assaulting or swimming. Assault-boat crossings may use more rugged approaches than
amphibious vehicles.
Rafting. Multiple approach routes to rafting sites permit the relocation of rafting
upstream or downstream.
Bridging. Bridging sites require developed road networks to sustain the crossing capacity.
Depending on the vehicle that is used, the following considerations must be given to routes and
approaches:

Wheeled vehicles. In general, wheeled vehicles require 3.5-meter path widths and 3.5
meters of overhead clearance. Dry, hard slopes of 33 percent can be negotiated; however,
slopes less than 25 percent are desired.
Tracked vehicles. Tracked vehicles require up to 4-meter path widths and 3.5 meters of
overhead clearance. Tanks can climb 60 percent (31-degree) slopes on dry, hard surfaces;
however, slopes less than 50 percent are desired.

WAITING AREAS

Numerous waiting areas are required for equipment and troops preparing and protecting sites and
for troops and vehicles preparing and/or waiting to cross. These areas should be dispersed,
provide cover and concealment, and be accessible to road networks near the sites.

RIVER CONDITIONS

In general, currents less than 1.5 meters per second (MPS) are desired. Narrow segments of the
river decrease equipment requirements, crossing time, and exposure time. However, resulting
increased current velocities may offset any advantage. As the current's velocity increases, it
decreases the ribbon bridge's ability to handle heavy military load class (MLC) vehicles. More
boats will be required to keep the bridge in place and allow for heavy MLC vehicles to cross.

BANKS

Ford banks may be steep and rugged for dismounted troops; however, vehicles require slopes
less than 33 percent and firm soil conditions. Assault or swim banks may be steep when using
assault boats for dismounted troops. Amphibious vehicles may be able to enter over low, 1-meter
vertical banks, but they require sloped exits. Vertical banks of about 1 meter may be
accommodated by bridge or raft ramps (see Table 7-2). Vertical bank heights for bridges using
the equipment listed in the table do not change for ribbon bridges. For M4T6 and Class 60
bridges, the height of the bridge deck can be adjusted to accept a difference in bank heights;
however, the limiting factor may become the longitudinal slope of the bridge.
BOTTOMS

Ford bottoms must be free from obstacles, firm, and uniform. Riverbeds may be improved with
rock fill or grading equipment. Guide stakes make the crossing of the river easier for boat
drivers. Assault- or swim-site bottoms must be free from obstructions that interfere with boats or
the tracks of amphibious vehicles. Rafting sites must be free from obstructions that could
interfere with boat operations. Bridges emplaced for lengthy periods (4 hours or more) or in
strong currents require suitable riverbeds for anchorage. Engineer light diving teams from the
corps Army may be used to-

Conduct river-bottom reconnaissance.


Emplace shore and midstream anchorage for debris and antimine and antidiver nets to
ensure the success of the operation.

ENEMY SITUATION

Sites masked from enemy observation enhance surprise and survivability by degrading the
enemy's ability to see. Using existing sites reduces preparation time but requires caution in that
the enemy may have emplaced obstacles and registered artillery on the site.

SITE ANALYSIS

A ground reconnaissance refines and confirms information gathered from other sources. Training
Circular (TC) 5-210 contains details for conducting and reporting site reconnaissance. From this
and other detailed reports, planners may develop charts or overlays to compare alternate sites.
Unit SOPs may prescribe specific comparative methods. See Figure 7-1 for an example.
FIELD CALCULATIONS

Some common relationships and field-expedient calculations that are useful during a ground
reconnaissance include-

Measuring the current's velocity.


Determining slopes and degrees.
Measuring the river's width.
Calculating downstream drift.

MEASURING THE CURRENT'S VELOCITY

Correlating the desired maximum current velocity of 1.5 MPS with a familiar comparative unit
of measure may help in estimating the current's velocity. The quick-time march rate of 120 steps
per minute, with a 30-inch (or 76-centimeter) step, equates to 1.5 MPS. Other approximate
correlations of 1.5 MPS include-

5 feet per second (fps)


3.5 miles per hour (mph)
5.5 kilometers per hour (kph)
Determining the current's velocity is critical to effective and safe crossing operations. When it is
high, more boats are required to stabilize the bridge, particularly when anchorage is not used. A
reasonable estimation involves measuring a distance along the riverbank and noting the time a
floating object takes to travel the same distance. Dividing the distance by the time provides the
current's velocity (see Figure 7-2).

DETERMINING SLOPES AND DEGREES

The slope of terrain is significant (for example, slopes of 7 percent or more slow movement and
may require vehicles to operate in a lower gear). Slope, usually expressed as a percentage, is the
amount of change in elevation (rise or fall) over a ground (horizontal) distance (see Figure 7-3).
The means to determine the percent of the slope include-

Clinometers. These instruments measure the percent of the slope and are organic to most
engineer units down to the platoon level.
Maps. In this method, first measure the horizontal distance along the desired path, then
determine the difference in elevation between the starting and ending points of the path.
The next step is to ensure that both figures are the same unit of measure (such as meters
or feet). The final step is to divide the elevation (rise) by the distance (run) and multiply
the result by 100 to get the percent of the slope (see Figure 7-4).
Line of sight and pace. This method uses the eye-level height above ground (usually from
1.5 to 1.75 meters) and the length of standard pace (usually 0.75 meters). While standing
at the bottom of the slope, the individual picks a spot on the slope while keeping his eyes
level. He paces the distance and repeats the procedure at each spot. Adding the vertical
and horizontal distances separately provides the total rise and run.

Slope may also be expressed in degrees; however, this provides angular measurements. The
method is not commonly used because the relationships are more complex than desired for field
use. Figure 7-5 lists some relationships of the percent of the slope to the degree of the slope.

MEASURING THE RIVER'S WIDTH

A field-expedient means of measuring the river's width is with a compass. While standing at the
waterline, fix your sight on a point on the opposite side and note the magnetic azimuth. Move
upstream or downstream until the azimuth reading to the fixed point on the opposite bank is 45
degrees different than the original reading. The distance from the original point to the final point
of observation is equal to the river's width (see Figure 7-6).
CALCULATING DOWNSTREAM DRIFT

Current causes all surface craft to drift downstream. Each vehicle has a different formula for
calculating downstream drift. Amphibious vehicles and assault boats drift more than powered
boats and rafts; the latter has a greater capability to negate the effect of the current's velocity by
applying more power.

Amphibious vehicles and nonpowered assault boats are generally limited to current velocities of
12.5 to 2 MPS and 1 MPS respectively (see Figure 7-7).
When crossing with amphibious vehicles and pneumatic boats, compensate for the effect of the
current (see examples below).

Example 1

Entry is usually made upstream of the desired exit point. The vehicle or boat is aligned, or aimed,
straight across the river, creating a head-on orientation that is perpendicular to the exit bank.
However, the current produces a sideslip, downstream forward movement (see Figure 7-8). This
technique requires operator training in continual adjustment to reach the objective point on the
exit bank. This technique results in a uniform crossing rate in the least amount of time and is
usually the desired technique.
Example 2

If the operator continues to aim the vehicle at the desired exit point, the orientation of the craft at
the exit point will approximate an upstream heading. The craft's path is an arc in proportion to
the current's velocity (see Figure 7-9).

Example 3

To exit at a point directly across from the entry point requires an upstream heading to
compensate for the current's velocity (see Figure 7-10).
In all three examples, the craft's speed relative to the current's velocity is constant, assuming the
engine revolutions per minute (rpm) or paddling rate remains constant.

Terrain conditions may restrict the location of entry and/or exit locations. Enemy situations may
require alternate techniques. For example, when aiming at the downstream exit point, the craft
moves at a greater speed relative to the banks after entry than it does as it nears the exit due to
the current's velocity. Use of this technique may be favored when the enemy has a better
observation of the entry bank rather than the exit bank. Watercraft moving fast and at a changing
rate are more difficult to engage effectively.

RAFTS

The assault force seizes a far-shore objective and then clears in zone to secure the crossing sites
from direct fire. Quick reinforcement with armored fighting vehicles is critical when the initial
assault is dismounted.

Given the vital need to rapidly build combat power on the far shore, the lead brigades should
swim the fighting vehicles of the follow-on battalions whenever practical to save the rafts for the
tanks. Rafts are usually the initial means for crossing nonswimming vehicles, particularly tanks,
on wide, unfordable rivers. It may be possible to bridge immediately after the assault across the
river; however, rafting is normally first because rafts-

Are less vulnerable to enemy air and indirect fire due to their size and maneuverability.
Are quicker to assemble.
Offer more flexibility in operation, particularly in site selection and subsequent
movement between sites.
Can use existing road networks and banks where access and exit routes are not aligned
opposite of each other.
Raft assembly begins on order, not according to a preplanned schedule, even though the crossing
plan has an estimated start time. Unless the division commander directs otherwise, the brigade
commander, advised by his CAE, decides when to begin rafting. This is always after eliminating
enemy direct fire on the site and usually after neutralizing observed indirect fire. Massed enemy
indirect fire can cover an entire rafting site. The force neutralizes observed indirect fire by
suppressing it and obscuring the crossing sites.

SITE PREPARATION

The brigade commander also decides when bank preparation can begin, or he may delegate this
decision to his CAE. The decision is based on the estimated time required to secure the area. By
initially spending extra time and effort preparing a bank, maintenance problems can be avoided
during rafting operations.

The key to rapid and effective bank preparation is good engineer reconnaissance, which permits
engineers to arrive at the site early, organized and equipped to perform specific tasks to improve
the approach. The same is true on the exit bank. Poor bank conditions require early priority for
raft movement of engineer equipment across the river. Time spent preparing the exit banks
before passing heavy traffic greatly reduces maintenance of the crossing site and speeds force
buildup later. Two entry and exit points per centerline make it possible to alternately use one
while maintaining the other.

RAFTING SITES

Each lead brigade should have at least two rafting sites, each of which has one to three raft
centerlines. The terrain, routes, and tactical plan determine their location. However, they should
not be closer together than 300 meters to avoid congestion and the risk that enemy artillery
concentrations will impact on more than one site during a barrage. Engineers prepare alternate
sites as soon as possible to permit the relocation of rafts in case of enemy action or bank
deterioration. Each rafting site also contains the control and operation structure that is necessary
to conduct rafting operations (see Figure 7-11).
Engineer platoon leaders are in charge of rafting sites. Each site has one to three active
centerlines spaced 100 to 300 meters apart. With the 100-meter minimum distance between
centerlines, collisions between rafts on adjacent centerlines are avoided and the effects of
artillery are reduced. However, spacing centerlines farther than 300 meters apart stretches the
ability of one's unit to control both land approaches and water operations. Each crossing site has
at least one alternate centerline. The CSC switches to the alternate centerline when necessary due
to enemy fire or bank maintenance.

The centerline has an embarkation point on the near bank, a debarkation point on the far bank,
and rafts operating between these two points. The number of rafts on a centerline depends on the
river's width and the unit's control (see Appendix C). Maintaining bridge-unit integrity on
centerlines and crossing sites is critical. It simplifies the maintenance and operation of rafts and
significantly improves control on the water, as all raft commanders and boat operators have
trained together. On any centerline, rafts must be the same type and configuration.

Centerlines are marked to guide vehicles approaching and leaving the water and to guide rafts to
the correct landing points. Marker stakes or panels are used during daylight, and dim lights
(covered flashlights or chemical lights) are used at night (see Figure 7-12). The raft commander
designates the location of the markers depending on the terrain and the current's velocity.
Markers include the following:

Raft-guide markers, at a 45-degree angle upstream, are used to guide the raft to the
embarkation or debarkation point. The two markers are 91 centimeters apart, and the
marker farthest from the river is 60 centimeters higher than the other. The raft has the
correct approach to the bank when the markers appear to be in a straight line, with one
above the other.
Raft-landing markers depict the left and right limits of the embarkation or debarkation
point.
Vehicle-guide markers are used to align raft loads with the raft and are visible to both the
raft and the vehicles.
Each rafting site contains at least one safety boat, normally a bridge-erection boat (BEB), for
troop and equipment recovery. The bridge company provides a crew for the safety boat,
including a boat operator, a boat commander, a medic, and a lifeguard (two, if possible). The
lifeguard-qualified swimmer does not wear boots or load-bearing equipment (LBE). The safety
boat also has a float with an attached line for rescuing troops in the water, a boat hook, rocket-
propelled lifelines (if available), and night-vision goggles (for the boat commander, primarily). It
has a radio on the bridge company net. The safety boat maintains its station 50 meters
downstream of the raft site.

As soon as possible, a safety line should be run across the river 100 meters downstream from the
last centerline. This line is fastened to the banks and kept afloat by life jackets attached to the
line every 30 meters. This rope acts as a catch rope for troops who may fall overboard during
rafting operations, especially during limited visibility. The safety line does not replace the need
for a safety boat but helps in case several soldiers fall into the river.

Each crossing site requires an EEP located where the equipment will be accessible to the
crossing site. Traffic between the EEP and the riverbank should use a separate route to avoid
congestion with the crossing.

Each rafting site requires a place along the friendly shore, downstream of the centerlines, for
immediate raft repairs. The maintenance area requires an access point to the river for the removal
and launching of bays and boats. Additional equipment desired at the maintenance area includes-

A bridge boat to move damaged bays and serve as a spare boat.


A crane to remove nonrepairable equipment from the water.
A bridge truck to transport damaged equipment to the EEP.
A fuel heavy-expanded mobility tactical truck (HEMTT) to refuel boats.
One or more interior and exterior bays to use as replacement parts. The maintenance area
is continuously manned with-
Two mechanics with tool boxes.
Two fuel handlers.
The operators of the various pieces of equipment.
A site supervisor.

RAFTING OPERATIONS

Units begin their preparations for rafting operations at a staging area. There, they receive
briefings, conduct inspections, and rehearse the rafting operation. Personnel will be issued life
jackets and given instructions on what to do upon loading onto the raft.

When ordered to begin rafting, the site commander directs personnel at the ERP in the call-
forward area to begin sending raft loads forward. Units proceed from a staging area to the call-
forward area where engineers at the ERP organize them into raft loads and send them down to
the river. Any points along the route that may cause confusion, such as intersections, are either
manned with a guide or are marked to ensure that the vehicles do not get lost. Once a raft load
nears the river, the platoon leader directs it to the appropriate centerline. The platoon leader
controls the flow of traffic to the centerlines to ensure that there is a smooth flow of traffic and
that centerlines are neither congested nor underused. He establishes the timing required so that
raft loads leave the call-forward area and match up with a returning empty raft.

When a raft load reaches the riverbank, it is met by an engineer centerline guide. He stops the
raft load 3 meters from the edge of the water and holds it there for the raft commander. The raft
commander guides the vehicles of the raft load onto the raft. The raft crew chocks the vehicles
and ensures that all passengers are wearing life jackets. The passengers do not dismount from
their vehicles. All hatches are opened to allow quick exit of the vehicle in case of an emergency.
Upon reaching the debarkation point, the raft commander guides the vehicles off the raft. After
the raft load debarks, the raft commander checks with the centerline guide for any return vehicles
and returns to the embarkation point.

Once on the far shore, the centerline guide directs the raft load to the far-shore holding area
where it re-forms. The passengers remove their life jackets, which are collected and returned by
an engineer team to the staging area for future loads.

MAINTENANCE AND REFUELING

During rafting operations, rafts require stops for refueling, preventive maintenance, and minor
repairs. The efficiency of the crossing depends on all rafts having enough fuel and minimal lost
time for refueling and normal maintenance. This efficiency requires the bridge company to
intensely manage raft maintenance and to operate the maintenance area much like a pit crew in
an automobile race. When directed, a raft pulls off the centerline and moves to the crossing-site
maintenance area.

With the raft secured, the crew begins refueling and maintenance operations. Mechanics assess
and repair any minor damages to the raft and the boats. Fuel handlers run fuel lines from the fuel
to both bridge boats and fuel them simultaneously. If no major deficiencies are identified, the
entire process requires 20 minutes. If major deficiencies are identified on the boat, it is removed
from the raft and replaced with an awaiting spare. The boat will then be removed from the water
and sent back to the EEP for repair. When refueling and maintenance operations are finished, the
raft returns to its centerline and another raft is directed in for maintenance and refueling.

Since the maintenance and refueling operation is continuous and requires removing a raft from
the operation for up to 30 minutes, it is important to account for this reduction in capabilities
when planning the operation. Generally, it is unnecessary to refuel for the first two hours after
rafting begins. Once raft maintenance and refueling begin, one of the six rafts in each bridge
company is unavailable for carrying vehicles across a river at all times.

When a raft becomes damaged and needs immediate repair, the raft commander moves it to the
maintenance area. If a raft loses a boat and cannot make it to the maintenance area without
assistance, the raft commander contacts the maintenance supervisor, who sends the maintenance
boat out to assist. If a raft is still carrying a load, the raft commander decides on which bank he
will disembark the load. Once in the maintenance area, mechanics determine the extent of the
damage. If the damage requires significant repair, the raft will be removed and replaced with a
spare. Lengthy equipment repairs are done at the EEP.

BRIDGES

Bridges replace or supplement rafts once enemy-observed indirect fire is eliminated. Each lead
brigade should convert at least one rafting site to a bridge site as soon as possible, while keeping
other raft sites in operation until a second bridge is in place. Bridges have greater traffic-flow
rates than rafts. The ribbon bridge is the preferred initial bridge, since it is faster to assemble and
easier to move than other types. Once assembled, all float bridges have a crossing rate of 200
vehicles per hour, with a vehicle speed of 15 mph. As with rafts, bridge assembly begins on
order, not according to a preplanned schedule. Since vehicles cross rivers much faster on bridges
than on rafts, early bridge assembly is desirable but must be weighed against the risk that the
enemy can still bring indirect fires down on an immobile bridge. The brigade commander
decides when to begin, with advice from his engineer. He may delegate this decision to his CAE.

Bridges need protection. AD, counterfires, and ground-security elements are necessary to defeat
enemy attacks. Booms on the river protect bridges from damage caused by waterborne munitions
and debris. Antidiver nets are placed upstream and downstream to protect bridges from
swimmers or underwater demolition teams. Engineer light diving teams may be employed to
reduce debris along the debris-collection side of the upstream boom using portable hydraulic
chain saws.

Bridges are vulnerable to enemy long-range artillery fire and air attack even after the assault
force clears enemy forces from the exit bank. For this reason, ribbon bridges are used for a
limited period of time, normally two to four hours, before engineer bridge units break them apart
and move them to other sites. When the division uses this pulse-bridging tactic, its units wait to
cross in staging areas and surge across when bridges are in place.

Enemy air superiority over the river may prohibit bridge assembly. A sustained enemy air attack
forces engineers to break established float bridges into rafts. This minimizes the destruction of
scarce bridging assets yet enables the crossing to continue, though at a slower pace. Engineers
prepare alternate sites and position spare equipment nearby in case of enemy action.

As the danger from enemy action lessens, engineers use the more slowly assembled LOC and
M4T6 bridges to augment and then replace the tactical bridges (ribbon bridge or AVLB). They
do this as soon as possible to move ribbon bridges forward to other crossing operations.

Enemy bridges captured by the lead brigades are a bonus and speed the crossing. Engineers with
the lead brigades neutralize explosive devices and reinforce weak or damaged bridge structures
whether the damage is above or below the waterline. Commanders rarely base the success of an
operation solely on the seizure of intact bridges.

SITE ORGANIZATION
A bridging operation requires a continuous traffic flow to the river. Units must be quickly briefed
and moved to the crossing site. To accomplish this, units receive briefings in the staging areas
from traffic-control personnel. There is no intermediate call-forward area. To control crossing
vehicles, the engineers from the bridge unit set up an ERP at the bridge's access points on each
side of the river. These engineers guide vehicles onto and across the bridge, ensure the proper
speed and spacing of vehicles on the bridge, and prevent vehicles too heavy for the bridge from
trying to cross.

A recovery team is stationed on the far shore to remove any damaged vehicles from the bridge.
The recovery team consists of a medium or heavy recovery vehicle and crew, with sufficient
winch cable to reach across the bridge. A typical site setup is shown in Figure 7-13. The bridge
site must have several possible centerlines with adequate road networks from the unit's staging
areas. Individual centerlines are spaced greater than 300 meters apart to reduce the effect of
enemy artillery and air attacks.

Any method can be used to mark the route to the bridge as long as markers are visible to the
operators of the vehicles and are masked to observation from above. As the vehicle approaches
the bridge's edge, markers are spaced 30 meters apart to assist operators in visualizing the
required vehicle interval on the bridge.

NIGHT OPERATIONS

At night and during limited visibility, bridge company soldiers guide the vehicles across the
bridge to prevent them from driving over its side and to help them to maintain the correct
crossing speed.
WARNING

Soldiers must not ground-guide vehicles by walking in front of them. Instead,


soldiers should be placed as guides in stationary positions at reasonable intervals
along the bridge.
Guides carry flashlights or chemical lights to guide the vehicles. The first guide momentarily
stops the vehicle at the ramp and guides it onto the bridge. He then shields the lights with his
body and steps out of the roadway. The second guide, spaced about 30 meters farther along the
bridge, unshields his lights and directs the vehicle to his location. When the vehicle operator sees
a guide shield his lights, he looks further down the bridge to pick up the next lights and is guided
to them. When the vehicle reaches the guide, he shields his lights and steps aside so that the next
guide can pick up the direction of the vehicle. This procedure is continued across the bridge.

ACTIONS UNDER FIRE

If the unit comes under fire while on the bridge, those vehicles that are on it continue moving to
the other side and leave the area. Vehicles that are not yet on the bridge stop and go into a
herringbone formation or take up concealed positions. Once all vehicles have cleared the bridge,
the bridge crew will break it into rafts and disperse them to reduce their vulnerability to
incoming fire.

VEHICLE RECOVERY

If a vehicle breaks down on the bridge, the bridge crew will immediately attach a winch cable
from the far side and drag the vehicle off the bridge. The recovery vehicle will not move onto the
bridge and tow the disabled vehicle off since the critical requirement is to clear the bridge and
maintain traffic flow; loss of the vehicle is far less important.

OTHER GAP-CROSSING EQUIPMENT

The AVLB allows the maneuver force to conduct a hasty short-gap crossing without requiring
bridging assets from the corps. The AVLB allows vehicles up to 70 tons to cross over a 15-meter
gap. During the launch, the AVLB presents a high profile that will reveal the breaching location.
The bridge can be launched on the near shore and then recovered on the far shore and used again.
Additionally, the AVLB can be overlaid on an understrength bridge allowing heavy tracked
vehicles to cross. In such instances, the AVLB must be cribbed to avoid damage to the bridge.
The AVLB can be placed on a stream bottom to assist vehicles fording over soft or rocky
material, but caution must be used not to cause severe damage or bottom suction, rendering the
bridge unrecoverable.

Overlapping several bridges and interlocking them can allow vehicles to ford rivers of greater
width, but this works best when the only limiting factor is the depth of the river. In the near
future, the AVLB will be replaced by the Wolverine, which can provide a 24-meter gap-crossing
capability for MLC 70 vehicles. It will be transported, launched, and retrieved by an Abrams
chassis with the turret removed.

The primary role of the MGB, a hand-erectable, heavy-duty bridge, is for tactical bridging in the
forward main battle area. The key advantage of the MGB over other fixed bridges is its speed
and ease of erection and little, if any, site preparation. During assembly, soldiers will be
vulnerable to small-arms fire, indirect artillery fire, direct weapons fire, and a nuclear, biological,
chemical (NBC) environment. As the situation permits and the enemy threat is reduced, the
MGB would replace the AVLB to allow greater traffic across the gap. Eventually, the MGB
would be removed to be relocated forward and replaced by other standard or nonstandard
bridging.

As the danger from enemy action lessens, engineers use the more slowly assembled LOC bridges
to augment and then replace the tactical bridges. The primary use of the panel (Bailey) bridge is
a temporary LOC bridge. It can be used in forward areas to replace assault bridging and the
MGB. This bridge system can also be assembled as a railway bridge, thus providing a relatively
rapid repair capability. In some cases, the Bailey bridge is the only tactical bridge suitable for
long spans and heavy loads because it can be assembled in multiple heights and widths.
Currently, there are large operational stocks of the Bailey bridge in Europe, but there are no
plans for additional procurement. Many allied nations have fielded the Compact 200 Panel
Bridge that is similar to the Bailey but uses advanced alloys which give it greater strength.

Enemy bridges captured by the lead brigades are a bonus and speed the crossing. Engineers with
the lead brigades neutralize explosive devices and reinforce weak or damaged bridge structures.
Commanders rarely base the success of an operation solely on the seizure of intact bridges and
should not incorporate it in a site-crossing plan. Targeting of such bridges for direct or indirect
fire is relatively simple as both sides know the locations. In many cases, the load classification of
civilian bridges is not enough for heavy vehicles such as tanks. If used in defensive or retrograde
crossings, civilian bridges should supplement other crossing techniques.
CHAPTER 8

ASSAULT CROSSING

GENERAL

An assault across a river normally begins with an attack to secure terrain on the exit bank. This
may involve an air assault, but the bridgehead force normally conducts an assault by using
pneumatic boats or by swimming amphibious vehicles.

The assault force normally crosses in waves, as sufficient boats are seldom available to carry the
entire force across at once. It is a very complex operation, requiring synchronization and skilled
application of technical procedures. Success requires training and extensive rehearsal.

Forces normally conduct an assault at night or during limited visibility due to the vulnerability of
forces in small boats on open water. If an assault must be conducted during daylight, the assault
site must be isolated by fires and smoke to reduce the force's vulnerability.

This chapter describes an assault-boat crossing. It focuses on conducting the crossing at night. It
defines the organizational elements required to conduct an assault across a river and the
necessary supporting techniques and procedures (see Figure 8-1)

TYPES OF ASSAULT CROSSINGS

Each lead battalion in a ground assault should have at least one ford or assault-boat site big
enough to accommodate two companies abreast.

Fording vehicles are more likely to be used in a hasty crossing than in a deliberate crossing
because they allow the force to continue across the river without pausing to acquire other
crossing means. A ford site should have 300 meters along the near bank at the entry point for
deploying the support force.

RUBBER-BOAT CROSSING

The following factors should be considered when using rubber boats in a crossing. Rubber boats-

Offer great opportunity for surprise in a silent-paddle crossing.


Are a relatively fast means of crossing, especially when using outboard motors.
Maneuver well in the water.
Require limited, if any, entry-bank preparation-none is required on the exit bank.
Require the separation of mechanized troops from their vehicles and equipment.
Have limited carrying capacity, particularly AT weapons.
Provide limited protection, mobility, firepower, and communications on the exit bank.

The unit protects itself during a rubber-boat crossing by moving silently, during periods of
limited visibility, and crossing at a location where the enemy does not expect a crossing attempt.

Generally, an infantry platoon uses three rubber boats for its personnel and attached elements. If
short of boats, the dismounted elements of an infantry platoon equipped with the M2 Bradley
vehicle can fit in two boats. Allocating one squad per boat, when possible, preserves unit
integrity.

For an assault using rubber boats, each company requires at least 200 meters along the river to
disperse the boats and ideally 300 meters between companies. This is a total of 700 meters for a
battalion assaulting with two companies abreast.

Control is very important, particularly at night when boats can easily become separated or lose
their direction. Combat experience has demonstrated that engineer and infantry boat rehearsals
before the crossing attempt are mandatory for success. The rehearsals should begin as soon as the
unit receives the WO without waiting for the detailed crossing plan.

AIR-ASSAULT CROSSING

The following should be considered when using air-assault asset in a crossing. Air-assault assets-

Require indirect approaches to avoid detection.


Provide the element of surprise.
Give greater flexibility to emplace personnel and equipment.
Provide the rapid insertion of forces to the area where the enemy is located, if a LZ is
available.
Are greatly affected by weather conditions.
Must be a high AD priority at the river, requiring suppression of enemy AD effort.
Require the separation of mechanized troops from their vehicles and equipment.
Are vulnerable to armored counterattacks and require a quick ground linkup.
Planning and execution are the same as for other air-assault operations (see FM 90-4). As with
assault boats, rehearsals are necessary, particularly for troops not familiar with air-assault
operations.

VEHICLE-SWIM CROSSING

Against little or no resistance, swimming the fighting vehicles may be practical in the assault
stage. Swimming the fighting vehicles-

Has minimal effect on troop organization and control.


Provides troop protection, mobility, and firepower on the far bank.
Provides early AT capability on the far bank by vehicle-mounted tube-launched, optically
tracked, wire-guided (TOW) missiles.
Reduces the number of vehicles to be rafted.
Is a slow operation.
Is considered risky because the vehicles maneuver poorly in the water and are extremely
vulnerable to antiarmor weapons.
Requires suitable entry and exit points.
Requires vehicle preparation.
Requires training in vehicle-swim operations.

Rapid reinforcement of dismounted assault troops with armored vehicles is so critical that it
justifies using any expeditious method when swimming the first few fighting vehicles across.
This includes winching, towing, or pushing the first ones across normally unsuitable places while
engineers prepare better entry and exit points for the rest.

The space required to swim vehicles on line is 200 meters of front per company with 300 meters
between companies. Less is required if they cross in a column. Commanders plan entry and exit
sites to account for downstream drift when swimming the fighting vehicles.

ORGANIZATION

The specific organization used depends on METT-T factors, particularly the size of the
bridgehead, the distance to exit-bank objectives, and the nature of the enemy's defense.
Regardless of these factors, the assault battalion's TF organizes into support and assault forces
and are assisted in the assault by other brigade units in support-by-fire positions.

SUPPORT FORCE

Each assault company has a support force under its control. This force covertly establishes a
support-by-fire position along the friendly bank before the assault. It uses night vision and
thermal sights to locate enemy positions. It also develops a fire plan to engage these positions
and to provide suppressive fires on all suspected positions. When directed to engage, the support
force destroys all known and suspected positions. The support force must be positioned early
enough to develop a detailed fire plan. The assault-force commander directs the support-force
commander to lift or shift suppressive fires as necessary.
The support force normally consists of the tanks and infantry fighting vehicles of the dismounted
infantry conducting the assault. If an attached light infantry battalion is conducting the assault,
tripod-mounted heavy machine guns and AT missile systems (augmented by infantry fighting
vehicles and tanks) provide supporting fires. The company XO controls these direct-fire weapon
systems; however, the company commander gives the firing commands.

Supporting artillery battalions and mortar platoons provide indirect-fire support. The assault
force has priority of fires from at least one artillery battalion during the assault. The artillery
battalion does not normally fire a preparatory fire mission for covert assaults. The assault force
assigns the batteries priority targets that they fire on upon request. This normally occurs after the
initial wave is ashore or upon discovery. If the assault is not covert, the battalion fires
preparatory fires that continue during the crossing of the first wave, lifting on command when
the boats approach the exit bank.

Graphic fire-control measures are essential because of the danger of firing on friendly forces.
Boundaries between companies should run along terrain features that are easily visible in the
dark to help control indirect fire during the dismounted assault. Counterbattery fire is imperative
to the success of the river crossing. The target-acquisition-battery-radar team deploys to cover
the area before the assault crossing begins.

Smoke may not be used to support the first wave of a covert crossing because of the risk of
losing surprise but should be used to hide later waves as they cross. If the crossing is opposed, a
smoke haze should cover the first wave before it enters the water to reduce direct-fire
effectiveness. The assault-force commander initiates smoke obscuration. If smoke generators are
available, they are deployed to obscure a large length of the river. Additional smoke along
multiple sites on the river conceals the true crossing area. This additional smoke may be from
smoke pots if nothing else is available.

If units must fire smoke onto the far shore to cover the crossing area, they fire it on the command
of the assault-force commander after surprise is lost. Mortars are the primary means of indirect-
fire smoke. Direct-support artillery is generally reserved for supporting fires.

AD teams deploy along the near shore of the river to cover the crossing. Once in place, they
remain until the brigade releases them. They can move across the river and link up with the
assault force only after other SHORAD systems have taken position to cover the river. The
crossing sites remain the priority AD area throughout the crossing.

ASSAULT FORCE

The first assault wave moves the bulk of the dismounted force across covertly. This force
attempts to provide sufficient security on the far shore so that the second and later assault waves
can cross after surprise is lost. The first assault wave carries-

Rifle platoons.
Attached assault engineers.
Forward observers.
The command group.

The organization of the first wave permits rapid deployment of the force into a tactical formation
on the far shore. Individual boatloads retain unit integrity at the lowest level. The two basic
boatload configurations are the rifle-squad boat and the rifle-platoon-headquarters boat (see
Figure 8-2)

Each boat contains an engineer boat crew and a rifle squad. The squad boat also carries an
engineer assault team, while the platoon boat carries the platoon headquarters. The boat-force
commander is the senior occupant. He commands the force up to the attack position and after it
debarks on the far shore. The coxswain is the "pilot in command" and commands the force from
the point that it mans the boat in the attack position until it debarks on the far shore.

First-wave boats carry only critical cargo, such as AT weapons, machine-gun ammunition,
demolitions, and engineer tools that are required for reducing obstacles.

Platoon boats form a boat group of three boats that are spaced 20 meters apart on the water. The
boat group forms into a "V," with the platoon leader's boat acting as the guide boat in the center.
The two engineer assault teams are from an engineer squad, with a squad leader commanding the
team in the right boat and an assistant squad leader commanding the team in the left boat. The
assault teams re-form into a squad upon debarking.

Platoon boat groups form into company flotillas (see Figure 8-3). The company commander
commands the guide boat in the center platoon. The company command group disperses between
boats, filling in vacant boat positions. Platoon guide boats maintain a 40-meter interval (two-boat
interval) between boat groups.
1

The first wave of the assault may consist of three company flotillas crossing on line. Battalions
do not have a prescribed crossing formation. Each company crosses in its own zone and attacks it
own objectives.

All undamaged boats return to the near shore after carrying the first wave. The senior coxswain
of the group will consolidate the boats and stroke paddlers into one (or more) boat and daisy-
chain the other boats to the lead boat to expedite the time required for the boats to return to the
near shore. The second and later waves carry across the remaining troops and materials that are
necessary to seize the far-shore objective.

The second wave carries company aid stations and may include the battalion command group.
Since sufficient AD systems are in place to cover the crossing area, the brigade may release
some or all of the battalion AD teams to cross in the second wave.

The second wave also transports additional material and ammunition that is not required for the
initial assault but necessary to establish a defense. This may include antiarmor weapons, mortars,
ammunition, laser designators, mines, or pioneer tools. It normally includes tripod-mounted
weapons, such as M2HB .50-caliber machine guns, TOW AT systems, Mark 19 40-millimeter
grenade launchers, and the ground-laser location designator (GLLD).

If secrecy is not required for the second wave because the first wave is in combat, or if the
enemy has begun to fire on the crossing area, then outboard engines are used to propel the boats
so that paddlers are not necessary.

The immediate movement of some heavy AT weapons across to support the dismounted assault
battalion is essential. This is critical enough to justify extraordinary actions. As vehicles carry all
heavy AT weapons, engineers concentrate on forcing a few critical vehicles carrying heavy
weapons across immediately after the second wave. They hand carry heavy weapons, if
necessary, even before direct fire and observed indirect fire has been removed from the crossing
area. Vehicles cross by swimming or fording or are dragged or rafted across.
CAEs begin bank preparations on both the near and far shore, using hand tools and equipment
where possible. They swim an M9 ACE or deep ford a bulldozer to get a winch capability to the
far shore. Bradley vehicles either swim or ford, with towing assistance if necessary. A BEB can
tow Bradleys if the current's velocity is too high. Using a block and tackle fastened to a tree or
picket holdfast, a BEB can help Bradleys leave the water over unprepared banks. If high-
mobility multiwheeled vehicle (HMMWV) weapon carriers are available, they can be
waterproofed and pulled across on the bottom with a winch cable. If absolutely necessary, rafting
can be used, but this risks destroying equipment that will be critical later in the crossing.

ENGINEERS

Engineers supporting the assault are attached to the assault unit as described in previous
paragraphs. Each assault company receives an engineer platoon that accompanies the assault
force to its objective, helping it fight through obstacles and prepared defenses. The engineers
help the assault force establish hasty defenses after it has seized its objectives. Engineers
normally come from the division engineer battalion that supports the brigade.

Boat engineers-

Operate the boats and cross the assault force.


Are in direct support of the assault battalion until it has secured its objectives.
Remain on the water after the assault force has crossed and continue to carry men and
materials across in assault boats until heavy rafts can take over the mission.
Improve exit and entrance banks for rafts and boats and assist with crossing the initial
heavy weapons.
Come from the engineer battalion that will remain on the river operating the crossing
area.

Two boat engineers are assigned to each assault boat. They are the coxswain and the lead paddler
on the right side of the boat (stroke paddler). The stroke paddler controls the stroke cadence
during the assault crossing. The boat engineers paddle the boats back for the next wave.
Outboard motors normally are used during the second wave.

Normally, an engineer platoon must operate the boats for a first-wave assault company. An
engineer company can cross the assault battalion of a brigade. Each assault company requires 9
boats plus a safety boat. The assault battalion requires 30 boats to carry the assault companies
plus 1 for the battalion commander. If less are available, some companies may not cross in the
first wave.

PREPARATION PHASE OF THE OPERATION

Similar to conducting a deliberate breach of a complex obstacle, river-crossing operations


require intelligence collection, detailed planning, and preparation. These must all be
synchronized to allow the force to maintain its momentum and surprise the defender at the point
of penetration.
FAR-SHORE RECONNAISSANCE

Tactical reconnaissance of the far shore must cover a broad front to a significant depth to
determine the details of the terrain and the enemy's defenses. This should occur early and cover
sufficient terrain to disguise the actual crossing area.

Engineers conduct a technical reconnaissance of the far shore, focusing on the immediate
crossing area. An engineer light diving team conducts a reconnaissance at night. If a diving team
is unavailable, then a swimming reconnaissance team is made up from the engineer unit
supporting the crossing. Strong swimmers (Red Cross-certified lifeguards or water-safety
instructors) from the engineers supporting the crossing make up the reconnaissance party if
divers are not available. Two swimmers make up a reconnaissance team to scout a company
crossing area.

The reconnaissance team carries heavily lubricated weapons and wears LBE. They wear subdued
face masks and running shoes and use swimming fins. Divers must wear Class 5 life jackets as
flotation devices (US Army flat foam-filled life jackets will not serve). The divers camouflage
their faces and hands and tow any necessary equipment in bundles.

Divers must carefully avoid splashing. If necessary, they wear weights to ensure that kick strokes
are underwater. The party enters the water far upstream from the actual crossing site and floats
with the current while crossing. Divers use the sidestroke, facing each other and observing
behind the other diver. This allows 360-degree observation and communication by hand and arm
signals. When the divers approach the shore, they switch to the breaststroke so that they can
observe the landing area. Divers must use stealth and caution when approaching the beach. They
must keep a low profile in the water and also on the beach.

When the divers reach shallow enough water and determine that the situation is safe for landing,
they remove their fins. If they can immediately enter the woods upon leaving the water, they do
so in a rush. If the woods are a distance from the water, one diver remains in the water just at the
waterline and covers the other as he moves quickly across the beach. Once the inland diver has
reached the edge of the woods, he covers his partner, who is moving across the beach to the same
position.

Critical information requirements include-

The characteristics of the bank at assault-boat landing areas.


The depth of the water to a distance of 4.6 meters off shore.
Any obstacles along the shore.
The locations of enemy observation posts.

The reconnaissance team checks potential areas identified from the near shore and evaluates each
based on its ability to support assault boats and disembark troops. The reconnaissance party also
checks areas where raft and bridge centerlines can be installed.
Far-shore reconnaissance is conducted early and at multiple sites along the shore to generate
information necessary for planning and selecting the most suitable areas. Maneuver units, with
support from the engineers, conduct far-shore reconnaissance.

FAR-SHORE PREPARATION

The far shore is prepared immediately before the assault crossing. The preparation team consists
of a two-man reconnaissance team and a two-man cargo team with an inflatable reconnaissance
boat; both teams are from the supporting engineers. The reconnaissance team that conducted the
far-shore reconnaissance is normally best-suited to do the far-shore preparation. The preparation
team installs landing markers for the flotillas. A separate team normally marks each company
zone to speed up preparation.

The reconnaissance team and the cargo team are equipped the same as the reconnaissance party
and use the same techniques. The reconnaissance team crosses first, floating downstream to the
landing site with the current. Upon landing, they move to the correct landing site for the assault
landing and signal for the cargo team to cross. The reconnaissance team installs transit lights to
guide the cargo team as it crosses.

Signaling is accomplished by sending a prearranged Morse Code letter using a flashlight


equipped with an opaque filter. The transit lights consist of either two flashlights with opaque
filters and directional cones or two chemical lights in their foil wrappers with small areas torn
open to release light. The team installs the lights so that one is about 1 meter above the water and
the other is about 2 meters above the water and 2 meters behind it, facing 45 degrees upstream.

The cargo team waits until signaled to cross. It uses a three-man reconnaissance boat as a
flotation device to carry marking materials, mine detectors, night-vision goggles, and a radio.
The reconnaissance boat is covered with a camouflage net section and is partially deflated after
loading so that it floats low in the water to reduce its signature. The camouflage net is secured to
the lifelines to aid in holding the cargo in the partially submerged boat. The cargo team crosses
oriented on and swimming slightly upstream of the transit lights so that it can drift into the shore
with the current, limiting the noise and the splash.

The preparation team installs landing markers as its first priority. These are the same types of
markers used to guide the cargo team. They must be adequately visible to the assault force but
dim enough not to harm night vision. If flashlights are available, they have opaque and/or
colored filters installed to limit the light output. Chemical lights remain in the foil wrappers with
only enough foil removed to provide the necessary light. All landing markers are transit lights
that mark the position and help the boats set the proper course relative to the current. Normally,
if the current is less than 0.5 MPS, the lights are set perpendicular to the river. If the current
exceeds 0.5 MPS, the lights are set at a 45-degree angle to the river, facing upstream. Double
transit lights mark the center boat group's landing area, and single transit lights mark the flank
group's. If colored lights are available, green lights mark the right boat group's landing area,
white the center's, and red the left's (see Figure 8-4).
The preparation team also makes a final examination of the landing areas for mines or obstacles.
If it discovers isolated mines, it marks them and the routes around them. If the team finds a major
minefield that will significantly hinder the landing at a site, it either notifies the assault force and
moves the site upstream or downstream to avoid the mines or attempts to reduce the minefield.
Once the preparation is complete, the team signals the assault force to begin crossing, initiating
the movement of the first wave carrying the boats from the attack position. The preparation team
then finds cover near the landing area for the center boat of a predesignated boat group
(generally the center boat group) and awaits its arrival. This boat group is especially alert for
linkup with the preparation team. While waiting, the team continues to watch for enemy activity
and alerts the assault force of any significant changes.

NEARSHORE RECONNAISSANCE

Units must be extremely careful to hide reconnaissance elements conducting near-shore


reconnaissance in the crossing area or to deceive the enemy about what they are doing.

Battalion and company command groups must conduct a daylight reconnaissance of the crossing
area. They must see the embarkation and debarkation points and key landmarks to help guide the
force when crossing. They must also see the attack position and the routes from it to the river.
Company guides must walk the routes from the dismount points to the boat-group positions
within the company's attack position. Engineer boat coxswains must see the routes they will
traverse from the attack position to the water.

Support-force leaders and vehicle commanders must covertly select firing positions and locate
concealed routes into the positions for their vehicles during daylight. They should identify
sectors of fire and conduct extensive observation within the sectors to acquire specific targets.

ASSAULT-FORCE REHEARSAL
An assault-boat crossing cannot be conducted effectively in the face of opposition without
thorough rehearsal. If possible, the force should conduct two rehearsals. One should be during
daylight to learn the procedures, and one should be at night under actual assault conditions.

The rehearsal area should be similar to the actual crossing area but away from the river to
preserve secrecy. Generally, a rear-area river is the rehearsal area.

Before rehearsal, the boat crews and infantry train together in the actual boat teams assigned for
the crossing. Soldiers receive their boat assignments and practice in their assigned positions until
the boats can move effectively on the water. The training must include carrying and launching
the boat, embarking, watermanship, emergency actions, debarking, and hasty-defense
preparations.

NOTE: After the rehearsal, boat assignments must not be changed.

During training, the coxswain forms the boat team. He forms the crew members in a column of
twos in the relative positions that they will occupy in the boat, with passengers at the rear of the
two columns. He then numbers the crew. The right-side paddlers are 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the left-
side paddlers are 2, 4, 6, and 8 (both sides from bow to stern). The stroke paddler is always
number 1, and the coxswain is always number 15, regardless of the number of paddlers used.
Passengers are numbered consecutively from bow to stern starting with number 11, who is
always the bow gunner. The coxswain addresses all crew members by number. When the
coxswain wishes to address a command to a pair of paddlers, he uses their numbers together, as
in "1 and 2" and "3 and 4."

Figure 8-5 shows only 8 paddlers. The boat can carry 15 soldiers. If fully loaded, the boat
requires 10 paddlers. Boat-position numbers do not change.
All forces participating in the assault crossing rehearse together. The support force moves into
position, and the assault force crosses in the same waves it will use for the actual crossing. The
rehearsal should cover the AA through to the seizure of the assault-force objectives.

EXECUTION PHASE OF THE OPERATION

The objective of an assault river crossing is to project combat firepower to the exit bank without
being detected by the enemy or, once detected, project it at a faster rate than the enemy can
concentrate forces for a counterattack. The use of air assets is desired; however, there are
normally not enough assets available, or the risk of being detected is to great. To maintain
momentum and allow maximum combat power across quickly, the maneuver force negotiates the
river on a broad front. Detailed planning and specific responsibilities allow units to cross and
quickly establish a tactical foothold on the far side to-

Prevent the enemy from indirect-fire observation.


Allow rafting and bridging operations to begin.

ATTACK-POSITION PROCEDURES

The attack positions must be large enough to accept a dismounted infantry rifle company. They
should-

Be accessible to trucks or carrying parties bringing the assault boats.


Be concealed from hostile ground and aerial observation.
Be connected with clearly defined foot routes to the river.
Be within 100 to 200 meters of the river.
Be in defilade from hostile flat-trajectory fire.

Trucks carry assault boats and life jackets as far forward as possible without compromising
secrecy. They are met at the designated unload position by the engineer platoon and company
guides from each attack position, who will unload the truck and carry the boats into place. The
platoon can carry two at a time, so this will require five trips. If possible, HMMWVs moving at a
low speed to minimize noise can carry several boats at a time into the attack position.

Within the attack position, boat crews disperse assault boats and life jackets along the boat-group
routes to the river. The safety boat is positioned as the last boat in the downstream boat group.
The remaining life jackets for passengers and the coxswain are arrayed behind the boat.

After the boats are prepared, each engineer squad provides a guide to bring each platoon from its
AA to the nearshore crossing site. The platoon leader sends the guide party to the AA, where
each guide links up with his boat group. The remaining engineers establish local security around
the attack position and await the boat groups.

Soldiers arrive in the attack position with their weapons cocked on an empty chamber, selector
switch on SAFE, and magazines removed. Squad leaders must verify this in the AA before
moving to the attack position. The soldiers are organized, without the boat engineers, into boat
teams and boat groups in the AA. They travel as boat groups. When they arrive at the attack
position, their guide leads them directly to their boats.

When the boat team arrives at its boat, the coxswain commands, "Crew, boat stations." Each
team member takes his proper boat position, with passengers lining up to the rear. The coxswain
then directs the team to load and check weapons. The team inserts the rifles' magazines and
verifies that they are seated. However, the team does not chamber the rounds. All weapons
remain on SAFE. Squad leaders verify that all weapons are on SAFE. The coxswain then directs
the team members to sling their weapons and don their life jackets. Paddlers sling their rifles
diagonally so that the barrel extends up over the shoulder which will be away from the boat
when standing alongside and facing forward. Odd-numbered paddlers sling their rifles over their
right shoulder, even numbered over their left. This allows carrying the boat at high carry and
reduces interference with paddling. Muzzles must be up during all boat operations to prevent
punctures. The teams then await the command to proceed to the water.

EMBARKING PROCEDURES

On order of the company commander, the paddlers of the boat crew carry the boats to the river.
They make no unnecessary stops from the time of departure from the attack position until the
boat reaches the bank. The coxswain directs either "Low carry" or "High carry." In low carry,
crew members lift the boat to about knee height, by the carrying handles while facing forward,
and carry the boat at arms length. In high carry, crew members lift the boat to about head height,
place it on their inboard shoulders, and carry it while gripping the carrying handles with their
outboard hands. Normally, high carry is used for long distances, and the boat is shifted to low
carry when approaching the bank. Paddles remain in the boat during carry procedures.
Remaining crew members follow the boat to the water.

The boat crew may launch the boat either bow first or stern first; however, bow first is the
preferred method. The boat is launched-

Bow first whenever the water is shallow enough for the team to wade in carrying the boat
at low carry.
Stern first when the water is too deep for wading or when the launch point has steeply
sloped banks.

BOW-FIRST METHOD

On the coxswain's command, "Launch boat," team members perform a low carry and move into
the water at a fast walk. When the depth of the water is such that the boat floats free of the
bottom, all hands continue pushing it into the river, remaining at their relative positions
alongside the boat.

As the water reaches the knees of the first pair of paddlers, the coxswain commands, "One and
two in." The first pair of paddlers climb into the boat, unstow their paddles, and give way
together. The coxswain orders each pair of paddlers into the boat in succession by commanding,
"Three and four in," "Five and six in," and "Seven and eight in." The pairs climb into the boat on
command, break out their paddles, and pick up the stroke of the stroke paddler.

The coxswain orders the passengers into the boat after the paddlers by commanding, "Eleven in,"
"Twelve in," and so forth. Passengers board over the stern and move forward in the boat to their
positions. The coxswain enters the boat last and sounds off, "Coxswain in, hold water."

STERN-FIRST METHOD

On the coxswain's command, "Launch boat," team members perform a low carry and carry the
boat stern (rear) first to the water's edge. They launch the boat by passing it back along the line
of team members. When the stroke paddler can no longer help pass the boat back, he moves to
the bow of the boat and handles the towing bridle. Other team members follow suit, taking their
places along the towing bridle between the stroke paddler and the boat.

When the boat is in the water, the coxswain enters the boat and takes his station. He orders the
boat team to load, starting with the rearmost left-hand paddler, by commanding "Eight in,"
"Seven in," "Six in," "Five in," "Four in," "Three in," and "Two in." Passengers embark next as
he commands, "Fourteen in" and "Eleven in." When the coxswain is ready to cast off, he allows
the boat to drift back and turns it to face across the river.

If motors are to be mounted before the first-wave crossing, the coxswain brings the boat in to
shore stern first after the boat is manned and holds it in place either by a line to shore or by
holding bottom. Two engineers wade to the boat carrying its motor and mount it on the transom.

TACTICAL CONTROL AFLOAT

The coxswain navigates the boat and directs the paddlers. He controls the movement of the boat
in the water as well as embarkation and debarkation from it. He ensures that the guide boat
maintains the proper station. The boat commander sits in front of the coxswain and directs the
boat in an emergency. He also commands the boat occupants upon landing until the unit has re-
formed. The boat commander directs fires from the boat, if necessary.

Each platoon has a platoon guide boat, which contains the platoon headquarters. Other platoon
boats position themselves to either side of the platoon guide boat as wingmen to maintain a 20-
meter interval for protection against fires and to allow dispersion on landing. They follow the
guide boat and land when it does. They open fire from the boat when the guide boat does.

Each company has a C2 boat, which carries the company commander and leads his flotilla.
Platoon guide boats position themselves at double-boat intervals from the C2 boat, maintaining a
40-meter spacing between boat groups. The C2 boat is normally the lead boat of the center
platoon.

The battalion command group remains on the near shore until the assault wave has landed. The
commander controls the nearshore direct fires and directs changes in landing points if elements
of the first wave encounter difficulties. He also directs changes for the following wave. The
commander has his own boat and crosses on his own schedule, but he normally crosses with the
second wave. The command group normally does not cross in a single boat but is distributed
among several boats.

Guide boats in all boat groups are responsible for ensuring that their group lands at the proper
place. Landing marker lights are installed as transit lights to assist navigation on the water. The
coxswain will see two lights, one above the other. If the boat is moving straight to the landing,
the lights will be straight in vertical alignment. If not, the lower light points in the direction the
boat must go to be exactly headed for the landing. The boat will not head directly for the transit
lights except when the river has no current. The boat heads for the far shore so that the boat's true
course is directly for the lights (see Figure 8-6)

Normally, the boats will cross slightly upstream from the landing so that they can drift in with
the current. To do this, they align so that the lower transit light points slightly upstream.

If the force is conducting a crossing where smoke is necessary on the water and it obscures the
far shore, other navigation methods it could use include stringing ferry lines across the river for
the boats to follow, using floating markers, or traveling on a compass heading.

WATERMANSHIP

Watermanship includes all the skills that the boat crew must exhibit to properly control its boat
in the water. It includes individual paddling skills, responsiveness to commands, and the skill of
the coxswain.

Individual paddlers use a paddling technique where they push the paddle vertically into the
water, roughly 1 meter to their front, and then power it back through the water by pushing with
the upper hand while using the lower (guide) hand for control. At the end of the power stroke,
they remove the paddle from the water, turn it outboard and parallel with the water's surface
(feathering), and move it forward for the next stroke. The stroke is silent, with the paddlers
careful not to strike the side of the boat or to splash.

The stroke paddler sets the pace to control the paddlers. He receives oral commands from the
coxswain and establishes and maintains the paddling pace. All paddlers match the stroke of the
paddler in front of them except for the number two man, who matches his stroke with the stroke
paddler. If the boat crew has difficulty paddling in unison, the coxswain can exercise oral control
by calling cadence. The normal paddling speed is 10 strokes per minute for stealth and 30 strokes
per minute for speed.

The coxswain uses the following commands to control the boat:

"Hold water." Paddlers hold their paddles motionless in the water with the blade
perpendicular to the direction of motion.
"Give way together." Paddlers stroke in unison following the rhythm set by the stroke
paddler.
"Slow stroke." The stroke paddler paddles 10 strokes per minute.
"Fast stroke." The stroke paddler paddles 30 strokes per minute.
"Backwater." Paddlers paddle backward in unison with the stroke paddler.
"Rest paddles." Paddlers rest their paddles across their legs.
"Hold bottom." Paddlers thrust their paddles straight down into the river's bottom and
hold them against the side of the boat as a temporary anchor.
"Land boat." The stroke increases to 30 strokes per minute, with each paddler digging
deep into the water for power to drive the boat up on shore. The stroke paddler stows his
paddle as soon as the boat grounds, then disembarks and secures the towing bridle to the
shore.
"Right, backwater, left, give way together." When paddlers execute these commands, the
boat turns rapidly to the right. When the boat has turned to the new desired course, the
coxswain commands, "All, give way together."
"Left, backwater, right, give way together." When paddlers execute these commands, the
boat turns rapidly to the left. When the boat has turned to the new desired course, the
coxswain commands, "All, give way together."

The coxswain can make minor adjustments in the boat's speed by directing, "Slow the stroke" or
"Speed the stroke."

The coxswain must take the current's velocity into account when trying to hold a course. In low-
velocity current, the boat can travel a relatively straight course across the river by crabbing
slightly upstream. To do this, the coxswain aims the bow of the boat slightly upstream while
sighting on the land mark. If the mark remains on a constant bearing (it does not drift upstream
or downstream), the boat is crabbing correctly and is headed directly for the landing.

If the current's velocity is too high for successful crabbing (over 0.5 MPS), either the boat must
start upstream or the coxswain must steer a figure-eight pattern. In both cases, the boat should
approach the landing heading into the current to avoid the danger of broaching. If the boat is
launched from far upstream, it generally follows a course similar to the dotted course in Figure
8-7. If the coxswain follows a figure-eight course, he steers upstream until aligned with the
transit lights, then lets the bow drop downstream and guides by using the lights until he reaches
the landing point. He then steers upstream to the landing marks (see Figure 8-7, solid line).
These techniques minimize the amount of time the boat will be traveling slowly against the
current while near the enemy shore.

The need for a figure-eight course is determined during reconnaissance. The flotilla command
boat sets the figure-eight course, completing the downstream turn in alignment with the transit
lights. Remaining boats simply maintain station until the last turn upstream toward the landing
area. Boat groups then head directly for the transit lights.

Eddy currents (eddies) occur at channel bends, near points of land, and at places where the
bottom is uneven. Eddies can be dangerous to small boats. The coxswain must be alert for them.

OBSCURING WITH SMOKE

The purpose of smoking the crossing site is to achieve a haze over the water that can render
direct and indirect fires less effective. Smoke may be used during river-crossing operations to-

Conceal the movement of the initial assault force.


Isolate the exit bank of the river for rapid occupation by maneuver forces.
Conceal emplacement of crossing means, such as engineer bridges.

During river-crossing operations, smoke may be used for-

Obscuration
Screening.
Marking.
Deception.

It is particularly important not to produce a column of smoke above the water that can pinpoint
the crossing location. For this reason, smoke is not used if conditions will not hold it close to the
surface.

Smoke production depends on wind direction. If the wind is blowing from the near shore toward
the far shore, smoke generators or support-force vehicles can effectively smoke the crossing. If
the wind tends to blow parallel to the river, nearshore smoke should not be used, as it will make
a smoke wall that will silhouette boats on the river. In this case, floating smoke pots anchored
across the width of the river can produce effective smoke. If the wind is blowing from the far
shore to the near shore, smoke pots or mortar smoke on the far shore can be effective.

DIRECT-FIRE REACTION

If the boat is subjected to heavy direct fire while crossing, the boat commander may direct all
personnel, except the bow gunner, to stow their paddles, slip over the side while holding the
safety line, and propel the boat to shore by kicking with their feet.

All boats have a designated gunner at the bow that is armed with either a squad automatic
weapon (SAW) or a bipod-mounted machine gun. The gunners do not fire unless the boat
commander orders them to. If ordered to fire, the gunners engage the most dangerous target or
suppress the landing area. More often, the gunners engage enemy weapons firing on the assault
force by firing back up the line of enemy tracers. If two passengers are available to be boat
gunners, the second back from the bow should be armed with a grenade launcher.

To preserve their night vision, all paddlers observe the paddle of the man to their front. They do
not look at the enemy shore from where the muzzle flashes are coming.

INDIRECT-FIRE REACTION

If the boat is subjected to heavy artillery fire while crossing and the boat commander directs, the
coxswain turns the boat downstream and propels it at a fast stroke with the current out of the
artillery impact area. If the boat is equipped with a motor, it is started and the paddlers stow their
paddles and maintain a low posture.

DEBARKING PROCEDURES

The manner in which the coxswain orders the boat team to land the boat depends on the depth of
the water at the landing point.

SHALLOW WATER

As the boat nears the landing point, the coxswain directs the boat toward the landing and orders,
"Land boat." As the boat grounds, paddlers stow paddles and disembark over the side into the
water. They then hold the boat for the passengers to disembark. The stroke paddler secures the
boat and awaits to return it.

DEEP WATER

As the boat comes along the shore, the coxswain orders, "Stroke out." The stroke paddler stows
his paddle and, with towing bridle in hand, gets out of the boat onto the shore. He then pulls the
boat up close to the shore and secures it if he can. Otherwise, crew members will have difficulty
debarking. The other crew members stow their paddles. The coxswain then directs debarking by
number, beginning with the passengers, then the shoreside paddlers, and finally the riverside
paddlers. The coxswain is the last to leave the boat. He and the stroke paddler secure the boat
and await to return it.

Immediately upon leaving the boat, the boat team forms a hasty perimeter. The bow gunner
moves directly forward, roughly 10 meters, and drops prone, observing to his front. The left-side
squad members move up and form a prone semicircle to his left. The squad leader takes charge
of his squad and directs all soldiers to drop their life jackets. He then awaits orders from his
platoon leader.

BOAT RETURN

As soon as the boat team has formed a hasty perimeter and dropped their life jackets, the stroke
paddler recovers them and returns them to the boat.

The boat engineer squad leader (the senior engineer with the boat group) takes charge of all three
boats in the boat group. He supervises the tying off of all three boats in a trail and loads all six
engineers into the front boat. They then paddle the boat back to the friendly shore, towing the
other two boats (see Figure 8-8).
On the return, the boat group travels in a relatively straight line to gain distance from the enemy
shore as rapidly as possible. This will cause the group to drift downstream. Upon reaching the
near shore, the boat group turns upstream and travels close inshore until it reaches its original
departure point (see Figure 8-9). A guide from the engineer platoon headquarters guides them in
for the next wave.

If the boats have outboard motors, all three boat crews start their motors on command of the boat
engineer squad leader and return independently to the near shore.

MOTOR PROCEDURES

If motors are available, they speed the crossing significantly. Normally, the first wave uses
paddles to cross covertly. After the boats return from carrying the first wave, the motors are
mounted. If the boats can be placed in the water without enemy observation (in a lagoon or barge
basin, for example), the motors are mounted on the boats before the first wave crosses. In this
situation, the motors can be started immediately if the crossing is discovered. The motors are
also available for returning the boats after the first wave.

If a covert crossing cannot be achieved, the first wave may cross the river powered by motors. In
this case, the motor is mounted before the boat crew and passengers carry the boat to the shore.
Two additional engineers are provided to help carry the stern of the boat to the shore. The crew
paddles the boat while the coxswain starts the motor in order to reduce exposure time on the
river. This technique must be practiced during the rehearsal.

If time permits or the distance to the water is great, the two-man team of engineers from the
crossing-area engineer battalion carries the motor to the water and mounts it on the boat. The
boat is manned and held with the bow toward the river and the stern to the shore. If the bottom is
shallow, the paddlers hold bottom. If the water is too deep or the current too strong, a line is
fastened to the boat stern to hold it against the shore. The mounting team wades out to place the
motor on the stern and fastens it in place. The coxswain directs the paddlers to give way together
after the motor is mounted. He then starts the motor with the boat under way. If the boat has too
few occupants to move effectively by paddles (during the second wave, for example), the boat
remains at the shore until the coxswain starts the motor.

Preparation is critical for success with outboard motors. The primary problem is hard starting.
All motors are started and run up to operating temperature during preparation. If any are difficult
to start, replacement motors are substituted (the hard-starting motors become backups). After
mechanical checks and warm-ups, the fuel tanks are completely filled with the correct fuel and
oil mixture to eliminate condensation. In cool or cold weather, the motors are kept warm until
needed, using a warming tent, ambulances with medical markings covered, a heated building,
sealed wrapping, or other means.

CARGO PROCEDURES

Porters detailed from the assault force bring the cargo forward. They carry it to the waterline at
the boat launch point to await the return of the boats. When the boats return, the porters load and
secure the cargo to the boat. If the cargo includes heavy or pointed items, a temporary plywood
floor is placed in the boat before loading.

Porters accompany the cargo to the far shore to unload it. The cargo is unloaded into caches until
carrying parties are sent back from the assault force to get them.

CASUALTY PROCEDURES

Platoon medics accompany assault forces in the first wave. They carry their medical bags and
night-vision goggles but do not have litters. They treat wounded where they fall, sending walking
wounded back to the landing area and leaving more severely wounded where they were treated.

The second wave carries senior aidmen with equipment to establish a far-shore casualty
collection point in each company zone. The aid station should provide a blackout shelter, such as
a tarpaulin or small tent, for patient examination along with emergency medical supplies and
quantities of intravenous fluids. The second wave also carries litter teams formed from the
headquarters elements of the assault force. The litter teams carry wounded back to the collection
point. The senior aidman at the collection point performs triage and treats patients. Priority
patients are evacuated by assault boats as they become available. All other patients wait until
rafts are available.

SAFETY

Safety is as important in combat as it is in peacetime training. Procedures are established and


soldiers are trained in peacetime to be safe in combat. Loss of a soldier to an accident in combat
is just as intolerable as losing a soldier in peacetime and is potentially far more dangerous to the
force. Safety procedures are particularly important when considering the risks during assault
river crossings, where the lost soldier may be the key to mission success. Therefore, all safety
procedures must be followed in combat.
The most important safety procedure is building a well-trained force. Nothing is a greater safety
risk than allowing a force of untrained soldiers to undertake a complex, potentially hazardous
task where the well-being of all depends on each soldier knowing his job. Peacetime training
should never be avoided because of the potential hazards of a necessary combat task. Training to
standard in a controlled environment is the only way to surmount the hazards and build
confidence in the soldiers' ability to accomplish their mission.

Life jackets are always worn when using assault boats. If Class 5 life jackets (German-army
style) are available, they are worn over LBE and the diagonally slung rifle. The Class 5 life
jacket will support a soldier so equipped and hold his head out of the water. If a life jacket
providing lesser flotation is used, such as the standard US Army flat foam-filled life jacket, it is
worn over the uniform. The LBE is worn over the life jacket, with the belt unfastened and the
rifle slung diagonally over all. Rifle slings are turned around so that the free end is always away
from the weapon. This allows rapid jettison of the rifle in the water by pulling the free end of the
sling to release the fastener.

Weapons are always carried in the boats with the bolt forward on an empty chamber and the
weapon on SAFE. The only exception to this is the bow gunner, who will charge his weapon in
the boat when directed to fire. He must put the weapon on SAFE before debarking, and the squad
leader must verify this by touch. The soldier can immediately engage the enemy, upon landing,
by simply taking the weapon off SAFE and charging the chamber.

WARNING

The soldier must NOT take the weapon off SAFE and charge the chamber before
leaving the boat.

A safety boat is always used during an assault crossing. One safety boat is used for every
company flotilla. It contains at least one lifeguard-qualified swimmer (two, if possible) to assist
soldiers that may fall into the water. This lifeguard will not wear boots or LBE. The safety boat
will also contain a boat hook and a float with an attached line for rescuing troops in the water.
Rocket-propelled lifelines will be included, if available. At a minimum, the boat commander is
equipped with night-vision goggles. The crew of the safety boat comes from the supporting
engineer force that provides the boats and boat crews and consists of eight paddlers, the
coxswain/commander, a medic, and one or more lifeguards. The crew should also have a radio
tuned to the company's frequency.

The safety boat crosses parallel with a flotilla and about 40 meters downstream. Its crew pays out
a climbing rope fastened to the near shore as a safety rope and attaches life jackets as floats every
four boat lengths (see Figure 8-10). When the crew reaches the enemy shore, it ties off the safety
rope and then moves back to the center of the river. If a man goes in the water or a boat capsizes,
the affected boat group makes a quick radio call on the company's frequency, indicating the
number in the water and the boat group calling. The alerted safety boat holds water while its
crew looks for troops who are in the water or who are caught by the safety rope.
If a soldier goes in the water, he should immediately remove his helmet and release it. He should
then roll onto his back. If he is wearing a Class 5 life jacket, he retains his rifle and LBE. If he is
wearing a lesser-quality life jacket, he releases his rifle and LBE and drops them. He then allows
the current to carry or float him to the friendly shore. He stays alert for the safety rope and safety
boat. If he reaches the safety rope, he wraps his arms in it or clips a snap link to it on his LBE (if
he is wearing LBE). He either waits for the safety boat or moves along the rope to the nearest
shore.
CHAPTER 9

ENGINEER OPERATIONS

GENERAL

A river crossing requires specific procedures for success because the water obstacle inhibits
ground maneuver in the usual way. It demands detailed planning and different technical support
than other tactical operations. Extensive use of corps engineer assets are required. It is critical for
supporting corps engineers to be totally involved in all facets of the river-crossing operation from
initial planning through preparation and execution.

Traffic control is the most vital component of a river-crossing operation. ERPs are used to
control traffic flow and permit movement across the river to be unhindered. Engineer units
provide positive control and the necessary equipment to ensure maneuver forces successfully and
safely cross the river in a timely and synchronized manner.

Contingency operations may require that assault river-crossing assets be used for longer periods
of time because fixed bridging is not feasible or readily available. Engineer units must
implement techniques that allow the long-term use of assault bridging assets without heavily
affecting operations or damaging equipment. These topics will be discussed in detail in this
chapter.

ERP OPERATIONS

ERPs ensure the effective use of the crossing means. ERPs and TCPs may be colocated to
provide control for the river crossing. The CSC uses them to rapidly organize and move the unit
through the crossing area.

The CSC establishes ERPs at the call-forward area and, if enough engineer assets are available,
at the staging area and the far-shore holding area. He uses additional ERPs only when specific
site conditions make it necessary for crossing-area control. ERP personnel need sufficient space
to mark an area the size of a raft (mock-up raft), brief crossing procedures, and conduct
necessary inspections and rehearsals. A hardstand, such as a rest stop or parking lot, is ideal for
this purpose but lacks the overhead concealment usually desired. Some ERP functions may be
done at separate ERPs to ensure a smooth and rapid flow of vehicles to the river. In this case, it is
essential to maintain communications between ERPs.

Typically, an engineer squad mans an ERP. This maintains unit integrity and provides sufficient
personnel and equipment for continuous operations. The crossing-site headquarters establishes
direct communication with ERP personnel to control raft-load or individual vehicle movement.
Depending on the location and purpose of the ERP, it can be used for the following functions:

Briefing crossing-unit personnel on procedures, including safety.


Demonstrating ground-guide signals.
Inspecting equipment to ensure that it meets the load-class capability of the crossing
means.
Organizing vehicles into raft loads.
Conducting rehearsals.
Controlling vehicle movement.

RAFTING OPERATIONS

ERP personnel configure vehicles into raft loads and send them to the river to coincide with the
arrival of an empty raft. Engineers brief crossing units before their arrival in the call-forward
area to make this happen as rapidly as possible. The briefing covers the-

Route and its markings through the crossing site.


Road speed and interval.
Loading and unloading of rafts.
Location of passengers while rafting across the river.
Configuration of the vehicles for the crossing.
Actions to take for disabled vehicles and the location of the maintenance collection point.
Hand and arm signals and signaling devices.
Arm bands or other identification of guides and traffic controllers.
Issuing, wearing, and returning of life jackets.
Location of holding areas and alternate routes.
Location of the casualty collection point.
Actions to take in the call-forward area.
Actions to take in case of enemy fire.
Regrouping of the company in the far-shore holding area.

An engineer from the squad running the ERP can brief vehicle crews and rehearse the movement
signals with them. The staging area is an ideal place to do this, minimizing the time and effort
spent organizing a crossing unit in the call-forward area. Otherwise, a separate ERP should
handle this task.

Figure 9-1 is an example of an ERP at the call-forward area. The engineer squad leader positions
himself where he can best control vehicle movement from the call-forward area to the river line.
He establishes communication with the crossing-site headquarters. As a crossing unit arrives, the
assistant squad leader contacts the unit's commander, who determines the order in which his
vehicles will cross. The assistant squad leader then configures individual vehicles into raft loads,
while ensuring that the vehicles do not exceed either the weight limit or the maximum
dimensions of the raft. He has a space marked out in the exact dimensions of a raft (mock-up
raft) for this purpose. An engineer squad member guides the vehicles onto this mockup raft,
using the same procedure to be used at the raft's embarking point on the river. At the same time,
another engineer inspects the vehicles for the proper load classification and dimensional
clearances and chalks the raft-load number on the vehicles. Once cleared through the mock-up,
an engineer squad leader releases individual raft loads to the river as directed by the crossing-site
headquarters
Items useful for running an ERP could include-

A TA1 field phone and an RL39 with wire.


Two rolls of engineer tape and six stakes.
Ten traffic markers.
Flashlights with colored filters.
Chemical lights.
Signal flags.
Chalk.
Camouflage nets and poles.
Night-vision goggles.
Sandbags.

BRIDGE OPERATIONS

A bridge operation requires a continuous traffic flow to the river. Units must be briefed and sent
to the crossing site quickly. To accomplish this, engineers brief at staging areas and check
vehicle load classification and dimensional clearances. The briefings include the following rules:

Vehicles will maintain a maximum speed of 9 kph while crossing the bridge.
Vehicles must not stop on the bridge.
Operators must not shift or make abrupt changes in speed on the bridge.
Vehicles will maintain the interval indicated by signs on the side of the road.
Operators will follow the signals of engineers at ramps and intervals along the bridge.

ERPs may be established along the routes to the crossing site to regulate traffic. A mockup
bridge is not necessary at the ERP.
SWIMMING OPERATIONS

For swimming operations, ERP personnel have the necessary briefings and vehicle inspections.
Crossing units are responsible for most preparations, but ERP personnel can assist with
operations at the predip site that is established nearby and provide recovery assets. A briefing on
swimming operations should include-

The layout of entrance and exit markers.


Swamping drills.
Rescue procedures.
The actions to take in case of enemy fire.

ENGINEER CONTINGENCY BRIDGING OPERATIONS

Organizing and training for war fighting remains the primary mission of Army engineers.
However, engineers can be called on to conduct contingency operations. For example, US Army
operations in Bosnia included the mission to bridge the Sava River near Zupanja, Croatia, in
December 1995. This mission was the largest river-crossing operation since World War II and
was conducted under extreme conditions. Seasonal weather caused the Sava river to swell from
its normal width of 300 meters to more than 600 meters. Despite harsh conditions, engineers
used Chinook helicopters to deploy ribbon-bridge sections into the river while other engineers
rebuilt the approaches and successfully bridged the Sava river to allow elements of the 1st
Armored Division to cross. As the floodwater receded, engineers built a causeway across the
floodplain. As operations in the area continued, the ribbon bridge remained the only crossing
means for both military and civilian traffic while preparations were made for fixed bridging.

Versatile engineers provide unique personnel and equipment capabilities that can effectively
support complex and sensitive situations in any contingency operation. Therefore, engineer
force-projection planning should include the possibility that forces committed to contingency
operations may become involved with combat operations. The engineer commander tailors
engineer support based on contingency-operation requirements, which may be radically different
than supporting combat operations. In many cases, the only difference between a wartime and an
engineer contingency operation is the threat level.

Contingency operations may require the same or a greater level of logistics support to engineers
as wartime operations. Combatant commanders tailor logistics support to engineers based on
theater needs. Logistics efforts are integrated with host-nation or local resources and activities.
Engineers invariably get involved with a wide variety of gap-crossing operations that may need
flexible logistics support. Critical engineer logistics considerations during contingency
operations include-

The availability of construction equipment.


A direct-support maintenance capability.
Repair-parts supply.
Class IV construction materials.
ASSAULT BRIDGES, LONG-TERM USE

Ribbon-bridge operations normally last no longer than 72 hours. Having the ribbon bridge
remain in operation beyond that time frame presents problems for the engineers that normally
would not be experienced during a short duration. Equipment maintenance, anchorage systems,
constant changes in the water level, and repair of approaches must be considered for long-term
use of assault bridges.

MAINTENANCE

As equipment remains in use during crossing operations, maintenance services become more
difficult to manage. Time must be made to allow boats and bays to be recovered from the water
and completely serviced and checked for unusual wear. The techniques discussed in Chapter 7
are applicable but must include complete recovery of the equipment and movement back to the
EEP where the services can be done. To accomplish maintenance services without jeopardizing
bridging operations, boats and their replacements must be carefully managed. This may require
procuring more boats than authorized by the table(s) of organization and equipment (TOE) to
permit continued crossing operations without distribution for maintenance.

To check and service interior and end bays of the ribbon bridge, it must be broken apart and
replacement interior and end bays emplaced. Time for such actions should be incorporated into
the bridge-crossing time line and maneuver units notified when the crossing site will be
shutdown temporarily. Synchronization of alternating times for crossing sites to be closed for
maintenance can proactively re-route traffic flow and prevent major disturbances in movement
across the river. To expedite the time required to replace bays needing maintenance and quickly
allow traffic to resume crossing operations, engineers prepare replacement bays and boats and
stage them before closing the crossing site. Daily checks of the bridge throughout the operation,
considerations of the current's velocity and the amount of debris that may affect the bridge's
operation, and maintaining vehicle speed across the bridge are critical to prevent damage to the
bay's lower-lock devices and roadway-to-bow portion latches.

ANCHORAGE

All military bridges must be held in position by some anchorage system. Short-term anchorage is
normally used for assault bridges, but if the bridge is required to remain operational for a longer
period, the anchorage must be upgraded to provide long-term support.

The design of any anchorage system is influenced by several factors, including the-

Width of the river.


Current's velocity.
Depth and bottom conditions of the river.
Height and slope of riverbanks.
Conditions of the soil.
Depth of the groundwater table.
Availability of equipment.
Anchorage of the ribbon bridge must occur if the bridge is used for long-term operation. During
short-term crossings, boats maintain the bridge's stability against the current's velocity and keep
the bridge from being damaged. However, as time permits, an anchorage system must be
emplaced to provide continuous stability and provide relief for the number of boats required.
Initially, the anchorage may consist of a combination of shore guys and boats. This method can
still allow the bridge to be broken and permit barge river traffic access. Eventually, a
semipermanent anchorage system, such as an overhead cable system, should be emplaced to
keep the bridge secure.

The three basic components of all long-term anchorage systems include approach guys, an
upstream anchorage system, and a downstream anchorage system. Approach guys are cables that
prevent the bridge from being pushed away from the shore as a result of the impact of vehicles
driving onto the ramps of the bridge. The upstream anchorage system holds the bridge in position
against the force of the current's velocity. The downstream anchorage system protects the
floating bridge against reverse currents, tidal conditions, eddies, and high winds or storms that
might temporarily alter or reverse the natural flow of the river. The following types of anchorage
systems can be used for stabilizing a bridge:

KEDGE ANCHORS

Kedge anchors lie in the streambed and are secured to the bridge bays with anchor lines. They
are designed to sink with the stock lying flat and the fluke positioned to dig into the bottom. On
hard bottoms, the kedge anchor is useless.

SHORE GUYS

Shore guys are cables attached from the bridges to a deadman or similar holdfasts on the shore.
Shore guys can be upstream or downstream provided that the maximum anticipated current (or
reverse current for downstream systems) does not exceed 0.9 MPS. Shore guys can be used for
any length of floating bridge provided that a 45-degree angle be maintained between the shore
guy and the bridge centerline.

COMBINATION OF KEDGE ANCHORS


AND SHORE GUYS

A combination system may be used for upstream or downstream anchorage systems in currents
less than or equal to 1.5 MPS. When constructing a combination system, attach kedge anchors to
every float and a shore guy to every sixth float.

OVERHEAD CABLE

An overhead cable system consists of one or more tower-supported cables spanning the river
parallel to the bridge. Each end of the overhead cable is secured to the shore, preferably through
the use of a deadman. Bridle lines are used to connect each bay of the bridge to the overhead
cable. The cable functions like a cable used in a suspension bridge, except that its final working
position is inclined toward the bridge because of the force of the current on the bridge.
TC 5-210 provides the specific criteria for the design of an overhead-cable anchorage system, to
include the cable design, tower design and placement, and deadman design.

PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS

Floating bridges, particularly those that will remain in place for long periods of time, must be
protected against severe weather conditions and enemy destruction. If flood conditions or heavy
debris hamper bridging operations, removing of interior bays will reduce the lateral pressure on
the bridge and allow the debris to pass downstream. If losing the bridge is imminent, release an
end section and securely anchor the bridge parallel to the shore until conditions permit resuming
bridging operations. As the river's width increases, simply add more interior bays to the bridge to
compensate.

The enemy may attempt to destroy floating bridges in a variety of ways, including air attacks,
land attacks, underwater demolitions teams, floating mines, or assault boats. It is necessary to
construct floating protective devices to prevent waterborne forces from damaging or destroying
the bridge. The three types of floating protective systems are as follows:

ANTIMINE BOOM

This device is designed to stop any mines that are sent downstream toward the bridge. The
antimine boom is placed far upstream to protect the other protective devices as well as the
bridge. It consists of a number of logs or other large floating structures attached to a cable
running across the river. Concertina is normally placed along the length of the boom.

NOTE: Before using timber logs or railroad ties, ensure that they are not waterlogged and
will float.

IMPACT BOOM

The impact boom is designed to withstand the impact of large natural or man-made debris and
stop the enemy from attacking the bridge by boat. It is constructed by placing a series of floats
and cables across the river. The cables absorb the impact of the debris or boat and restrain it until
it can be removed or destroyed.

ANTISWIMMER NET

This net is used to stop swimmers or underwater demolition teams from reaching the bridge. The
net can be constructed by suspending a mesh or net barrier from an anchorage cable to the river's
bottom. Concertina may also be connected to the cable and net to prevent swimmers from
climbing over the net. The net must be firmly affixed to the river's bottom or enemy divers can
easily go under the net. The antiswimmer net should also be placed on the downstream side of
the bridge to prevent enemy divers from reaching the bridge from downstream.

Army diver teams can assist in emplacing the protective devices and test them to ensure they are
able to prevent penetrating the bridge.
APPROACHES

Over a period of time, traffic flow at the same location will eventually wear the approaches down
and make them unusable. Engineers incorporate repair of the entry and exit banks and the
approaches leading to the crossing site into the crossing-operation plan. Initially, the approaches
may be suitable to receive heavy traffic with little effect, but implementation of reinforcing the
approaches must be done for long-term traffic. When inspecting approaches, consider the
following:

The steepness of the approaches.


The ruts or gullies along the approaches, particularly in a floodplain area.
Water-level conditions and expected changes due to weather or seasonal conditions.
The location of alternate approaches (alternate crossing sites) to allow for the repair of
existing approaches.

Matting and rock or gravel are the best suitable materials to use to support the approaches.
Maneuver units that will have to conduct long-term crossing operations should develop
procedures to requisition and deliver these materials to identified crossing-site locations.
Reconnaissance teams can locate local quarries where rock and gravel can be obtained through
coordination with the host country.

New techniques for constructing bridge approach roads include using fabric as a reinforcement
across soft soil. An impervious, neoprene-coated, nylon-woven membrane can be placed
between a stone aggregate and the soft-surface soil to allow the ground to withstand heavy
traffic. The most important feature that a reinforcing fabric membrane can offer is improving soil
stability and strength, which creates smaller deformations from vehicle traffic than soils acting
alone.

LONG-TERM GAP-CROSSING C2

More than any other mobility task, gap crossing involves managing combat power, space, time,
and terrain. The controlling headquarters must be flexible enough to react to any changes in the
tactical situation and scheme of crossing. This is particularly difficult when involved with long-
term operations in the same area of operations. Management of the crossing site, enemy
considerations, traffic-control measures, and CSS must be synchronized for long-term activities
and must not be based on less than a 72-hour period.

MANAGEMENT

Traffic and movement control remain the responsibility of the C2 headquarters. Activities may
direct that another unit take over the crossing operation and equipment as a whole or bring their
own crossing equipment and personnel to relieve the existing units and permit them to move
forward. All aspects of the operation must be covered when handing over the crossing site to the
gaining unit-just as though they were conducting the crossing for the first time.

ENEMY CONSIDERATIONS
Operation of a single crossing site over an extended period of time increases the possibility of
enemy interdiction. The possible use of nuclear or chemical weapons against friendly crossing
activities impacts on control procedures. To prevent the friendly elements from becoming
targets, forces must cross the gap as swiftly as possible to minimize the concentration of forces
on either side of the gap. The controlling headquarters also varies the crossing-site location to
reduce enemy threat interdiction.

TRAFFIC-CONTROL MEASURES

Staging- and holding-area control must be maintained. These areas must be located far enough
away from the gap to facilitate rerouting and the use of alternate roads to crossing sites. Staging
and holding areas on the far shore must be developed to handle the traffic as vehicles travel back
across. New routes may be constructed and existing routes upgraded to improve traffic flow.
Staging areas must be able to provide the following:

Cover and concealment.


A sufficient area for vehicle and equipment dispersion.
Easy accessibility.
Sufficient trafficability to prevent delays caused by increased traffic flow within the area
of operation.

COMBAT SERVICE SUPPORT

In a normal gap-crossing situation, the committed combat forces will be temporarily separated
from their full CSS. For long-term gap-crossing operations, increased traffic flow for the service-
support vehicles must be considered and controlled. Sufficient crossing sites and designated
crossing times can ensure that priority is given to field trains and ensure that timely resupply
operations are not hindered. Recovery of nonmission- capable equipment presents an additional
problem for recovery teams transporting the equipment back to the near shore for direct-support
maintenance support. Additionally, recovery resources should continue to be provided at both
sides of the crossing sites so they can quickly recover a vehicle unable to cross and prevent
delays.

MULTIROLE BRIDGE COMPANY (MRBC)

Today's Army must be able to respond to an increasing array of potential employments in war or
in contingency operations. With the new integrated information-processing systems, river-
crossing opportunities will be quickly identified and execution will rely heavily on the rapid-
response capability of bridge companies.

Current bridge companies are tailored around their specific floating or fixed-span bridges,
without regard for their inherent conceptual, operational, and organizational commonalty. Both
types of companies are similarly organized with a company headquarters, two bridge platoons,
and a support platoon. The fixed-bridge company cannot transport ribbon-bridge sections on its
5-ton dump trucks, nor does it have the required bridge boats. The float-bridge company, on the
other hand, can readily transport fixed-bridge components on its transporters, but only if the
loads are palletized.

Whenever both types of bridges are needed, both types of companies must deploy. Since a
company owns it own unique bridge, sufficient companies must be deployed to cover all possible
gaps. When a bridge company has expended its bridging materials, it reverts to a transportation
mission.

The MRBC is a modular company with both dry- and wet-gap capabilities that will employ both
types of bridges as needed, based on METT-T. Each bridge platoon can transport and employ
both types, as ordered. The MRBC is a versatile, flexible, and modular unit that can meet the
demands of the maneuver commanders. The developmental HDSB is also fully compatible with
the MRBC concept. The HDSB will replace the MGB as the primary fixed bridge employed by
this company, relegating the MGB to a supplemental role.

ORGANIZATION

The MRBC will be a combination of a MGB company and an AFB company. The MRBC's
structure consists of a company headquarters, two bridge platoons (one MGB and one AFB), and
a support platoon. The support platoon consists of a platoon headquarters, an equipment
maintenance section, and a bridge-site section. The new bridge transporter, the improved
common bridge transporter (ICBT), is specifically designed to function in the MRBC. The
palletized-load-system (PLS) trailer will be procured as a part of the HDSB to allow the
transporting of both bridges simultaneously.

BASIC CONCEPT

A typical operational mission would begin with a platoon responding to a mission with an initial
basic load of the desired bridge. When it completes the bridge, the platoon moves to the next site,
either picking up the next required bridge along the way or finding the bridge cached at either the
engineer bridge park or the site it will be emplaced. As the forces advance, the bridges become
the responsibility of the engineer units in the communications zone. As prefabricated bridging is
replaced by nonstandard or more permanent bridging, the platoon responds to bridge-retrieval
missions. Retrieved bridges will reenter the supply system or be stored in the unit's bridge supply
yard. Bridging sets are a supply commodity and are handled as any other Class VII supplies
(major end item).

The MRBC's capabilities will give commanders the ability to quickly maneuver and respond,
through either fixed or float bridging or a combination of bridging appropriate for the mission.
This newly structured MRBC operates within a "lane" on the battlefield (an area defined by a
maneuver brigade's area of operation) and provides the necessary bridging for multiple axes of
advance. Trailing closely behind combat forces, the MRBC moves forward when necessary to
support assault crossings. Additional MRBCs, provided from corps assets, may be assigned to
the lane when gap-crossing requirements exceed the capabilities of a single MRBC.

IMPLICATIONS
Because bridge sets are exceptionally heavy and tall and have many parts (some are small and
easy to lose), they should be placed on pallets and shrink wrapped for transportability and
accountability. The procedure to requisition and deliver bridges is essentially unchanged. The
number of bridges needed is unaffected, since it is based on METT-T and not the bridge-
company organization.

Bridges are loaded on bridge adapter pallets and boats that have the improved boat cradle, which
allows the loads to be placed on the ground without damage. The pallets and cradles remain at
the EEP until the bridge or boat is recovered. Treating bridging as a commodity instead of a
bridge company TOE property emphasizes the critical maneuver planning that is involved by the
maneuver staff and not exclusively the engineer staff. MRBC engineers cannot exist on the
battlefield without support from the following branches:

Quartermaster-to order and track bridge stocks.


Transportation-to haul replenishment bridge sets forward to engineer bridge parks.
Ordnance-to repair transporters, erection boats, and bridge components.

TRAINING

Engineer units' training must reflect the dual bridge capability. Currently, bridge crewmen
receive advanced individual training on both fixed and float bridges. However, once they are
assigned to a unit, their collective training is only on the single-type bridge of that company.
Under the MRBC concept, individual bridge crewmen and leaders must maintain their
proficiency on both types of bridges. Bridge specialists must continue to be proficient in all types
of prefabricated bridges. Critical branch interaction during war-gaming exercises must consider
employing the MRBC in current training by implementing a variety of missions, either
sequentially or simultaneously, to become more accustomed to its employment. Additionally,
engineer company-grade officers and noncommissioned officers (NCOs) will have increased
responsibility and will need to improve their technical proficiency.

Final decisions as to the size and end-state composition of the MRBC are not being implemented
yet; however, many units can expect to have the HDSB and the improved ribbon bridge carried
on HEMTT-chassis transporters. Interim organizations will include basic loads of the medium-
girder, Bailey, and ribbon bridges, which are carried on their current transporters. Whatever the
organization's development stage, the MRBC will not be dedicated to only one bridge type.
APPENDIX A

METRIC CONVERSION CHART

To Convert Into Multiply By


Meters feet 3.281
Kilometers miles, statute 0.62137
Centimeters inches 0.3937
Kilograms pounds 2.2046
Meters per second miles per hour 2.237
APPENDIX B

ENGINEER-PLANNING CALCULATIONS

GENERAL

This appendix addresses the detailed engineer planning necessary for a river-crossing operation. The
charts and overlays that are used to synchronize and control execution of the crossing are shown in
Figures B-1 through B-8 and Tables B-1 through B-4. The H, as used in the figures in this chapter, stands
for H-hour; this is the specific hour the assault phase begins (see FM 101-5-1).

ENGINEER PLANNING

Initial engineer planning at corps and division levels focuses on providing sufficient engineer assets to
handle crossing requirements. The terrain teams at division and corps levels maintain the terrain
database that provides potential crossing sites and river widths. The division engineer uses this
information to construct a site overlay (see Figure B-1). He labels assault and rafting or bridging sites and
shows the site capacity and the estimated preparation time for each site (from the terrain database).

Preparation time is the time required to improve routes and riverbanks to support the units that
will use the site. It also includes the time required to construct rafts and bridges. Rafting-site
capacity is the number of raft round trips per hour. The engineer calculates rafting-site capacity
by multiplying the number of raft trips per hour by the number of rafts and the number of
centerlines at the site (see Table B-1). Centerlines must be at least 100 meters apart. Each assault
company needs 200 meters of river frontage. Figure B-1 shows the determination of rafts per
hour and the capacity of the assault site for the division crossing overlay. The site overlay
provides additional details necessary to ensure that each brigade has sufficient potential crossing
sites within its boundaries. Table B-2 provides planning factors for assault-boat operations.

Rules of thumb for making this determination follow:

A brigade requires 31 assault boats to cross a battalion with three companies in the first wave.
With 70 boats, it can cross two battalions at once. Generally, the boats with the corps bridge
companies can handle these requirements.
A brigade requires two bridges or the equivalent bridging configured into rafts. The engineer
planner uses the above rules of thumb to task-organize engineers that are supporting each
crossing area. The division engineer then develops a rough crossing time line using pure
battalions. This provides sufficient information for division planning, without requiring detailed
knowledge of the brigade's plan. Table B-3 provides necessary planning factors (field trains are
not included). Figure B-2 illustrates a crossing time line using 6-float rafts.

The brigade headquarters does the majority of planning for the detailed crossing. During
the mission analysis, the brigade engineer also develops a crossing time line to provide
initial buildup-rate information to the maneuver planners when they outline possible
schemes of maneuver. This time line is the same as the time line that is developed at the
division and may be provided by the division engineer.

Once the commander identifies the COAs to develop, the staff engineer develops
crossing-area overlays for each (see Figure B-3). These overlays are developed by using
information from the site overlay, along with additional terrain data. The crossing-area
overlays show staging areas, holding areas, call-forward areas, and routes for each
crossing site included in the COA. A crossing-area overlay is necessary for each COA.
The overlay for the COA eventually selected is later modified by adding ERPs, TCPs,
and crossing-area-headquarters information and is used to support the operation.

When maneuver planners develop COAs, they assign crossing sites and the order of
crossing to units and task-organize the pure maneuver battalions into TFs. The engineer
uses this information to construct a crossing time line for each COA. He calculates the
number of vehicles and raft loads for each unit using pure company figures from Table B-
4. The company's raft requirements do not include the field trains. The engineer then
calculates the crossing time for the unit by using the crossing capacity of the site assigned
to it. The crossing time line shows these crossing periods, by site, based on the order of
crossing. The engineer then develops a detailed crossing time line based on the task
organization (see Figure B-4).

During the comparison of the COAs, the engineer uses time lines, brigade-site overlays,
and crossing-area overlays to demonstrate the differences in the crossing plans. After the
commander has selected the COA for the mission, the staff converts it into a detailed
plan. The engineer develops a vehicle-crossing-capability chart.

He starts by displaying the capabilities of each crossing site in terms of raft loads per
hour (rafting operations) or vehicles per hour (bridging operations). Since the crossing
rate for rafts is less during darkness, each site shows total raft trips separately (during day
and during night). An example of the product of this first step is shown in Figure B-5).

The engineer determines the crossing requirements using the factors from Table B-4. He
then blocks out the crossing periods for all units based on site assignment, site capability,
and the crossing order in the scheme of maneuver. After adding the units' crossing
periods to the chart, he coordinates the plan with the S3 to ensure that the units will arrive
on the far shore by the times they are needed (see Figure B-6). If not, the S3 and engineer
work together to adjust the crossing order of subordinate units. The basic technical
information remains constant as different crossing sequences are checked until one meets
far-shore requirements. The vehicle-crossing-capability chart is the primary tool for
finalizing the crossing plan.

After the crossing order has been established, the engineer develops the crossing-
synchronization matrix (see Figure B-7). This is the tool that the CAC and CAE will use
to synchronize the execution of the crossing. It is constructed as a chart, with the unit's
locations and activities displayed by time on the upper half and terrain occupation
displayed by time on the lower half. The staff can follow each unit's location as the
operation progresses and can easily see potential conflicts resulting from changes. The
matrix also provides critical information for traffic control.

The crossing synchronization matrix is constructed backwards by first portraying the


units' crossing times established from the vehicle-crossing-capability chart, then by using
road movement times to show route usage and staging-area times. The time required for
the crossing of the assault force is also included. Once all of the units are displayed, the
same information is transferred to the lower terrain portion of the matrix. The staff
immediately resolves any conflicts they discover while preparing the matrix.

The final engineer planning step is developing the engineer execution matrix (see Figure
B-8). It displays subordinate units' task assignments by time. It is useful both for tracking
unit execution and for aiding decisions if changes to the plan are required.

Table B-1. Raft-centerline data


River Width in Meters Round Trip in Minutes Number of Raft Trips per Hour Number of Rafts

75 7 8.6 1

100 8 7.5 1

125 9 6.7 1
150 10 6.0 2

175 11 5.4 2

225 12 5.0 2

300 16 3.75 3 to 5

NOTE: Planning times are for current velocities up to 1.5 MPS

Table B-2. Boat-planning factors


River Width
Equipment Characteristic
75 Meters 150 Meters 300 Meters

Pneumatic assault boat Minutes per round trip Trips


3 20 4 15 5 12
with an OBM per hour

Pneumatic assault boat Minutes per round trip Trips


4 15 6 10 10 6
without an OBM per hour

NOTES: 1. Factors are averaged based on load/unload time and safety. 2. Planning times are for
current velocities up to 1.5 MPS. For faster current velocities, classification must be reduced to
a caution or risk crossing, and an engineer analysis must be made of the actual site conditions
before planning times may be assessed.

Table B-3. Unit rafting requirements


Raft Trips Required
Units Vehicles
4 Bays 5 Bays 6 Bays

Armored battalion 161 119 101 86

Mechanized battalion 153 112 65 55

FA battalion 165 97 61 52

Engineer battalion (ERI) 139 77 59 50


ACR 208 171 110 98

NOTE: Assume that current velocities are less than 0.9 MPS and that battalions/regiments are at
100 percent MTOE strength.
Table B-4. Pure company rafting requirements
Rafts Required
Units Vehicles
4 bays 5 bays 6 bays

Tank company 15 15 14 14

Mechanized company (Bradley) 15 14 7 7

Armored TF HQ 6 4 4 3

Mechanized TF HQ 6 4 4 3

Mortar platoon 8 3 2 2

Scout platoon 6 3 2 2

Engineer platoon 5 3 2 2

Division cavalry troop 24 23 16 16

ACR troop 27 25 18 17

ACR squadron HQ 6 4 3 2

155-SP artillery battery (division) 18 16 9 9

ACR tank co 15 15 14 14

FA battery (ACR) 13 13 10 7
APPENDIX C

CROSSING MEANS

GENERAL

Crossing means is the equipment used to carry a force across a water obstacle. This equipment is
specially designed to operate within certain limits, and commanders must understand these limits if the
force is to cross safely.

A safety matter that affects operational use is the load capacity of rafts, bridges, and equipment.
The quantities shown in Table C-1 are the normal capacities or the design capabilities. In
exceptional circumstances, certain safety factors or margins allow an increase in the load. These
capacities have been deliberately omitted here because they are not intended for use in
operational planning. The standard or design capabilities are provided for normal crossings. The
exceptional category is intended for special situations using the terms caution or risk crossings.

In addition to the command decision required to employ caution- and risk- crossing loads,
commanders must consider the physical status of the equipment. Thus, crossing-area or crossing-
force commanders obtain a professional judgment from an engineer. The commander weighs
these factors with the tactical needs before directing an increase in the load, keeping in mind that
the equipment may be lost for future use. River crossings have three categories:

Normal crossing-the vehicle's classification number is equal to or less than the bridge's, vehicles
maintain 30-meter intervals on fixed or floating bridges, and the vehicle's speed must not
exceed 24 kph. Sudden stopping or acceleration is forbidden.
Caution crossing-vehicles with a classification exceeding the capacity of the bridge by 25 percent
are allowed to cross under strict traffic control. The caution classification number of standard
fixed or floating bridges may be obtained from FM 5-34, TC 5-210, or other appropriate
technical manuals (TMs). The crossing requires that vehicles remain on the centerline and
maintain 50-meter intervals. The crossing requires that vehicles do not exceed 13 kph, stop,
accelerate, and shift gears.
Risk crossing-may be made only on standard, prefabricated fixed and floating bridges and in the
greatest emergencies. The vehicle moves on the centerline and is the only vehicle on the bridge.
The crossing requires that vehicles do not exceed 5 kph, stop, accelerate, and shift gears. The
vehicle's classification number must not exceed the published risk classification for the bridge
type being crossed. After the crossing and before other traffic is permitted, the engineer officer
reinspects the entire bridge for any damage.

DESCRIPTIONS OF CROSSING MEANS

This appendix supplements a general description of the crossing means discussed in Chapter 3. It
provides a pictorial review as well as equipment-capability tables useful in selecting crossing means and
planning crossing operations.
Available crossing means dictate both crossing operations and the force-buildup rate on the far
shore. Before the commander develops his tactics, he must understand how the available
crossing means impact his ability to mass forces on the far shore .

The following are the crossing means that the military use to cross a river:

Fording vehicles.
Amphibious vehicles.
Aircraft.
Boats.
Assault launched bridges.
Rafts.
Bridges.

FORDING VEHICLES

Combat vehicles can ford shallow rivers that have a limited current velocity and stable beds. Some
vehicles have kits to increase fording depth. Fording is possible for current velocities that are less than
1.5 MPS. Riverbeds at fording sites must be firm and free of large rocks and other obstructions. Vehicle-
operator manuals contain specific depth capabilities and required adaptations. The AVLB and Wolverine
can be used to assist fording vehicles in deep water.

AMPHIBIOUS VEHICLES

Some combat vehicles can swim. Bank entry and exit points must be clear of obstructions and have
slopes consistent with the vehicle's capabilities. The current's velocity sets limits. Crews of amphibious
vehicles prepare and inspect each vehicle before entering the water. Engineer assistance, including
recovery vehicles and standing cables, maximizes swimming opportunities.

AIRCRAFT

Army aircraft are the primary crossing means for dismounted infantry. Helicopters also lift other
crossing assets from rear areas to the river and carry essential combat support and critical resupply
across it. See Table C-2 for characteristics of external loads for aircraft.

BOATS

Pneumatic assault boats are the alternate crossing means for dismounted infantry and accompanying
elements. For light infantry, assault boats may be the only means required if air resupply is available.
They carry 12 assault troops and a two-man engineer crew in a silent or powered crossing.

ASSAULT LAUNCHED BRIDGES


The AVLB is an organic engineer asset that travels with maneuvering armored and mechanized
infantry formations and can quickly gap up to 15 meters for 70 MLC vehicles. The assault
launcher can launch the bridge without exposing bridge personnel to enemy fire and can retrieve
the bridge from either end (seeFigure C-1 and Table C-3).

The Wolverine will eventually replace the AVLB. The Wolverine will consist of an M1- series
Abrams tank chassis modified to transport, launch, and retrieve a MLC 70 bridge. The bridge
will be capable of spanning at least a 24-meter gap (see Figure C-2 and Table C-4).

RAFTS

Heavy rafts are often the initial crossing means for tanks and other fighting vehicles. They are faster to
assemble than bridges and can operate from multiple sites to reduce their vulnerability. The two types
of heavy rafts in the Army system are the ribbon and M4T6 (see Figures C-3 and C-4 and Tables C-5
through C-9). The ribbon raft is fielded to engineer units while the M4T6 is maintained in war stocks
only.

BRIDGES

Rafts alone cannot handle the total volume of traffic in the needed time. Floating bridges are the
primary means to cross the force and its supplies rapidly. The same units that provide heavy rafts also
provide float bridges. They often assemble bridges from the rafts used earlier.

The ribbon bridge is the primary assault bridge because it is quick to assemble (see Figures C-5
and C-6 and Tables C-10 and C-11). The M4T6, currently maintained in war stocks only, would
replace the ribbon bridge to allow the ribbon bridge to continue to move forward with the
advancing force. Because it is man-power intense, the M4T6 is slower to assemble than the
ribbon bridge (see Figure C-7 and Tables C-12 and C-13). Preassembly of the M4T6 floats in
rear areas significantly reduces the final assembly time on the river.

Fixed bridges rest on the riverbanks and intermediate supports instead of floating on the water.
They span ravines as well as rivers. They have limited use for the initial assault because they are
slow to assemble and vulnerable to enemy action. Where appropriate, fixed bridges supplement
or replace float bridges. Engineers also use fixed bridges to repair existing damaged bridges.

The rapid construction characteristics of the MGB versus the Bailey bridge provide it with a
better capability that can be used well forward in the main battle area. Since the Army does not
currently have a tactical dry-gap capability longer than 60 feet, using the MGB in this role
becomes an important operational consideration (see Figures C-8 and C-9 and Tables C-14
through C-18). The primary role of the MGB is for tactical bridging in the brigade area, while
the Bailey bridge is used primarily as a LOC bridge. As the tactical situation permits, the MGB
is removed and replaced by Bailey, timber, or steel bridges.

The Army is currently in the process of developing the HDSB to replace the MGB. The HDSB
provides tactical bridging for a gap-crossing capability of 40 meters without intermediate
supports for wheeled vehicles up to MLC 96 and tracked vehicles up to MLC 70 (see Figures C-
10 and C-11).

The M2 Bailey bridge is a truss bridge manually assembled by connecting panels end to end. It is
used in forward areas to replace assault bridging and the MGB. The Bailey bridge system is
highly labor intense but also highly versatile. In some cases, the Bailey bridge is the only tactical
bridge suitable for long spans and heavy loads because it can be assembled in multiple heights
and widths. The Bailey bridge is maintained in war stocks both in the US and outside continental
US (OCONUS). The bridge system can also be assembled as a railway bridge, thus providing a
relatively rapid-repair capability (see Figure C-11 and Table C-19).

In arctic regions and areas that experience seasonal winter weather, a consideration that cannot
be overlooked is "ice bridging". Ice bridging is the use of bridging over a thick layer of ice that
covers a wet gap, such as a lake or river (see Figures C-13 through C-15 and Tables C-20
through C-23).

-------------------------------
Table C-1. Equipment-characteristic chart
Allocation-- Assembly/ Remarks/
Equipment Transportation Capabilities
--- Propulsion Limitations

Pneumatic, 15- L-series TOE A 2 1/2-ton truck The boat can Inflation The maximum current
man assault provides- can carry 20 carry 12 time is 5 to velocity with paddles is
boat deflated boats. soldiers and 3 10 minutes 1.5 MPS (5 fps).
18 per engrs with with pumps.
ribbon An inflated boat paddles or 12 A 20 percent exit
bridge co. can carry 8 soldiers and 2 Paddle slope is desired.
men. engrs with an speed is 1.5
27 per MPS (5 Three pumps and 11
OBM or 1,531
corps A deflated boat fps). paddles are included
kg of
float bridge weighs 132 kg. with each boat.
equipment.
co. Speed with
an OBM is OBMs must be
9 per sep 4.5 MPS requested separately.
bde (15 fps).
engr co.

27 per
corps
ribbon
bridge co.
80 per
assault-
boat team.

21 per
MGB co.

21 per
M2 co.

Pneumatic, 3- L-series TOE The boat is The boat can Inflation The maximum current
man provides- carried by carry 3 soldiers time is 5 velocity is 1.5 MPS (5
reconnaissance backpack (1-man with minutes fps).
boat 3 per carry). equipment or with a
combat 306 kg of pump. One pump and 3
engr co. The boat and equipment. paddles are required
backpack weigh Paddle per boat.
18 per 26 kg. speed is 1.0
corps float MPS (3 The boat cannot be
bridge co. fps). used without an
OBM.
12 per div
ribbon
bridge co.

18 per
corps
ribbon
bridge co.

APC M113 J-series TOE The APC- The APC can Preparation The maximum current
provides- carry 12 time for velocity is 1.5 MPS (5
Is self- soldiers with swimming is fps). Drift (meter=
12 per propelled. equipment. 10 minutes.
engr co of
engr bn. Is a Class 13
The APC is
vehicle.
track-
1 per inf propelled in
co (mech) the water.
(BIFV).
Swimming
3 per inf speed is 1.6
co (mech) MPS (5.3
(M113). fps).

9 per The APC


armored can ford up
engr co to 1.5
(ERI). meters (5
feet).
BEB-SD L-series TOE The boat is The boat can Launch time The draft is-
provides 14 carried by one 5- carry a 3-man from the 56 cm for normal
per corps ton bridge truck crew and 12 cradle is 5 operations.
ribbon with a cradle or soldiers with minutes.
bridge co. one medium-lift equipment or 66 cm when fully
helicopter. 1,996 kg of loaded.
equipment.
The boat weighs 122 cm for a launch
3,992 kg. from the cradle.
BIFV J-series TOE The BIFV- Is self- The BIFV can Preparation The maximum current
provides- propelled. carry 10 time for velocity is 0.9 MPS (3
solders with swimming is fps). Drift (meters) =
14 per inf Is a Class 24 equipment. 18 minutes.
co (mech) vehicle.
(BIFV). The BIFV Drift (feet) =
is track-
12 per propelled in
cav troop the water.
of an ACR.
Swimming
19 per speed is 2
cav troop MPS (6
of a div fps).
cav
squadron. The BIFV
can ford up
80 per to 1.1
assault- meters (3.5
boat team. feet).

Table C-2. Typical external loads


Weight in
Equipment Kilograms Remarks
(pounds)
M4T6 fixed spans
23 feet 4 inches,
Class 100
30 feet 0 inches, Components are assembled in 8-foot 4-inch and 15-foot 0-inch
Class 65 increments. They may be transported in packages to reduce the
38 feet 4 inches, 5,851 (12,900) load. Load class may be increased by varying the deck size.
Class 35 7,076 (15,600)
45 feet 0 inches, 8,528 (18,800)
Class 25 9,480 (20,900)

Pneumatic assault Boats are transported in a bundle or in an inflated mode.


131 (290)
boat

27-foot BEB-SD 3,084 (6,800)/ Boats are lifted in the bow-and-stem configuration.
3,992 (8,800)

M4T6 float-bridge Loads are placed on the water or shore for further assembly.
components
Float without 3,039 (6,700)
deck 5,307 (11,700)
Float with deck 7,666 (16,900)
Two floats with
partial deck

Ribbon-bridge Bays are placed directly on water surfaces.


bays
Interior bays 5,443 (12,000)
End bays 5,307 (11,700)
Table C-5. Launch restrictions
Characteristics Free Launch Controlled Launch High-Bank Launch

Minimum depth of water Ramp bay 112 (44) 76 (30)1 76 (30)2


required in centimeters Interior bay 92 (36)2
(inches)
Bank-height restrictions 0-1.5 (0-5) 0 1.5 - 8.5 (5 - 28)
in meters (feet)

Bank-slope restrictions 0-30 percent 0-20 percent Level the ground


unless the front of
the truck is
restrained.

NOTES:
1 This is the recommended water depth. The launch could technically be conducted in 43 centimeters
(17 inches) of water.
2 The launch is based on a 10 percent slope with the transporter backed into the water. The required
water depth for a 30 percent slope with a 1.5-meter (5-foot) bank height is 183 centimeters (72 inches).
Interpolate between these values when needed.

Table C-6. Allocation of ribbon bridge


Components Per Corps Ribbon Company

Bridge platoons 2

Interior bays 30

Ramp bays 12

BEBs 15

NOTE: The longest bridge that can be constructed is 215 meters (705 feet).
Table C-8. Raft-crossing capabilities
River Width Number of
Minutes per Rounds Trips
Rafts per
Round Trip per Hour
Feet Meters Centerline
246 75 7 8 1

328 100 8 7 1

410 125 9 6 1

492 150 10 6 2

610 188 11 5 2

738 225 12 5 2

861 263 14 4 3

964 300 16 3 3

1,148 350 18 3 4

1,312 400 20 3 5

1,476 450 22 2 5

1,640 500 24 2 5

1,968 600 26 2 6

2,296 700 29 2 6

2,824 800 32 1 6

2,952 900 35 1 6

3,280 1,000 38 1 6

3,808 1,100 41 1 6

3,936 1,200 45 1 6

NOTES:
1. This table is valid for ribbon and M4T6 rafts in current velocities up to and including 1.5 MPS (5 fps).
This data is based on the use of crews under ideal conditions.
2. Round-trip times include the times required to load and unload the raft.
3. Crossing times will take 50 percent longer at night.
4. If the river width falls between 2 columns, use the value found in the next higher column.
Table C-11. Number of boats needed for anchorage of a ribbon bridge
Number of Boats:
Current Velocity in
Number of Bridge
MPS (fps)
Bays

0 to 2.0 (0 to 6.5) 1:6

2.1 to 2.6 (6.5 to 8.5) 1:3

2.7 (9) 1:2

Over 2.7 (over 9) Bridge must be anchored using an overhead cable system.
NOTE: Anchorage of ribbon bridges is normally accomplished by tying BEBs to the downstream side of
the bridge. The number of boats required is shown in the table.
Table C-13. Determination of site and personnel requirements for the M4T6 bridge
Length for
Number of
Normal Units Needed Time in
Assembly
Assembly in for Assembly Hours
Sites
Meters (feet)

45.5 (150) 1 company 2 4

61 (200) 1 company 2 5

76 (250) 1 company 2 6

91.5 (300) 2 companies 3 4

106.5 (350) 2 companies 3 5

122 (400) 2 companies 4 5.5

152 (500) 2 companies 5 6

183 (600) 3 companies 6 4

213 (700) 3 companies 6 5 to 7

244 (800) 3 companies 6 6 to 8

305 (1,000) 3 companies 6 7 to 10

366 (1,200) 3 companies 6 8 to 12

NOTES: 1. For methods on constructing an M4T6 bridge, refer to TC 5-210.


2. The construction time for a reinforced bridge should be increased by 50 percent.
3. The construction time for bridges should be increased by 50 percent at night.
4. The draft of an M4T6 bridge is 101.6 centimeters (40 inches).
Table C-15. SSB length and classification for the MGB
Bridge Length
Number of Bays MLC
Feet Meters

26 7.9 4 70

32 9.8 5 70

38 11.6 6 40

44 13.4 7 30

50 15.2 8 30

56 17.1 9 24

62 18.9 10 20

68 20.7 11 16

74 22.6 12 16

Table C-16. Building times (good conditions) for the MGB


Bridge Bridge Daytime Nighttime
Types Sizes Hours Hours

5 bays 0.50 0.75

Single story 8 bays 0.75 1.00

12 bays 1.00 1.50

4 bays 0.75 1.25

Double story
8 bays 1.00 1.50
without LRS

12 bays 1.50 2.00


18 bays 1.75 2.75

22 bays 2.00 3.00

13 bays 2.00 3.00

Double story
18 bays 2.75 4.00
with LRS

22 bays 3.00 4.50

NOTES:
1. A 25- by 20-meter assembly site is required.
2. Only MBG company personnel are required for assembly/
disassembly.
3. The assembly time for bridges should be increased by 20
percent for untrained troops and 30 percent for inclement
weather.

Table C-17. DSB length and classification for the MGB


Bridge Length MLC
2E + Number
of Bays
Feet Meters Without LRS With LRS

37 11.3 1 70 --

43 13.1 2 70 --

49 14.9 3 70 --

55 16.8 4 70 --

61 18.6 5 70 --

67 20.4 6 70 --

73 22.3 7 70 --

79 24.0 8 70 --

85 26.9 9 70 --
91 27.7 10 70 --

97 29.6 11 70 --

103 31.4 12 70 --

109 33.2 13 50 70

115 35.1 14 50 70

121 36.9 15 40 70

127 38.8 16 40 70

133 40.5 17 30 70

139 42.5 18 30 70

145 44.2 19 24 70

151 46.0 20 24 70

157 47.9 21 20 70

163 49.7 22 16 70
Table C-19. Classes of the M2 Bailey bridge
Span in Feet
Type of
Ratin
Constructio
g 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 20 21
n 80 110 160
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3
2 - 2 2 1
0 16 8
N 4 2 0 0 2 - - - - - - - - - - -
3 - -
SS - 4 - - -
0

C 4 3 3 3 2 20 1 12 - - - - - - - - - - -
2 6 3 0 4 - 6 -
3 3 3 2 - -
7 4 1 9

4 4 3 3 3
1
7 0 6 3 0 24 14
R 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
4 3 3 3 3 - -
-
2 8 5 2 0

7 7 6 4
5 5 0 50 0 30 20 16 12 8
N - - - - - - - - -
7 6 6 55 4 30 - - - -
0 5 0 5

8 7 6 5
3 7 8 60 0 37 30 23 18 14
DS C - - - - - - - - -
7 7 6 60 5 39 32 - - -
6 3 9 0

8 8 7 5
8 5 8 66 5 42 34 27 21 17
R - - - - - - - - -
8 7 7 64 5 44 36 30 - -
4 9 5 5

6
85 5 50 35 30 20 16 12 8 4
N - - - - - - - - -
80 6 55 40 35 - - - - -
5

7
95 4 57 47 38 31 24 18 15 10
TS C - - - - - - - - -
90 7 60 49 41 33 - - - -
5

8
100
2 64 52 43 35 29 22 17 13
R - - - - - * - - - -
8 66 54 45 38 31 - - -
90*
2

80 65 45 35 30 24 16 12 8
DD N - - - - - - - - - -
80 70 55 45 35 - - - -
86 72 57 47 39 32 25 19 15
C - - - - - - - - - -
90 76 61 50 42 35 - - -

96 80 64 53 44 36 30 24 18
R - - - - - - - - - -
90 83 68 56 48 40 33 - -

90 75 55 45 35 30 20 16 12
N - - - - - - - - - -
90* 80 60 55 45 35 - - -

100 83
65 57 47 37 31 24 18
C - - - - - - - - * 90 - -
TD 72 62 51 41 34 - -
90* *

100 91
74 64 54 45 37 29 22
R - - - - - - - - * 90 - -
80 70 58 48 40 32 -
90* *

70 70 60 55 45 35 30 20 16
N - - - - - - - - - -
80 70 60 55 50 45 35 - -

80 80
77 69 57 48 39 32 25
C - - - - - - - - - - 90 90
DT 85 78 64 58 43 36 -
* *

90 88 85
80 64 55 46 38 31
R - - - - - - - - - - 90 90 90
89 74 60 51 43 35
* * *

80 70 55 45 35 24
N - - - - - - - - - - - - -
75 70 60 55 40 -

100 80
66 59 48 38
C - - - - - - - - - - - - - * 90
TT 75 66 52 43
90* *

100 90
77 68 55 46
R - - - - - - - - - - - - - * 90
87 77 62 51
90* *

Notes: N = Normal C = Caution R = Risk


1. Upper figure represents wheeled load class.
2. Lower figure represents tracked load class.
* Limited by roadway width.
Table C-20. Ice-depth requirements
Ice-Thickness Requirements in Inches

Personnel
Strong Medium Weak
C=1, S=1 C=0.8, S=0.8 C=0.7, S=0.6

On skis 1.5 2 3

In a file formation with


3 4 5
2-meter intervals

On snowmobiles 3 4 5

Table C-21. Color factor


Factor Characteristics

C = 1 Ice is clear (transparent)

C = 0.9 Ice is semiclear


C = 0.8 Ice is white

C = 0.7 Ice is discolored (stained brown or yellow)

Table C-22. Strength factor


Factor Characteristics

Ice is solid, and temperatures have remained at or


S=1
below freezing for the previous week.

Ice is solid, and temperatures have been above


S = 0.9 freezing during the day but drop below freezing during
the night.

Ice is solid, and water is running on the surface


S = 0.8
from runnoff or overflow.

Ice is not solid, and water or air pockets are found


S = 0.7
in between layers of ice.

An air pocket is under the ice, so the ice is not floating


S = 0.6
on the water underneath.

Table C-23. Method for determining vehicle distance


Distance Between
Vehicle Class Required Ice Thick- Vehicles in Meters
(wheeled or tracked) ness in Centimeters (about 100 x ice thick-
ness [in cm])

1 11 11

2 15 15

3 18 18

4 21 21

5 23 23
10 33 33

15 40 40

20 46 46`

25 51 51

30 56 56

35 61 61

40 65 65

50 72 72

60 79 79

70 85 85

80 91 91

Before using the table, see remarks below:

1. If the air temperature has been above freezing for more than 6 of the past 24 hours, multiply the
vehicle class by 1.3 to obtain the required ice thickness. If the air temperature stays above freezing for 2
hours or more, the ice starts to lose strength, and the table no longer represents safe conditions. A
rapid and unusually large temperature drop causes the ice to become brittle, and travel may not be safe
for a period of 24 hours.
2. For the distance required between two vehicles of different classes, use the distance required for the
higher class.
3. If you plan to park for extended periods, multiply the vehicle class by 2 to obtain the required ice
thickness and maintain at least the original distance requirements. Drill a hole through the ice near the
vehicle, and move if the ice begins to flood.
4. The ice must have water support. Be very careful close to the shore. Very often the water level will
drop after freeze-up. When this happens, the ice close to the shore may no longer have water support.
5. Cracks are either dry or wet. If dry, they do not penetrate ice cover and can be ignored. If wet,
multiply the vehicle class by 2 to obtain the required ice thickness, and try to drive straight across the
cracks (avoid going parallel to wet cracks).
Glossary
AA assembly area

AAG Army artillery group

ACE M9 armored combat earthmover

ACR armored cavalry regiment

AD air defense

ADA air-defense artillery

ADC assistant division commander

AFB assault float bridge

alt alternate

APC armored personnel carrier

armd armored

AT antitank

attn attention

AVLB armored vehicle-launched bridge

bde brigade

BEB bridge-erection boat

BIFV Bradley infantry fighting vehicle

BMAIN brigade main CP

bn battalion
BTAC brigade tactical CP

C2 command and control

CAC crossing-area commander

CAE crossing-area engineer

CAS close air support

cav cavalry

cbt combat

CCIR commander's critical information requirements

CFC crossing-force commander

CFE crossing-force engineer

cm centimeter(s)

co company

COA course of action

const construction

CP command post

CSC crossing-site commander

CSS combat service support

DA Department of the Army

DAG division artillery group

DD double double

div division

DMAIN division main CP

DREAR division rear CP


DS double single

DSB double-story bridge

DT double triple

DTAC division tactical CP

DTO division transportation officer

EA engagement area

EEP engineer equipment park

engr engineer

ERI engineer restructure initiative

ERP engineer regulating point

FA field artillery

FEBA forward edge of the battle area

FM field manual

FO forward observer

fps foot (feet) per second

FRAGO fragmentary order

FSB forward support battalion

FSCL fire-support coordination line

G2 Assistant Chief of Staff, G2 (Intelligence)

G3 Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations and Plans)

G4 Assistant Chief of Staff, G4 (Logistics)

GLLD ground-laser location indicator

HDSB heavy dry-support bridge


HEMTT heavy-expanded mobility tactical truck

HIMAD high-to-medium-altitude AD

HMMWV high-mobility multiwheeled vehicle

HQ headquarters

ICBT improved common bridge transporter

IDP initial-delay position

inf infantry

int intermediate

IPB intelligence preparation of the battlefield

kg kilogram(s)

km kilometer(s)

kph kilometer(s) per hour

LBE load-bearing equipment

LOA limit of advance

LOC lines of communication

LRS link reinforcement set

LTR light tactical raft

LZ landing zone

M meter(s)

MCWP Marine Corps Warfighting Publication

mech mechanized

METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and time available

MGB medium-girder bridge


MLC military load class

MO Missouri

MOPP mission-oriented protective posture

MP military police

mph mile(s) per hour

MPS meter(s) per second

MRBC multirole bridge company

MSI multispectral imagery

MTOE modified table of organization and equipment

NA not applicable

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NBC nuclear, biological, chemical

NCO noncommissioned officer

obj objective

OBM outboard motor

OCOKA observation, cover and concealment, obstacles, key terrain, and


avenues of approach

OCONUS outside continental US

OPFOR opposing force

OPORD operation order

OPSEC operations security

PFS pipe fascines system

PIR priority intelligence requirements

PL phase line
PLS palletized load system

prep preparation

RAG regimental artillery group

RB ribbon bridge

RB15 rubber boat 15

RL release line

RP release point

rpm revolution(s) per minute

RTO radio telephone operator

S2 Intelligence Officer (US Army)

S3 Operations and Training Officer (US Army)

S4 Supply Officer (US Army)

SAW squad automatic weapon

SD shallow draft

sep separate

SHORAD short-range AD

SOP standing operating procedure

SP start point

SS single single

SSB single single bridge

STANAG Standardization Agreement

TAC tactical CP

TC training circular
TCP traffic-control post

TD triple double

TF task force

TM technical manual

TOE table(s) of organization and equipment

TOW tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided

TRADOC United States Army Training and Doctrine Command

TS triple single

TT triple triple

TTP tactics, techniques, and procedures

US United States

veh vehicle

w/o without

WO warning order

XO executive officer
References
SOURCES USED

These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.

Army Publications

FM 5-34. Engineer Field Data. 14 September 1987.

FM 5-250. Explosives and Demolitions. 15 June 1992.

FM 5-277. M2 Bailey Bridge. 9 May 1986.

FM 34-130. Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield. 8 July 1994.

FM 71-3. The Armored and Mechanized Infantry Brigade. 8 January 1996.

FM 71-100. Division Operations. 28 August 1996.

FM 90-4. Air Assault Operators. 16 March 1987.

FM 90-13-1. Combined Arms Breaching Operations. 28 February 1991.

FM 100-5. Operations. 14 June 1993.

FM 100-15. Corps Operations. 29 October 1996.

FM 101-5. Staff Organization and Operations. 25 May 1984.

FM 101-5-1. Operational Terms and Symbols. 21 October 1985.

TC 5-210. Military Float Bridging Equipment. 27 December 1988.

TRADOC Pamphlet 350-14. Heavy Opposing Force (OPFOR) Tactical Handbook (S&I by
USACAC). 15 September 1994.

TRADOC Pamphlet 350-16. Light Opposing Force (OPFOR) Tactics Handbook (S&I by
USACAC). 15 September 1994.
Standardization Agreements

STANAG 2395. Opposed Water Crossing Procedures (Edition 1). 27 October 1994.

DOCUMENTS NEEDED

This document must be available to the intended users of this publication.

DA Forms

DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. 1 February 1974.