You are on page 1of 13

PART FOUR

COMPENSATION

C H A P T E R

T h i r t e e n

Benefits And Services

13

Lecture Outline

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 155

Strategic Overview The Benefits Picture Today Pay for Time Not Worked Unemployment Insurance Vacations and Holidays Sick Leave Parental Leave and the FMLA Severance Pay Supplemental Unemployment Benefits Insurance Benefits Workers Compensation Hospitalization, Health, and Disability Insurance Trends in Health Care Cost Control Long-Term Care Life Insurance Benefits for Part-Time and Contingent Workers Retirement Benefits Social Security Pension Plans Pension Planning and the Law Key Pension Policy Issues Pensions and Early Retirement Improved Productivity Through HRIS Personal Services and Family-Friendly Benefits Personal Services Family-Friendly Benefits Other Job-Related Benefits Executive Perquisites Flexible Benefits Programs The Cafeteria Approach Flexible Work Arrangements Flexible Work Schedules

In Brief: This chapter discusses the benefits and services that companies might offer to employees. These benefits and services are offered to attract employees, retain employees, and to help make them more productive during their service. Often benefits address employee needs, such as security in old age. Interesting Issues: Though direct compensation (salary) is important, a companys indirect compensation (benefits) is often the tipping point in a decision to accept or reject an employers job offer. It is interesting to reflect about the relative merits of increased pay as opposed to increased quality of life.

ANNOTATED OUTLINE I. The Benefits Picture Today Benefits can be classified by 1) pay for time not worked; 2) insurance benefits; 3) retirement benefits; and 4) services. Some benefits are required by law, while others are discretionary. Table 13-1 lists benefits. Pay for Time Not Worked A. Unemployment Insurance All states have unemployment insurance or compensation acts (that follow federal guidelines), which provide for weekly benefits if a person is unable to work through some fault other than his/her own. The benefits derive from an unemployment tax on employers that can range from 0.1% to 5% of taxable payroll in most states. An employers unemployment tax rate reflects its rate of personnel terminations. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 156

II.

B. Vacations and Holidays The number of paid employee vacation days and holidays varies considerably from employer to employer. Firms have to address several holiday- and vacation-related policy issues. Know Your Employment Law: Vacations and Holidays There are a myriad of laws that affect benefits. Vacation and holiday pay administration issues are discussed. C. Sick Leave provides pay to employees when theyre out of work due to illness. Most sick leave policies grant full pay for a specified number of permissible sick days. To minimize employees using their sick leave as extensions to their vacations, some employers are repurchasing unused sick leave at the end of the year by paying their employees a daily equivalent sum for each sick leave day not used or creating a leave bank or paid time off (PTO). Know Your Employment Law: Leaves Under the Family Medical Leave Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act and some state workers compensation laws, certain leaves are statutorily required. Leaves can be particularly tricky to administer when two or more laws apply. D. Parental Leave and the Family Medical Leave Act stipulates that: 1) private employers of 50 or more employees must provide eligible employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for their own serious illness, the birth or adoption of a child, or the care of a seriously ill child, spouse, or parent; 2) employers may require employees to take any unused paid sick leave as part of the 12-week leave provided in the law; 3) employees taking leave are entitled to receive health benefits while they are on unpaid leave, and 4) employers must guarantee employees the right to return to their previous or equivalent position with no loss of benefits at the end of the leave; however, the law provides a limited exception from this provision. Vague interpretations of the law have resulted in leaves sometimes being approved even when they were not legitimate. Employers have been enriching their parental leave plans to make it more attractive for mothers to return from maternity leave. E. Severance Pay a one-time payment when terminating an employee, severance is a humanitarian gesture, and good public relations. Most managers expect employees to give them at least one or two weeks notice if they plan to quit; it therefore seems appropriate to provide at least one or two weeks severance if an employee is being dismissed. A severance plan may be subject to ERISA if the employer has a legal obligation to make severance payments, as is the case under some union contracts. Even voluntary plans could become subject to ERISA if the employer identifies it as a plan established or maintained by the employer in employee handbooks. F. Supplemental Unemployment Benefits supplement the employees unemployment compensation, and help the person maintain his/her standard of living for a time while he/she is out of work due to layoffs, reduced workweeks, and relocations. They are becoming more prevalent in union agreements. NOTES Educational Materials to Use

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 157

III.

Insurance Benefits A. Workers Compensation refers to the sure, prompt income and medical benefits provided in work-related accidents to the victims or their dependents, regardless of fault. Every state has its own workers compensation law and administrative commission, and some run their own insurance programs. Most states require employers to carry workers compensation insurance. Neither the state nor the federal government contributes any funds for workers compensation.

1. How Benefits are Determined Workers Compensation can be monetary or medical. Monetary awards are based on a formula regarding the disability involved and the workers average weekly wages. Some disabilities or losses also receive monetary awards based on a schedule of those losses.

2.

Controlling Workers Compensation Costs The costs of insurance premiums depend on the number and dollar amount of claims, thus minimizing such claims is important. Some ways to reduce such claims is to screen out accident-prone workers; reduce accident-causing conditions in your facilities; and institute effective safety and health programs, and comply with government standards on these matters. Many firms institute rehabilitation programs to get injured employees back on the job as fast as possible, since worker compensation costs accumulate as long as the person is out of work. B. Hospitalization, Medical, and Disability Insurance is aimed at providing protection against hospitalization costs and loss of income arising from accidents or illness occurring from off-the-job causes, and is offered by most employers because medical care and insurance are so expensive. Employer health and hospitalization plans must comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Accidental death and dismemberment coverage provides a lump-sum benefit in addition to life insurance benefits when death is accidental. Disability insurance provides income protection for loss of salary due to illness or accident. A health maintenance organization (HMO) is a medical organization consisting of several specialists operating out of a community-based health care center. Preferred provider organizations (PPOs), a cross between HMOs and the traditional doctor/patient arrangement, are groups of health care providers that contract to provide medical care services at a reduced fee. 1. Mental Health Benefits The costs of mental health treatment are rising because of widespread drug and alcohol problems. There is an increase in the number of states requiring employers to offer a minimum package of mental health benefits. The Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 sets minimum mental health care benefits at the national level.

2. COBRA (Comprehensive Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act) requirements are that most private employers must make continued health benefits available to terminated or retired employees and their families for a period of time, generally 18 months. The former employee must pay for the coverage, if desired, as well as a small fee for administrative costs.

3.

The Legal Side of Health Benefits Various laws affect these benefits. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) sets minimum standards for health and pension plans. Other laws are discussed, including HIPAA and COBRA, both amendments to ERISA. C. Trends in Health Care Cost Control many employers are changing their medical plans by: 1) moving away from 100% medical cost payments and including a deductible; 2) increasing annual deductibles; 3) requiring medical contributions; 4) Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 158

using gatekeepers; 5) encouraging preventive health care; 6) forming health care coalitions; and 7) managing the cost of AIDS. 1. Communication, Involvement, and Empowerment Consumer education is among the most important initiatives in health administration. Employees must know the costs of health choices in order to make better decisions. More employers are requiring employees to pay higher premiums and co-payments. Clinical prevention programs include mammograms, immunizations, and routine checkups. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 allowed employers to establish health savings accounts (HSAs). Employees deposit pre-tax pay into the HAS to use for catastrophic medical expense. Savings can also result from claim audits and automation of claim administration.

D. Long-Term Care is a new benefit aimed at supporting people in their old age. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), enacted in 1996, lets employers and employees deduct the cost of long-term care insurance premiums from their annual income taxes. E. Life Insurance Most employers provide group life insurance plans, which usually accept all employees, regardless of health or physical condition. F. Benefits for Part-time and Contingent Workers Some firms provide holiday, sick leave, vacation benefits, and some form of health care benefits for employees who work less than 35 hours a week. NOTES Educational Materials to Use

IV.

Retirement Benefits A. Social Security provides three types of benefits: retirement benefits, survivors (death) benefits, and disability payments. Retirement benefits provide an income if you retire at age 62 or thereafter and are insured under the Social Security Act. Survivor (death) benefits provide monthly payments to your dependents regardless of your age at death if you were insured under the Social Security Act. Disability payments provide monthly payments to employees who become totally disabled (and their dependents) if they work and meet certain requirements. The Social Security system also administers the Medicare program, which provides a wide range of health services to people 65 or older. B. Pension Plans There are a variety of pension plans. Defined contribution plans specify what contributions the employer will make to the employees retirement or savings fund. In a 401(k) plan, an employee authorizes the employer to deduct a certain amount of money from his/her paycheck before taxes and to invest in the 401(k) plan. Many federal laws govern pensions. 1. 401(k) Plans a popular defined contribution plan in which the employee can have money deducted from his or her paycheck and deposited in the account before payroll taxes. 2. Other Types of Defined Contribution Plans in a savings thrift plan, employees contribute a portion of their earnings to a fund. The employer usually matches this contribution in whole or in part. In deferred profit sharing Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 159

plans, employers contribute a portion of their profits to the pension fund. An employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) is a tax-deductible stock bonus plan. 3. Cash Balance Pension Plans These are defined benefit plans for federal tax purposes, but have the portability advantages of defined contribution plans. Defined benefit plans are most advantageous to older employees with long service terms. Younger employees, or those who want to change jobs, usually prefer defined contribution plans. The cash balance plan has the ability to be moved, but has more predictable benefits. C. Pension Planning and the Law The Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation (PBGC) oversees and insures pensions should a plan terminate without sufficient funds. ERISA restricts what companies can, cannot, and must do in regards to pension plans. In developing pension plans, employers must consider: membership requirements, benefit formula, plan funding, and vesting. Participants in pension plans must have a non-forfeitable right to 100% of their accrued benefits after 3 years of service under cliff vesting, and 100% by the end of 6 years under a graded vesting schedule. Under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, an employer can require that an employee complete a period of no more than 2 years service to the company before becoming eligible to participate in the plan. If you require more than 1 year of service before eligibility, the plan must grant employees full and immediate vesting rights at the end of that period. D. Pension and Early Retirement means that the company opens up (for a limited time only) the opportunity for employees to retire earlier than usual, with a financial incentive, which is generally a combination of improved or liberalized pension benefits plus a cash payment. E. Improving Productivity Through HRIS: Benefits Management Systems Benefits administration can be an enormously labor-intensive and time-consuming activity for an HR department. One of the main ways HR managers are increasing the productivity of their benefits dollars is by increasing the utilization of technology. NOTES Educational Materials to Use

V.

Personal Services and Family-Friendly Benefits A. Personal Services are being provided by many companies. 1. Credit Unions are usually separate businesses established with the employers assistance to help employees with their borrowing and saving needs. 2. Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) provide employees with counseling and/or treatment for problems such as alcoholism, gambling, or stress. B. Family-Friendly Benefits There are more families in which both adults work, more one-parent households, more women working, and more people over 55 working. On-site child care, fitness and medical facilities, flexible work scheduling, telecommuting, occasional sabbaticals, loan programs for home computers, stock options, concierge services, even insurance for the family pet are all part of the Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 160

compensation package in the new workplace. Employers are increasingly granting fathers time off, or flexible schedules, to take care of the kids. 1. Effects on Performance There is not a lot of evidence to suggest that familyfriendly benefits improve productivity. Many firms implement them as part of broader commitment-building programs. 2. Subsidized Child Care is an increasingly desirable benefit, which tends to improve recruiting results, lower absenteeism, improve morale, garner favorable publicity, and lower turnover. 3. Sick Child Benefits Unexpected absences due to last-minute child care emergencies can be problematic for employers, who then need to hire temporary help or cope with reduced productivity. Emergency child care benefits are being offered by more employers. 4. Elder Care programs are being offered to employers to help employees who must care for elderly who cant fully care for themselves. 5. Other Job-Related Benefits Employers often provide subsidized employee transportation, food services, and educational subsidies. The offer of time off as a performance reward, or increased vacation and holiday benefits can help employees with quality of life issues. The New Workforce: Domestic Partner Benefits Many companies are extending benefits coverage to same-sex domestic partners. Because IRS guidelines do not include such partners in the definition of dependents, there is considerable doubt that these benefits will be tax free. C. Executive Perquisites (perks, for short) include management loans, salary guarantees, protection for executives if their firms become targets of acquisitions or mergers, financial counseling, relocation benefits, time off with pay, outplacement assistance, company cars, chauffeured limousines, security systems, company planes and yachts, executive dining rooms, physical fitness programs, legal services, tax assistance, liberal expense accounts, club memberships, season tickets, credit cards, and childrens education. VI. Flexible Benefits Programs When given the opportunity to choose, employees do prefer flexibility in their benefits plan. A. The Cafeteria Approach (cafeteria benefits plan is generally synonymous with flexible benefits plan) is where each employee is given a benefits fund budget to spend on whichever benefits he/she wants once the employer limits the total cost for each benefits package and includes certain non-optional items. Flexible spending accounts let employees pay for certain benefits expenses with pretax dollars. Core plus option plans establish a core set of benefits, which are usually mandatory for all employees; then the employees can choose from various benefits options. B. Benefits and Employee Leasing Many businesses do not have the resources or employee base to support the cost of employee benefits. Employee leasing firms assume all or most of the employees human resource functions. C. Flexible Work Schedules Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 161

1. Flextime is an arrangement by which employees have flexibility in scheduling their workday around core hours. 2. Compressed Workweeks may consist of four 10-hour days, three 12-hour days, or other such combinations. 3. Effectiveness of Flextime and Compressed Workweek Programs reviews indicated that they increase employee satisfaction and productivity. Some critics are concerned that fatigue and accidents may increase. 4. Other Flexible Work Arrangements there are many other arrangements that employers may offer. Job sharing is when two people share one full-time job. Job sharing can be useful for retirement-aged employees, allowing the company to retain the employee, who experiences reduced hours. Work sharing is when a whole group reduces its hours to prevent layoffs. Telecommuters work at home and use phones and Internet to conduct business. When Youre On Your Own, HR for Line Managers and Entrepreneurs: Benefits and Employee Leasing First Weigh Manufacturing, a 40-employee firm, signed up with ADP Total Source to enable its employees to receive employee benefits and HR services as if they worked for a large firm. Employee leasing firms are assisting smaller firms to handle their employee-related activities. NOTES Educational Materials to Use

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. You are applying for a job as a manager and are at the point of negotiating salary and benefits. What questions would you ask your prospective employer concerning benefits? Describe the benefits package you would try to negotiate for yourself. You should ask sufficient questions about all aspects of the benefits package such that you will come away knowing exactly what benefits you will and will not have. These can be phrased in many ways, but should cover all areas important to the potential employee. Hopefully, students will be far-sighted enough to understand the importance of benefits that might not appear to be critical at this stage of their lives. For example, if students are young and single, they should realize the importance of a good family medical plan as well as a wellfunded retirement plan. 2. What is unemployment insurance? Is an organization required to pay unemployment benefits to all dismissed employees? Explain how you would go about minimizing your organization's unemployment insurance tax. Unemployment insurance provides benefits to an individual who is unable to work through some fault other than his/her own. An organization is not required to pay unemployment benefits to all dismissed employees. You could minimize your organizations unemployment insurance tax by making sure that all your managers understand the unemployment insurance code, train managers and supervisors on discipline and discharge, conduct exit interviews, verify employment claims, file the protest against a former employee's claim on a timely basis, know your local unemployment insurance official, and audit the annual benefit charges statement. 3. Explain how ERISA protects employees pension rights. Under ERISA, pension rights must be vested under one of three formulas. Also, ERISA established the Pension Benefits Guarantee Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 162

Corporation to help ensure that pensions meet vesting obligations; the PBGC also insures pensions should a plan terminate without sufficient funds to meet its vested obligations. 4. What is "portability"? Why do you think it is (or isn't) important to a recent college graduate? Portability is the ability of an employee to take his or her retirement income when they leave an organization and roll it over into a new employer's savings plan or IRA. Today's college graduate may not think about it, but it is important to consider the question of portability. Most college graduates can expect to change employers several times during their career. Having portable retirement plans can help ensure that they end up with a reasonable retirement income. If the plans are not portable, it will take exceptional planning on the employee's part to ensure adequate retirement income. 5. What are the provisions of the FMLA? The FMLA provides the following: 1) private employers of 50 or more employees must provide eligible employees up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for their own serious illness, the birth or adoption of a child, or the care of a seriously ill child, spouse, or parent; 2) employers may require employees to take any unused paid sick leave or annual leaves as part of the 12-week leave provided in the law; 3) employees taking leaves are entitled to receive health benefits while they are on unpaid leave, under the same terms and conditions as when they were on the job; 4) employers must guarantee employees the right to return to their previous or equivalent position with no loss of benefits at the end of the leave; however, the law provides a limited exception from this provision to certain highly paid employees. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP ACTIVITIES 1. Working individually or in groups, find out the unemployment rate and laws of your state. Write a summary detailing your states unemployment laws. Assuming Company X has a 30% rate of personnel terminations, calculate Company Xs unemployment tax rate in your state. Suggest that the students use the Internet to research the unemployment rate and laws for your state. 2. Assume you run a small business. Working individually or in groups, visit the Web site www.dol.gov/elaws. Write a two-page summary explaining: (1) the various retirement savings programs available to small-business employers, and (2) which retirement savings program you would choose for your small business and why. Based on what they learned from the chapter and the results of their Internet search, the students should include at a minimum a 401(k) plan that can be assessed online. 3. You are the HR consultant to a small business with about 40 employees. At the present time the firm offers only five days vacation, five paid holidays, and legally mandated benefits such as unemployment insurance payments. Develop a list of other benefits you believe they should offer, along with your reasons for suggesting them. The specific ones to recommend would depend partly on the profile of the employees of the firm. In the absence of that information, the least costly addition of benefits would be to add some sick leave (or personal days) and consider additional vacation and/or holidays. The next benefit that they might look to would be to add the availability of some kind of health plan that could include a contributory cost to the employee. This would be less expensive to the company and add real value to the employees because of group discounts. 4. The HRCI Test Specifications appendix at the end of this book lists the knowledge someone studying for the HRCI certification exam needs to have in each area of human resource management (such as in Strategic Management, Workforce Planning, and Human Resource Development). In groups of four to five students, do four things: (1) review that appendix now; (2) identify the material in this chapter that relates to the required knowledge the appendix lists; (3) write four multiple-choice exam questions on this material that you believe would be suitable for inclusion in the HRCI exam; and (4) if time permits, have someone from your team post your teams questions in front of the class, so the students in other teams can take each others exam questions. The material in this chapter that relates to the HRCI certification exam includes: unemployment insurance, vacations and holidays, sick leave, parental leave and FMLA, severance pay, Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 163

supplemental unemployment benefits, workers compensation, hospitalization, health and disability insurance, life insurance, benefits for part-time workers, social security, pension plans, pension planning, pensions and the law, pension trends, executive perquisites, and flexible benefits programs. Multiple-choice questions should reflect material in this chapter and should have answer choices which could appear plausible. EXPERIENTIAL EXERCISES & CASES Experiential Exercise: Revising the Benefits Package Students are given a scenario of a small business and its benefits package. Students are to devise a benefits package in keeping with the size and requirements for this firm. This means that they need to carefully balance the costs and the administration requirements with the resources that the small firm has. Application Case: Striking for Benefits 1. Assume you are mediating this dispute. Discuss five creative solutions you would suggest for how the grocers could reduce the health insurance benefits and the cost of their total benefits package without making any employees pay more. It is suggested that you consider giving this exercise as a group assignment. Finding five creative solutions will be challenging, but things that should be considered include: altering deductibles but providing grandfathered employees extra pay to compensate; altering the pay schedule by increasing the pay for existing employees to compensate for additional health care costs passed on to them, but new employees not getting that pay increase; etc. 2. From the grocery chains point of view, what is the downside of having two classes of employees, one of which has superior health insurance benefits? How would you suggest they handle the problem? Morale is a critical problem. Anytime there are two classes, jealousy and resentment increase and morale decreases. Also, administration costs increase. Some of the suggestions in question #1 might avoid the two classes. 3. Similarly, from the point of view of the union, what are the downsides of having to represent two classes of employees, and how would you suggest handling the situation? The lower class employees will feel that they were sold out by the union and may lose faith in the value of the union. Initially the union will be safe because of the larger number of employees in the better group, but eventually that will change. Continuing Case: Carter Cleaning Company The New Benefit Plan 1. Draw up a policy statement regarding vacations, sick leave, and paid days off for Carter Cleaning Centers. The students are likely to create different policy statements, which will reflect their different preferences for benefits. You should get the students to discuss how LearnInMotion.com might allow for flexibility in their pay for time not worked. 2. What would you tell Jennifer are the advantages and disadvantages to Carter Cleaning Centers of providing its employees with health, hospitalization, and life insurance programs? The student should refer to the hospitalization, medical, and disability insurance section of the chapter to develop their lists of advantages and disadvantages. 3. Would you advise establishing some type of day care center for the Carter cleaning employees? Why or why not? A better approach for a small company such as Carter would be to locate a licensed day care provider that would be willing to give a discount to Carter employees. From that starting point, she could then consider whether to subsidize childcare. Translating Strategy into HR Policies and Practice Case: The Hotel Paris The New Benefit Plan The continuing case study of Hotel Paris is discussed here. In this segment Lisa Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 164

Cruz, the HR manager, is working on a new benefit plan. 1. Because employers typically make benefits available to all employees, they may not have the motivational effects of incentive plans. Given this, list five employee behaviors you believe Hotel Paris could try to improve through an enhanced benefits plan, and explain why you chose them. Answers will vary. Some possible answers include calling in sick, leaving early or coming in late, being short with customers or staff, passing illness to other staff members by coming in sick, lack of motivation, etc. 2. Given your answer to question 1, explain specifically what benefits you would recommend the Hotel Paris implement to achieve these behavioral improvements. Flexible benefit plans would allow employees in different age groups, with different needs, to adjust their benefits to their situation. An on-site child care facility or voucher system may be a possibility depending on need.

VIDEO CASE APPENDIX

Video Case 7: Compensation Angelo Hernandez, a recruiter for Focus Pointe, is dissatisfied with his incentive plan. He feels his current plan, which is based on the quantity of recruits he brings to the company, does not fairly reward him for his efforts. Angelo speaks with Chona Castillo in the HR department about reevaluating his incentive plan, and exploring other forms of compensation. This segment discusses how and when incentive plans are best used, as well as alternative methods of compensation: benefits, services, rewards, etc. Video Case 8: Nova Soft Information Technology Nova Soft has grown from a New Jersey-based business with one employee to an international company employing more than 400 people around the world. Neal, the firms founder and head, believes in doing whatever it takes to keep a promise to a client, even if it means working all weekend or staying up all night. While thats fine for the owner, it raises the question of how you keep your employees committed to that sort of continuously high level of effort. At Nova Soft, part of the answer is to provide an enticing incentives and benefits packages. High performers can earn things like overseas vacations for two, a Mercedes-Benz, or Rolex watch when they meet their objectives. For video discussion questions, please visit the Instructors Resource Center at: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/dessler

KEY TERMS
Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 165

benefits supplemental pay benefits unemployment insurance sick leave severance pay supplemental unemployment benefits

Indirect financial and nonfinancial payments employees receive for continuing their employment with the company. Benefits for time not worked such as unemployment insurance, vacation, and holiday pay and sick pay. Provides benefits if a person is unable to work through some fault other than his or her own. Provides pay to an employee when he or she is out of work because of illness. A one-time payment some employers provide when terminating an employee. Provide for a guaranteed annual income in certain industries where employers must shut down to change machinery or due to reduced work. These benefits are paid by the company and supplement unemployment benefits. Provides income and medical benefits to work-related accident victims or their dependents regardless of fault. A prepaid health care system that generally provides routine round-theclock medical services as well as preventative medicine in a clinic-type arrangement for employees, who pay a nominal fee in addition to the fixed annual fee the employer pays. Groups of health care providers that contract with employers insurance companies, or third-party payers to provide medical care services at a reduced fee. Provides lower rates for the employer or employee and includes all employees, including new employees, regardless of health or physical condition. Federal program that provides three types of benefits: retirement income at age 62 and thereafter; survivor's or death benefits payable to the employee's dependents regardless of age at time of death; and disability benefits payable to disabled employees and their dependents. These benefits are payable only if the employee is insured under the Social Security Act. Plans that provide a fixed sum when employees reach a predetermined retirement age or when they can no longer work due to disability. A plan that contains a formula for determining retirement benefits. A plan in which the employer's contribution to employee's retirement or savings funds is specified. Making it easier for employees who leave the firm prior to retirement to take their accumulated pension funds with them. Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 166

worker's compensation health maintenance organization (HMO)

preferred provider organization (PPO) group life insurance

Social Security

pension plans defined benefit pension plan defined contribution plan portability

401(k) plan savings and thrift plan deferred profit-sharing plan employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) vesting

A defined contribution plan based on section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code. Plan where employees contribute a portion of their earnings to a fund; the employer usually matches this contribution in whole or in part. A plan in which a certain amount of profits is credited to each employees account, payable at retirement, termination, or death. A qualified, tax-deductible stock bonus plan in which employers contribute stock to a trust for eventual use by employees. Signed into law by President Ford in 1974 to require that pension rights be vested, and protected by a government agency, the PBGC. Provision that money placed in a pension fund cannot be forfeited for any reason.

Pension Benefits Established under ERISA to ensure that pensions meet vesting Guarantee Corporationobligations; also insures pensions should a plan terminate without (PBGC) sufficient funds to meet its vested obligations. early retirement window employee assistance program (EAP) family-friendly benefits. A type of offering by which employees are encouraged to retire early, the incentive being liberal pension benefits plus perhaps a cash payment. A formal employer program for providing employees with counseling and/ or treatment programs for problems such as alcoholism, gambling, or stress. These generally include benefits like child care, elder care, fitness facilities, and flexible work schedules, benefits that help employees balance their family and work lives. Individualized plans allowed by employers to accommodate employee preferences for benefits. A plan whereby employees workdays are built around a core of mid-day hours, such as 11:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M. Workers determine their own starting and stopping hours. A plan in which employees work fewer days each week, but each day they work longer hours. Arming employees with the information technology tools they need to get their jobs done wherever they are. Allows two or more people to share a full-time job. A temporary reduction in work hours by a group of employees during economic downturns as a way to prevent layoffs.

flexible benefits plan / cafeteria benefits plan flextime

compressed workweek workplace flexibility job sharing work sharing

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 167