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What is urbanization
Increased population in cities due to migration of people from rural areas

Why does it occur?

In search of employment For better education for children For better commodity availability For better health facilities

What is the impact of urbanization on environment?
Increase in population density Closely constructed houses Increased traffic traffic jams More need for resources energy, water, fuel
Stress on locally available resources

Greater pollution air, water, soil waste dumping Increased chance of epidemics Decreased aesthetic appeal of landscape Loss of farmland; Reduced species diversity; Increased stormwater runoff due to construction of pavements.. Increased risk of flooding Excessive removal of native vegetation; Ecosystem fragmentation

Problems related to energy

With fast Urbanization there is an increase in need for energy and in its utilization.
More lighting, transport, electrical devices, industries, more waste and energy required to dispose it,

Increased air pollution and global warming

energy needed to control air and water pollution

This is leading to Stress on non-renewable energy sources Threat to long term sustainability

Important issues on energy management

Urban planning should show concern for Efficient use of energy


Transportation network should be proper no traffic congestion and no pollution Cities should be planned well for proper ventilation and drainage so that need for energy is reduced

How do we conserve energy?

Search for renewable resources
Tidal, wind, Biomass, Solar, Geothermal, Alternative fuel cells like Hydrogen cell

Save energy:
Switch off lights and fans when you leave a room Use more of public transport Use energy efficient devices And others which you have already studied..

Reduce water demand in Agriculture Rainwater harvesting and watershed management Other methods of water conservation
Measures that can be taken by individuals

Water its conservation

Measures in Agriculture: Decreasing run-off losses
Contour cultivation, terracing Barren land runoff is more so Cover soil with crops/vegetation Ploughing

Water its conservation

Reducing evaporation losses
Application of organic materials like manure and compost : they retain more water and prevents run off Chemical methods are available
Use of asphalt sheets below the soil Super slurper copolymer of acrylonitrile and starch retains 35-40% of moisture

Planting trees on the edges of fields

Storing water in soil:

Some water is stored in soil in the root zone. If the land is left fallow for some time that water will become available

Water its conservation

Reduce irrigation losses
Covered canals to reduce seepage Irrigation in early morning or evening Sprinklers Use of less water requiring hybrid varieties Drip irrigation

Treated water: Desalinization like reverse osmosis distillation, electrodialysis Water from washings bath tubs etc (grey water) for watering gardens

Water its conservation

Stop wastage
Close taps Repair leaks Use small capacity flush

Increase block pricing

Put a charge on water.

Introduce proper laws Educate people

Rainwater Harvesting
What is it and why do we need it?

Problems Associated with Water

Why are some of the Cities like Chennai facing water problems Less rainfall?

Compare rainfall in 5 Indian cities

35.0 30.0 rainfall in Inches 25.0 20.0 15.0





5.0 September February January 0.0

November December October August March June April July May


Bangalore gets 37annually but the rainfall is more spread out. Delhi = 32.1 Mumbai=120 Calcutta=62.3

India has 2 seasons Floods and Drought


It is a technique of increasing the recharge of groundwater by capturing and storing rainwater. This is done by construction of special water harvesting structures like dug wells, percolation pits, lagoons, check dams etc.

Reduce run off loss Avoid flooding of roads Meet the increasing demands of water Raise the water table Reduce groundwater contamination Supplement groundwater supplies during lean season

Methods of rainwater harvesting are,



Storing in tanks or reservoirs above or below ground Constructing pits, dug wells, lagoons trenches or check dams on rivers and streams By recharging groundwater

Roof top Rain Water harvesting

1. Rain water collected on the roof 2. Flows thru drain pipe 3. First flush - discard some initial water 4. Water flows thru a filter - bottom to top (sponge is filter) 5. Store in a sump 6. Pump water to tank 7. Water pumped up 8. Store in a overhead tank - to house 9. Overflow from sump charges the aquifer

Rain water 8 1 tank House - Top floor 2 filter 4 5 sump 9 6 pump House - Ground floor 3 Ground level

Rural water harvesting

Check dams along a river - Rajasthan


What were the good deeds of Asoka? In ancient India there were lakes and ponds in every village constructed by kings In Rajsthan underground tanks and embankments were found In Himalayan regions bamboo pipes were used to draw water from streams Collecting rain water from roof-tops is one of the oldest techniques in India In villages lake cut ponds were made In Tamilnadu, they had separate such ponds for bathing, washing and drinking.

Watershed management

watershed diagram
(Note the border dashed line)

The term watershed describes An area of land that drains downslope to the lowest point. It is defined as the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off it goes into the same place. The water moves through a network of drainage pathways, both underground and on the surface. Generally, these pathways converge into streams and rivers, which become progressively larger as the water moves on downstream, eventually reaching an esturay and the ocean. Watersheds have a well-defined boundary and one water outlet. Other terms used interchangeably with watershed include drainage basin or catchment basin.

Importance of watershed
It is directly involved in food production Irrigation Power generation Transportation (water line)

Problems with watershed

Watershed is degraded due to improper land management:
overgrazing mining deforestation construction activities and industrialization, shifting cultivation, fires, soil erosion and ignorance of local people

It is defined as Rational utilization of land and water resources for optimum production causing minimum damage to the natural resources Its objectives are To restore watershed through proper land use soil conservation and moisture retention To make watershed available for domestic water supply, irrigation hydropower generation in a sustainable manner To minimize the risks of floods, drought and landslides To develop rural areas in the region to improve their economy

Watershed Practices
1. 2.

Water harvesting: Proper storage of water Afforestation and Agroforestry ( Half forest half agricultural)
Help prevent soil erosion and retention of moisture In high rainfall areas woody trees reduce runoff Done in Dehradun


Mechanical measures
Terracing, no-till farming, contour cropping, strip cropping etc

Watershed Practices


Scientific mining: Planting some soil binding plants to minimize destruction to watershed Public participation:
Farmers and tribals are key to the success of watershed management So, peoples cooperation should be encouraged. NGO are encouraged they work either with or without local peoples cooperation

Case studies: Himalayan regions, Sukhomajri Panchkula, Haryana

Resettlement and Rehabilitation Issues

Resettlement means, The transportation of people (as a family or colony) to a new settlement (as after an upheaval of some kind) Rehabilitation means, The restoration of someone to a useful place in society
They should grow back to a respectable position with respect to culture and economy

Need for resettlement and rehabilitation: Displacements occur

For construction of dams For Mining For creation of National park

People migrate voluntarily

In search of better employment To escape epidemics Wars

Problems Resettelement and Rehabilitation

Land acquisition act, 1894 empowers government to acquire land Amended later - Compensations are also fixed in the act Still several problems exist Mostly displaced are tribals that are already poor. They become poorer lose their homes, jobs, food security, and social isolation They may need to take up small jobs and lose their respect in the society. Often families are broken down Tribals are not familiar with market policies. If they get cash compensation they do not know how to manage and sustain with that. Tribals community is lost Their culture is lost their dances, folk-songs, and other activities are lost. Their age old knowledge on flora and fauna are lost



3. 4.

5. 6.


Problems Resettelement and Rehabilitation


2. 3.

Big dam people get more compensation than smaller projects Delays in compensation Women are more affected. When men go to work, women cannot survive on their own They do not get any compensation and become dependent on their husbands. Otherwise, they may need to take cheap jobs and lose their selfrespect

Environmental Ethics
It is the discipline that studies the moral relationship of human beings to and also the value and moral status of, the environment and its nonhuman contents. Concept started in 1970 - First Earth day Our thinking is of two types:
Human (anthropo) centric: All development should benefit humans what ever may happen to the nature Earth Centric thinking: Nature has given us so much so we have to respect and nurture it.

Environmental Ethics
Human centric view: (Developed in industrial societies)
Man is the most important species of the planet Earth has unlimited resources and they belong to man More the economic growth more is the development Health environment depends on healthy economy Success of mankind depends on how good managers we are

Environmental Ethics
Eco- centric view:
Nature is for all the species not just for man Earths resources are limited Economic growth is good till sustainable development persists Healthy economy requires healthy environment Success depends on how best we can cooperate

Environmental Ethics
Earth Centric thinking is correct Several philosophies are expressed List of questions investigated by EE
Putting out natural fires and reducing some overgrown population of species is correct or wrong? Slash and burn techniques in non industrialized techniques are they morally correct or wrong? Should a mining company be morally obligated to restore the land? What is the value of humanly restored land compared to naturally formed ecosystems

Intrinisic and Instrumental value Instrumental means usefulness to others Instrumental value means it has a value as a tool for something else. Eg: Fruits are have instrumental value to bats as bats eat fruits to survive; so fruits are a tool for bats to achieve survival Similarly, Text books are instrumental to students to obtain knowledge

Uses of EE:



It actually helped us in differentiating between eco-centric and anthropocentric development and helped us towards sustainable development. It helps us in judging the dos- and donots for an eco-friendly life It helps in generating moral responsibility in individuals towards our envinronment

Ethics 10 commandments
1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9. 10.

Love and honour the Earth Celebrate the turning of its seasons Should not think man is superior to other species so we can exploit them Should be grateful to the animals and plants that nurture you Limit your offspring Do not waste resources Should not hide from others the effects you have caused to earth Do not steal future generations their right to live in a clean environment Should consume only moderately. Do not go for gains at the expense of nature.