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Contents

Chapter I Properties of the Atmosphere l.l The Atmosphere 1.2 Gas Composition 1.3 Regionsof the Atmosphere 1.4 Temperature 1.5 Pressure 1.6 Density 1.7 PerformanceCeilinss 1.8 The Gas Laws 1.9 The InternationalStandardAtmosphere l.l0 Speeds Chapter l: Test Yourself Chapter 2 Aerodynamics- Basic Principlesof Airflow 2.1 AtmosphericPressure 2.2 StreamlineFlow 2.3 Flow Continuity 2.4 Venturi Effect 2.5 Stagnation 2.6 MeasuringAirspeed Chapter 2: Test Yourself Chapter 3 Aerodynamics- Aerofoils and Actions (Definitions) 3.1 Chord Line 3.2 Mean Camber Line 3.3 Thickness/Chord Ratio ("FinenessRatio") 3.4 Angle of Attack 3.5 Angle of incidence 3 . 6 W a s hO u t 3.1 WashIn 3.8 Wing Area 3.9 Mean Chord (Geometric) 3.10 TaperRatio 3 . 1 I A s p e c tR a t i o 3.12 Wing Loading 3 . 1 3 S w e e pA n g l e 3.14 Dihedral 3.15Anhedral 3 . 1 6 A x e s a n d F l i g h t C o n t r o l s( P r i m a r yC o n t r o l s ) ll ll ll ll l2

t4
L I

l9 20 2l 2l 22 23
ZJ

24
AA

25 26 27 27 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 3l
J I

3l 3l 3l
J I

JZ

PRINCIPLES FLICHT OF 3 . l 7 A l t e r n a t i v eF o r m s o f C o n t r o l Chapter 3: Test Yourself Chapter4 Drag 4.1 Introduction Drag) 4.2 Profile Drag (Parasite Chapter 4: Test Yourself Chapter 5 Lift 5.1 Introduction Distribution 5.2 (a) Pressure (b) Pressure Gradients (c) Lift Equation ( d t L i f t / D r a gR a t i o (e) Movement of the Centre of Pressure (f) Spanwise Distribution of Pressure Chapter 5: Test Yourself Chapter 6 InducedDrag 6. I Introduction 6.2 Drift Effect 6.3 Downwash 6.4 Span Effect 6.5 Summary of Effects Chapter 6: Test Yourself Chapter 7 Total Drag 'l .l Introduction 1.2 Wave Drag 7.3 Summary: Check List Chapter 7: Test Yourself Chapter 8 Stalling 8.1 Introduction 8.2 The Determining Factor 8.3 The Cause 8.4 Alleviation 8.5 The Effect of Engine Power 8.6 Constancy 8.1 Weight Effect 8.8 Loading in Turns 8.9 Effect of Shape 8.10 The Position of the Centre of Gravity 8 . 1I I c i n g 8.12 Stall Warning Device 8 .l 3 S p i n n i n g 8 . 1 4 T h e D e e pS t a l l
JJ

34 35 35 35 40 4l 4l
A'

43 44 45 4l 48 49 5l 5l 5l
>.1

52 53
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56 56 58 59 60 62 62 62 62 63 64 64 64 65 65 66 67 67 67 68

CONTENTS Detail Calculationsand Factors Affecrins StallingSpeedand StallingAngle 8.16 Wing Tip Stalling 8.17 The Effect of Aspect Ratio on the Stalling Angle 8.l8 The Effect of Sweepback the StallingAngle on 8.l9 The Effect of Flap on the StallingAngle Chapter 8: Test Yourself Chapter 9 Spinning 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Phases the Spin of 9.3 Motion of the Aircraft 9.4 Balanceof Forcesin the Spin Effect of Attitude on Spin Radius 9.5 9.6 Angular Momentum 9.7 Inertia Moments in a Spin 9.8 AerodynamicMoments 9.9 Spin Recovery 9. l0 GyroscopicCross-coupling BetweenAxes Chapter 9: Test Yourself Chapter 10 Wing Planforms 10.I Introduction 10.2 Aspect Ratio 10.3 Aspect Ratio and Induced (Vortex) Drag 10.4 Aspect Ratio and Stalling Angle 10.5 Use of High Aspect Ratio 10.6 The Effectsof Taoer 10.7 StallPatterns 10.8 Sweepback 10.9 Alleviating the Tip Stall 1 0 . 1 0P i t c h - U p l0.ll ForwardSweep 1 0 . 1 2D e l t a W i n g s 10.l3 Polymorphic ircraft A 1 0 . l 4 C a n a r dD e s i g n 1 0 . 1 5S u m m a r y Chapter l0: Test Yourself Chapter ll Flight Controls I l. I Introduction 11.2 Inset Hinge I 1.3 Horn Balance ll.4 Balance ab T I L5 ServoTab I 1.6 Anti-Balance ab T 8-l5

72 14 75 76 78 80 80 80 8l 84 84 85 81 88 93 99 104 105 105 105 105 106 101 t01 ll0 lll ll9 121 124 t26 129
l-1 I

l3l

t34 135 135 136 131 137 138 138

P R I N C I P LO S F L I G H T EF ll.7 InternalBalance I 1.8 MassBalance Due to RudderDeflection Roll Tendency I 1.9 Adverse ChapterI l: TestYourself Chapter12 Tabs 12.l Introduction 12.2 ControlLocks Chapterl2: TestYourself Chapter13 High Lift Devices l3.l Introduction 13.2 Typesof Flap EdgeSlots 13.3 Leading 13.4 Slats 13.5 SlatControl Layer 13.6 TheBoundary Flap Combination 13.7 Slatand Slotted Chapterl3: TestYourself Chapter14 Stability 14. Introduction I 14.2 Definitions 14.3 StaticStability Stability 14.4 Directional 14.5 Trim Point(StickFixed) 14.6 DynamicStability 14.1 Summary Chapterl4: TestYourself 139 149 142 145 147 t47 l5l l5l 153 153

r53
156 157 159 159 l6l 163 165 165 165

r65
t61 173 186 192 t94

196 in Chapter15 Forces Flight 196 I 5.I Introduction 196 Moments 15.2 Pitching 198 GlidingandTurning of I 5.3 Effects Climbing, 198 (a)Climbing 203 (b) Forcesin a Glide 205 (c)Turning Pointsto Note 208 Essential (d) Turningand Manoeuvres: 216 Chapter15: TestYourself Flight 16 High Speed Chapter I 6.I Introduction 16.2 Definitions 16.3 Airflow of 16.4 Speed Sound Waves 16.5 Shock 16.6 WaveDras 218 218 218 219 219 221 223

CONTENTS 16.7 Reductionof WaveDrag 16.8 Effectsof Compressibility Lift on 16.9 Supersonic in Cr Fall 16.10Effectsof Increasing Mach No on Stability Chapter16: TestYourself Chapterl7 Fundamental Manoeuvres Their and Effects,Trim and EngineFailure 17.l Introduction 17.2 Lift 17.3 Lift Relatedto Camber 17.4 Yaw to Port (Conventional and Keel Surface) Fin 17.5 Yaw to Port (LargeFin and Keel Surface) l7 .6 Increase Speed of Whilst MaintainingLevel Flight at a Constant Altitude 11.7 StallingAngle 17.8 Stalling Speed 17.9 Multi-EnginedAircraft 17.10Minimum ControlSpeed Chapterl7: TestYourself

224 224 227 221 230 232 232 232 233 233 234 234 235 235 235
ztt

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244 2M 244 245 245 248 251 254 258 259 260 260 260 260 261 263 264 268 271 281 282 284

Chapter18 DuplicateInspection Controls of l8.l Pilot Responsibility 18.2 Control System Defrnition 18.3 DuplicateInspection Control Systems of 18.4 Persons Authorisedto Certify DuplicateInspections 18.5 Flying Control Systems 18.6 ControlCables 18.7 CableTensioning 18.8 Mechanical Stops Chapter18: TestYourself Chapterl9 Aircraft Construction l9.l Aircraft StructuralDesisn 19.2 Definitions 19.3 Designing New Aircraft a 19.4 The Design 19.5 Structural Rigidity 19.6 Flutter 19.7 The Structure 19.8 WingConstruction Chapterl9: TestYourself SomeMore Key Points FrNarTEsr

Properties theAtmosphere of

1.1 TheAtmosphere
The gaseous envelope surroundingthe Earth is calledthe atmosphere. Thereis no defined upperlimit to theatmosphere, much of this study but is limited to the first 60,000 wheremost aviationactivity is conducted. ft 1.2 Gas Composition Gasesare found in the atmosphere the following proportions by in volume: Nitrogen Oxygen Othergases 78% 2l% l% (egargon, carbondioxide, watervapour)

Oxygen is essentialfor the sustenanceof life and the combustion of materials. In the context of aviation, oxygen is required for the combustion of fuel, a deficiency of this gas resulting in incomplete burning and reduced engine efficiency. Water vapour is presentin the atmospherein varying proportions, and is responsible for the weather around the earth, which in turn affects aircraft operations and performance. Additionally the presenceof water vapour may causeicing of the airframe or engine which may impair an aircraft's performance.

1.3 Regions the Atmosphere of Theatmospheredivided is into a number layers: of


(a) The Troposphere where temperature decreases with increase of height.In this regionnearlyall significant weatheroccurs. (b) The Tropopause the upper limit of the tropospherewheretemperaturestopsdecreasing with an increase height.The tropopause of is therefore the upper limit of significant weather, thefirst point of
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PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT and additionally it is the region fot maximum wind lowesttemperature, strengths. of varies with latitude,season theyear, The heightof thetropopause and prevailingweatherconditionswith the resultthat it is usually in higherin low latitudes, summerand in fine weather. are: for Typicalheights the tropopause Latitude Equator 45'N/S Poles (c) Height Tropopause lGlT km 10-12km 7Yz-9km

ft 53,000-57,000 ft 33,000-39,000 ft 25,000-29,000

from the tropopauseto approximately50 extends TheStratosphere being steadyor by km amsl,and is characterised the temperature with height. increasing extendsfrom 50 km to 80 km. The temperature The Mesosphere with generally decreases height. with increases wheretemperature or The Thermosphere lonosphere, height.

(d) (e)

1.4 Temperature (a) Units or most commonlyusedare Celsius Centigrade, scales The temperature and Kelvin or Absolute. Fahrenheit on are The first two scales based themeltingpoint of ice,being0"C and and 32"F respectively, the boiling point of water,being100'C or 212"F. Being a form of energy,heat is relatedto the random movementof becomeless the If in molecules a substance. heat is reduced, molecules is be reduced can to The minimumtemperature whicha substance active. -273'C, and this is known as Absolute zero,or OoK. approximately the cbrrespondingly, meltingpoint of iceis equivalentto273"K and the boilingpoint of waterto 373"K. scaleto another,the following To ionvert from one temperature formulaemav be used:

p =!

+32

t = (F-32) i
K =C + 273
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PROPERTIES ATMOSPHERE OFTHE (b) Temperature Variation in the Troposphere At ground level,in general, temperature the increases with decrease of latitude. With increasing altitude, conductive convective the and effects from the eartharereduced that temperature usuallydecrease heightup so will with to the tropopause. Fig. l-1. See Typicalvaluesof temperature found at the tropopause are: Latitude Equator 45"N/S Poles
Temperature

-80'c
-56'C -45'C

Thereis, therefore, reversal temperatures a of with latitudein comparison to thosefound at groundlevel.This is partly because tropopause the is higherat the equatorand the temperature decrease effective is over a greater height.
27,00oft -45.6

Figure -1 1

(c) LapseRates The temperature decrease with increase heightis referredto as lapse of rate. A representative valueof 2'Cl1000ft is a typical valuefor the troposphere,and this figure is used as the reference the Jet Standard for (JSA). Atmosphere
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O FF PRINCIPLES LIGHT The InternationalStandardAtmosphere(ISA) usesthe comparable ft. valueof 1.98"C/1000 dry between (that is, not purposes, differentiation For meteorological lapseratesis made,and the valuesof aaiaUatic and saiurated saturated) of are ft 3'C/1000ft and 1.5'C/1000 respectively used.The difference of by air lapserate for saturated is caused the release latent heat during change. thus reducingthe temperature condensation, and (d) Temperature Aircraft Performance resultsin a reductionof of an givenpressure, increase temperature Ai a density. a airframeperformance, reductionof density(p) Firitly, considering the by (L). This may be counteracted increasing true airspeed iift reduces (v) to achieve requiredamountof lift (L): the L = C, %pv'S
where: and Cr_= coefficient of lift S = surface area Thus: Ct lz pY2S

take-off of is The dynamicpressure gainedat the expense an increased of to run according the stage flight' run, cruisingTAS or landing of with increase temperature: On the credit side,drag (D) reduces D = Co t/rpY2S of is performance relatedto the temperature the air A pistonengine's the head.The higherthetemperature, lower beingdrawninlo theiylinder mixturethat canbeburnt in thecombusand thed-ensity weighiof fuel/air fallswith increase therefore The tion cham-ber. po*.etoutput of theengine of temperature. pistonor jet, system, For a propulsion to Thrust = Massof air x Acceleration which air is subjected the will of Thus an increase temperature reduce massflow and, therethe thrust. fore 1.5 Pressure (a) Definition on is Pressure the forceexerted a unit area,ie: pressure= Eorce - Mass x Acceleration Area Area
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PROPERTIES ATMOSPHERE OFTHE molepressure caused the massof the gaseous is by In the atmosphere, culesactingunder the forceof gravity on a givenarea.As all molecules to can actundergravitythenthepressure alsobeconsidered betheweight of a columnof air on a unit area.

Figure -2 1

(b) Units The metric units of pressureare dynes per square centimetre, where the dyne is the force required to accelerateI gram by I centimetre per second. The System International units of pressure are Newtons per square metre, where the Newton is the force required to accelerateI kilogram by I metre per second.The Newton is therefore, equal to l0s dynes. Although largely obsolete, the Imperial system of units is still is in and pressure expressed pounds per squareinch. encountered, In meteorology the unit of pressure is the millibar (mb), which is equivalent to 1000dynes per square centimetre. Before the introduction of the millibar, meteorological pressurewas measuredin terms of the length of a column of mercury in a barometer i that the weight of the atmospherecould support. l5

P R I N C I P LO F F L I G H T ES

-1*..,, corumn of

l'"*""
1 Figure -3

I of Mlrcury to I Proportional

(c) Variation of Pressurein the Atmosphere generallyvariesbetween950 and 1050mb. In tropAt sealevel,pressure may fall much ical revolving storms and tornadoes,however,pressures lower. and so the altitude the massof overlying air decreases With increasing valuesof the International StandardAtmosphere pressure falls. Pressure are given below: Altitude Pressure Pressure Pressure Pressure

(ft) 40.000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0

(mb) t87.6 300.9 465.6 696.8 1013.25

(psi) 2.12 4.36 6.' 75 l0.lI 14.7

(in HG)

(mm HG)

29.92

760

ft, From the table it should be noted that at about 18,000 the pressure is half the sealevel value. with decrease Also, it should now be apparentthat the rate of pressure falls at a rate of ft, height is not constant.In the first 10,000 the pressure ft approximatelyI mb per 30 ft but between30,000 and 40,000ft the presis decrease closerto I mb per 88 ft. sure 16

PROPERTIES ATMOSPHERE OFTHE (d) Pressure Altitude The altitudeat which a given pressure occursin the International is StandardAtmosphere calledthe pressure altitude. the weredeterIf, for example, pressure the top of Mount Everest at mined as 300.9mb, then the pressure altitudewould be 30,000 ft. meansealevelconditions,and two columnsof air Assuming same the then the cold air would of the sameheight,but differingtemperatures, The massthan the warm air due to the densitydifference. havea greater pressure the atmosphere, however, caused the massof overlying of is by molecules a unit area.The pressure on abovethe columnof warm air is thereforehigherthan that abovecold air. Because higher pressure a is found at a lowerlevel,thenthepressure altitudeabovewann air is lower than thepressure altitudeabove cold air. Alternativelyit canbeexpressed that the true altitudeof an aircraftis more than that indicated(assuming has above the correctmeansealevelpressure beenset on the subscale) waffn air, and lessthan that indicatedabovecold air. (Fig l- )
PressureCorrespondingTo 700mb ano A PressureAltitude Of 10.000ft

' ( l eWarm ss dense)

1013mb (valuesare approximate)

1013mb

Figure 1-4

1.6 Density
(a) Definition Density is the massper unit volume of a substance,at a specifiedtemperature and pressure.

DensitV= Mass Volume


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OFFLICHT PRINCIPLES (b) Units metricor in bensity is expressed grams,ot kilogramsper cubicmetre_for The respectively. Imperialunits are poundsper cubicfeet. SI uniti, Factorsaffectingdensitywhen consideringa gasare: Pressure DensitY = Gasconstant x Absolutetemperature increases of an therefore, increase pressure For a given temperature, increaSes in temperature a density,or, at a given pressure, decrease density. (c) Variation of Densityin the Atmosphere 1.20and 1.55kg per cu m, the higher viry between Ai sealevel,densities of with the colder temperatures higher valuesbeing usuallyassociated latitudes. and the lower valuestypical of Equatorial latitudes, by is in Air at lower levels the atmosphere compressed the massof the and reduces air mass altitude,the overlying overlyingair. With increasing pressure. in resulting further reductionof can now-expand, but also decreases, at a rate altitudethe temperature With incieasing with height. decreases Density,therefore, lower than the pressure. are Density valuis of the InternationalStandardAtmosphere shown below: Density Density Altitude m] [lb/cu ft] [kg/cu tftl 0.019 0.302 40,000

30,000 20,000 10,000


0

0.458 0.653 0.905


1.225

0.029 0.041 0.056 0.077

ft, At about 22,000 the densityis half the sealevelvalue' that densityat sealeveltendsto be higherat the We havealreadyseen Polesthan at the Equator. However,at 26,000ft, the densityvalue is similarat all latitudes. (d) Variation of Densitywith Humidity is atmosphere equalto the sumof the individual of ihe total pressure th-e than that for dry of The bf pressures tn. gases. preisure moist air is less From the gasequation, the iir, and so humiditydecreases total pressure. in results a lowerdensity'The that tirereductionin pressure it canbe seen greater humidity,the lower the density. the
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PROPERTIES ATMOSPHERE OFTHE (e) DensityAltitude This is definedas the altitudein the InternationalStandard Atmosphere at which a givendensityis found. Aircraft performance largely dependenton density altitude as is opposed true or pressure to altitude. (f) DensityandPerformance The effectsof densityon lift, drag,power and thrust havebeenconsideredin the section concerning temperature. Thereare,however, additionaleffects densityperformance. of Above about 300kt TAS, air becomes significantlycompressed, and locally increases density.At much higher speeds the this may give a markedincrease drag,and whenincreasing in altitude,this canoffsetthe otherwise reducing dragvalue. A similar compressibility effectincreases drag on a propellerblade, reducingits efficiency, particularlyat higheraltitudes. A jet engine's performance, however,is enhanced this compressby ,ibility effectas massflow is improved. (g) Air Densityandthe HumanBody The reduced densityof air with increasing altitudemeansthat in a given volume of air breathed the oxygencontenthas decreased. in, Above 10,000 this reductionleadsto hypoxia,its effectsrangingfrom lack of ft judgementto sleepiness collapse, or according height. to At night, the reduced intakeof oxygenimpairsnight visionat altitudes of4.000 ft and above. To counter theseproblems,aircraft operatingabove l0;000 ft must havean enriched oxygensupply,eitherin conjunctionwith a pressurised cabin,or through facemasks.At night, ideally,oxygenshouldbe availablefrom groundlevelupwards. 1.7 PerformanceCeilings (a) ServiceCeiling This is defined the altitudeat whichthe rateof climb of an aircraftfalls as to a specified figure,usually100ft per minute. (b) Absolute Ceiling The absolute ceilingis the altitudeat whichthe rateof climb of an aircraft falls to zero. (c) Piston-Engined Aircraft For such aircraft, operatingunder 26,000ft, then the improved
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PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF will densityfound in winter in high latitudes givethe highest atmospheric ceiling. (d) Jet-Engined Aircraft ft, above26,000 thenthebestperforaircraftoperate As mostjet-engined tropopause lowesttemperature, and ceilingwill be found at the highest mance and at low latitudes. ie in summer, 1.8 The Gas Laws Introduction Whilst air is not an ideal gas,it doesconform,within closelimits, to the resultsof Boyle'sand Charles'laws. (a) Boyle'sLaw is temperature inversely of The volume(V) of a givenmass gasat constant (P): proportionalto pressure VxlorPV=constant P in This canbe expressed the form: PrVr=PrV, (b) Charles'Law by pressure, increases 11273 The volumeof a givenmassof gasat constant of its volumeat 0"C for everyl"C risein temperature: VxKorV=constant K belowis alsouseful: expression The alternative Vr - Vz Kz Kr (c) Combined Boyle'sandCharles'LawEquation the expressing in of The results both lawsmay becombined oneequation, volume and behaviourof a gas under varying conditionsof pressure, temperature: PtV, = PzVe K2 Kr

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PROPERTIES THEATMOSPHERE OF

Atmosphere Standard 1.9 The International


and comparison, In order to providea datum for aircraft performance set instrument calibration, an assumed of conditions has been deterreflect conditionsdo not necessarily these mined.Whilst representative, The actualconditionsin the atmosphere. valuesusedarelistedbelow: (i) per ft at l5'C at msl,anddecreasing 1.98"C 1,000 to Temperature remainsconstantat 36,090ft (ll km) where the temperature -56.5'C ft until65,6l7 (20km). mb 1013.25 at msl. Pressure Densityl.225kglcu m at msl.

(ii) (iii)

1 .10 Speeds (a) of (IAS) The dynamicpressure air againsta Airspeed Indicated wherep = density, is airspeed, equalto YzpY2, vehicle, indicated or indicator,calibratedto ISA, An and V = true airspeed. airspeed as records dynamicpressure a speed. the meansealevelconditions then it means the If, for example, indicatedreadingwere 200 kt, is that the dynamicpressure the sameas it would be at a true air conditionsat meansealevel. of speed 200kt at standard correctedfor (RAS) The indicatedairspeed, RectifiedAirspeed instrumentand positionerrors(IE and PE). correctedfor (EAS) The rectifiedairspeed Airspeed Equivalent is (C). It shouldbe noted that compressibility compressibility quantitY. alwaysa subtracted True Airspeed('tAS) The equivalentairspeedcorrectedfor density. are indicators corrected airspeed Airspeed(cAS)Some Calibrated is airspeed thevalue Calibrated levelcompressibility. for meansea for corrected instrumentand positionerrors. of this reading, (Mn) Mach numberis the ratio of TAS to the local Mach Number of sound(LSS). speed

(b) (c)

(d) (e)

(0

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P R I N C I P LO S F L I C H T EF

Chapter1: TestYourself.
I With increasing altitudepressure decreases and: a) temperature decreases the samerate aspressure at reduces. decreases at a higherratethan pressure but reduces. b) temperature c) temperature decreases at a lower ratethan pressure but reduces. remains constant 8,000ft. to d) temperature Ref para 1.4 2 Density= ; a) Mass Volume b) Volume Mass c) Volume x Mass d) Massx Temperature Ref para 1.6 of 3 Total pressure air will: a) not be affected temperature. by with increased humidity. b) increase humidity. c) reduce with increased d) not be affected moisture. by Ref para 1.5 in results in: 4 A reduction air pressure change density. in a) no significant b) a reductionin density. in c) an increase density. d) erraticvariationsin density. Refpara1.6 ceilingof an aircraftis the altitudeat which the: 5 The absolute a) rateof climb falls to zero. b) rate of climb falls to 50ft/min. c) rateof climb falls to l00ft/min. value. d) rateof climb hasa negative Ref para 1.7

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-rfi3il. Aerodynamics Principles of

Pressure 2.1 Atmospheric


pressure In the previous chapterit wasshownthat the atmosphere exerts which exertsa force on all bodies,is at all times.This type of pressure, and acts equally in all directions.When air is in calledstaticpressure motion, however,it possesses additionalenergy(kineticenergy)due an the to thefactthat it is moving,andthefasterit moves morekineticenergy it has.If movingair is now broughtto restagainst someobject,thekinetic This pressure the surface the of energy. on energyis turnedinto pressure pressare. The the body whichcauses movingair to stop is calleddynamic depends the densityof the air and its speed on valueof dynamicpressure as: and may be expressed Dynamicpressure'= %pV2 studies. This is an important equationwhich affectsall aerodynamic staticpressure As shownin Fig 2-l anyobjectin still air will experience in all directions an objectwhich is moving,or is placedin a moving but an will experience additionalpressure to the moving air due airstream, beingbroughtto rest.

S t i l lA i r

MovingAir

Figure 2-1

slow,say 100kt, the If the speed the moving air is comparatively of exertedby it is quite small in relation to the static dynamic pressure 23

OFFLICHT PRINCIPLES will pressure sealevel.In fact the dynamicpressure only amountto less at to, is the If, staticpressure. however, speed increased say ihan2% of the of to piessure rises considerably, about30%o the static 450kt, thedynamic the It pressure. is imporlant to note that at low speeds densityof the air and the air can in changes pressure by affected these is not significantly say however, in fluid. At high speeds, as be considered an incompressible no longerbe madeand the changes can of excess 300kt, this assumption signifrcant. become in densitydue to compressibility 2.2 Streamline Flow around It is usefulto illustratethe path followedby air when it passes is A streamline the and the idiom usedis that of streamlines. fixedobjects particledoes path trated out by a singleparticleof airflow suchthat this not crossthe path of any other.This can be illustratedby droppingdye into a streamof water and watchingthe visiblepath of the dye when it are moveswith the water.Streamlines illustratedinFig2-2-

Figure Streamlines 2-2

2.3 FlowContinuity
when waterflows down a tubethe principleof continuityof flow applies and the massflow in the tube is the sameat anypoint along its length. This rule appliesevenif the tube is not of constantdiameterand this is flow at A, B and c is at showhin the diagram Fig 2-3.Themass clearly areaof the the sameso if the densityof the wateris p the crosssectional of tube'a'andthespeed thewateris'v'then: Massflow = pav that the massflow at any point A = the The continuitytheoremstates massflow at point B = the massflow at point C.
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- BASIC PRINCIPLES AIRFLOW OF AERODYNAMICS

f
A

t
B Figure 2-3 Mass Flow

2.4 VenturiEffect
In a venturi tube,that is a tube that hasa constrictionin it, as shownin even flow is alwaysa constant mass rule still applies; Fig2-4,theprevious is the pressure If, therefore, if ihe tubels not of constantdiameter. the venturi,it can be said: at measured points I and2 in
= P,O,V, PrOrY,

area sectional then the Considering fluid asincompressible, asthecross v' speed must areaa2the biggerthan the crosssectional a, is considerably through vr. be lessthan the speed In other words,as the flow passes

Point 1

P o i n t2

Figure24 Venturi

when This can often be seen of the venturi the speed the fluid increases. how observing watchingthe flow of a river through the arch of a bridge the water\peedsup as it flows through the arch or constriction.The with this flow are shownin Fig 2'4.|t can be seen associated streamlines throughtheventuri. as draw closertogether theypass that thestreamlines Moving awayfrom the conceptof the tube to that of an aircraftwing, of that dueto thecurvature the wing in asillustrated Fig 2-5it canbe seen the uppersurface between a on its uppersurface venturihasbeencreated will aboveit. The streamlines be air and the undisturbed somedistance the air will be similar to those in Fig 2-4 and, of course,the flow of throughthe venturi. as in increased speed it passes
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P R I N C I P LO F F L I G H T ES

-t-f
Point1 P o i n t2

Figure 2-5 Aerofoil

(a) Bernoulli's Theorem. During the lastcenturyBernoulliput forwardhis theoremstatingthat the (ie total pressure static+ dynamic)in a fluid is constant no work is done if by it or on it. = TotalpressureH S + YrpY'-constant. Referringback to Fig 2-5 and looking at the point aheadof the wing marked I we can find the total pressure this point: at H , S ,* Y I P , Y , t . at Similarlythe total pressure thepoint marked2 canalsobeexpressed
AS:

Hr = S, + VrPrY r' theoremstates that the total pressure a fluid is in However,Bernoulli's constant,thereforethesetwo expressions must equal each other. Therefore: S, + %p,V,'= S, * t/rprYrt the factor and knowingthe speed Considering densityto be a constant at at point I is lessthan the speed point 2, it follows that the pressure at point I must be higherthan the pressure point 2. To put it differently at thereis a reductionin pressure over the upper surfaceof the wing as a result of Bernoulli'sTheorem.It is this reductionin pressure over the lift uppersurface the wing of an aircraftthat creates and is the reason of an aircraft can fly. 2.5 Stagnation Referringto Fig 2-6notetheflow of air aroundan object.Noticehow the air divides- someflows over the top of the wing and somebelowit and right in the centre,at the leadingedgeof the wing, the air is brought point and to completely restat point A. This point is calledthe stagnation
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_ BASIC AERODYNAMICS PRINCIPLES OFAIRFLOW plus is staticpressure effecit is wherethefull dynamicpressure whatever tive at the time will be felt.

Point Figure 2-6 Stagnation

Airspeed 2.6 Measuring


The principle of the stagnation point is used in the measurementof airspeed.Air is directed from a pitot tube facing into the airflow to a flexible diaphragm in the airspeedindicator. This flexible diaphragm, in the form of a capsule,in fact is a stagnation point and will feel the full effect of dynamic pressure.Static pressureis fed to both sidesof the capsuleso that it cancelsout. The resultant movement of the diaphragm can be It taken by a suitablelinkage to a dial, thus indicating airspeed. should be noted that the airspeedindicator is in fact a dynamic pressureindicator but is calibrated suitably in knots. As it measuresdynamic pressure directly it is extremelyusefulwhen flying the aircraft asmost aerodynamic functions of the aircraft are directly related to dynamic pressure. For instance,the stalling speedof an aircraft is always measuredin indicated airspeedand remains, for the same weight, pretty well a constant figure regardlessof altitude. No mention has been made yet of compressibility and in fact this should be taken into account. The airspeedindicator reading (correctedfor instrument and position errors), when correctedfor compressibility at all speedsis called equivalent air speed(EAS).

Chapter2: TestYourself.
I The airflow over the upper surface of a cambered wing: in a) increases velocity and pressure. in b) increases velocity and reducesin pressure. c) reducesin velocity and pressure. in d) reducesin velocity and increases pressure.

Ref para2.4

27

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES is As the camberof an aerofoilsection increased: a) velocityof the airflow is decreased. is overthe uppersurface decreased. b) pressure is overthe uppersurface increased. c) pressure for the remains same any camber. overthe uppersurface d) pressure Ref para 2.4
The stagnation point on an aerofoil in flight is: a) located at the point ofdeepest section. b) air at rest at the section leading edge. c) air at rest between the trailing edge streamlines. d) air at rest on the upper surfaceof the wing.

Refpara2.5
The stagnation point is: a) static pressureplus dynamic pressure. b) static pressureminus dynamic pressure. c) static pressureonly. d) dynamic pressureonly.

Ref para2.5
In generalterms 'Lift' is a result of:

a) an increaseofpressure under the wing. b) a reduction ofpressure over the wing upper surface. c) a reduction ofpressure over the upper and lower surfaces' d) an increaseofpressure above and below the wing'

Ref para 2.4

2B

Aerodynamics Aerofoilsand Actions

(Definitions)

3.1 ChordLine
The chord line of an aerofoil is the straight line joining the leading edge to the trailing edge.It is normally used as a referencelini when meaiurine the angular position of the wing related to the airflow. Fig 3-l

Radius

camber Line

Figure 3-1

3.2 MeanCamberLine A ling whichjoins the leading edge the trailingedge to suchthat it is equidistant theupper from surface lowersurfaie and ofthe aerofoil. it If
is curved the aerofoil is describedas cambered. Fis 3-l

3.3 Thickness/Chord Ratio (,,Fineness Ratio,,) This is the ratio of the maximum thickness the cross of section the to chord, is usually and expressed a percentage. 3-l as Fig 3.4 Angle of Attack Theangle attackis theangle of between chordlineof thewingand the thedirection therelative of airflow.Fig3-2
29

PRINCIPLES FLICHT OF

Angle

I
I RelativeAir Flow

o,iJ.* /

_I

Figure3-2

3.5 Angle of lncidence to This is the angleat which the aerofoilis attached an aircraft fuselage whenthe aircraft is in riggingposition. term an The term rigging position is essentially aircraft engineer's the means aircraftisjackedclearof the groundand is laterallyand which in longitudinallyin the attitudeit would possess levelflight. 3.6 Wash Out from root to tip. in A decrease wing angleof incidence 3.7 Wash In from root to tip. in An increase angleof incidence
Root chord

Chord

rt

3.8 Wing Area


The area enclosedby the wing outline and extending through the fuselage to the centreline.

3.9 MeanChord (Geometric) by Thewingarea divided thespan.


30

- AEROFOILS AERODYNAMICS (DEFINITIONS) AND ACTIONS

3.10 TaperRatio Theratioof theroot chordto tip chord.Fig 3-3 3.11 AspectRatio to The ratio of thewingspan themeanchord,or alternatively to span2 wingarea. 3.12 Wing Loading Theweight theaircraft of divided thewingarea. by Angle 3.13 Sweep
The angle between the lateral axis and the % chord line (may be referred to as the leading edge).Fig 3r-3 ^ ;).I

3.14 Dihedral Theupward inclination thewingto theplane of axis. through lateral the Fis 3-4

Figure 3-4

3.15 Anhedral inclination the wing to the planethroughthe lateral The downward of Fig axis. 3-5

Figure 3-5 31

P R I N C I P LO S F L I C H T EF

(Primary 3.16 Axesand FlightControls Controls)


(a) Elevators The elevatoris attached the trailing edgeof the tailplaneand controls to pitching the moment aboutthelateralaxis. backward A movement the of controlcolumnmoves elevator andcauses aircraftnose pitch the up the to up. Fig 3-6

l P i t c h i n oR o t a t i o na b o u t t h e L a t e r a a x i s . ( l C o n t r o lb y E l e v a t o r s l o n g i t u d i n ac o n t r o l )

Figure Pitching 3-6 Control Elevators by (b) Ailerons The ailerons are attached to the outboard trailing edgesof the wings or mainplanes and controls the rolling motion about the longitudinal axis. If the control column is moved to the right the right aileron moves up and the left aileron down, causing a roll to the right. Fig3-7

l R o l l i n oR o t a t i o na b o u t t h e L o n g i t u d i n aa x i s . l C o n t r o lb v A i l e r o n s( L a t e r ac o n t r o l )

Figure 3-7

(c) Rudder the to The rudder is attached the rear edgeof the fin and causes aircraft to yaw about the normal axis. Movement of the right rudder pedal
32

- AEROFOILS ACTIONS (DEFINITIONS) AERODYNAMICS AND the forward movesthe rudderto the right causing aircraft to yaw to the the normal axis.Fig 3-8 right about

Y a w i n-q R o t a t i o na b o u t t h e N o r m a l a x i s Control bv Rudder (Directionalcontrol)

Figure 3-B

3.17 AlternativeFormsof Control Tail (a) Stabilator All-Moving or control. elevator of used Sometimes in place separate

3-9 Stabilator Figure

(b) Spoilers May be usedinsteadof or in addition to ailerons.when the spoileris a a it operated causes lossof lift on the sideit is raised,thus causing roll the to that side.Movementof thecontrol columnto the right causes right spoilerto risebut the left spoilerto remainretracted.

F i g u r e - 10 S p o i l e r 3

P R I N C I P LO S F L I C H T EF

Chapter3: TestYourself.
I The thickness/chordratio of a wing is also known as the: a) aspectratio. b) mean chord ratio. c) Finenessratio. d) incidenceratio.

Ref para3.3
2 The angle of attack of an aerofoil section is the angle between the: a) chord line and the mean chord line. b) chord line and the relative airflow. c) undersideof the surface and the relative airflow. d) mean camberline and the relative airflow.

Ref para 3.4


3 The Mean Chord (Geometric) is the: a) wing area divided bY the sPan. b) ratio of root chord to tiP chord. c) ratio of the wing span to the mean chord. d) wing area multiplied by the span. Ref para 3.9 4 A High Aspect Ratio wing is a wing with: a) long span,long chord. b) long span,short chord. c) short span, short chord. d) short span, long chord.

I Ref Para3.1
5 The angle betweenthe lateral axis and the % chordline is known as: a) the dihedral angle. b) the sweepangle. c) the incidenceangle. d) the chord angle.

Refpara3.13

J+

. A

Drag

4.1 lntroduction
It is convenient studythe subjectof drag undertwo distinctheadings: to ProfileDrag or'ZeroLift Drag' Drag'. (See Chapter 6) Induced Drag or'Lift Dependent 4.2 Profile Drag (ParasiteDrag) Profiledragis discussed underthreesub-headings: (i) SkinFrictionDrag (ii) Form or Pressure Drag (iii) InterferenceDrag. (a) Skin FrictionandBoundary Layer is overwhich an airstream flowing.What a Consider flat smoothsurface to will, to a molecule air, of may seem be a smoothsurface an observer, to medium,and anysurface subjected seem veryroughone.Air is a viscous a adhesion, a will inevitablyhave,through viscous to a movingairstream which haszerorelativevelocity. minutelythin layerof air at its surface viscous will, throughthesame layers adjacent the surface to Succeeding with increasing degree action,be subjectto retardation,but to a lesser (albeita very small one) from the surface. point is therefore A distance and its velocitywill be that reached wherethe airflow will be unaffected, of the 'freestream'airflow. This layer of air from the surfacewherethereis zero velocity,to the point wherethereis no retardation, referred asthe'BoundaryLayer' is to and is normallydefinedas the regionin which the velocityof flow is less of than99o/o the free streamvalue. The boundarylayer existsin two forms: (a) Laminar Flow, and (b) TurbulentFlow. whichis subject lawsdictatethat at somepoint alonga surface Physical the to a moving airstream, flow will changefrom laminar to turbulent. This point is of importancein the study of drag, the significantfeature in beingthat the drag is greater the turbulentlayerthan in the laminar. from the laminarstateto which dictatethe chanee The main variables
35

OFFLICHT PRINCIPLES of the turbulentare:(a) Velocityof flow, (b) Viscosity thefluid, or air, (c) Sizeof the object. will be the Generallyspeaking, transitionpoint for an aerofoilsection depth where the velocity of flow is at the point of maximum section it (referto Venturi effect).As can be clearlyseen, paysto maingreates-t possibleover an aerofoil iain laminar boundary layer flow as long as sectionin order to reducedrag, and to keep the surfaceas smooth as possible. of One method of ensuringa greaterpercentage laminar flow is to as depthof section far backfrom theleadingedge maintainan increasing therebylocatingthe point of maximumvelocityfarther aft. as possible, known asa laminar in This results a wing section flow wing;a description non-laminarand only partiallytrue; Fig 4-l indicates whichis, of course, laminarsections.

>t

+
Laminar Flow Section

ConventionalSection

FlowSections and 4-1 Conventional Laminar Figure

of importantfeatures the transitionfrom laminar Figure4-2 showssome being: to turbulentflow, these (i) The depthof the laminarlayertypicallygivenas 0.07in. 0.7in' (il The depthof the turbulentlayertypicallygivena-s of fn. veiocitygradients the two layersbeingdifferentleadsto the iiii) or greater shearing friction effectoccuringin the turbulentlayer.
Distancefrom Surface0.7in

Laminar Sub-Layer

Layer Figure4-2 The Boundary 36

DRAC
I

(b) Form or Pressure Drag When an objectis placedin a viscous fluid, suchas air, which is moving a relativeto the object,it will experience resistance owing to the formawhich create turbulentas opposed streamlined to flow. tion of vortices If we regarda flat plateat right angles an airflow (Fig 4-3) as being to the an extreme case, kineticenergyof the airstream largelybrought to is to rest and converted pressure energy: diagramalso showsthe point the 'S'which is referredto as the stagnation point. The pressure brought to to it imporrest,is referred asthe'Dynamic Pressure'; is of considerable experienced any object when a moving tance,and is the pressure by The is airstream brought to rest:it is quite distinctfrom staticpressure. is wherep = air densityand V is formula for dynamicpressure YzpY2 velocity. from Fig 4-3,that the flow behindthe plateis composed It may be seen and sincethese havelow pressure the centre,we now have in of vortices, in in high pressure front andlow behindthe plate:this results a dragforce in thedirection themovinsairstream. of

,t-3 Figure Turbulent Wake (c) Reduction of drag with streamlining It is clear from the extreme case of the flat plate at right angles to the the airflow, that it represents maximum generation of vortices and turbulence; in other words, maximum resistanceor drag. The production of vortices require the expenditure of energy in order to generatethem, and this of course, is wasteful. By substituting a cylindrical section for the plate, as in Fig 4-3, we produce a less abrupt change in the path which the airflow is trying to follow. In this case,fewer vortices are generated; there is lessdifferencein pressurefrom the front to the rear of the shape, 'streamlining' has been achieved. and a degreeof Taken a step further, referenceto Fig 4-4wlll show a more streamlined shape as in a symmetrical aerofoil section. This shape allows the airflow from the front of the sectionto the rear than a much more gradual passage in the caseof the cylinder. The end result therefore, of streamlining, is to produce much less vortex generation, reduced turbulence, and greatly reduced drag. 37

P R I N C I P LO S F L I C H T EF

Aerofoil 4-4 TheStreamlined Figure

in reductions the form considerable Although by carefulstreamlining 'fineof thereis a limit to extension the method.The drag are Jchieved and of is ness'ratio'ofan aerofoilsection a measure its streamlining, is to thickness chord lengthratio. Figure4-5 showsa section definedasthe very thin ratio, but if this ratio is too great,the resulting of conventional difficulties' constructional leadsto attendant section

Ratio Figure4-5 A Conventional Fineness

drag (d) Interference than the sumof thevalues ilir u.o.pfete aircrlft, thetotal dragis greater the aircrift. This additionaldrag is the result for the individualparts of juncwing/nacelle in of 'flow interference' suchareasas wing/fuselage, wheresuchjunctionsexist' tions,and in fact any areas of lLadsto modifications boundarylayers(discussed The interference fore and aft areas between differences pressure greater later)and creates total drag.This this in turn leadingto greater concerned, on the surfaces by carefulfairing or the additionof filletsin in Oiug.un be reduced value concerned. the areas (e) The Drag Formula that, within certainlimitationsof flow velocity, iiir fo""a b-yexperience is ofan objectin a moving airstream proportionalto: the resistanci and frontal area (i) The shape the object of (ii) The squareof velocitY (iii) The densityof the fluid p*pV2S or R = KpV'S As a basicformula this is written ns

DRAC not In Fig 4-3,clearly, all the air is beingbroughtto restby the plate, This meansthat the to as someof it is seen be flowing round the edges. For energyis not realised. of full conversion kinetic energyto pressure 'K' in the second to formulawill vary according the this reason, valueof system ofvortices:the valueof ofthe objectand its associated the shape 'K'is foundby experiment. has alreadybeen The importanceof the unit of dynamicpressure formulais now modifiedby its inclusion. and emphasised, theabovebasic becomes: The newformula therefore, whereCo is the'coeffrcient drag',and S the wing area. of CoYtpY2S 'q' lrpY', is very often written simply as The unit of dynamicpressure use. ofits frequent because the As a point of interest, valueof K in the basicformulais about0.6 Othervalues C a for a flat plate, since = 2K, wenow have valueof 1.2. but that ofthe dragcoefficient areofinterestare: A cylindricalsection 0.6 A streamlined section 0.06 A pitot tubehasa valueof unity. the To conclude, combineddrag due to skin friction, form drag and in drag under the headingof 'Profile drag', increases the interference mannershownin Fig 4-6. in drag' is discussed the The subject InducedDrag or'lift dependent of chapteron Lift.

{ ':-

o g d

results in 4-6 IAS air Figure Increasing (indicated speed) increasing profiledrag

39

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

4: Chapter TestYourself.
of of I In levelflight a section theflow ahead a givenpoint overtheuppersurface of the wing is laminar,that point is termedthe: a) C ofP. b) separation Point. c) laminarpoint. d) transitionpoint. Ref Paraa.2 @) in speed levelflight: 2 With increasing drag increasesa) induced b) profile drag increases. constant. c) profiledrag remains constant. d) induceddrag remains Ref Para4.2(e) is the speaking, transitionpoint for an aerofoilsection the: 3 Generally dePth. a) point of maximumsection b) separation Point. c) point of greatest Pressure. edge. d) leading Ref Paraa.2 @) overthewing upper of percentage laminarflow is achieved a 4 To ensure greater surface: a)thesectionmaximumdepthshouldbeasneartotheleadingedgeas possible. as maximumdepthshouldbe as nearto the trailing edge b) the section possible. c) ihe sectionmaximum depth should be at the Y+chord' shape' shouldbe of a bi-convex d) the section Ref para4.2 (a)
5 As the angle of attack of a wing is increased: a) the C of P moves aft. bi the boundarY laYer thickens. c) the boundary layer becomesthinner' d) the boundary layer thicknesswill remain the same'

Ref para4.2 40

Lift

5.1 Introduction
It has been shown that if a streamlined body is placed in a moving airstreamit producesdrag, a force in the direction of the airflow. It should be noted that the streamlinedbody we were examining was symmetrical in shape.This drag force was the total force produced by the streamlined body. If we now incline the streamlined body at a small angle to the airflow the total force is now no longer in the direction of the airflow and this is illustrated in Fig 5-1. The total force can now be resolvedinto two forces,drag and the one at right anglesto it, lift.

Lift

II

Resultant

Figure -1 5

41

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

5.2 that the lift and drag forcesare The diagrammay give the impression it haaonly beendrawn this way for the sakeof approxiiratelyequil, but than lift in "iu.lty. An aeiofoil section fact,produces many timesgreater 2 Bernoulli'stheoremindiIn the valueof dragit alsoproduces. Chapter of over the uppersurface catedthat therewill be i reductionin pressure thirds.of the lift the wing; this reductionprovidesapproximatelytwo pressure distributionover the surfaces by produce-d a wing. The general bf a wing ai a smallangleof attackis illustratedin Fig 5-2'

S t a-q n a t i o n Point

+++ +
A B C E

5-2 Figure

distribution (a) Pressure reduction in upp.r surfaceof the wing producesa considerable itt. produce a mixture of increaseand pr.rru.. but the lower surfaCei as b""r.ur" in pressure well. The detail of the diagram.th9rytthat at the i.uOing edgeof the wing, point A, the full pressureis^felt,this being of point. As the air movesoverthe uppersurface the wing, tttestugnatlon and at g station B, it is approachin an areaof lower pressure toward"s is stationB thepressure juifatmosphericor static.PaststationB thepresits uttiil it reaches minimum valueat C as indicated ieduces suresteadily longist vector,and after C as the air movestowardsthe trailing by the is now gradalthoughbelowstaticpre_ssure, of edge th;wing thepressure, uuily in"."usin!. fne fact that the air travellingfrom C towardsD at the gradientis of pressure traiiing edgeis-now moving againstan adverse stalling.On the underwhin we cometo discuss importance consid"erab'ie was abovestatic,in fact the the wing at point A the pressure of surface in was full dynamicp.essu.e felt thereandto someextentan increase presA1 AL

LIFT

It

I,|

I {

,t t

I I

Figure 5-3

I \

il

It

of sureis felt on theundersurface thewing up to aboutpoint E. Thereafter produces smallventuri of its own which givesa a the wing undersurface the and in reduction pressure, in orderto limit this reduction undersurface less of the wing is givenconsiderably curvaturethan the upper. The preisuredistributionas shownin Fig 5-2, is for a c_omparatively in smallangleof attack,sayabout4'. Changes the angleof attackof the distribution in changes the pressure aerofoilf,roducevery considerable patternat a high angleof attack,say the and Fig 5-3illustrates pressure about 12o. gradients (b) Pressure ihe most obviousdifferencebetweenthis diagram and Fig 5-2 is the on of of change shape the belowstaticpressure top of thewing.The main is of thii new shapeis that the point of minimum pressure very featuie nearerthe leadingedgeof the wing than it wasbefore.This means much that the air travellingfiom C to the trailing edgeof the wing hasto deal gradient.The only pressure with a very much longerand largeradverse gradient pressure this adverse to ayailable the air to travelagainst means is its own kinetic energy- its energyof motion - and if that adverse gradientprovei to be too greatfor the kinetic energyof the air, pressure flo* *itt in fact break awayfrom the wing. This situationis calleda ih. of On stall and is dealtwith in a later section. the undersurface the wing thusprovidingmorelift is in the increase pressure enhanced, the effectof
43

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

I -"t
*t.ol

C. l

*'i
Figure 5-4

I I I

Criticalor Stalling Angle (About 16')

pressure towardsthe trailing edgehas and the smallamount of negative in The overalleffectof the increase the angleof attackis to beenreduced. can lift but this process only becarriedout to a certainpoint and increase the between the when thii point is reached, wing stalls.The relationship that thereis in and lift is illustrated Fig 5-4.It canbe seen angleof atlack and in a sGadyincrease lift asthe angleof attackincreases then a sudden anglewhich occursat about 16o. at decrease the stalling (c) Lift Equation The ifie basicfactor controlling the value of lift is dynamicpressure. for this, as alreadynoted,is: equation Lift = YrpY' of The size a wing will obviouslyaffectthe amountof lift producedand be this musttherefore addedto the equation: = YtpY'l, whereS is the wing area. Lift the The shapeof a wing will alsoinfluence amountof lift that can be upon the cross-sectional produces factor,dependent a generated this and with of the coefficient lift, cL. As demonstrated irea of the wing, citled upon the amountof lift generhavean influence angleof attackihis will
44

LIFT

cL

Anoleof Att;ck

Figure 5-5

ated.The coefficient lift is in fact a derivative the wing shape of and its of angleof attack.The full lift equationcan therefore written: be Lift = t/2pvzSCL The shape the lift curvefor any wing will be more or lessthe same of but it shouldbe notedthat the higherthe camberof the wing the greater the lift it will develop.This is illustratedin Fig 5-5 wherea cambered is section. point of interestis that A section comparedto a symmetrical section generates at a zeroangleof attack still lift althoughthe cambered doesnot. the symmetrical section (d) Lift/Drag Ratio forcederived from airflow overa wing canbe resolved The total resultant lift is into two forces, and drag.The wholeobjectof the exercise of course to producelift and in an idealsituationwould be donewithout incurring this is neverpossible it is of greatimportance to drag.Unfortunately, but lift know the ratio between and drag so that the aircraftcan be designed to providethemaximumamountof lift for theminimumamountof drag. two Lift and dragvary with the angleof attackand thevariationsof these are shownin Fig 5-6(a) and (b).

45

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

i{Hi?"
5-6 (a) Figure

- +

0.32

I '
0.28'

A n g l e so f F l i g h t '

usual

0.24

0.20

o .go = a

0.16

dE/

0.12

0.08

0.04
I

5'

10'

Angle of Attack

Figure5-6 (b) 46

LIFT If thesetwo ftguresare combinedmathematicallythey producea curve in as shown in Fig 5-7.It can be seenthat there is a steadyincrease the until an angleof attack of about lift/drag ratio, which is what is desirable, until, as 4". Thereafterthe situationdeteriorates the lift/drag ratio lessens at an angleof attack of around 15",it tails right off, this being the stalling angle. The highestpoint on this curve where we are getting the largest amount of drag, occursat about 4'and this amount of lift for the smallest is thereforethe optimum angleof attack. Obviously, the combination of most lift for leastdrag is the most efficient and why aircraft are usually flown at the optimum angleof attack.

o I

5"

10.

15'

ZO.

25"

Angle of Attack

Figure -7 5

(e) Movement of the Centre of Pressure was definedas that point on the chord In Chapter4 the centreof pressure line through which the lift can be consideredto act. The vector representing lift through the centre of pressurepassesthrough the point of on minimum pressure the upper surfaceof the aerofoil. This is illustrated in Fis 5-8.

47

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

5-B Figure

Distributionof Pressure (f) Spanwise of by i'tr. u*ount of lift produced the uppersurface the wing will graduon that althoughthe pressure means from root to tip. This ally decrease pressure, is much lower nearthe root it toi of the wing is all belowslatic and applies of tip. than it is neart-he On theundeiside thewing the revelse higherthan it is nearthe tip. Looked near the root is much the pressure the ui iti ptun view, this will cause aii flowing over the upper surfaceof

Figure 5-9 4B

LIFT the wing to be deflectedinwards and the air flowing over the underside outwards.This is illustratedin Fig 5-9. of the wing to be deflected When the two airflows meet at the trailing edgeof the wing they are moving in different directionsand the resultis to form a sheetof vortices. the If onewereto be ableto see air and standbehindthe trailing edgeof the wing, the vorticeson the right-handwing would be rotating anticlockwiseand on the left-handwing rotating clockwise.The result of thesevorticesis to impart a downwardvelocityto the airflow. This downoverthe trailing edgeof the wing is of ward movement the air asit passes calleddownwash.

5: Chapter TestYourself.
wing sectionthe zero lift angleof attack will be: I For a cambered a) positive. b) 4". c) zero. d) negative. Ref para 5.2(c)
2 lf the angle of attack of a wing is increasedin flight the: a) C of P will move forward. b) C of G will move aft. c) C of P will remain in the sameplace. d) C of P will move aft.

Ref para 5.2(a)


3 When maintaining level flight an increase of speed will: a) have no effect on the C ofP position. b) causethe C of P to move forward. c) causethe C of P to move aft. d) causethe C of G to move forward.

Ref para 5.2(c)


4 For the same angle of attack a cambered wing will produce: a) lesslift than one with no camber. b) more lift than one with no camber. c) the same lift regardlessof camber. d) lesslift and drag than one with no camber.

Ref para 5.2 (c) 49

q-:
OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT 5 The Lift/Drag ratio of a wing sectionat its stalling angleis: a) moderate. b) of a negativevalue. c) low. d) high. Ref Para5.2(d)

50

1
I

\ t

lnducedDrag
6.1 Introduction of distributionover the upperand lower surfaces the wing was Pressure the existsunderneath wing and in examined Chapter5. As high pressure pressures will low pressure top of the wing, the oneplacewherethese on underneath is attemptto equalize aroundthewing tip. The high pressure on the wing movesupwardstowardsthe low pressure the upper surface back a and in doing soassumes rotary motion.This rotary motion spirals directionfrom the rightfrom the wing tip, moving in an anticlockwise directionfrom hand wing tip as viewedfrom behindand in a clockwise the left-hand wing tip. Energy is required to produce this rotational wing tip and thisenergy comeonly from thrust.The can vortexfrom each drag. create drag and this drag is calledinduced vorticestherefore 6.2 Drift effect The larger the lift beingproducedby the wing, the biggerthe pressure The the between lower and uppersurfaces. largerthe pressure difference be the difference strongerthe vortex producedand it can therefore said that induceddrag is proportional to lift. In straightand levelflight lift and thenlift mustbeincreased mustequalweight,soif weightis increased thereforeinduceddrag will be larger.The sameis also true for a turn

II
t

Figure6-.1 Tip Vortices 51

PRINCIPLES LIGHT O FF producingmore induceddrag althoughthe wherelift must be increased, Vorticesare showndiagragravitationalweight has not beenchanged. maticallyin Fig 6-1. 6.3 Downwash over The effectof the vortex is to deflectthe air downwardsas it passes As in otherwordsproducingdownwash. the the trailingedgeof thewing, is to maximumstrengthof this movement close the vortex,asonemoves decreases. fuselage downwash steadily the from the wing tip towardsthe givenstrengthof vortex,the largerthe wing spanthe lesswill Thus for a velocity. be the effectof this downwash For a The angulardeflectionof the airflow will dependon the speed. greater low speeds at givendownwash angle will be velocitythedeflection as than at high speeds, shownin Fig 6-2.

o1 ----_

Downwash Angle

--\

-------\

Downwash Angle

Angle Figure Downwash 6-2 The total reaction force of a wing is at right angles,not to the initial direction of the airflow, but to the resultant betweenthe original direction and the final direction. It will be readily seenthat the more the final flow is deflected downwards - in other words the bigger the downwash - the more the total reaction is tilted rearwards, and this is clearly illustrated in Fig 6-3. The actual usable lift in level flight has to be perpendicular. This leavesa small rearward component of the total reaction force and this is induced drag. From Fig 6-3 it will be seenthat the larger the lift component the bigger will be the rearward component Di, induced drag. Induced drag is in fact proportional to lift'.

6.4 Spaneffect
The wing span of the aircraft has a marked effect on the amount of from the wing tip induceddrag. The strengthof the vortex diminishes by the created it alsodiminand towardsthefuselage therefore downwash the ishes.For a given strengthof tip vortex, therefore, longerthe wing and the lower the induced downwash spanthe lower will be the average drag. For a given amount of lift, the longer span and short tip chord
52

DRAC INDUCED

FinalFlow (Downwash)

Angle Figure Downwash 6-3 producesa weaker vortex than a wing with a short span and long tip chord and will therefore give lessinduced drag. In other words, the higher the aspectratio, the lower the induced drag.

6.5 Summaryof ffects


upon the amount by dragcreated a wing depends The amountof induced the and of downwash we sawfrom Fig6-2 that theslowerthespeed bigger meansthat downwardsof the air. This therefore the angulardeflection as and decreases the speed the induced drag is largest at low speeds as We increases. can sayfrom this that induceddrag variesinversely the -1 or, of square the speed induceddrag is proportionalto speed' of the To summarise effects induceddrag,then:
(a) (b) with an increasein weight. Induced drag increases with wing span, that is, high aspectratio Induced drag decreases

(c)

induceddrag. reduces induceddrag decreases. increases, Speed

Severaldeductionscan be made from this summary.It becomes having very long, narrow wingsapparentthat glidersand sailplanes - and normally flying at very low speeds wings with a high aspectratio when induceddrag is at its highest,thereforebenefit from high aspect jet large transthis ratio wingsto reduce dragto a minimum.Conversely, ratio wingsand,in addition, port aircraftdo not usuallyhavehigh aspect ire usuallyof veryhigh weight.From this it is apparentthat at low speed they will havevery high induceddrag.
53

PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT Further reference Induced Drag is made in Chapter l0 Wing to Planforms. Key Points To Noie InducedDrag is proportionalto Lift. proportionalto Speed. InducedDrag is inversely InducedDrag is greatest toward the wing tip. with greater wing aspect ratio. InducedDrag is less A High AspectRatio Wing hasa long spanand a shortchord. The amount of lift generated the wing upper surfaceis greatest by towardsthe wing root. 7 The airflow over the upper surfaceof the wing in flight tendsto flow towardsthe root. 8 In flight, the angleof attack at which the largestamount of lift is generated the smallest 4o. for amount of drag is at approximately This is known asthe optimum angleof attack. 9 lt can be said that from an angle of attack of zero up to 4o the Above 4oit decreases. LiftlDrag ratio increases. aerofoilproduces somelift and 10 Atzero angleof attack a cambered somedrag. wing produces lift but some no l1 At zeroangleof attacka symmetrical drag. and l2 On a wing in flight, 2ltof thelift is produced the uppersurface by bv the remainder the lower surface. I 2 3 4 5 6

6: Chapter TestYourself.
I Induceddrag is: is at towardsthe wing root and downwash greatest the tip. a) greatest toward the root. towardsthe wing tip and downwash greatest is b) greatest from root to tip. c) balanced decreases from tip to root. d) greatest toward the tip and downwash Ref para 6.5 of 2 Airflow over the uppersurface the wing generally: a) flows towardsthe root. the b) flowstowards tip. c) flows straightfrom leadingto trailing edge. higherpressure than that flowingoverthe undersurface. d) produces Ref para 6.5 54

INDUCED DRAC 3 Induceddrag: a) increases the square as ofthe speed. b) variesinversely the square as ofthe speed. with increased c) reduces angleof attack. d) remainsconstantfor a given speed regardless angleof attack. of Ref para 6.5 4 For a givenangleofattack induced drag is: a) greater a high aspect on ratio wing. b) greater towardsthe wing root. c) greater a low aspect on ratio wing. d) balanced across spanof the wing. the Ref para6.5 5 Induceddrag: with a) increases increase speed. in with increase aircraft weight in b) increases with an increase angleof at"tact. cjreduces in d) reduces with altitudeat constant LA.S. Ref para 6.5

55

TotalDrag
7.1 lntroduction to it sections has beenshownthat the aircraft is subjected In preceding profile drag and induceddrag. Profile drag increases two typesof drag, and induced and is proportional to the squareof the speed, with speed proportionalto the squareof is inversely and with speed drag dlcreases dragareshownagainst of These curves profile andinduced two thespeed. to in speed Fig 7-1. The two curvescan be amalgamated give the total point on this total dragcurvegives dragcurveof the aircraft.The lowest is at the speed which the total drag is a minimum.This speed calledthe weightandin straightandlevel V-a. For a constant minimumdragspeed, for flight the V-a will be a constantindicatedairspeed all altitudes.It better off flying the that one would be to would be reasonable assume however, In the aircraftat V-a because dragis leastat this speed. practice the overall aircraft are not normally operated at this speedbecause may be betterat a higherspeed. that especially of the engine, efficiency,

EI o

3l

ir
a

<kE ="_.--_
Speed

Figure 7-1

56

DRAU TOTAL It is of someimportancewhenhandlingan aircraft to know if the speed increases, is stable.By this it is meantthat if for somereasonthe speed tend to decayback perhapsdue to temporaryturbulence,doesthe speed to its original value or not? The answerto this questioncan be found by the examining total dragcurvewhich is shownagainin FigT-2.

SPEED

Figure 7--2 X. consideran aircraftflying at speed In straightand levelflight thrust = dralso the thrust requiredis indicated the horizontalline Tr. If for by from X to Y, the thrust remaining somereasonthe speedincreases will drop back the the unchanged, drag now exceeds thrust so the speed to decays point to its originalvalueat X. If, on the other hand,the speed return will than dragand the speed automatically Z, thrustis now greater to its originalvalueat X. It shouldbe notedthat the two speedsquoted hereareaboveV-0. On the othersideof the curvewith the aircraftflying to now reduces B the A at speed the thrust levelis now Tz. If the speed to will higherthan thethrustand the speed continue decay. dragbecomes higher to increases point C, the thrust becomes the If, conversely, speed examThese second to will than the dragandthespeed continue increase. below V-0. This simpleillustration makesclear why at ples are speeds below tendsto be stableand at speeds ipeedshigherthan V-o the speed is V-a the speed not stable. This speedinstability below V-a is most marked on jet transport of aircraft.the greatweightof some thelargertypesof suchaircrafttoday producesveiy high induced drag values and makes handling on the anticipationis requiredto difficult. Considerable ipproach somewhat in click either increaseor decrease speed,the whole thing being
57

PRINCIPLES LIGHT O FF It ofjet engines. would be fair to saythat to aggravated the slowresponse than moreprecise handlingon the approach this typeof aircraftrequires handling. aircraftand is lessforgivingof imprecise the piston-engined on In the section induceddrag it was shownthat if weightis increased occursat the The drag alsoincreases. minimumdrag speed theninduced the point wherethe curvefor profile dragcrosses curvefor induceddrag. the from Fig 7-l , at this speed valueof the induceddragis As will be seen the sameas that of profile drag. In other words profile drag equals induceddrag and total drag is doublethe valueof eitherone. in Figure 7-3 illustratesthe fact that an increase aircraft weight will occurs. at raisethe speed which Vma

SPEED Figure 7-3

tn It was shownin the previousChapterthat the effectof an increase induced drag.From this it followsthat aircraft ratio is to decrease aspect ratioswill havea lowerV-o than aircraftwith low aspect with high aspect ratios. 7.2 Wave Drag It hasbeenshownthat drag is the sameat any altitudefor a givenIAS but an aircraft climbing at this constantIAS has a steadilyincreasing a Mach number.When this Mach numberreaches certainvaluethe drag This drag is known effects. of because compressibility startsto increase aswavedragand its effecton thetotal dragcurveis illustratedin Fig 7-4.
5B

TOTALDRAG

t I

---------* sPEED Figure74

7.3 SUMMARY: CheckList.


From the previous paragraphs'thefollowing has been established: an increase in angle of attack will produce an increase in lift brought about by the velocity of the airflow over the upper surface of the wing being increased. An increasein the angle of attack will cause: (a) (b) (c) (d) The Centre of Pressureto move forward. The Transition Point to move forward. The Separation Point to move forward. The Stagnation Point to move down and aft towards the undersurface of the wing.

The Centre of Pressurewill reach its farthest forward point at just below the stalling angle. Induced Drag is directly related to lift becauseas the angle of attack is increased the induced drag will increase. Due to the greater pressure difference between the upper and lower surfacesof the wing, the tip vortex (the basic origin of induced drag) will become intensified. For a given speedthe greater the angle of attack the greater the induced drag. It is important to realise that although induced drag increaseswith increased lift when increasing angle of attack, the increase in lift will always be much greater than drag up to and including the stalling angle. 59

PRINCIPLESFLICHT OF Rememberthe stalling angleis the angleabovewhich a given aerofoil will stall. by Induced Drag is influet'rced the aspectratio of the wing, the higher the aspectratio for a givenwing areathe lessthe induceddrag produced. Induced drag is always greatesttowards the wing tip where the tip by vortex is generated air flowing from the undersideof the wing to the whereit thenflows aft and down behindthe wing and tends uppersurface, behind the aircraft. It can alsobe said the flow on the upper to converge surfaceof the wing tendsto flow aft and towards the wing root, and on of the undersurface the wing, aft and towards the wing tip, as a direct result of the influenceof the vortex at the wing tip. The flow towards the vorticesto numerous cause root and tip on the upperand lower surfaces form at the trailing edgeof the wing. The greater the chord length at the wing tip the more intensethe tip and so the greaterthe induceddrag. Hencea high aspect vortex becomes ratio wing with a long spanand a short chordwill producelessinduced ratio wing with a short spanand a long chord. drag than a low aspect rapidly up to approxiThe Lift/Orag ratio of an aerofoil increases the mately3" to 4" at whichangles lift is some24 timesthe drag,the ratio 15",the until at the stallingangle,approximately then falh progressively may only be 10 or 12 times as greatas the drag. Above the stalling lift anglethe ratio falls still further until an angleof attack of 90ois reached when lift will be zero. The bestall round angleof attackis 3" to 4" wherethe Lift/Drag ratio and this angleof attackis alsoknown as the optimum angle is greatest, of attack. aerofoil, evenat zero angle It is alsoimportant to note that a cambered of attack will producesomelift and somedrag. Even at somenegative aerofoilwill producesomelift and drag.But of angles attacka cambered aerofoil atzeroangleof attack will produceno symmetrical remember,a lift but somedrag. of of To obtain a goodunderstanding the Principles Flight it is importhe tant to interrelate variouspoints that are madeat eachstageand to entities. themas separate avoidconsidering

Chapter7: TestYourself.
ratio for a givenIAS induceddrag will: in I With an increase aspect a) remainconstant. b) increase. c) reduce. d) noneofthe above. Ref Para7.1 60

TOTAL DRAG 2 Induceddrag: a) is only equalto profile drag when the aircraft is at rest. b) is equalto profile drag at the stalling angle. c) is equalto profile drag at V.a. d) is neverequalto profrledrag. Refpara7.1
3 With an increase in aircraft weight: a) V-a will be at the same value. b) V-o will be at a lower speed. c) V-a will be at a higher speed. d) total drag will be unchanged.

Ref para7.1 4 With an increase aspectratio the value of V-a will: in a) remainthe same. b) be reduced. c) be increased. d) noneofthe above. Refpara7.1 5 For a given IAS an increase altitude will result in: in a) no change the valueofinduceddrag. in in b) an increase induceddrag. c) a reductionin profile drag. in d) a reduction induced drag.
Ref para 7.1

61

Stalling
8.1 Introduction
It has already been shown that the lift produced by a wing steadily but only up to a certain point. increases the angle of attack is increased, as rapidly and the angle at which Past this angle of attack the lift decreases this occurs is known as the stalling angle.

Factor 8.2 The Determining


A stall is produced when the airflow has broken away from most of the upper surface of the wing. The determining factor in this is the angle of attack: the wing always stalls at a fxed angle, usually in the region of l5'.

8.3 The Cause Thecause thestallis theinabilityof theair to traveloverthe surface of


pressure gradientbehind the point of of the wing againstthe adverse distributionover illustrates pressure the Figure8-1(a) minimumpressure. of theuppersurface the wing at a smallangleof attack,sayabout4'. The point is at B, and the air travelsfrom A to B without minimum pressure However,from B to difficulty as it is moving from high to low pressure. an that C it is beingforcedte travelfrom low to high pressure, is, against of no at gradient. This poses problems low angles attack pressure adverse to the because kineticenergyof the air is adequate take it to the trailing

Figure8-1 (a) 62

STALLING

Figure8-1 (b)

however,the minimum pressure edge.As angle of attack is increased until at the stalling B forwardand thedistance to C increases point moves angleit coversmost of the wing. This is illustratedin Fig 8-1(b).When a the angleof attack reaches certain value the air runs out of kinetic of awayfrom thesurface thewing in a randommanner' and energy breaks considerably. sharplyand drag increases Lift decreases 8.4 Alleviation in can features be incorporated the wing whichwill assist Variousdesign are: that the root of the wing stallsbeforethe tip' These in ensuring (a) The wing may be twistedso that the tip is at a smallerangleof incidencethan the root, which will ensurethat the root reachesits stallinganglebeforethe tip. of (b) The cross-section the wing tip may be givena highercamberthan of the root, which will giveit a highercoefhcient lift. (c) A stall-inducer may be fitted to the wing root as illustratedin Fig Thesestrips reducethe effectivecamberof the root. This 8-2. it of its reduces coefficient lift and will cause to stallbeforethe tip.

63

PRINCIPLES FLICHT OF

FigureB-2

8.5 The Effectof EnginePower speed compared power on there bea reduction stalling will of is If engine aircraftthis is With propeller-driven stalling speed. with thepower-off
due to: (a) (b) Vertical component thrust The propeller slipstream over the wings.

8.6 Constancy
In straight and level flight at the stall, for a given wing area, cross-section and weight, the lift is of fixed value. This is a most fortunate occurrence when one considersthe lift equation:

* Lift = VzpY2Sc, angleof attack As lift at the stall is a fixed value and angleof attack,wing areaand the of coefficient lift are alsoconstant, total valueof lzpY2must alsobe indicatorand shownon the airspeed is YzpY2 dynamicpressure constant. it is for this reasonthat for a givenweightan aircraftwill alwaysstall at regardless height. of the sameindicatedairspeed

8.7 Weight Effect


of Any change weightwill requirea differentvalueof lift for straightand 64

STALLINC in in level flight, an increase weight requiring an increase lift. At the in level flight, the greater the weight the more the lift stalling angle required and, therefore,the higher the stalling speed.A useful rule of is in increase stallingspeed thumb in this contextis.that the percentage percentage in weight. Thus: increase half the 100 Weight 2000lb, normal stallingspeed kt. increase10%, stalling speed Weight 2200 lb, percentage 5oh,ie 105kt. to increases 8.8 Loading ln Turns which produce a G The sameeffect is produced during manoeuvres turns.During a turn thelift not only hasto balance loading,for instance, the weight but also the centrifugal force resulting from the aircraft than in of movingin a curvedpath. Because this the lift hasto be greater is the levelflight and,providedthespeed kept constant, only way that this in is extralift can be derived by an increase angleof attack.This increase in angleof attackputs the aircraft wing nearerto the stallingangle.The result of having to produce effectivelymore lift from the wings is that G hencethe expression the aircraft's weight appearsto be increased, in is by loading.The increase stallingspeed calculated taking the normal in stallingspeed levelflight for the aircraft'sweightand multiplyingit by the square root of the G loading.For example: Normal stallingspeed100kt, in Stallingspeed a 2 G turn = 100x squareroot? = 1 0 0x 1 . 4 = 140kt. are Further details of calculatingstalling speeds given later in this chapter. 8.9 Effect of Shape the A wing doesnot normallystall over its entirelengthsimultaneously; The main factor stall beginsat one part of the wing and then spreads. governing is of wherethe stallbegins the shape the wing,and will bedealt It that a wing stallsfrom its with in a later section. is plainly undesirable to tip first as this can lead to control difficulties.Any tendency drop a of Further advantages having wing at the stallmay well leadto spinning. a wing stallfrom its root ratherthan tip first are that aileroncontrol can airflow from up bemaintained to the point of full stall and the separated to buffet over the tail which serves act as a stall the wing root will cause warnins.
65

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT to When the angleof attackincreases high valuesthe upward inclinawhich actsin concert a tion of the thrustline provides verticalcomponent with the lift to support the aircraft'sweight. The slipstreamfrom the the propellerincreases speedof the air flowing over the wing, thus in the delaying stall.Cautionshouldbe exercised power-onstallsas their effeit rnay resultin a tip stall on a wing which normally stallsfrom the root. 8.10 The Position of the Centre of Gravity by will The stallingspeed be affected the positionof the centreof gravity. a gravityis forwardof the centreof pressure down-loadis If the centri of The effectof this is that the lift horizontalstabilizer. requiredfrom the is iupporting not only the weightthrough the centreof gravity but also the the down-loid on the tail, therefore lift will haveto be higherand in that thecentreof gravity higher.The nearer will turn the stallingspeed be pressure, lesswill be the down-loadand the to approaches ihe centreof be will the stallingspeed consequently reduced.

c l : _ l o o o o o o o . o o a o o E o ct o o c c ! c D g i c ! L J -

FwdCG limit

lJ t

, , o , a o . . . , r o o ! 6 c c o o ! D c a o gD r r r -

the Figure8-3 The locationof the centreof gravityaffects tail loadingand hence speed. the stalling 66

STALLING

8.11 lcing
Theeffectof iceformationon a wing is to corruptthe camberof the wing to and so considerably reduce coefficient lift. This can be brought the of thin layersof ice - evenhoar frost - and the utmost about by extremely caremust be taken to de-icethe wings of an aircraft prior to takeoff if thereis any suggestion ice may be present the wings.The drastic that on effectof ice in reducingthe coefficient lift and, as a result,causing of the to stallingspeed be much higherthan normal,is illustratedin Fig 8-4.

H \
oril
ztt) fr-

<t^

il

bl
ANGLE OF ATTACK

FigureB-4

8.12 StallWarning Devices it to an of indicator theflightdeck; on It is not normal have angle attack form of stallwarning by is usual instead have to some alarmoperated a
to switchwhich is sensitive angleof attack.The warning may take the followingforms: (a) A visualwarning,example flashinglight. a (b) Audiblewarnings, example horn or stickknocker. a (c) A stickshaker. 8.13 Spinning Referringto Followinga stallinvolvinga wing drop, a spinmay develop. angle its the diagramin Fig 8-5,the wing which dropsincreases effective in of attackdue to having acquireda downwardvelocity.This increase in in a angleof attack causes further decrease lift and an increase drag. wing, however, experiencesdecrease angleof attackand a in Theupgoing
67

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF wing it on in an increase lift. As the lift hasbeenreduced the downgoing will continueto drop and any attempt to raiseit by the useof ailerons the it the merelyaggravates situationbecause will increase angleof attack wing, in time theincrease dragon thedowngoing still further.At the same producea in coupledwith a decrease drag on the upgoingwing, will that yawingmomenttowardsthe droppedwing. From this it canbe seen the aircraftwill roll and yaw towardsthe droppedwing, and this motion as the If may be self-sustaining. it is self-sustaining, motion is described a in spin.Spinningis discussed detail in Chapter9.

0 -1 8'

"@e*tteo
FigureB-5

RISING ING W LESS BECOMES

8.14 The Deep Stall the from a stallis by easing stickforward to lower recovery Conventional power. However,someaircraft of current the noseand then applying from will design enterinto what is known as a deepstall,or a super-stall, theseaircraft possible. Broadly speaking, which normal recoveryis not and wing sections a high T-tail. havesweptbackwings,high speed aircraft is illustratedin in a conventional The aiiflow following a stall althoughthe air hasbrokenawayin a random that Fig 8-6.It canbe seen and of mannerfrom the uppersurface the wing, the horizontalstabilizer air. The resultof this is that the horiare theelevators still in undisturbed zontal stabilizerwill produce a sharp nosedown pitch which may be assisted applicationof elevator. by
6B

STALLINC

Figure 8-6

This can be contrastedwith the state of affairs when an aircraft with a highT-tail is stalled. This time the separated from thewings,following air the stall,entirelycoversthe horizontalstabilizer virtually and elevators, reducing their effectiveness nil. In the case aircraftwith sweep to back of on thewings,thewingitselfmay develop noseup pitchingmomentafter a the stall.This is dueto the tendency a sweptwing to stall at the tip and of so cause centreof pressure move forwards.The situationis often the to aggravated because aircraft has now acquireda verticaldownward the velocitywhich will progressively increase angleof attackway beyond the thestallingangle. Finally,this typeof aircraftis oftenequipped with rearmounted engines theeffectof turbulentair entering engine and the intakes may be to cause themto flameout, causing complete lossof power. a Obviously aircraftwith these an characteristics cannotbe permittedto is frrstbuilt, it is equipped stall.Whensuchan aircraft with a tail-mounted parachute usein testflying to bring the nosedown in the eventof it for entering super-stall. generalairlineoperation,aircraft of this type a For are fitted with equipmentcalleda stick pusher.This is actuatedby an (usuallyde-iced) angleof attacksensor the fuselage on which senses that the angleof attack is approaching stall. Signals then sentto an the are the electro-hydraulic system, rams of which physicallypush the control preventing aircraft from enteringthe stall. stickforward, thus the

69

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

Speed AffectingStalling and 8.15 Detail Calculations Factors Angle and Stalling
Calculationof thestallingsPeed: to During levelflight, lift is exactlyequaland opposite the weight' Therefore: The lift formula is: (i) (ii) Lift Lift = = Weight C'YrpY2S

that whenthe C, is maximum,V must be a minimum to It stands reason (low speed, high angleof attack). value (V.),when the This minimumvalueof velocityis, therefore, stallingspeed the C' is at maximumvalue. = S Weight = Ct(max) YzpY,2 (iiD Lift Therefore: the So,rearranging formula,it becomes: Cr(max)%pV,'S (iv) Weight= the Thus,to obtain the v, (stallingspeed), formula is so rearranged: = Vr' (v) Weight Therefore Cr(max) % pS (Cr%pstransPosed)

il::f"t""u (vi) vs
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Weight Load Factor Wing Area in Change C1(max) Powerand Slipstream

r@- % pS V Cr(max)

of Factorsaffectingthestallingspeed an aircraft.

1. Weight in Any ch"ange the weight of an aircraft will affect the stalling speed.It will be notedfrom the formula:

STALLINC

Weight Cr(max) % p S that if the weightincreases, the divisionthereofby C,-(max) results S in (V.). an increased stallingspeed 2. Load,Factor Any manoeuvre that requiresan increase total lift without a correin spondingincrease wing area,must increase effective in the total weight actingon the aerofoils. This apparentweight increase known as a load factor, which is is definedas the ratio of the load acting on the aircraft during the manoeuvre theloadingactingon theaircraftin straightandlevelflight. to = Total Lift Total Weight Load Factor = Aircraft Weisht Actual Weight As demonstrated theprevious in paragraph, increase weightresults any in in a higherstallingspeed. This newstallingspeed may becalculated from the followingformula: New V, = Old V, x 3. Wing Area (S) Whereincreased wing areais obtainedby theuseof Fowlerflaps,thedivisionof a givenweightby an increased valueof (S)results a lower value in of V. 4. Change C"(max) in The useof flapsincreases C, of that wing.Onceagain,the divisionof the a givenweightby a larger value of C, resultsin a lower stallingspeed. This is the advantage the useof flap during the landingmanoeuvre of because permitstheoriginalvalueof lift to be retained a lower speed. it at It is particularlyusefulin the loweringof the approachspeed. 5. PowerandSlipstream When power is applied at the stall, the already nose-highattitude produces verticalcomponent a oflift. This consequently reduces work the load (ieweight)of thewingsand allowsa muchlower stallingspeed be to attained.The slipstream high power settings at providesan extra boost to thestagnating airflow overthe aerofoiland thuscontrolstheboundary layer.SeeFig 8-7.
71

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

vertical component of lift (300 lb)

Figure8-7

8.15 WingTip Stalling


from the root section to An aircraft wing is designed stall progressively for to the tips. The reasons this are asfollows: An earlybuffetingis inducedoverthe tail sections' l. 2. 3. is Aileron effectiveness maintainedup to the stallingangleof attack' Large rolling momentsof the aircraft are preventedin the eventof onewing tip stallingbeforethe other-

of Methodsusedin theprevention tip stalling: l. Washout: from the root to thetip. reductionof wing incidence fnlr ir a progressive the This resultsIn the wing root reaching critical angleof attack before the tip. 2. Rootspoilers: strip fixed to the leadingedge ittir -"tttod employsa triangular-section n"ur the root. At high anglesof attack, the.airflow is "itfr. trirg in in obstructed followingthe contourof theleadingedgeand this results of the aiiflow wherebyan early stall is inducedat the wing a breakdown root. of 3. Change aerofoilsection: the by may be graduallychanged decreasing camber The aerofoifsection resultsin a slight This slightly at or near the tips, or by sweepback.
72

STALLINC in decrease lift at the tips thus giving an aerofoil with more gradual from the root to the tip. The effect of sweepback stallingcharacteristics the is to increase stallingangle. 4. Slats and Slots of By employingslatsand slotson the outboard sections the wing, the Thus, when effectiveangleof attack at that part of the wing is decreased. remain the root sectionreaches critical angleof attack, the tip sections the unstalled. the Note:Taperingthe aerofoil from root to tip gradually reduces C. the towards tips;thisin itselfreduces highrollingmomentwhich the would occur if the one tip stalledbeforethe other.

c o o

Angle of Attack

Angle. and Slots Maximumliftsat Stalling on of Figure 8-8 Effect Flaps

73

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

8.17 The effectof aspectratio on the stallinganSle:


Nole: When referring to stalling angle, it is that angle with the horizon as viewed abeam by the pilot from the flight deck. As discussedunder wing tip vortices, the net direction of the airflow is altered.

Angle of Attack

Ratio theC.(max). on of B-9: Figure Effect Aspect

Aircraft having high aspectratios (long span and short chord) have very little induced downwash and, therefore, the net direction of the airflow remains largely unaltered. Conversely, aircraft with low aspect ratio wings (broad tips) induce a large amount of downwash which alters the net direction of the airflow significantly. of Because this altered airflow, low aspectratio wings have significantly higher stalling anglesthan do wings of high aspectratio. (SeeFig 8-10). 74

STALLINC

EffectiveStalling Angle of Aftack Reduced * R'AJ, Non-EffectiveStalling Angle of Attack S t a l l i n gA n g l e H i g h e r

Direction of the R.A.F

Figure 8-10

why rectangular Nole:This explains wingsusuallystall from the root to the tip. The effective stallingangleof attack is reduced the tips at dueto the presence thewing tip vortex resulting the net direcof in tion of the airflow beins altered.

8.18 The Effectof Sweepback the stallingangle: on


In itself, a sweptwing has a low aspectratio and thus fhe presence wing of tip vortices are marked and give rise to a downwash that alters the net direction of the relative airflow. Since an aerofoil stalls when the critical anglebetweenthe chord line and the relative airflow is exceeded, presthe enceof the downwash alters this relative airflow and, having a downward component, results in the stalling angle being higher when the critical angle of attack is reached. Swept wings therefore, have higher stalling angles than those of unsweptwings (Fig 8-l l).

Figure 1 B-1

75

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

angle: 8.19 Theeffectof Flapon the stalling


increaseof flap, the characteristicsof the aerofoil With each successive are changed, ie the chord line assumesa steeperinclination, being the straight line from leadingedgeto trailing edge.The critical stallingangle (about l5 degrees) therefore reachedwith little or no inclination of the is longitudinal axis of the aircraft (ie aircraft in straight and level attitude). Any further increasein flap setting in this attitude would result in the critical stalling angle of attack being exceeded.To prevent this, the aircraft would have to be placed in a nose down attitude, thereby reducing the critical angle of attack to within limits (about 15 degrees). Fig 8-12.
S t r a i g h ta n d L e v e l N o F l a pL / D1 4 "

-!*u
F l a pD o w n Aircraft Stalled

,'o.,
Lower Nose Attitude Reduced. Aircraft Unstalled.

Figure B-1

Thus, the effect of flap reducesthe stalling angle although the critical angle of attack remainsabout l5 degrees. when Note:The stalling angle, or level flight stalling angle,is increased leadingedgeflaps are employed. Further referenceto wing planforms and their stall characteristicsare in discussed Chapter 10. Key Points to Remember With increasedangle of attack, whilst maintaining level flight, induced and profile drag will increase. in Whilst maintaininglevelflight, at a constantaltitude,an increase speedwill result in a reduction in induced drag. Profile drag equals induced drag at V.,r. 76

STALLINC

High Taper Wing

(Exaggerated) their stall patterns. Figure 3 Wing Planforms 8-.1 and

4 5 6 7 8 9 l0
ll

Profiledragis proportionalto speed. Induceddrag is inversely proportionalto speed. With an increase weightof the aircraft the V^a will increase. of With an increase altitudethe stallinganglewill remainthe same. in With an increase speed stallinganglewill remainthe same. of the Washoutof a wing will ensure root of the wing stallsfirst. the Stall inducers may be fitted to the leadingedgeof the wing root to ensure that the wing stallsat the root first. Stallwarningsensors normallyfitted at, or near,thewing leading are edge.

PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT

l2

a If the centreof gravity is forward of the centre of pressure down the tailplane. load will existon will speed be increased.

the l 3 If thecentreof gravityis forwardof thecentreof pressure stalling is t 4 The nearerthecentreof pressure to thecentreof gravitythe lower will the stallingspeed be.

Chapter8: TestYourself.
a condition: At the point a wing enters stalled a) Lift and Drag rapidly reduce. and b) Lift slowlyreduces Drag rapidly increases. increases. sharplyand Drag considerably c) Lift reduces and slightly. d) Lift rapidly reduces drag increases Ref Para8.3 A wing will stall: a) at the stallingangle. b) at the optimumangleof attack. c) just belowthe stallingangle. d) just abovethe stallingangle. Refpara8.I altitudethe angleat which a wing will stall: With increasing a) remainsthe same. b) reduces. c) increases.
Ref para 8.2 As the angle of attack of a wing is increasedin level flight: a) the C of G moves aft and the C of P forward. b) the C of P and transition point move forward. c) the C of P moves aft and the separation point forward. d) the C of P moves forward and the stagnation point aft over the upper surface.

Ref para8.3

7B

STALLINC may be fitted to a wing: 5 Stallinducers the a) at the tip to cause root to stall first. b) at the root to cause tip to stall first. the the c) at the root to cause root to stall first. the d) at the tip to cause tip to stallfirst. Ref para 8.4

79

Spinning

9.1 Introduction to subject explainin detailand cannotbe described is Spinning a complex of in generiltermswhicharetruefor all types aircraft.Onetypeof aircraft in miy behave a certainmannerin a spinwhilst anothertypewill behave givenin this quiie differentlyunderthe sameconditions.In the example and to the right. induced,erect chapterthe spinis takento be deliberately of 9.2 Phases the Spin phases: of consists threefundamental The full spinmanoeuvre (a) The incipientspin. (b) The fully developed spin. (c) The recovery. (d) The steady sPin. erect (a) TheIncipientSpin known as movement of ingredient a spinis the aerodynamic A necessary of the aircraft autorotation.this is basicallythe rotational movement motion which is a about its normal axis,and it leadsto an unsteady combinationof: on i) The ballisticpath of the aircraft, which is dependent the entry attitude. rolling by angularvelocitygenerated the autorotative ii) An increasing momentand the drag inducedyawingmoment. (b) TheSteady Spin The incipientitage of the spin may continuefor sometwo to six turns after which the aircraft will settledown into a steadystablespin.There and the aircraft will rotate about all threeaxes.In will be somesideslip by this sta6lecondition, the steadyspin, is characterised a most cases rateofdescent. rateofrotation and a steady steady

SPINNINC (c) TheRecovery The recoveryis initiatedby the pilot's operationof the controlsfirst to opposethe autorotation and then to reducethe angle of attack so as to unstall the wings. A steepdive thereuponensuesfrom which the aircraftmay be normallyreturnedto straightand levelflight. (d) TheSteadyErect Spin During rotation the aircraft will describea ballistic trajectory the characterof which will be dependantupon the entry manoeuvre.To the pilot this will appearas an unsteady, oscillatoryphaseuntil the aircraft settles down into a stablespinwith steadyratesboth of descent and of.rotation about the axisof the spin.This will occurif the aerodynamicand inertiaforces andmoments achieve stateof equilibrium. a The attitudeof the aircraftat this stage depend the aerodynamic will on shape of the aircraft, the positionof the controlsand the distributionof mass throughoutthe aircraft.

9.3 Motion of the Aircraft Themotion of thecentre gravityin a spinhastwo primarycomponents: of i) A verticallinearvelocity(rateof descent= V fps). ii) per An angularvelocity(=O radians sec) abouta verticalaxis,called the spin axis.The distance between CG and the spin axisis the the radiusof the spin(R) and is normallysmall.

The combinationof these motionsresults the aircraftdescending in in a verticalspiral or helix.The helix angleis usuallysmall generally less than 10".Fig 9-l showsthe motion of the aircraftin a spin. As the aircraft alwayspresents samefaceto the axisof the spin,it the lollows that it must be rotatingabout a verticalaxispassing throughthe centre gravityat the same of rateastheCG is rotatingaboutthe spinaxis. The angularvelocitymay be resolved into components roll, pitch of and yaw with respect the axesof the aircraftitself.In the spin shown to rn Fig 9-lb the aircraftis rolling right. For convenience directionof the the spinis definedby the directionof yaw. In order to understand relationship the between aircraft attitudeand these it angularvelocities is usefulto consider threelimiting cases: Axis Vertical ta) Longitudinal \\'hen the longitudinalaxisis verticalthe angularmotion will be a roll.

B1

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF (b) LateralAxis Vertical faceto theaxisof the spin,the aircraft the For the aircraftto present same must rotateabout the lateralaxis.The angularmotion is all pitch. (c) Normal Axis Vertical For the aircraft to presentthe sameface(inner wing tip) to the axis of rotation,the aircraftmust rotateaboutits normal axisat the samerateat which it rotatesaboutthe axisof rotation.Thus the angularmotion is all yaw. in and may not be possible are examples hypothetical Although these the between aircraft'sattipracticalterms,theyillustratethe relationship quotedin the previous the Between extremes iude and angularvelocities. paragraph, motion will be a combinationof roll, pitch and yaw, and the on: depends The rate of rotation of the aircraft aboutthe spin axis. (ii) The attitudeof the aircraft.This is usuallydefinedin terms of the pitch angleand the wing tilt angle.Wing tilt angle(whichmust not displacement with bank angle),involvessimultaneous be confused and the longitudinalaxes. about the normal The aircraft'sattitude in the spin also has an important effecton the present, shownin Fig 9-lc. If the wingsarelevel,therewill be as sideslip (i)
Axis (Symbol) Longitudinal (x) Lateral (y) Normal (z)

Direction Positive AngularVelocity Designation Symbol Direction Positive Momentsof Inertia Moments Designation Symbol Direction Positive

Forwards

To right

Downwards

Roll p to right A

Pitch q nose-up

Yaw
f

to right

B
pitching moment M nose-up

C
yawlng moment N to right

rolling moment L to right

Usedin thisChapter. Table1: SignConventions 82

SPINNING outwardsideslip; that is, the relativeairflow will be from the directionof wing (to port in the diagram).If the attitudeof the aircraftis the outside changed suchthat the outer wing is raisedrelativeto the horizontal,the is This attitudechange sideslip reduced. can only be due to a rotation of the aircraftabout the normal axis.The anglethroughwhich the aircraft is rotated,in the planecontainingthe lateral and longitudinalaxes,is known asthe wing tilt angleand is positivewith the outerwing up. If the iving tilt can be increased sufficientlyto reduce sideslip the significantly, the pro-spinaerodynamic rolling momentwill be reduced.
a FORCES

Lift= Centripetal Force _ wv2_ wo2R - g R s


Spinto Right (Q Radians Sec) Per

Weight b ANGULAH VELOCITIES r = Rateof Yaw

l--'f

o=,","J:"*
c SIDESLIP Wing Titt Angle (Positive)

Figure 9-1 Themotionof an aircraft an Erect in Spinto the right

83

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

9.4 Balance of Forces in the SPin only two forcesareactingon the centreof gravity while it is moving along in its helicalpath, ascan be seen Fig 9-1 a: a) b) Weight force (N) coming mainly from the wings The aerodynamic to The resultant of thesetwo forcesis the centripetalforce necessary producethe angularmotion. Sincethe weight and centripetalforce act in a verticalplanecontaining force must also act in this the spin axis and the CG, the aerodynamic plane,ie it passes through the spin axis. When the wing is stalled,the iesultant aerodynamicforce acts approximately perpendicularto calledthe wing normal force. the wing. For this reasonit is sometimes of arelevel(lateralaxishorizontal),thenfrom the balance If thewings a: forcesin Fig 9-l a. Weight = DraB = CoY' PY2S

!= rE
V
b.
CyYtPY2S =

C"%pS

fbrce Lift = Centripetal Wc)2R

p = gCr%pV'S ---

wo-

= where: R = spinradius,S area W ! = rateof descent, = weight from the levelconditioncanbe If thewingsarenot level,the departure asi rotation of the aircraft about the longitudinaland normal regarded axis. Usuallythis angle,the wing tilt angle,is small and doesnot affect the followingreasoning. 9.5 Effect of Attitude on Spin Radius in change by the If for somereason angleof attackis increased a nose-up V the aircraft'sattitude,Figg-2, the verticalrate of descent will decrease alpha on the other hand, will of because the higher Co. The increased resultsin a C, decrease which, togetherwith the lower rate of descent,

SPINNINC in decrease spin radius. It can also be shown that an increasein pitch increases rate of spin,which will decrease still further. the R The two extremes aircraft attitude possiblein the spin are shownin of Fig 9-2. The actual attitude adopted by an aircraft will dependon the balance moments. of

Steep Spin

Figure Simplified diagram Pitch 9-2 of Attitude. The effectsof pitch attitude are summarised below: An increasein pitch (ie a flatter spin) will: a Decreasethe rate of descent. b Decreasethe spin radius. c Increasethe spin rate. the nr can also be seenthat an increasein pitch will decrease helix angle.

9.5 AngularMomentum equilibrium achieved a balance aerodynamic is and ln a steady spin, by of in The resultfrom a change angular mertiamoments. inertiamoments
The due the nm,omentum to the inertiacrosscouplingbetween threeaxes. on angularmomentumabout an axis depends the distribution of mass of emdthe rate of rotation. It is important to get a clearunderstanding rhe effectsof mass distribution in order to understandthe spinning of ch,aracteristics different aircraft and the effect of the controls on ruaoveryfrom the spin. B5

O FF PRINCIPLES LIGHT Moment of Inertia (I) to it To predictthe behaviourof a rotating system is necessary comprenot A hend the natureof inertia moments. moment of inertia expresses but only the amountof a mass alsoits distributionaboutthe axisof rotation. It is usedin the sameway that massis usedin linear motion. For the and the example, productof mass linearvelocitymeasures momentum of a body movingin a straightline' Similarly, io or reslstance mouement distribution)and angularvelocity theproductof momentof inertia(mass of a rotatingbody.Figure9-3illustrates the meisures angularmomentum how the distributionof massaffectsangularmomentum.

Small

'l'

Radians Per Sec

>

[,J
L

F - l

E=

Angular MomentumSmall

r",ntlnt"il",n"
Figure9-3 Two rotorsof the sameweightand velocity angular

of The concept momentof inertiamay be appliedto a spinningaircraft ttte by measuring distributionof massabout eachof the body axesin the following way: LongitudinalAxis. the of The-distribution the massabout the longitudinalaxis determines by A. An aircraft momentof inertiain the rolling planewhich is denoted with fuel storedin wing fuel tanks will havea largevalueof A, particularly if the fuel tanks are closeto the wing tips. On someaircraft types fuel tanks, and this combined somefuel may alsobe storedin fuselage with a lower ispect ratio will resultin a reductionof A for suchaircraft types.
86

SPINNINC LateralAxis. The distributionof mass aboutthe lateralaxisdetermines momentof the inertia in the pitching plane which is denotedby B. The increasing complexity modernaircrafthasresulted an increase thedensityof of in in the fuselage with massbeingdistributedalong the whole length of the fuselage with a consequent increase the valueof B. in \ormal Axis. The distributionof massabout the normal axis determines moment the urfinertia in the yawingplanewhich is denotedby C. This quantity will heapproximately equalto the sumof themoments inertiain therolling of andpitchingplanes. therefore, always largerthanA or B. These C, will be rnoments inertia measure massdistribution about the body axes of the and are decided the designof the aircraft.It is thus implicit that the by ".alues A, B and C for a particularaircraftwill be changed the dispoof if irtion of equipment, freight and fuel is altered. 9.7 Inertia Moments in a Spin
fip//

nris difficult to represent rolling moments the usingconcentrated masses, a.:is donefor theotheraxes. an aircraftin the spinning For attitudeunder (innerwing down,pitchingnoseup), the inertiamomentis consideration anti-spin, tendingto roll the aircraftout of the spin.The equationfor ie tireinertiarollingmomentis: L- - (C-B) rq Prrrlr imaginary concentrated T'he masses thefuselage shownin Figure9-4 of as rc:d to flattenthe spin.

Inertia Moment

Figure pitching 9-4 Inertia moment. B7

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

Yaw of by The inertia coupleis complicated the fact that it is comprised two in Fig 9-5. as by caused the wingsand fuselage, shown couples opposing the on Depending the dominantcomponent, couplecanbe of eithersign The inertiayawingmomentcan be expressed and of varyingmagnitude. as: and thus anti-spin N = (A - B)pq, is negative whenB > A; positiveand pro-spinwhenA > B. The B/A ratio hasa profound effecton the of spinningcharacteristics an aircraft.

( F u s e l a g eB ) lnertia Moment

yawingmoments. 9-5 Figure lnertia

Moments 9.8 Aerodynamic


the to At this stageit is necessary examine contributionsmadeby aeroin of dynamicfactorsin the balance moments roll, pitch and yaw. These below. separately are discussed s AerodynamicRolling Moment contributionsto the balanceof momentsabout the The aerodynamic rate of roll areas follows: longitudinalaxisto producea steady (a) Rolling Moment dueto Sideslip The designfeaturesof the aircraft which contribute towards positive rolling moment as a result of lateral stabilityproducean aerodynamic true and the of Evenat angles attackabove stall,this still remains sideslip. directionor a dihedraleffectinduces rolling momentin the opposite the In to sense the sideslip. the spin the relativeairflow is from the direction and wing (outwardsideslip) the resultis a rolling momentin of the outer
8B

SPINNING the directionin which the aircraftis spinning;this contributionis therefore pro-spin. @) AutorotativeRolling Moment at It canbe shownthat thenormaldampingin roll effectis reversed angles pro-spin. of attackabovethe stall.This contributionis therefore (c) Rolling Moment dueto Yaw a Theyawingvelocityin the spininduces rolling momentfor two reasons: in of {i) The difference speed the wings and Lift of theouterwingis increased that of theinnerwing decreased inducinga pro-spinrolling moment. (ii) Differences angleof attackof the wings in In a spin the direction of the free streamairflow is practicallyvertical the whereas directionof thewing motion dueto the yaw is parallelto not changes only thelongitudinalaxis.Theyawingvelocitytherefore but the speed alsothe angleof attackof the wings.Fig 9-6illustrates the vectoraddition of the yawingvelocityto the verticalvelocityof the the outerwing.The effectis to reduce angleof attackof the outer the that wingandincrease of theinnerwing.Because wingsarestalled and (slope C, curveis negative), outerwing Ct is increased the the of thus producing another pro-spin C, of the inner wing decreased, rolling moment.

(Outer Wing lllustrated)

Rateof Descenl

Figure9-6 Changein angleof attackdue to yaw (outerwing)

B9

PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT (d) Aileron Response has shown that aileronsproducea rolling moment in the Experience eventhoughthe wing is stalled. sense conventional s P Aerodynamic it chingMoment contributionsto the balanceof momentsabout the The aerodynamic rate of pitch are as follows: lateralaxis to producea steady (e) PositiveLongitudinalStatic Stability disturbed In a spinthe aircraftis at a high angleof attackand is therefore sense the trimmedcondition.The positivelongitudinal by in the nose-up to to stability responds this disturbance producea nosedown aerodyreduced the tailplane if namicmoment.This effectmay be considerably liesin the wing wake. (f) Dampingin Pitch effect When the aircraft is pitchingnoseup the tailplaneis moving down and produces The its angleof attackis increased. pitchingvelocitytherefore in The rate of pitch change a a pitching momentin a nosedown sense. the usuallyvery low andconsequently dampingin pitch spinis, however, contributionis small. (g) Elevatorresponse the increases Down elevator sense. act The elevators in the conventional produces noseup a momentwhereas elevator up nosedown aerodynamic moment.It shouldbe noted,however,that down elevator aerodynamic areaof the fin and rudder. the usuallyincreases shielded AerodynamicYawingMoments yawingmomentis madeup of a largenumber The overallaerodynamic some resultingfrom the yawing motion of the of separateelements, motion.The maincontriarisingout of thesideslipping aircraftand some butions to balancingthe momentsabout the normal axis to producea rate of yaw are as follows: steady (h) PositiveDirectionalStatic Stability (Fin and Fuselage) of the aft When sideslipis presentthe keel surfaces yawingmomenttendingto turn the aircraft CG producean aerodynamic into alignmentwith the sideslipvector(ie directionalstatic stability or This is an anti-spineffect,the major contributionto effect). weathercock which is from the verticalfrn. forwardof theCG will tendto yaw the aircraftfurther Verticalsurfaces however, into the spin, ie they havea pro-spineffect.Outward sideslip, a usuallyproduces net yawingmomenttowardsthe outer wing, ie in the
90

SPINNINC anti-spinsense. Because possibleshieldingeffectsfrom the tailplane of and elevatorand also because fin may be stalled,the directional the stabilityis considerably reduced and this anti-spin contributionis usually r-erysmall. fi) Dampingin Yaw effect It hasbeenseen that the keel surfaces producean aerodynamic yawing momentto opposethe yaw. The greatest contribution to this damping moment from therearfuselage fin. In thisrespect cross is and the sectional shape the fuselage criticaland hasa profoundeffecton the damping of is moment. Fuselage strakes, Fig 9-7 areusefuldevices improvingthe charsee for , in acteristics a spin on sometypes of aircraft. The anti-spindamping momentis verydependent the design the tailplane/fin on of combination. Shielding the fin by the tailplanecan considerably of reducethe effecmveness the fin. Combiningfin and tailplaneinto a V or Butterfly tail of hasoccasionally beenusedto improve spin recoveryand has the additronaladvantages lighterconstruction of and lessdrag.

Figure Fuselage 9-7 Strakes. Rvdder Response The rudder acts in the conventional sense, the in-spin rudder produces ie pro-spin yawing moment and out spin rudder produces anti-spin yawing Becauseof the shielding effect of the elevator it is usual during nmoment. recoveryto pause after applying out of spin rudder so that the anti-spin yauing moment may take effect before down elevator is applied. 91

PRINCIPLES OFFLIGHT Balanceof Moments It can be seenthat the balanceof forcesin a spin has a strong influence the determine rate of rotaIt on the rate of descent. doesnot, however, the spin occurs;the balanceof at tion, wing tilt or the incidence which The actual attitude,rate momentsis much more critical in this respect. sideslip,rate of rotation and radius of spin of a spinning of descent, aircraft can be determinedonly by applying specificnumericalvaluesof and inertia data to the generalrelationships the aircraft'saerodynamic below. discussed Rolling Moments of The balance rolling momentsin an erectspinis: a. Pro-spin:The following aerodynamic in rolling moments an erectspin are: (i) Autorotativerolling moment. (ii) Rolling momentdue to sideslip. (iii) Rolling momentdue to yaw. The inertia rolling b. Anti-spin: moment- (C - B)rq, is anti-spin. a to These factorsshowthat autorotationis usuallynecessary achieve larger rolling momentwould necessitate stable spin.A smallautorotative This in turn, the to sideslip increase rolling momenteffectdueto sideslip. of the wouldincrease amountof wing tilt and makethebalance moments in of the however, balance moments this in yaw moredifficult to achieve; axisis not as important asin the other two. PitchingMoments' It hasbeenpreviouslystatedthat the inertiapitchingmoment,(C-A)rp, by of the aircraft is alwaysnoseup in an erectspin.This is balanced the these pitching moment.The balancebetween nosedown aerodynamic two momentsis the main factor relatingangleof attack to rate of rotaover a tion in any given case,and equalibriumcan usuallybe achieved in an in widerange.Increase pitch will cause increase the rateof rotation the (spinrate).This in turn will decrease spinradius' YawingMoments in of The balance yawingmoments an erectspin a. Pro-spin: (i) Yawing momentdue to appliedrudder.

SPINNINC A smallcontributionfrom thewing,dueto yaw,is possible at largeangles attack. of Yawingmomentdue to sideslip (verticalsurfaces forward of CG). (iv) Inertia yawingmoment,(A - B)pq, if A > B. h. Anti-spin: Inertiayawingmoment,if B > A. Yawingmomentdueto sideslip (verticalsurfaces of the aft CG). Dampingin yaw effect.
It can be seenthat in-spin rudder is usually necessary achievebalance to urfthe yawing moments and hold the aircraft in a spin. Jormal Axis For conventional aircraft (A and B nearly equal), it is relatively easy to achieve balance about the normal axis, and the spin tends to be limited to a singlesetof conditions (incidence,spin rate and attitude). For aircraft rn which B is much larger than A, the inertia yawing moment can be large and, thus difficult to balance. This could be the causeof the oscillatorv spin often found with such aircraft. Yow and Roll Axis The requirementsof balanceabout the yaw and roll axesgreatly limit the range of incidence in which spinning can occur, and determine rrhe amount of sideslipand wing tilt involved. The final balanceof yawing rnoments is achievedby the aircraft taking up the appropriate angle of attack at which the inertia moments just balance the aerodynamic moments. This particular angle of attack also has to be associatedwith the appropriate rate of spin required to balance the pitching moments and the appropriate angle of sideslip required to balance the rolling moments.

The relative effectiveness the three controls in recoveryfrom a spin will of now be considered.Recovery is achievedby stopping the rotation and this nn turn is achieved by reducing the pro-spin rolling moment andlor mcreasingthe anti-spin yawing moment. The yawing moment is the more unportant but, becauseof the strong cross-coupling between motions about the three axes, the rudder is not the only means by which yawing

9.9 SpinRecovery E-ffect Controls Recovery a Spin of in from

93

O FF PRINCIPLES LIGHT the may be inducedby the pilot. Oncethe rotation hasstopped incidence and the aircraft recovers. is reduced has which experience shownto be generally The control movements from the spin havebeenknown and in use to recovery most favourable for a long time, ie apply full oppositerudder and then move the stick neutral.The rudder the forwardrintil the spinitops, maintaining ailerons the but, because inertia momentsare is normally the primary control lirge in modern aircraft, ailerondeflectionis also important. generally in fuh".. th" .esponreof the aircraft to rudder is reduced the spin the primary control although, in the final aileron -uy .i.tt becomethe it analysis, is its effecton the yawingmomentwhich makesit work. the will be to change The initial effectof applyinga control deflection a This will cause change axes. momentabout one or more aerodynamic in in airiraft attitudeand a change theratesof rotationaboutall the axes. the will, in turn, change inertiamoments. changes These Effect of ailerons act Bu"n uittt. high angleof attackin the spinthe ailerons in the normal astheaircraftis rolling direction Applicaiiondf uil.tott in thesame sense. Thiswill increase rolling moment. the will theriforeincrease aerodynamic (A-B)pq.The effect the roll rate(p) andaffecttheinertiayawingmoment, on of an increatein p on the inertia yawingmoment depends the mass distributionor B/A ratio: (a) B/A>1: In an aircraft whereB/A>1, the inertia yawingmoment is still in and anti-spin(negative) an increase p will decrease.it further, in it ie maice more anti-spin.The increase anti-spininertia yawing wing tilt) which momentwill tend to riise the outer wing (increase This will restorethe balanceof the outward sideslip. will decrease moment the rolling momentsby decreasing pro-spinaerody-namic the in stabiiity.The increase wing tilt will alsocause due t6lateral which will, in turn: pitch, g, to increase, rate of in (D Causea smallincrease the anti-spininertiarolling moment, (C-B)rq, (C>B) and thus help to restore about the roll axis. balance yawing the anti-sPin (ii) Further increases moment. The above. described the (b) B/A<1: A low B/A ratio will reverse effects (positive) and will increase inertiayawingmomentwill be pro-spin in with an increase p. with directional stability, the Due to secondaryeffectsassociated point actuallyoccursat a BIA ratio of 1.3.Thus: reversal
94

SPINNING r a ) B/A>1.3:Aileronwith roll (in-spin) an anti-spin has effect.


ib)

B/A<1.3: Aileronwith roll (in-spin) a pro-spin has effect.

Pro-Spin

(N) Figure Yawing 9-B Moment perdegree ' of Aileron Someaircraft have their B/A ratio changedin flight through consumptron of stores and fuel. The pilot has no accurateindication of the value .rf B/A ratio and, where this value may vary either sideof 1.3,it is desirable .nuring a spin to maintain ailerons neutral to avoid an unfavourable response which may delay or even prohibit recovery. .A,nadditional effect of aileron applied with roll is to increasethe antiyawing moments due to aileron drag. ,.prin E[fect of Elevators Ir has already been stated that down-elevator produces a nose-down aerodynamic pitching moment. This will initially reduce the nose-up pritchingvelocity (q). Although this will tend to reduce alpha, the effect on the inertia yawing and rolling moments is as follows: rxl Inertia Yawing Moment (A-B)pq. If B > A, the inertia yawing moment is anti-spin. A reduction in q will make the inertia moment lessanti-spin, ie a pro-spin change. When A > B, however, downelevator will cause a change in inertia yawing moment in the anti-spin sense.

ru) Inertia Rolling Moment (C-B)rq. The inertia rolling moment is always anti-spin because > B. A reduction in q will thereforemake C it lessanti-spin, which is again a changein the pro-spin sense. 95

PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT in The result of thesepro-spin changes the inertia yawing and rolling angle(Fig the wing tilt, thusincreasing sideslip the is moments to decrease rotation aboutthe spinaxiswill increase. 9-9)and rateof roll. The rateof in Although thechange the inertia yawingmomentis unfavourable,the yawingmoment producean anti-spinaerodynamic may sideslip increased positive.This contribution will be reducedif if the directionalstability is of increases shielding the fin and rudder. the seriously the down elevator

Pro-Spin

(N) of Moment perdegree DownElevator Figure Yawing 9-9 The overall effect of down-elevator on the yawing moments therefore dependson: (a) The pro-spin inertia moment when B > A. (b) The anti-spin moment due to directional stability. due to shielding. (c) The loss of rudder effectiveness In general, the net result of moving the elevators down is beneficial when A > B and rather less so when B ) A, assuming that the elevator movement does not significantly increase the shielding of the fin and rudder. Effect of Rudder The rudder is nearly always effective in producing an anti-spin aerodymay be greatly reducd namic yawing moment although the effectiveness when the rudder lies in the wake of the wing or tailplane. The resulting increase in the wing tilt angle will increase the anti-spin inertia yawing moment (when B > A) through an increase in pitching velocity. The overall effect of applying anti-spin rudder is always beneficial and is enhancedwhen the B/A ratio is increased. 96

SPINNING

Figure 9-10YawingMoment(N) per Degree Anti-spin of Rudder

Inverted Spin Figure 9-l I shows an aircraft in an inverted spin but following the same flight path as in Fig 9-1. Relative to the pilot the motion is now compounded of a pitching velocity in the nose-down sense,a rolling velocity to the right and a yawing velocity to the left. Thus roll and yaw are in opposite directions, a fact which affectsthe recovery actions,paiticularly if the aircraft has a high B/A ratio. The inverted spin is fundamentally similar to the erect spin and the principles of moment balance discussedearlier are equaliy valid for the inverted spin. The values of the aerodynamic moments, however, are unlikely to be the samesense; the inverted attitude, the shielding effect in of the wingand tail may change markedly. The main difference will be causedby the change in relative positions of the fin and rudder and the tailplane. whereas an aircraft wiih a lowmounted tailplane will tend to have a flatter erect spin and recovery will be the more difficult due to shielding of the rudder, the same aircraft inverted will respond much better to recovery rudder sinceit is unshielded and its effectivenessis increased by the position of the tailplane. The converse,however, is true for an aircraft with a high tailplane. The control deflectionsrequired for recovery are dictated by the direction of roll, pitch and yaw, and the aircraft's B/A ratio. These are: (a) Rudder to oppose yaw as indicated by the turn needle. (b) Aileron in the same direction as the observed roll, if the B/A ratio is hish.

97

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

'l Spin. Figure 9-1 The Inverted

aircraft (c) Elevatorup is generally casefor conventional the ratio and suffersfrom but, if the aircraft has a high B/A this the shieldingproblemspreviouslydiscussed, may be pro-spin. lessfavourableand may evenbecome

SPINNING OscillatorySpin A combination highwing loadingand high B/A ratio makes difficult of it for sucha spinningaircraft to achieve equilibriumabout the yaw axis. This is thoughtto bethemostprobablereason the oscillatory for spin.In this type of spin the rates of roll and pitch are changingduring each oscillation. a mild form it appearsto the pilot as a continuously In changing angleof wing tilt, from outer wing well abovethe horizonback to the horizontaloncein eachturn; the aircraft seems wallow in the to spin. In a fully-developed oscillatoryspin the oscillations the ratesof roll in and pitch can be quiteviolent.The rate of roll during eachturn canvary from zeroto about 200degrees second. the maximumrate of roll per At the risingwing is unstalled which probably accounts the violenceof for this type of spin.Largechanges attitudeusuallytake placefrom fully in nose-down thepeakrateof roll, to nose-up theminimumrateof roll. at at The useof thecontrolsto effecta change attitudecanchange charin the acteristics an oscillatory of spin quite markedly.In particular:
(a) Anything which increases wing tilt, (egin-spinaileron the

or anti-spinrudder)will increase violence the oscilthe of lations. (b) A decrease the wing tilt angle(eg out-spinaileron or in down-elevator) reduce violence theoscillations. will the of
The recoveryfrom this type of spin has beenfound to be relatively easy, although the shortest recovery times are obtained if recovery is initiated rvhen the nose of the aircraft is falling relative to the horizon. Conclusions The characteristicsof the spin and the effect of controls in recovery are specificto type. In generalthe aerodynamic factors are determinedby the geometry of the aircraft and the inertial factors by the distribution of the mass.

9.10 Gyroscopic Cross-coupling Between Axes


The effectsof the inertia moments have beenexplained by consideringthe masses fuselageand wings acting either side of a centreline.The effect of .'rf theseconcentratedmasseswhen rotating, can be visualised as acting rather in the manner of the bob-weightsof a governor. Another, and more versatile, explanation of the cross-couplingeffects can be given by analogy with gyroscopic precession, regarding the aircraft as a rotor.

PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT Inertial Momentsin a Spin the in The inertial momentsgenerated a spin are essentially sameas the gyroscope. Figures9-12,9-13and 9-14 a precessing by torqueexerted These momentsabout the body axes. illuslratethe inertialor gyroscopic below: are effects described (a) Inertial Rolling Moments(Fig 9-12) The angularmomentumin the yawingplaneis Cr, and by imposingon it equalto a pitchingvelocityof q, an inertiarolling momentis generated -Crq, ie in the opposite sense the directionof roll in an erectspin.The to the inertiarollingmomentdueto imposing yawingvelocityon theangular

Moment. Rolling 9-12 TotalInertia Figure 100

SPINNINC momentum the pitchingplaneis in a pro-spinsense equalto +Brq. in and The total inertiarolling momentis therefore equalto (B-C)rq,or sinceC > B: -(C-B)rq. (b) Inertial PitchingMoments(Fig 9-13) The angularmomentum the rolling planeis Ap and imposinga yawing in velocityof r on the rolling plane'rotor' causes to precess pitch in a it in nose-down sense due to inertia pitching moment (-Apr). Similarly,the angular momentum theyawingplaneis Cr, and imposing roll velocity in a of p on the yawing plane 'rotor' generates inertia pitching moment an

Inertia Pitching Moment = -Apr

Angular Momentum= Cl

Moment = +Crp z

Figure 9-13 Totallnertia Pitching Moment. 101

PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT The total inertia moment is therefore(C(+Crp) in the nose-upsense. In an erectspin,roll and yaw are alwaysin the samedirectionand A)rp. posi greater than A. The inertiapitchingmomentis therefore C is always (nose-up) an erectspin. in tive (c) Inertial YawingMoments(Fig 9-fa) the Regarding aircraft as a rotor havingthe samemoment of inertia in is the rolling plane,its angularmomentum the productof the momentof inertiaand angularvelocity(Ap). Imposinga pitchingvelocity(q) on the
lnertia Yawing Moment = +Apq Note The Direction of Motion illustrates the right-hand E r e c tS p i n i n F i g 1

YawingMoment 9-14 TotalInertia Figure 102

SPINNINC rotor will generate torquetendingto precess rotor aboutthenormal a the axisin thesame directionasthespin.Thisinertialyawingmomentis equal in value to_+Apq where the positivesign indicatesa pro-spin torque. similarly,the angularmomentum thepitchingplaneiJequaito Bq, ind in imposinga roll velocityof p on the pitchingplanerotor will generate an inertial yawing moment in an anti-spinsenieequal to -Bpq. The total inertial yawingmomentis therefore equalto (A-B)pq, or iT b > A: -(B_ A)pq. Key Points to Note: l. 2. A necessary ingredientof a spin is the aerodynamic movement known as autorotation. Autorotation basicallyis the continuousrotation of the aircraft about its normal or verticalaxis,(or spin axis).This will normally be coupledwith a rolling moment. In most cases steadyspin is qualifiedby a steadyrate of rotation a and a steadyrate ofdescent. Recovery from a spinis initiatedby thepilot'scontroloperation, first to opposethe autorotationand then to reducethe angleof attack. In a spin, the angleof attack of the inner wing is greaterthan the angleof attack of the outer wing. In a spin,the innerwing is fully stalledand the outer wing partially stalled. An increase pitch in a flat spin will: in (i) Decrease rate of descent the (iD Decrease spin radius the (iii) Increase spin rate the 8. 9. Evenwhena wing is stalledthe ailerons producea roiling moment. In a spin,the aircraftis at a high angleof attack.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

10. Shieldingof the fin by the tailplanecan considerably reducethe effectiveness thefin asa stabilising of surface duringa spin.This has led to the employment a V, or ButterflyTail on someaircraft as of an aid to betterspinrecovery.

P R I N C I P LO S F L I C H T EF

Chapter9: TestYourself.
I When recoveringfrom a spin the pilot shouldfirst: the a) reduce angleofattack. the b) oppose autorotation' the c) increase angleofattack' the d) increase drag yawingmoment. Ref para9.10 2 In a spin: a) the angleof attackis the sameon both wings. on b) the angleof attackis greater the inner wing. on c) the angleof attackis greater the outerwing. d) both inner and outerwingsare fully stalled. Refpara9.10 of 3 At high angles attackin the spin: sense. act a) elevators in the opposite act b) ailerons in the normal sense' are c) ailerons totally non effective. d) ruddercontrol is lost. Ref Para9.10 oft forcein a spinis a component The centripetal a) weightonly. force. b) weightand centrifugal c) lift. d) lift and weight. Ref Para9.10 In a spin: a) both wingsarefully stalled. b) the outer wing is fully stalledand the innerwing partially stalled. c) both wingsarepartially stalled. d) the inner wing is fully stalledand the outerwing partially stalled. Ref para9.10

10

Wing Planforms

10.1 lntroduction Theprevious chapters haveconsidered basics lift, drag,stallingand the of spinning and explained causes these the phenomena. is however, of It also necessary studyanotherimportantaspect the design wings,ie the to of of planform.The planform is the geometrical shapeof the wing as viewed from above;it largelydetermines amountof lift and drag obtainable the from a givenwing area,andhasa markedeffecton thevalueof thestalling angleof attack. This chapteris concerned mainly with the low-speed effects various of wing planforms.The high-speed effects dealtwith in the chapters are on high-speed flight. 10.2 Aspect Ratio The aspect ratio (A) of a wing is found by dividingthe square thewing of spanby the areaof the wing:

o=F*"

Ifa wing hasan areaof250 square and a spanof30 feet,the aspect feet ratio is therefore 3.6.Another wing with the samespanbut with an area of 150square would havean aspect feet ratio of 6. An alternative method of determining aspect ratio is by dividing the spanby the meanchord of the wing.Thus, a spanof 50 ft with a meanchord of 5 ft givesan aspect ratio of 10. From thepreceding examples canbe seen it that the smaller areaor the meanchordin relationto the span,the higheris the aspect ratio. A rough ideaof theperformance a wing canbe obtained of from knowledge the of aspect ratio. 10.3 Aspect Ratio and Induced (Vortex) Drag The origin and formation of trailing edgeand wing tip vorticeswas explained earlierand it wasshownthat induced downwash wasthe cause of induced drag.The induced dragproduced a wing is proportionalto by the lift generated.
105

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT The amount of induceddrag under a given set of conditionscan be floundfrom the formula: drag = kC,'9S, Induced nA of Where Crt = the coefficient induceddrag,
TEA

and A = aspectratio. proporthat induceddragis inversely From the formula it canbe seen of ratio. A graphshowingthe curves two differentaspect tional to aspect ratio wingsplotted againstCo and angleof attackis givenin Fig 10-1.

cD 0.16 0.12 0.08

of Figure10-1 Effect AspectRatioon Co

Angle 10.4 AspectRatioand Stalling ratio is that asthe aspect paragraph canbe seen it From the previoUs that stated thestall wasalso It drag the decreased,io induced isincreased.
occurs when the effective angle of attack reachesthe critical angle. Thus for a given aerofoil section the higher the aspect ratio, the lower is the stalling angle of attack. For a simple example, consider a wing in level flight: if there were no induced downwash (and hence no induced drag) then the wing would stall when the angle of attack reached its critical angle relative to the'horizontal' total airstream past the wing. However, all wings have vortices and so induce a downward component in the direction of the total airflow; thus the lower the aspectratio, 106

WINCPLANFORMS The stall the largerthe vorticesand the greaterthe induceddownwash. will therefore occurwhen the effective angleof attack,which now hasa which reaches critical angle.In the two cases the downwardcomponent, havebeenconsidered, stallingangleof the wing with no induceddrag the is the lower by, approximately, angulardegree the induced the of downwash. The reduced effective angleof attackof very low aspect ratio wingscan Somedelta wings have no measureable delay the stall considerably. stallingangleup to 40oor moreinclinationto the flight path. At this sort of anglethe dragis so high that the flight path is usuallyinclineddownwards at a steepangleto the horizontal.Apart from a rapid rate of loss descent, possible of stabilityand control,suchaircraftmay have and The a shallowattitudeto the horizonand this canbe deceptive. condition is calledthe superstall or deepstall,althoughthe wing may in fact be far appreciable lift. from a true stall and still be generating 10.5 Use of High Aspect Ratio While a high aspectratio wing will minimize induceddrag, long thin increase weightand haverelativelypoor stiffness charwingsconversely Also theeffects ofverticalgusts theairframeareaggravated on acteristics. ratio. Broadly it can be saidthat the lower the cruising by higheraspect speedof the aircraft, the higher the aspectratios that can be usefully for employed.Aircraft configurationswhich are developed very high flight) operateat relativelylow lift supersonic speedflight (especially cleanness. This usually coefficients and demandgreat aerodynamic in ratio planforms. results the useof low aspect 10.6 The Effectsof Taper the The aspect ratio of a wing is the primary factor in determining threeof dimensional characteristics the ordinary wing and its drag due to lift. however, takeplacethroughoutthespanof thewing Certainlocaleffects, and theseare due to the distribution of areathroughoutthe span.The in typicallift distributionis arranged someellipticalfashion. a The naturaldistributionof lift alongthe spanof wing provides basis the for appreciating effectof areadistributionand taperalongthe span. If the ellipticallift distributionis matchedwith a planformwhosechord foot in is distributed an ellipticalfashion(theellipticalwing),eachsquare The of area along the span producesexactlythe samelift pressure. ellipticalwing planform then has each sectionof the wing working at exactly the samelocal lift coefficient and the induced downflow at the the wingis uniformthroughoutthe span.In the aerodynamic sense, ellipthe tical wing is the most efficientplanform because uniformity of lift
107

PRINCIPLES OFFLIGHT

incursthe leastinduceddrag for a givenaspect coefficientand downwash by The merit of any wing planform is then measured the closeness ratio. which the distribution of lift coefficient and downwashapproach with that of the ellipticalplanform.The effectof the elliptical planform is illustrated in Fig 10-2 by the plot of local lift coefficient C, to wing distance.The elliptical wing produces coefficient,c/c.,againstsemi-span c)/c, L0 throughoutthe spanfrom root to tip. Thus, = valueof a constant the local sectionangleof attack oo and local inducedangleof attack, c' are constantthroughoutthe span.If the planform area distribution is and that anythingotherthanellipticalit may beexpected thelocalsection of inducedangles attackwill not be constantalongthe span. wing which is considered the simplerectangular A planformpreviously wing is a strong of A hasa taperratio of 1.0. characteristic therectangular vortex at the tip with local downwashbehindthe wing which is high at causes thetip andlow at theroot. This largenon-uniformityin downwash of similarvariationin the local inducedangles attackalongthe span.At exists, local inducedangleof attack is I the the tip, wherehigh downwash
greater than the average for the wing. Since the wing angle of attack a is composed of the sum of u, and cl,o, large, local c' reducesthe local o. creating low local lift coefficientsat the tip. The reverseis true at the root of the rectangular wing where low local downwash exists.This situation creates an induced angle of attack at the root which is less than the average for the wing, and a local section angle of attack higher than the averagefor the wing. The result is shown by the graph in Fig l0-2 which depicts a local coefficient at the root almost 20oh greater than the wing lift coeffitcient. The effect of the rectangular planfonn may be appreciated by matching a near elliptical lift distribution with a planform with a constant chord. The chords near the tip developlesslift pressurethan the root and consequently have lower section lift coefficients. The great non-uniformity of local lift coefficient along the span implies that some sectionscarry more than their share of the load while others carry less. Hence, for a given aspectratio, the rectangular planform will be lesseffrcient than the elliptical wing. For example, a rectangular wing of ,4'=6 would have 16o/o higher induced angle of attack and 5% higher induced drag than an elliptical wing of the sameaspectratio. At the other extremeof taper is the pointed wing which has a taper ratio of zero. The extremely small area at the pointed tip is not capable of holding the main tip vortex at the tip and a drastic change in downwash distribution results.The pointed wing has greatestdownwash at the root towards the tip. In the immediate vicinity and this downwash decreases of the pointed tip an upwash is encounteredwhich indicates that negative induced anglesof attack exist in that area.The resulting variation of local lift coefficient shows low C, at the root and very high C, at the tip. The 108

WINC PLANFORMS

Cr

1.0

Spanwise Lift Distribution

Root TaperRatio,ll.t =rI!D$d. El.Iptjcal


Rectangular
1 - 1 n

Sweepback PointedTio, l, = 0

Figure 10-2 LiftDistribution Stall and Patterns.

effect may be appreciated by realizing that the wide chords at the root produce low lift pressureswhile the very narrow chords towards the tip are subjectto very high lift pressures. The variation of t)/c. throughout the wing of taper ratio = O is shown on the graph of Fig l0-2. As span of the with the rectangular wing, the non-uniformity of downwash and lift distribution result in the inefficiency of this planform. For example, a 109

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT inducedangleof attackand pointedwing of 4=6 would havelTohhigher ratio. aspect i:X ttigt.. induceddragthan an ellipticalwing of the same of more tolerof Betwienthe two extremes taper will existplanforms The variationsof th. for a wing of taper ratio =0.5 are able effrciency. similarto theiift distributionof the ellipticalwing and the dragdueto lift =0.5 are characteristics nearlyidentical.A wing of 4=6 and taper ratio co, has only 3% highercxrand llh greater than an ellipticalwing of the ratio. aspect same planform aerodynamic The ellipticalwing is the ideal of the subsonic it providesa minimum of induceddrag for a given aspectratio. since However,the major objectionto the ellipticalplanform is the extreme A difficulty of mechlnicallayout and construction. highly taperedplanfrom the siandpointof structuralweightand stiffness, form is desirable and the usualwing planform may have a taper ratio from 0.45to 0.20' of are Sincestructuralconsiderations important in the development an for planform is a necessity an efficientconfigurathe aeroplane, tapered the however, planform efficiency, aerodynamic tion. In order to preserve variationto obtainasnearaspossible twist and section is tailoredby wing the elliptic lift distribution. 10.7 Stall Patterns An additionaloutcomeof planform areadistributionis the stall pattern itall patternof any wing is onewherethe stall of the wing. The desirable ro^ot stallingfirst of first. The advantages the_ sections beginsat tlheroot stall of at remaineffective high angles attack,favourable urJthut ailerons the buffet on the tailplaneand aft portion of the warning resultsfrom and the loss of downwashbehind the root usuallyprovidesa fuselagJ, momentto the aircraft.Sucha stallpatternis favoured stable-nose-down but may, in fact, be difficult to obtain with certainwing configurations. illustrated The typesof stallpatterninherentwith variousplanformsar.e as are planform effects separated follows: in Fig iO-2. f.ne various throughoutthe lift (a) The ellipticalplanformhasconstant coefficients that all sections spanfrom root to tip. Sucha lift distributionmeans the will reachthe stall at essentially samewing angleof attack and the stall will both begin and progressuniformly throughout the span. While the elliptical wing would reach high lift coefficients warning of a beforean incipientstall,therewould be little advance when the Also, the aileronsmay lack effectiveness completestall^. nearthe stall and lateralcontrol may be difficult. wing operates
(b)

wing exhibitslow local lift The lift distributionof the rectangular at locallift coefficients theroot' Since at coefficients thetip, andhigh areaof highestlocal lift coeffithe wing will initiate the stall in the
110

WINCPLANFORMS wing is characterized a strong root-stall cients,the rectangular by This stall pattern is of course,favourablesincethere is tendency. and adequate stall warning buffet, adequate aileron effectiveness, momentchanges theaircraft.Because the usuallystrongstable on of great aerodynamicand structural inefficiencyof this planform, however,the rectangular wing finds limited application,chieflyto light planes. low cost,low speed, (c) The wing of moderate taper(taperratio =0.5)hasa lift distribution whichis similarto that of the ellipticalwing. Hencethe stallpattern is much the sameasthat of the ellipticalwing. (d) The highly taperedwing of taper ratio =0.25 showsthe stalling tendencyinherentwith high taper. The lift distribution of such a just wing hasdistinctpeaks inboardfrom thetip. Since wing stall the this is startedin thevicinity of the highest locallift coefficient, planhasa strong'tip stall' tendency. The initial stall is not started form at the exacttip but at that stationinboard from the tip wherethe prevail. highest local lift coefficients (e) The pointedtip wing of taperratio equalto zerodevelops extremely high local lift coefficients at the tip. For all practical purposes pointedtip will be stalled any conditionof lift unless the at extensive tailoring is appliedto the wing. Sucha planform has no in practicalapplicationto an aircraft which is definitelysubsonic performance. (l) Sweepback appliedto a wing planformaltersthe lift distributionin the of way similarto decreasing taper ratio. The full significance a in the followingparagraphs. are sweepback discussed

10.8 Sweepback LeadingEdges Swept-back This type of planform is usedon high speedaircraft and may take wing, or of a deltawith or without a tailplane. the form of a swept-back planformsis their low drag at the higher The reason the useof these for drag advantages however,gainedat the are The speeds. high speed/low at scale. costof a poorerperformance the lower end of the speed Effect of Sweepback Lift on to If a straightwing is changed a sweptplanform,with similar parameis ratio, taper,section andwashout, C,_-o* reduced. the tersof area,aspect premature flow separation from the upper surfaceat the This is due to reductionin Cr-o* wing tips. For a sweep angleof 45", the approximate wing,a for typicalCr curvos a straight is around30%.Figurel0-3 shows
.t1.1

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF simplesweptback wing and a taillessdelta wing of the samelow aspect ratio.

Lift Coefficient

1. 1.4

Tailless Delta WingA=2

on Figure 10-3Effect Planform C.-", of

The main reasonsfor the lowering of the Cr- slope is best explained by examinationof Figs l0-4 and 10-5.From Fig l0-4 it can be seenthat the velocity V can be divided into two components, V1 parallel to the leading edge which has no effect on the lift, and Vz normal to the leading edge which does affect the lift and is equal to V cos A. Therefore, all other factors being equal, the Cr of a swept wing is reduced in the ratio of the cosine of the sweepangle. Figure 10-5 shows that an increasein fuselagegeometric incidenceA* will only produce an increasein the angle of attack A* cos A in the plane perpendicular to the wing quarter chord line. Since it has already been said that it is airflow in the latter plane which effects Cr, the full increment of lift expectedfrom the A* change is reduced to that of a A* cos A change. Considering Figure l0-3, the stall occurs on all three wings at anglesof attack considerably greater than those of wings of medium and high aspectratios. On all aircraft it is desirable that the landing speedshould be close to the lowest possible speed at which the aircraft can fly; to achieve this desirableminimum the wing must be at the angle of attack corresponding to the C.-o^. 112

WINC PLANFORMS

.l Figure0-4Flow Velocities a Swept on Wing

On all wings of very low aspect ratio, and particularly on those with a swept-back planform, the angles of attack giving the highest lift coefficients cannot be used for landing. This is becauseswept-back planforms have someundesirablecharacteristics near the stall and becausethe exaggeratednose-up attitude of the aircraft necessitates, among other things, long and heavy undercarriages. excessively The maximum angle at which an aircraft can touch down without recourseto such measuresis about l5o, and the angle of attack at touch-down will therefore have to be something of this order. Figure l0-3 shows that the CL corresponding to this angle of attack is lower than the Cr--u* each wing. Compared with the for maximum usable lift coefficient available for landing aircraft with unsweptwings, those of the swept and delta wings are much lower, necessitating higher landing speeds a given wing loading. It is now apparent for that, to obtain a common minimum landing speedat a stated weight, an unswept wing needs a smaller area than either of the swept planforms. The simple swept wing needsa greater area, and so a lower wing loading, in order that the reducedCr can support the weight at the required speed. The tailless delta wing needs still more area, and so a still lower wing loading, to land at the required speed.Figure l0-6 shows typical plantbrms for the three types of wing under consideration,with areasadjusted to give the same stalling speed.The much larger area of the delta wing is evident. 113

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

on 1 F i g u r e 0 - 5 Effect Angleof Attackby Incidence Change

a giving Common Areas 10-6 Figure Planform Speed Stalling

Effect of Sweepbackon Drag The main r"uion for employing sweepback as a wing planform is to improve the high speedcharacteristicsof the wing. Unfortunately this has adverseeffectJon the amount of drag produced at the higher range of approximately in proportion anglesof attack. The induced drag increases to c,_ as This is because, alreadyexplained, is reducedby sweeping l cosA
114

WINCPLANFORMS the wing, and therefore maintainthe samelift the angleof attack has to to be increased. increases induceddownwash This the and hencethe induced drag. The practicalsignificance this high increase drag is the handling of in problemsit imposes during an approachto landing. Because the of greaterinduceddrag, the minimum drag speed higherthan that for a is comparable straightwing,and the approach speed usuallyless is than the minimum drag speed. Therefore, a pilot makesa smalladjustment if to the aircraft'sattitudeby, for example raisingthe noseslightly,the lift will be increased slightly,but there will be a large increase drag which in will resultin a rapidfall off in speed, with a largeincrease powerneeded in to restore equilibrium.In fact, the stage may be reached whereeventhe useof full power is insufficientto preventthe aircraft from descending rapidly.

Drag

1
V App

Figure 10-7lmprovement Approach in Speed Stability

On someaircraft this problem is overcome employinghigh drag by devices, suchasairbrakes drag-chutes, increase profiledrag.This or to the results a flatter drag curvewith the minimum drag speed in closerto the approach speed, Fig l0-7. A further advantage that more power is see is required theapproach, which on turbojetaircraft,means on betterengine response.

115

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

Pressure Gradient Across Wing lsobars

P o o l i n go f Boundary Layer at TiP

Layer. of 10-BOutflow Boundary Figure

Effect of Sweepback on Stalling when a wing is swept back, the boundary layer tends to changedirection and flow towards the tips. This outward drift is causedby the boundary layer encountering an adversepressuregradient and flowing obliquely to it over the rear of the wing. The pressuredistribution on a swept wing is shown by isobars in Fig l0-8. The velocity of the flow has been shown by two components, one at right anglesand the other parallel to the isobars. Initially, when the boundary layer flows rearwards from the leading edge_ it moves towards a favourable pressuregradient, ie towards an area of lower pressure.Once past the lowest pressurehowever, the component at right anglesto the isobars encountersan adversepressuregradient and is reduced. The component parallel to the isobars is unaffected, therefore the result is that the actual velocity is reduced (as it is over an unswept wing) and also directed outwards towards the tips. The direction of the flow continues to be changed until the component at right anglesto the isobarsis reducedto zero, whilst the parallel compo116

WINCPLANFORMS This resultsin a 'pool' nent,because friction, is alsoslightlyreduced. of at of slowmovingair collecting the tips. drift initiatesa tendencytowards tip stalling, sinceit The spanwise thickensthe boundarylayerover the outer partsof the wing and makes reductionin bringingwith it a sudden to it more susceptible separation, Cl-u* ovr the wing tips. At the sametime as the boundarylayer is flowing towardsthe tips, at along the leadingedge. high anglesof attack, the airflow is separating bubble', it behinda short'separation Overtheinboardsection re-attaches or it only but on the outboardsection re-attaches on thetrailingedge fails with the normal flow at the tips combines to attachat all. The separated wing tip vorticesto form a large vortex (the ram's horn vortex). The factorswhich combineto form this vortex are: (a) Leadingedgeseparation (b) The flow aroundthe wing tips (c) The spanwise flow of the boundarylayer. of factorsareillustratedin Fig 10-9and the sequence the vortex These and development its effecton the airflow over the wing is shownin Fig 10-10.From the latter it can be seenthat the ram's horn vortex has its possibly far inboardas the wing root. as origin on the leadingedge, flow) is to draw The effectof the vortexon the air aboveit (theexternal it the latter down and behindthe wing, deflecting towardsthe fuselage (Fiel0-11).

Flow Around Wing Tips

10-9 VortexDevelopment. Figure

117

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

B o u n d a r yl a y e r

Horn Vortex of 10-10 Formation Ram's Figure

Flow. on 10-1 Influence External 1 Figure

WINGPLANFORMS flow of theboundarylayerincreases angleof attackis The spanwise as from This the inboardto become detached increased. causes vortexcloser As the leadingedge(seeFig 10-12). a result,outboard aileronssuffera in with angleof attack.This,in turn, markeddecrease response increasing to large aileron movements necessary are meansthat comparatively may be correthe the manoeuvre aircraftat low speeds; aircraftresponse Thiseffectmay becountered limiting theinboard by spondingly sluggish. below,or by movingtheailerons of encroachment thevortexasdescribed solutionis the useof an all-movingwing tip. inboard.Another possible 10.9 Alleviatingthe Tip Stall Most of the methodsusedto alleviatethe tip stall aim either at mainthe strongboundarylayer,or re-energizing taining a thin and therefore weakened boundarylayer: (a) Boundary LayerFences Used originally to restrict the boundary layer out-flow, fencesalso growth of the separation bubble along the leading checkthe spanwise edge. (b) LeadingEdgeSlots the These havethe effectof re-energizing boundarylayer. (c) Boundary LayerSuction pointsdraw off theweakened layer;a newhighsuction Suitablyplaced layeris then drawndown to take its place. energy (d) Boundary LayerBlowing its High velocity air is injectedinto the boundary layer to increase energy. (e) Vortex generators is the The purposeof thesedevices to re-energise boundarylayer by in Theincreased turbulence results high-energy makingit moreturbulent. retardedlayer beingmixed abovethe seriously air in layersimmediately are in and so re-energizing layer as a whole.Vortex generators most the to their effect by commonly fitted aheadof control surfaces increase the speeding and strengthening boundary layer. Vortex generators up boundary layer separation,and also markedly reduceshock-induced shockwave. reduce effects the uppersurface the of

119

OF PRINCIPLES FLIGHT

2 Figure10-1 Shiftof Ram'sHorn Vortex

(f) LeadingEdgeExtension is edge leading the edge, extended Also knownis a'sawtooth'leading a commonmethodusedto avoid the worst effectsof tip stalling.The effect is of the extension to cut down the growth of the main vortex.A further smallervortex, starting from the tip of the extension,affectsa much the proportionof tlie tip areaand in lying across wing,behindthe smaller tip of the eitension,it has the effectof restrictingthe outward flow of and of the boundarylayer.In this way the severity the tip stall is reduced extension edge of Furthereffects theleading with it thepiich-uptendency. are: with consequent (i) The t/c ratio of the tip areais reduced, Mach number. to benefits the critical portion of the wing lies aheadof (ii) The CP of the extended werefitted' what would be the CP positionif no extension The mean CP position for the whole wing is therefore farther forward and, when the tip eventuallystalls,the forward shift in CP is lessmarked, thereforereducing movement' of the magnitude the nose-up (g) Leading EdgeNotch '"The leading edgehas the sameeffectas the extended notJhedleading the in edge sofar asit cauiesa similarvortexformationtherebyreducing mignitude of the vortexoverthe tip areaand,with it, the tip stall.PitchThe leadingedgenotch canbe used reduced. are up lendencies therefore the leadingedge, effectbeingto intensify with an extended in conjunction to the inboard vortex behind the devices createa strongerrestraining effecton boundarylayer outflow. The choicewhetherto useeither or

WINCPLANFORMS both of thesedevices with the designerand dependson the desired lies flight characteristics the aircraft. of 10.10 Pitch-up LongitudinalInstability Longitudinalinstabilityresults when the angleof attackof a sweptwing increases the point of tip stall.The instabilitytakesthe form of a noseto up pitchingmoment, calledpitch-up,andis a self-stalling in tendency that the angleof attack continues increase to oncethe instabilityhas set in. The aerodynamiccausesof pitch-up are detailed in the following paragraphs. Centreof,Pressure Movement When the swept-back wing is installed,the CP lies in a certainposition relativeto the CG, the exactposition being the mean of the centres of pressure everyportion of the wing from the root to the tip. When the for tip stalls,lift is lost over the outboard sections and the meanCP moves rapidly forward; the wing moment (Fig l0-13) is reduced and a nose-up pitchingmomentresults which aggravates tendency. the

F i g u r e 0 - 1 3N o s e - u p i t c h i n M o m e n t 1 P g Resulting fromTip Stalling

Change Downwash of overthe Tailplane Figure 10-14showsthat the maximum downwashfrom a swept-back r*'ing unstalled in flight comes from the tip portions;this is to be expected sincethe C, is highestover theseparts of the wing. When the wing tips stall,effective productionis concentrated lift inboard and the maximum 'Jownwash now operates over the tailplaneand increases tendency the to pitch up. This effectcan be reducedby placing the tailplaneas low as possible linewith, or below,thewingchordline,sothat it liesin a region in rn which the downwash changes with angleof attack areless marked.
121

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF WashoutDue to Flexure pointsat right angles underload, all chordwise Whena sweptwing flexes the raisedto the same degree, unless wing is specially to themain sparare in is not so.Therefore Fig l0-15,thepointsA and B so designed that this and distance thepointsC andD risethrougha same risethroughthe same greaterthan A and B. ThereforeC risesfarther distance one that is but This at loss in incidence this section. than A and there is a consequent 'washoutdue to flexure',and it is obviously effectis termed aeroelastic greatest thewing tips. at

Unstalled

Tip Stalled

Max Downwash Resultant Downwash

Max Downwash

( (t, .T|_ |,?""n",,i1"o-"",


Tail Moment -J Increased

:
I

Iil
\ \ Wing Moment Decreased Figure 10-14 Variation of Downwash

I
Increased Tail Moment

It is most noticeable during high g manoeuvreswhen the loss of lift at the tips and the consequentforward movement of the centre of pressure causesthe aircraft to tighten up in the manoeuvre. A certain amount of washout due to flexure is acceptable provided the control in pitch is adequateto compensatefor it, but it can be avoided by appropriate wing design.

L-

WINC PLANFORMS

Figure 10-15Washout dueto Flexure

Pitch-upon Aircraft with Straight Wings On aircraft with low aspectratio, short-spanwings, pitch-up can be caused the effect of the wing tip vortices.As the angleof attack is by increased vorticesgrow largeruntil, at or nearthe stall,they may be the large enoughto affect the airflow over the tailplane. As each vortex rotatesinwards towardsthe fuselage over its upper half, the tailplane givingriseto a pitch-uptendency. is incidence decreased Rateof Pitch-up From the pilot's point of view,pitch-upis recognized whenthe pull force on thecontrol columnwhich is beingappliedto the aircraftnearthe stall hasto be changed a pushforceto preventthenosefrom risingfurther; to themorethespeed decreases fartherforwardmustthecontrolcolumn the pitch. Pitch-upin levelflight or in any be movedto restrainthe nose-up is I g stall is usuallygentle,sincethe rate at which the stall is spreading comparatively slow and is usuallyaccompanied the normal pre-stall by buffeting.When the stall occursin a manoeuvre incurringaccelerations corredue to g force, the onsetof pitch-up can be violent and sudden, sponding the rate of spreadof the stall. to

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT Wing The Crescent with a changing variablesweep wing planform combines The crescent wherethe'wingis thickest,the At the root section ritio. thickness/chord so As angle of sweepis greatest. the t/c ratio is reducedspanwise, is are the outboardsections practicallyunswept. so the angleof sweep, that Hencelhereis litile or no outflow of the boundarylayet at the tips. The wing are: of advantages thecrescent (a) The criticaldrag riseMach numberis raised. (b) The peakdrag riseis reduced. (c) Because thelack of outflow of the boundarylayerat the tips, of tip-stallingis prevented. 10.11 Forward SweeP General the by can of The benefits wing sweep be achieved sweeping wing backyet only in recentyearshas the forward sweptwing wards or forwards, The to alternative sweepback. reasonfor this a (FSW), become serious underload. of liesin the behaviour wing structures regime.Taking the 70,'h lie The main advantages in the sub/transonic to position for a shock-wave form when the chordline as the average angleof this chordline the sweep critical Mach numberis approached, wavedrag. influences as The FSW can maintainthe samechord-linesweep the swept-back this achieves. with less geometric advantage, wing (SBW) but due to a accruing from this the advantages lead'ingedge sweepand enjoys subsonically. The deciiion to employ FSW or SBW will depend,inter alia, on the Due to betterlift/drag ratio in the for regimeenvisaged the design. speed range- typical combat air patrol speed sub-soniiand neariransonic supersonic is fuel consumption improvedoverthe sBw. For a high speed drag is a disadvantage. the interception highersupersonic Wing Flexure in a Undir flexural load the airflow sees steadyincrease effectiveangleof Under g loading, to aft-sweep. effect attackfrom root to tip, the opposite leadingto pitch-upas the centreof presit lift will be increased the tipi, angleof attack at the suremovesforwards.Additionally, the increased which itself leadsto increased wing flexure, tips now leadsto increased divereffectiveangleof attack at the tips. The result of this aeroelastic wing, so it is not surprising gence likely to be structuralfailure of the is
124

WINC PLANFORMS that sweepback considered be a better option until comparatively was to recently.What changed situationwasthe development carbonfibre the of technology,which made possiblecontrolled wing twist under load; so allowing the effectdescribed be eliminated. to Vortex Generation Figure 10-16 showsthe difference ram'shorn vortexbehaviour.Inthe in sweptforward designthe ram's horn vortex develops inwardstowardsthe root, not outwardstowardsthe tips. There will, of course,still be vorticesfrom the wing tips, but theseno longer reinforceand aggravate ram's horn vortex, which now lies the alongthefuselage, slightlymoreoutboardif a smallsection thewing or of root is sweptback.

Figure 10-16Comparison Ram's of Horn VortexBehaviour

Stalling A sweptforwardwing will tend to stall at the root first. This stall can be controlled a numberof ways.Since conventional in a tailplane would tend to lie in a vortex,the popularoption is to combineforward sweep with a canardforeplane. Downwashfrom a carefullyplacedcanardcan delay root stall,and eventhe vorticesfrom the canardcan be usedto energise theairflowoverinboardsections thewing,maintaining up to higher of lift angles attack. of give The root-stallcharacteristics bettercontrol at the stall as aileron controlis retained, may incur a penaltyin directional but control asthefin andrudderareactingin the chaoticturbulence from the root separation.

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

10.12 DeltaWings
Tailless Delta on aircraft using this type of wing the angle of attack is controlled by movement of the trailing edge of the wing: an upward movement produces a downward force on the trailing edgeand soincreasesthe angle of attack. When compared with an identical wing which usesa separate tailplane to control the angle of attack, the taillessdelta revealstwo main differences: (a) The C.-u* is reduced (b) The stalling angle is increased Reduction of Cr,-.* The chord line of a wing is defined as being a straight line joining the leading edgeto the trailing edge.If a given wing/aerofoil combination has a hinged tiailing edge for use as an elevator, then when the trailing edge is moved from one angular position to another, the effective aerofoil section of the wing has been changed. When such a wing reachesits stalling angle in level flight, the trailing edge elevator must be raised to impose a downward force on thJtrailing edgeto maintain the wing at the required angle of attack. The raised trailingidge has two effects:it deflectsupwards the airflow passing over it and so reducesthe downwash (the amount of which is proportional to the lift) and it reducesthe extent both of the low-pressurearea over the upper surface of the wing and the high-pressure area below, thereby lowering the Ct. The curvesof Fig I 0- 17 show that any sectionwith a raisedtrailing edge coffiParedto the basic section. Crmax must suffer a decreased Increasein Stalling Angle The planform of the delta wing givesit an inherently low aspctratio and therefore a high stalling angle and a marked nose-up attitude at the stall in level flight. If a given delta wing is used without a tailplane, ie the trailing edge is used as an elevator, then the stalling angle is higher than when the samewing is used in conjunction with a tailplane' All elsebeing equal (planform, aspect ratio, area, etc), changesin the amount of cambei (by altering the angular setting of the trailing edge elevator) do not affect the stalling angle appreciably. That is, the angle between the chord line and the direction of the airflow remains constant when at maximum cr irrespective of the setting of the hinged trailing edge. Figure 10-18illustrates this point and it can be seenthat for both 'tailed' and 'tailless' aircraft the stalling angle is the same when the measuredon the foregoing principles. 126

WINC PLANFORMS

aS
Basic Section

Angle of Attack

Figure 10-1 Effect HingedTrailing 7 of Edge CL-"" on and Stalling Angle.

It is however, normal practice and convention to measurethe stalling anglewith referenceto the chord line obtained when the moveable trailing edge is in the neutral position, and not to assumea new chord line with each change in trailing edge movement. When the stalling angle is measured with referenceto the conventional fixed chord line, it can be from Fig l0-18 that the angleis greater.Figure l0-18 also showsthat, seen because wing proper is set at a greater angle at the stall when a trailing the edgeelevator is used,the fuselageattitude is more nose-up,giving a more exaggeratedattitude at the stall in level flight. Since it is easierto refer to angle of attack against a fixed chord line, the basic chord line is always used as the referencedatum. This convention is the reasonfor the apparently greater stalling anglesof taillessdelta wings; it is perhaps a more realistic method, as the pilot is invariably aware of the increasedattitude of his aircraft relative to the horizontal. but is not always aware of increases the angle of attack. in

PRINCIPLES FLIGHT OF

Angle. of Figure 10-18 Comparison Stalling

The C" Curve Reference to Fig 10-3 shows that the peak of the curve for the lift coefficient is very flat and shows little variation of Cr over a comparatively wide range of angles.This very mild stalling behaviour enablesthe delta wing to be flown at an angle of attack considerably higher than that of the C.-u*, possibly with no ill effects other than the very marked increasein the drag. The flat peak denotesa gradual stall, with a consequent gradual loss of lift as the stalling angle is exceeded. The Slender Delta The slender delta provides low drag at supersonicspeedsbecauseof its low aspect ratio. This, combined with a sharp leading edge, produces leading edge separation at low angles of attack. Paradoxically, this is encouraged.Up to now the vortex so produced has been an embarrassment as it is unstable, varies greatly with angle of attack, causesbuffet, C.-u*. By careful design,however, the vortex drag and decreases increases can be controlled and used to advantage. Vortex Lift The vortex on a slenderdelta is different in character from that on a wing of higher aspectratio (greaterthan 3). On the slenderdelta the vortex will cover the whole leading edgefrom root to tip, rather than start at the tip and travel inwards at higher anglesof attack. Its behaviour is therefore more predictable, and, as it is present during all aspects of flight, the following characteristicsmay be exploited: (i) Leading edge flow separation causesCP to be situated nearer mid-chord. Hence there will be less difference between CP subsonic and CP supersonicthan before, and longitudinal stability is thereby improved.

128

WINCPLANFORMS (ii) The vortex core is a region of low pressure, thereforean increase Cr maj be expected. the conventional in On deltathis cannotbe utilizedas the vortex seldomapproaches anywhere nearthe wing root and most of its energyappears the wake in behindthe wing, whereit produces high induceddrag.On the slender delta the low pressure the vortex is situatedabove in the wing and can resultin an increase Cr_ asmuch as 30oh in of underfavourable conditions.

10.13 Polymorphic Aircraft


General An aircraft which is designedto fly at supersonicspeeds most of the time usually has poor low speed characteristicswhich have to be accepted, although various high lift devicesare available for reducing take-off and landing speedsand improving the low speedhandling qualities. In order to achieve the desired high speed performance, the aircraft has thin symmetric wing sectionsand highly swept or delta wing planforms; these wings are very inefficient at low speedswhere unswept wing planforms and camberedwing sectionsare required. In the caseof an aircraft which is required to be operated efficiently at both high and low speeds, variable wing sweepis a desirablefeature to be incorporated in the design. The wings can thereby be swept back when the aircraft is being flown at high speedsand swept forward again when flying at low speeds. Such aircraft are often labelled 'swing wing'. Stability and Control Problems When the wing of an aircraft is swung backwards the aerodynamic centre moves rearwards. The CG of the aircraft also moves back at the same time, but, since most of the weight of an aircraft is concentrated in the fuselage,the CG movement is lessthan that of the aerodynamic centre. The rearwards movement of the aerodynamic centre produces a nosedown changeof trim and an increasein the longitudinal static stability of the aircraft. Additional up-elevator is required to trim the aircraft and this results in additional drag called 'trim drag'. This extra drag can form a relatively large part of the total drag of an aircraft at supersonicspeeds and it is essential that it should be kept as small aspossible.Various design methods are available for reducing or eliminating the trim changes produced by sweepingthe wings.

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT Wing Translation Theierodynamic centrecan be movedforward againby translatingthe extraweightand wing forwirds asit is sweptback.This methodinvolves structuralcomplications. Movement in so The aircraftcanbe designed that the CG movesrearwards stepwith by centre mountingsomeweightin the form of engines, the aerodynamic would haveto swivelto remain engines etc at the wing tips.As, however, withlhe airflow, additionalweight an{ 9!her complications aligned fuel methodof movingthe CG is by transferring r.rirlt. Another possible trim tanksin the rear fuselage' to suitable LeadingEdgeFillet andPivot Position the by can AnothJr soi"ution beobtained positioning pivot point outboard 'glove'. The a fixed, leadingedgefillet, called a inside of the fuselage on of optimum pivot position for minimum movement the CP depends out it is usuallyabout 20o/o along the mid-span. the wing planfoim, but presents highly sweptportion of the a HowevJr,the fixed glove-fairing

Glove-FairingPivot S m a l lC PS h i f t

10-19Movement Figure

WINCPLANFORMS minimum-sweep spanat low-speed, settings. This incursthe undesirable penalties that variablegeometry designed overcome. compromise is to A the between sweeping wholewing and a long glovegiving the minimum adopted indicated Fig 10-19. as in CP shift,is usually

10.14Canard Design
A canard-type configuration onewhichhasa foreplane is located forward of of thewinginstead themoreconventional tailplane. an aircraftwith On a long slender fuselage with engines mountedin thetail and a CG position well aft, this layout has the obvious geometricadvantage a longer of momentarm.This enables stabilityand trim requirements be satisthe to foreplane smaller fied by a of areathan that of a tailplane. The trim drag problemwill alsobe reduced because, high speeds, up-loadwill be at an requiredon theforeplane trim the aircraft.Thereare,however, to certain with disadvantages this layout: (a) Stalling problems tailplaneconfiguration,the wing stallsbeforethe On a 'conventional' tailplane, and longitudinal control and stability are maintainedat the stall. On a canardlayout, if the wing stallsfirst, stabilityis lost, but if the foreplane stallsfirst thencontrol is lost and the maximumvalueof Cr is reduced. Onepossible solutionis to usea canardsurface a wing and trailing edgeflap in combination, with one surface actingas a trimming device, and the other as a control. Alternatively,an auxiliaryhorizontal tailplaneat the rearmay be usedfor trim and control at low speed. (b) Interference Problems way as the airflow from the wing interferes In the same with the tail unit interon the conventional layout, so the airflow from the foreplane tail fereswith the flow around the main wing and vertical fin in a canard layout.This can cause reductionin lift on the main wing, and can also a result in stability problems.The interference with the vertical fin can cause markedreductionin directionalstaticstabilityat high angles a of attack.The stabilitymay be improvedby employingtwin verticalfins in placeof the single control verticalfin. 10.15 Summary Planform Considerations Planformis the geometrical shape the wing whenviewedfrom above, of from a and it largelydetermines amount of lift and drag obtainable the givenarea,it alsohasa pronounced effecton the stallingangleof attack.
131

OFFLIGHT PRINCIPLES Aspectratio (A) is found by dividing the squareof the wing spanby the areaof the wing:

o =F.* o'v#&a;a

ratio: by are The followingwing characteristics affected aspect ratio' proportionalto aspect a) Induceddrag is inversely

b) The reducedeffectiveangle of attack of very low aspectratio (Somedeltawingshave wingscan delaythe stall considerably. stallingangleup to 40')' no measurable the sense, ellipticalwing is the most efficientplanIn the aerodynamic form becaur. ih. uniformity both of lift coefficientand of downwash ratio. incursthe leastinduceddragfor a givenaspect when planform suffers a marked drop in CI--u* Any swept-back wing with the samesignificantparameters; compired with an unswept directionand flow towardsthe alsoihe boundarylayer tendsto change tips. towards drift of the boundarylayer setsup a.tendency The spanwise by This may be alleviated the useof tip stallingon sweptwing aircraft. one or more of the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (0 (g) (i) Boundarylayerfences. Leadingedgeslots. BoundarylaYersuction. BoundarylaYerblowing. Vortex generators. Leadingedgeextension. Leadingedgenotch. LongitudinalinstabilitY.

pitch-upare: The factorseffecting movement. (iD Centreof Pressure over the tailplane. (iii) Change downwash of (iv) Washoutdue to flexure. wing are: of The advantages a crescent (a) The criticaldrag riseMach numberis raised.
:
I

(b) The peakdrag riseis reduced.


132

I t
a

WINCPLANFORMS (c) Because the lack of outflow of the boundarylayer at of the tips, tip-stallingis prevented. A FSW stallsat the roor first, prolongingaileroncontrol.The configuration may offer an advantagein L/D ratio over sweepback the in appropriate range. speed Whencompared with a deltawhichuses separate a tailplaneto control angleof attack,the tailless delta reveals two main differences: (a) The Cr--* is reduced. (b) The stallingangleis increased. Vortex lift hasthe followingcharacteristics: (i) Leadingedge flow separation causes CP to besituated the nearerto midchord. The vortexcore is a regionoflow pressure, therefore an increase Cs may be expected. in
The canard configuration has the following disadvantages: Advantages (a) The control surface is ahead of any shocks which may form on the mainplane. advantages and

(b) On an aircraft with a long slender fuselage with engines mountedin the tail and the CG positionwell aft, theforeplanehasthe advantage a long momentarm. of
(c)

The stabilityand trim requirements be satisfied can with a smallerforeplane area.

(d) Because upJoadswill be required,the trim dragproblem is reduced. Disadvantages (i) (ii) If the wing stallsfirst stabilityis lost. If the foreplane stallsfirst control is lost.

(iiD In the sameway as the airflow from the wing interferes with the tail unit on the conventionaltail layout, so the airflowfrom theforeplane interferes with theflow around themainwing andverticalfin of thecanardconfiguration.
133

P R I N C I P LO S F L I C H T EF

Chapter10: TestYourself.
I Sweptwingsareusedon someaircrafttypesto: a) delayM".',. handling. b) giveimprovedlow speed lift c) producegreater for a givenwing area. lateralstabilitY d) reduce Refpara10.8
Induced drag is: a) b) c) d) proportional to asPectratio. inversely proportional to aspectratio. inversely proportional to lift. proportional to sPeed. Refpara 10.5 The higher the aspectratio of a wing: a) b) c) d) the greater the induced drag. the greater the rigidity of the wing. the lower the stalling angle. the greater the vortex drag.

Ref Para10.5 by: of movement airflow on a sweptwing may be reduced Spanwise ivings. a) high cambered b) non slottedtrailing edgeflaPs. angleofincidence. c) increased d) wing fences. Ref para 10.8
through the transonic speedrange: As a swept wing passes a) b) c) d) a nose up pitching moment is experienced. the wing C of P moves forward. the wing C of G moves aft. a nose up trim will be required.

Ref para10.10

134

,r1

Flight Controls
11.1 Introduction
The purpose of flight controls is to enablethe aircraft to be rotated about its three axes.Control in pitch is exercisedby elevators which move the aircraft about its lateral axis, control in roll by the ailerons which move the aircraft about its longitudinal axis and control in yaw by the rudder which moves the aircraft about its normal. or vertical. axis. Controls usually take the form of hinged aerofoils mounted on the trailing edge of the wing, the horizontal stabiliser or tailplane, and the rudder normally attached to the trailing edge of the fin. When they are moved they alter the effectivecamber of the section to which they are attached and therefore alter the amount of lift being generated.Within reason,controls are positioned as far away as possiblefrom the axis of rotation about which they are effective, so that they create the largest moment for the least amount of force. When a control surface is deflectedthe forces acting on it try to return it to the neutral position. The total returning force is the lift force on the control surface multiplied by the distance of the centre of pressure of the control surfaceto the hinge. This force is called the hinge moment and is shownin Fis 11-1.

Hinge Moment

+i

xF

Hinge t\4oment= FX

Figure 1-1 1

Obviouslythis hingemomenthas to be opposed someforce if the by control is to remain deflected,and this force is suppliedby the pilot 13s

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES through the control column or rudder bar. The degreeof lift force generated by a control surface will depend on the square of the speed,and as the speedincreasesit can reach considerablemagnitude. Becauseof this, on any but very low speedaircraft the amount of control force required will be far too high for easyoperation of the controls without some form of assistance.This assistanceis called aerodynamic control balancing. Various forms of aerodynamic balancing are used, and they all operate on the principle of either reducing the hinge moment or producing a force which will help to balance the hinge moment by acting in the opposite direction. The various types of aerodynamic balancing used on current aircraft are discussedin the following paragraphs:

1 1 . 2 I n s etH i n g e
This type of aerodynamic balancingis commonly usedon modern aircraft and athieves its reduction of control column loading by positioning the hinge so that part of the control surfaceleading edgemoves in the opposite direction to the remainder of the control surface. Fig 1l-2 shows an example of this type of aerodynamic balance.

--!

I I X

Hinge Inset

1 Figure1-2

Care must be taken in the design of this type of balance to ensurethat the centre of pressure is not too near the hinge line. When a control surfaceis defleited its centreof pressuremoves forward, and if the margin betweenthe centre of pressureand the tringe line is too small it is possible that the centre of pressurewill move forward of the hinge line and so lead to the surface overbalancing.

FLIGHT CONTROLS

1 1 . 3 H o r n B a la n ce
In this type of systema portion of the control surfaceitself acts ahead of the hinge line, so producing a force in opposition to the hinge moment. Such a balanceis shown in Fis 11-3.

HornBalance

Figure 1-3 1

11 . 4 B a l a n c e a b T
This type of system has the same effect as the horn balance but is produced by attaching a small aerofoil to the trailing edge of the control surface and is arranged so that when the control surface is moved the balance tab is automatically moved in the opposite direction mechanically. (Fig I l-a)

Figure 1-4 1

The balancetab, althoughquite small,is acting at a considerable from the hingeline of the main control surface, distance and therefore produces considerable a assistance moving it. There is someloss of in overalleffectof the control in this system and alsoa smalldrag penalty is incurred. It should be noted that when the main control surfaceis deflected tab movesin the oppositedirection,but, the chord line of the parallelto the chordline of the fixed surface shownin the tab remains as Fig ll-4. This balanced motion achieves requiredobjectives the whilst avoidingany excessive penalties. drag
137

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

11.5 ServoTab aircraft as an aid to the pilot This type of tab is usedon largersubsonic heavycontrol loads.with this type of systemwhen the in overcoming controlcolumnis movedthetab is movedby thecontrolinput whichthen which in turn movesthe control surface. the causes airflow to be deflected is The system shownin Fig I l-5.
rod Control Servotab down

'!"'Freeto pivot control Frompilot's

tab 1 Figure 1-5 Servo oPeration

Tab 11.6 Anti-Balance when column the to Thistypeof tabis used increase loadon thecontrol way in automatically a similar It is surface deflected. operates thecontrol
to a balance tab but in the opposite direction. The anti-balance tab is the'Feel'in a control system.Fig 1l-6 shows an often used to increase example of an anti-balancetab.

1 Figure 1-6

138

FLICHT CONTROLS The typesof aerodynamic balance discussed far are quite suitable so for slow and medium speedaircraft but when considering requirethe mentsof high speed aircraft they are no longerof very much value.The problemsinvolved in flying at high true airspeeds and high Mach numbersmake it virtually impossiblefor satisfactory control to be achieved manual controls.In view of this, power operationof by is all control surfaces desirable. a conventionalcontrol systemthe In control columnforcesfelt by the pilot conveys considerable a amountof information on control deflectionbut as there is no direct connection between control columnand the control surface a powered the in control system, 'Feel' felt on the control column due to the air loadsacting the upon it will not be felt as in a manual system. order to maintain In accurate control ofthe aircraftandto preventoverstressing ofthe aircraft artificialfeelmust be provided.As the control surface beingoperated is by hydraulicpowerthetabsaspreviously mentioned havelittle or no will effect.An exampleof a simplepower operated is control system shown in Fig11-7.

Figure 1-7 1

11.7 lnternal Balance


Although fairly commonly used,this form of aerodynamic balanceis not obvious becauseit is contained within the contour of the parent control surface.When the control is moved, a pressure difference is generated betweenupper and lower surfaces.This difference will try to deflect the beak aheadof the hinge-line on the control producing a partial balancing is moment. The effectiveness controlled in some casesby venting air pressureabove and below the beak, seeFig I 1-8. 139

P R I N C I P LO S F L I C H T EF

Flexible eal S

H i n g eL i n e

1 Figure 1-B

11.8 MassBalance
of Problemscan arise with oscillatorymovements the control surface centre gravity of by caused variationin themomentof thecontrol surface aboutthe hinge.This variationcanbe broughtaboutthroughthe flexing under of the entire structurewhen a load is appliedto it. It is possible for somecircumstances theseoscillationsto be divergentand cause failureof the structure. complete 'Flutter', and as the main factor T[is form of oscillationis called involvedis the momentof the centreof gravityaboutthe control surface by hinge,the possibilityof it beingreduced movingthe centreof gravity by This is usuallyachieved nearerto the hingeline must be considered. in front that they act so addingweightsto the control surface positioned centreof gravity of the hingeline and therebymove the control surface to, or just in froni of, the hingeline, as shownin Fig 1l-8. On modern insidethe control are weights normallyhoused aircraftthe massbalance structure. surface

Weight aileron of Massbalance


i

.l Figure1 -9 140

FLIGHT CONTROLS It wasstatedpreviously that eachsetof controlsoperates aroundone of the threeaxesof movement. Elevators Ailerons Rudder controltheaircraftaboutthelateralaxis,that isinpitch. control the aircraft about the lonsitudinal axis.that is in roll. controlsthe aircraft about the normal or verticalaxis. that is in yaw.

Unfortunatelythe operationof somecontrolscauses additionalmovement about another axis, and the most obviousexampleof this is the effect of aileronswhich are designed give a rolling moment about to thelongitudinalaxis.In orderto achieve this,oneaileronmustbelowered and the onewhich is loweredwill alwayscause and the other one raised, additionaldrag and so producea yawingmomentin the opposite direction to the intendedturn. This effectis called'adverse aileronyaw', and it is mostmarkedwhenailerondeflection angles large,usuallyat low are Therearetwo methods correcting condition,thefirst being speeds. of the (Fig l1-10a)the up-goingaileron In differential ailerons. this system moves anglethanthedown-going througha greater and thedragis,therefore, balanced eachsideof the aircraft.The other methodis by useof on (see I l-l0b). whatis called Friseaileron, a Fig

\
I L.rg" upwaro movemen

D i f f e r e n t i aa i l e r o n s l

.l F i g u r e 1 - 1 0a

F i g u r e 1 - 1 0b 1

The excess drag from ailerons is generatedby the down-going aileron so in the Frise system the up-going aileron is mechanically arranged to project below the undersurfaceof the wing when raised. This createsthe additional drag to balancethe increaseddrag of the down-going aileron. Frise ailerons are not in generaluse today as, in particular, they are most unsuited to high speedaircraft.

141

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

due to rudder deflection roll tendency 11.9 Adverse


that if therudderis deflected to Reference diagram(a) of Fig 11-l l, shows by the right, the lift force generated the fin and rudder will yaw the to as aircraft io the right. The fin will have a centreof pressure doesthe the between fin centreof on the verticalCistance wing, and depending p.esiureand lhe centreof gravityon the longitudinalaxisof the aircraft, for iherewill be a tendency the aircraftto roll to the left in this case. to A tall fin will clearlyproducea greatertendency roll than a short (b) one,(diagram Fig 1l-11). in to The phrase'tendency roll' is emphasised, view of the fact that the lift from the fastermoving roll is normally totally maskedby the extra upon thespanof theaircraft; will effect depend wing.Clearlythismasking spanproducingmorelift, (diagram(c) Fig I l-11). a greater lf, otr certain aircraft(eg Britanniaand Belfast),thereis a noticeable roll due to yaw, this can be eliminatedby interlinkageof aileronsand most unlikelythat any pilot would evernoticeany rudder.It is therefore, roll adverse whenyawingthe aircraft.

'o' a,r1

< _t_f_

-__y ul

ft/"ll \t/ |

l
l

l'---_----! |
\
\

L----------J

1
l

q
LJ-{
.-l

t
I

--all

\ /

.l Figure 1-11

I
l

The wing structureof an aircraft is flexible and the varying loads will tend to twist or bend brought about by operatinga control surface and with ailerons, when noticeable This thest-ructure. eflectis particularly forceon theaileronpasses the downwards resultant an aileronis deflected as through its centreof pressure illustratedin Fig ll-lZof Thii forcehasa momentaboutthemain structuralmember thewing This its the which will cause wing to twist, decreasing angleof incidence. whe-n the will, of course,decrease lift being produced by the wing the iequired effect of deflectingthe aileron down is to increasethe lift. two forcescanceleachother out then If the wing twist is suchthat these
142

FLICHT CONTROLS
Reduction CL in Dueto WingTwisl

-t

wino I rwisj I

\ F i g u rIe - 1 2 1

the aileron will have no effect, and if the processis continued further the application of aileron will producea roll in the oppositedirection to that intended. The force generatedby the aileron is proportional to the square In of the speed,so this effect will be most marked at high speeds. fact, the effect can be so marked that on somehigh speedtransport aircraft above a certain speedthe ailerons are.lockedand roll control is vestedin spoilers alone. with the useof the conventional One of the major problems associated elevator is that the application of trim in the longitudinal plane reduces the effect of the elevator control. Trim tabs will be dealt with in the next section, but suffice it to say here that to allow an aircraft to be flown straight and level a certain amount of continuous deflection of the this deflection being maintained by a trim tab. elevator may be necessary, Whichever way the elevator is deflectedits full range of movement will be consequentlyreduced in this direction. On largejet transport aircraft the changesin longitudinal trim due both to use of fuel and to speed changes can be large, and a conventional elevator and trim tab systemis not suitable. It is replacedby a horizontal stabiliserwhich can move in its own right. Operated by electro-hydraulic jacks it produces a very powerful leverageabout the lateral axis to cope with the very large trim changesinvolved. It has the immense advantage that, whatever position it is set in, it leavesfull elevator control available. These days, the idea of the all-moving tail plane has been adopted for use on low speedaircraft as well. The additional force that it generates enables a smaller horizontal stabiliser to be used with a consequent reduction in weight and drag. Mention was made earlier of a type of control called a spoiler. As shown in Fig 11-13spoilers are panels in the upper surfacesof the wing that are hinged at their leading edgesand can be openedand shut so that, when open they reduce the amount of lift being generatedby the wing. 143

PRINCIPLES FLICHT OF

Spoiler .

-\ -

Figurell-1 Spoilers 3

havethreenormal uses: Spoilers (t on When operatedthrough small anglesindependently aileron theycanbeusedto augment onewing or the other it. control, or evenreplace

the (iD On landing,after the aircraft has actuallycontacted the on runway,if the spoilers both wingsarefully opened This is called'lift dumping'. destroyed; lift is completely the It enables aircraftto sitmorehrmly on thegroundand requiredto stop and it is alsoof the thus reduce distance landings. valuein crosswind considerable (iii) Lift dumpingin high levelflight. in low drag coeffrcients Modern jet transportaircraft haveextremely reluctantto slow This makesthem somewhat the cruisingconfiguration. are and down from high speeds, on someaircraft airbrakes fitted. which can be raisedinto of An airbrakeusuallyconsists a flat section the the airflow so that it creates maximumamount of drag whilst at the sametime not damagingthe lift. Airbrakes are not all that common however,and resortusuallyhas to be madeto other meansof slowing down rapidly when required.One of the most commonlyusedmethods is the loweringof the main gearto createadditionaldrag, but on some in may be selected the air aswell thrust from the engines aircraft reverse ason the ground. Someaircraft, notably delta wing types,have a systemwherebythe are aileronsand elevators combinedinto one control calledan elevon. or Whenthe control columnis movedbackwards forwardsboth surfaces but moveup and down together, whenthecontrol columnis movedsideways one elevon comes up and the other goes down. Another and rudder to producea V or combinationof controlsis that of elevator butterflv tail. This is thencalleda ruddervator.

FLIGHT CONTROLS

Single Rudder Partial S p a nT a b Elevator ( S i n g l eS p a n l

Stabilizer Double Slotted Flap Flaperon Flap Aileron

Figure 1-1 Large Control 1 4 Surfaces and Jet High LiftDevices

In theexample aircraftshownin Fig I l-14 all primary control surfaces are operatedby hydraulic activatorswhich, in turn, are controlledby electronic signals originatingfrom the flight deckcontrolsand the auto flight systems. Aileron operationis confinedto the lower airspeed envelope and at high speed ailerons lockedout of actionand lateral(Roll) control the are is a functionof the spoilers and flaperons. This later functionis to reduce wing flexureat high speed. Someaircraft employ two setsof ailerons,one outboard for lower speeds the other inboard for high speed. suchcases outboard and In the ailerons lockedout at high speeds. are

Chapter11: TestYourself.
I Control about the lateral axis is achievedby the: a) rudder. b) ailerons and rudder. c) ailerons. d) elevators.

Ref para I 1.8

145

P R I N C I P L E SF F L I G H T O The purpose of a balance tab is to: a) increasecontrol surfacefeel. b) reduce the load on the control surface. c) reduce the load at the control column. d) reduce control surface flutter. Ref para ll.4 When a control surface is deflectedwhich is fitted with horn balance: a) the horn is located aft of the hinge line. b) the horn moves in the opposite direction to the surface. c) the horn acts aft of the hinge line. d) the control column loads will be increased. Ref para I 1.3 On a differential aileron control system the: a) up and down going ailerons move through the same angle of deflection. b) up-going aileron moves through a greater angle of deflection. c) up-going aileron leading edgeprotrudes below the wing undersurface. d) down-going aileron moves through a greater angle of deflection.

Refpara I 1.8
Frise ailerons are fitted to: a) increasethe rate ofroll. b) reduce control column loads. c) combat adverseaileron Yaw. d) prevent overloading of the control system. Ref para 11.8

146

12

Tabs
12.1 Introduction
Tabs are small aerofoil sections hingedto the trailing edges control of surfaces. main purposes which they are usedare: The for (a) (b) (c) Trimming Aerodynamicbalancing Servooperation

For aircraft in flight to be in equilibrium,the momentsabout eachof the threeaxes the aircraftmustbalance. theydo not balance of If then an additionalforcemustbesupplied deflection thecontrolsto keepthe by of aircraft in equilibrium.It is most undesirable that continuouscontrol surface deflection applied thecontrolcolumnbecause thephysical be at of effort involved,and to overcome this problem trimming tabs are provided.The actionof a trim tab is bestunderstood considering by the situationwith an aircraftwhich tendsto flv nosedown continuouslv. To
rabNeutrar , pirotHordsErevatorinRequired
Position for Level Flight with Force= CP x d

^: y

F1

Tab Trimmed

No Stick ForceSince CP x d = cp x D

Figure

Principle the Tab of 147

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES correct this the elevator must be deflectedupwards and maintained in this position. To bring this about, the trim tab attached to the trailing edgeof the elevator is deflected downwards as shown in Fig 12-1. This diagram indicatesthat the total force exerteddownwards by the elevator is Fl x d, the distanceof the elevator'scentreof pressurefrom its hinge, A. The trim tab, having been moved in the opposite direction, exerts a force F2 upwards through its centre of pressure,and although this force is smaller than Fl it has a much longer arm from the hinge of the main control, B, therefore its total moment is able to balance out that of the main control. It should be noted that the action of the trim tab also slightly reducesthe effect of the main control surface. The final force exerted is F1-F2 and a this will necessitate slightly larger deflection of the main control surface small increasein drag. with a subsequent Trimming tabs are normally controlled either by trim wheels in the cockpit or, alternatively, by electrical switchesactivating motors. These that is to controls are usually arranged so that they act in a natural sense, in which the aircraft is say with the control wheel moved in the direction required to be trimmed, ie aircraft nose high, move the top of control wheel forward towards the nose to bring it down. On some light aircraft fixed trimming tabs may be fitted and they consist of small sheetsof metal which can be bent permanently to correct known out-of-trim forces, but they cannot, of course, be adjusted in flight. As with any other aerodynamic control surfacethe effect of a trim tab is proportional to the square of the speed.At high speedsvery small trim adjustmentswill achievethe desired effect whereas at low speedsa considerable movement may be required. Figl2-2(a) and l2-2(b).

To Trim Wheel
T o C o n t r o lC o l u m n Fixed Tab. FixedTab. Ad.iustable on the Ground T o C o n t r o lC o l u m n Trim Tab

1 F i g u r e 2 - 2( a )

12-2(b) Figure

Balancetabs are a form to easethe load on the controls.They are mechanically arrangedto move in the oppositedirection to the main as control surface, illustratedin Fig l2-3(a).The operationof this typeof tab is completelyautomatic, and as can be seenfrom the diagram it but produces forcein the opposite directionto the main control surface a at the costof producinga smallreductionin control effectiveness.
148

TABS

T o C o n t r o lC o l u m n

F i g u r e2 - 3 ( a ) |

Figure 12-3(b)

In someaircraft, far from requiring assistance moving a control in surfaceagainstthe aerodynamic loads,the hingemoment is too small. This results very low loadsat the control column,a lack of feeland the in possibilityof over-stressing airframedue to an excessive the inadvertent deflection ofthe control surface. occursbecause It ofthe hingebeingtoo closeto the centreof pressure the control surface. orderto improve of In the situation an anti-balance tab is fitted which operates the same in directionas the control surface, suchasillustratedin Fig 12-3(b). On someaircraft,aerodynamic balanceis not considered necessary at low speeds is requiredat higherspeeds but when the aerodynamic loads increase considerably. type of balance to dealwith this situationis A tab calleda springtab. The bisis of the system illustratedin Fig l2-4.The is movementof the control column is transmittedto a lever pivoted on the main control surface not directly operatingit. Operationof the but surface through springs, is and at low aerodynamic loadsthe movement of this pivot arm is transmitted the main control surface to through the springs, and no alterationin the geometry between pivot and balance the tab takesplace.When the aerodynamic loadsincrease, however,transmissionof control columnmovement, the pivot arm, to the control via surface compresses spring. the This upsets geometry thesystem the of and bringsinto operation balance on thetrailingedge, the tab thusgivingsome assistance movingthe control surface. in
Control lnput Cgnt_rol Input

The Servo-Tab System

Figure'12-4

Figure 2-5 1

149

PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT very largecontrol surfaces When manualcontrolsareusedto operate of the loads involved, evenwith the assistance balancetabs, may be servotabs are usedto operate Under thesecircumstances unacceptable. A the control surfaces. servotab is a small aerofoil section,onceagain whichis directly of to attached the trailing edge the main control surface, thereis no directconnecby operated the control column.In this system the tion betweenthe control column and the main control surfaces, control column only operatingthe servotabs. As the systemdepends of forces, any movement the control column entirelyupon aerodynamic moveno whenthe aircraftis on the groundwill produce control surface is ment,only the servotabswill move.This system illustratedin Fig l2-5. of for in Caremustbe exercised pre-flightchecks full and freemovement when servotabsare used. control surfaces In the sectionon flight controls,mention was made of the variable of the In horizontalstabiliser. this system incidence the entire incidence trim asrequired, adjustfor longitudinal to is stabiliser changed, horizontal a conventional trim tab. The horizontal insteadof using requirements stabiliseris pivoted about its central point and moved by electrocan in hydraulicjacks. The change longitudinaltrim which this system and tab, is very considerable, in to exert,compared an ordinarytrimming the haveto be takenagainst resultof a runaway viewof this precautions eitherfully up winding the horizontalstabiliser in the operatingsystem, the left and right halves by or fully down. This is usuallyachieved having from each other and each entirely separate of the horizontal stabiliser This will obviatethe possibility two separated systems. by beingoperated a runningawaytogetherand alsoproduces of of both sides the stabilizer of partial failure of one of the electroin multipleredundancy the event on This form of longitudinaltrimming is a necessity hydraulicsystems. jet aircraft wherethe conventional of elevatorand trim is system large broughtaboutby, frrstly,large to unable copewith thelargetrim changes rangeand, wide operatingspeed secondly, centreof gravity movements; that It will be remembered as the elevatoris not finally, high lift devices. deflectedin any way for the purposesof trimming, the full range of from it. control is alwaysavailable aircraft, for instance,Concorde,the deflectionof On supersonic due is speeds undesirable and at controlsurfaces highsubsonic supersonic thisproblem involved. Oneway of overcoming effects to theaerodynamic is to usefuel in varioustanks to trim the aircraft. When passingfrom thereis a markedrearwardmovementof speeds to subsonic supersonic This pressure cancause severe a out-of-trimsituation. which of thecentre pumping fuel to move the centreof gravity to be by can be overcome this and of with thecentre pressure, in Concorde is in fact done coincident automatically.

TABS 12.2 Control locks All aircraftrequiresomemechanical means lockingthe controlsin the of neutral position when on the ground to preventpossible damagefrom gustsin high windswhenparked.On smalleraircraft these may take the form of wood or metaldevices which canbe slid overthecontrol surfaces to lock themin positionand preventtheir movement. largeraircraft On it is common practiceto have internal locking systems, obviously but either type of control lock must be removedprior to take-off. In this contextit shouldbe bornein mind that external locksfitted to a servotab operating system permit the movement the control columnon the will of flight deck with the locks in placeas only the tabs are being operated, therefore, aircraftwith this typeof equipment is essential confirm on it to that any externallocksfitted havebeenremoved. Most modernaircraft with hydraulically operated controlshaveintegralhydrauliclocks.

Chapter 12: Test Yourself. 1 Theeffectivenessa trim tab is: of a)proportional thespeed. to
b) proportionalto the square ofthe speed. proportionalto the square c) inversely ofthe speed. d) not proportionalto the speed any way. in Ref para l2.l 2 If the hingemomentof a control surface too small: is a) balance tabsmay be required. b) horn balance may be required. c) an anti balance may be required. d) massbalance be requiredto reduce will control columnloads. Ref para 12.1 3 A fixed trim tab may be adjustedby: a) an engineer only. b) a typeratedpilot. c) a testpilot only. d) any qualifiedpilot. Refparal2.l

P R I N C I P LOS F L I C H T EF Ifan aircraftis flying noseheavy,to return the aircraftto levelflight requires: a) elevatortrim wheelaft, tab up movement. b) elevatortrim wheelforward, tab up movement. c) elevatortrim wheelaft, tab down movement. trim wheelforward,tab down movement. d) elevator Ref para 12.l the is Whena control surface deflected antibalancetab will: controlcolumnloadsdirectionand increase a) movein the opposite control columnloads. directionand decrease b) movein the opposite control columnloads. directionand increase c) movein the same control columnloads. directionand reduce d) movein the same Refpara 12.1

t I

152

13

High Lift Devices


13.1 Introduction
High lift devicesare incorporated on aircraft wings to reducethe distance required for take-off and landing. The distanceused by an aircraft either to take off or land dependson the speedinvolved, and this speedin its turn is related to the stalling speed of the aircraft. An aircraft cannot approach to land at a speedbelow its stalling speed,therefore the higher the stalling speedthe longer the distancerequired to complete the landing run. The sameappliesfor take-off, the aircraft not being able to leave the ground until it has achieved flying speed, ie above the stalling speed, therefore the lower the stalling speedunder thesecircumstancesthe less distanceis required. All high lift devicesproduce the sameeffect, that is to increasethe coefficient of lift of the wine. The methods used for increasingthe Cr are: (a) (b) (c) Flaps Slats Boundary layer control

A flap is a hinged aerofoil section which can be mechanically lowered either from the trailing edge or the leading edge of a wing. The effect of lowering a flap is to increase the overall camber of the wing and thus increasingthe coefficient of lift. Some types of flap also increasethe wing area, thus augmenting the additional camber and producing even more lift.

13.2 Types Flap of


There are many different types of flap in common use and some of the more usual ones are shown below. (a) Plain flap. The plain flap (Fig l3-l) is an aerofoil sectionmerely hingeing down from the trailingedgeof the wing.

153

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

'13-1 Figure

(b) Split fiap. As illustratedin Fig l3-2, the split flap hingesdown from the undersurthat the camberof the faceof the trailing edge.This hasthe advantage of uppersurface the wing is not disturbedbut, at the sametime the flap amountof drag. will producea considerable

.l Figure3-2

(c) Slotted flap. One of the problems with flaps in general is that at large flap anglesthe air tends to separateaway from the flap upper surface,thus reducing its This can be minimised by putting a small slot between the effectiveness. trailing edge of the wing and the leading edge of the flap, as illustrated in the Fig l3-3. The slot produces a venturi which speeds air up, thus giving it more kinetic energy and enabling it to follow the contour of the flap farther rearwards before breaking away.

I
SLOTTED FLAP

Figure 3-3 1

154

H I G HL I F T E V I C E S D (d) Fowlerflap. The Fowler flap, in addition to moving downwards,also movesrearwhenit is lowered. wardsin sections Whilst increasing camberof the the wing this also enlarges wing area,and will result in a very large the increase the coefficient lift. It is quite usualfor Fowler flapsalsoto in of haveslats, and thistypeis illustrated Fig l3-4. in

FOWLERFLAP

Figure 3-4 1

(e) Kruegerflap. This is a leadingedgeflap which increases leadingedgecamber,and the is illustrated Fig l3-5. in

.:_ /KRUEGER FLAP I

Figure 3-5 1

(f) Leadingedgedroop. In this system entireleading the edgeof thewing is mechanically lowered, as shownin Fig 13-6.This has the effectof increasing leadingedge the camber.As can be imagined,the mechanism lowering the leading for edgemust be extremely complicated, this type of high lift device and has not found seneral favour.

LEADING EDGE DROOP Figure 3-6 1 155

PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT more lift in by The increase cambercaused the loweringof flapsproduces from the given wing section.If we considerstraight and level flight, on lowering of flaps the greaterlift will enableeither the angleof attack to a to or Generallyspeaking, compromise be reduced the speed be reduced. is reachedbetweenthesetwo factors and the speedis considerably reducedwith a small reduction in the angle of attack. The effect of from zeroangledown to their full deployloweringflapsis not constant of 30'will givea verylarge ment.A selection flapsdownto approximately in increase lift for a comparativelysmall penalty in drag, but further lowering, to say 60o,will not produce much increasein lift but will the producea considerable increase drag. When considering distance in for requiredfor take-offone might first feelthat the lowestspeed takeby distance, whole effectbeingachieved the off would givethe shortest largeflap angle. Unfortunately,as alreadymentioned,alarge flap angleincursa very the of high drag penaltywhich reduces acceleration the aircraft, so you would end up with a rather long distancebeforeyou could reach the but, A unstickspeed. lowerflap anglewould givea higherunstickspeed, In would be achieved. practice,a with lessdrag, better acceleration is betweenthesetwo limits and a flap settingof compromise reached in somewhere the regionof l0' to l2o is usedfor take-ofl-. The requiredto land depends the touch-downspeed. on The distance of will lowestspeed be givenby selection full flap, this giving the lowest In of stallingspeed. addition the selection full flap will producea very the in amountof dragwhich will assist decelerating aircraft considerable on landing. 13.3 Leadingedgeslots

//a ( t---J
Slot closed Slot open

Figure 13-7

prevents airflow from breaking the The leadingedgeslot,when opened, awayat the normal stallingangle.This allows the wing to be used at See of higherangles attack,giving higher Cr and so lower speeds. also F i s sl 3 - 1 4 l 3 - 1 5 . &
I
I

156

HICH LIFT DEVICES

Angle of Aftack

Figure 3-B 1

13.4 Slats Slatsarelift augmentation devices that take the form of a smallauxiliary aerofoil,highlycambered, adjacent theleading to edge a wing (forming of a slot),usually along the completespan.They are adjustable, control beingeitherautomaticor manualby the pilot. The effecton the Cr and angleof stall/attack may be seenin Fig l3-9, Cr being increased by approximately 700/o, angleof stall by somel0o. and

o o o

10

15

20

Angleof Attack

Figure 3-9 1 157

O FF PRINCIPLES LIGHT The effectof the slat is to prolong the lift curveby delayingthe stall of until a higherangleof attack.Whenoperatingathigh angles attackthe The of because its markedcamber. slatis genlratinga high lift coefficient is to flattenthemarkedpeakof thelow resultint actionlaerodynamically, with a more gradualgradient,as chinging it to one. pressure envelope, that the boundarylayer in may be seen Fig t:-tO-.This flatteningmeans does not undergo the suddenthickening due to negotiatingthe steep peak, so retainingits pressure '.r.rgy gradieit that existedbehind the former a'nd enabling it to penetratealmost the full chord before separating. 'Figure"l3-10 distributionis pressure also showsthat althoughthe_ or regionis unchanged evenincreased' the flatte"r, areaof thelow pressure by ftr. purrugeof the boundarylayer over the wing is as-sisted the air flowing thiough the slot (betweenslat and leadingedge)accelerating throug-hthe vinturi effect, thus adding to the kinetic energy and so gradient' pressure the against adverse helpingit to penetrate

k
NoSlat

A t
WithSlal

\ \

on of 13-10Effect Slats Pressure Figure Distribution

the To summarise foregoingthus far, slatshavethe effectof: until an angleof attackof 25'to 28o (a) Delayingseparation is attained,during which time: 70%' lt by (b) Lift coeflicienthas increased approximately of be evidentthat the stallingspeed a slattedwing should wing stallsat eg reduced, if an unslatted is significantly would stallat approxicounterpart f 100 t, its fully slatted on mately80 kt. The exactamountof reductiondepends length of leadingedgecoveredby the slat, and the the chord of the slat.
158

HICHLIFT DEVICES Automatic slatsare often locatedat the wing leadingedgein front of aileronsin order to increase stalling angleby being iutomatically the extended when the aileronmovesdown. Normally the actionof a down goingaileronwill reduce stallingangleof the wing at that point. the

13.5 Slat Control


sinceslatsare of useonly at high angles attack,somemethodmust be of usedto fair the slatswith theleadingedge, thusprecluding increased drag at normal flight configuration. If theslatsaresmallandthedragis negligible theymay befixed,ie nonautomatic.Large slats,however,are invariablyof the automatictype. They are usuallyof the mechanical control,hydraulically actuated kind, their selection beingmechanically matchedto the seleciion flap, the of linkagebeingsuchthat slatsareextended before flap andbeforetheipeed reaches that usedfor approachand landing.The reverse occurson takeoff, whenslatsarefully in only afterflap is up, andat thecorrectairspeed. In the eventof malfunctioneitherof flapsor slats, is usualto be able it to 'split' the linkagebetween the two, thus isolatingthe inoperative control, allowing the serviceable unit to operatenormally. on some aircraftthe stallsensing may be usedto extend unit slatsonly if the sensor is activated approachto the stall angle.Figure l3-lL illustrates by a typicalslatsegment thekind morecommonto aircraftwith sweptback of wlngs.
SlatCIosed

Slat.pen-\

Figure 3-1 1 1

13.6 The BoundaryLayer


This may be bestdescribed the layer of air extending as from the surface to lhe point whereno drageffectis discernible, that regionof flow in or, which the speed lessthan 99oh the free streamflow, and it usually is of existsin two forms - laminar and turbulent.Figure l3-12 illustrates thi boundarylayer.
159

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES
Distancefrom S u r f a c e0 . 7 i n

Laminar Sub-LaYer

F i g u r1 3 - 1 e

In general,the flow at the front of a body is laminar and becomesturbulent at a point some distance along the surface, known as the transition point. From Fig 13-10it may be seenthat the rate of changeof velocity is greaterat the surfacein the turbulent flow than in the laminar. This higher iate ofchange ofvelocity results in greater surfacefriction drag. It can be ieen that the nature of the boundary layer is a controlling factor in the determination of surface friction drag, but more important still, the nature of the boundary layer also determinesthe maximum lift coefficient, the stalling characteristicsof a wing, the value of form drag and, to some extent, the high speedcharacteristicsof an aircraft' The bound ary layer cannot be eliminated entirely, though some measure of control of it may be afforded by wing devices,one already dealt with being LE slots (Fig l3-7), which have the effect of re-energising the boundary layer. Others are:

(D

Boundary layer fencesto restrict the boundary layer growth of the outflow. They also check the spanwise edges. alongtheleading separation'bubble'

(iD Boundarylayer suction;suitablyplacedsuctionpoints

layer so that a new high energy draw off the weakened takeits place. layercan (iiD Boundarylayer blowing;high velocityair injectedinto its the boundarylayerto increase energy. the these re-energise boundarylayer, (iv) Vortex generators; aheadof control surfaces. and are usuallypositioned
160

HICHLIFT DEVICES (v) (vi) LE extension, also known as 'sawtooth' LE - restricts the outwardflow of the boundarylayer. LE notch, has the sameeffectas LE extension. These forms (v) and (vi), are dealtwith in a later chapter.

Slatand slotted flaD

Figure 13-13SIat and Slotted Flap Combination

13.7 Slatand SlottedFlapCombination


The combinationshown at Fig 13-13will provide a75oh increase of maximum lift with a basic aerofoil angle at max lift of 25". This will providemore control of the boundarylayer with an increase camber of andwing area.The pitchingmomentthat a trailingedge flap will produce on its own can be neutralised.

PRINCIPLES FLICHT OF

"\u"/

' Y.

...

,,"1 Shown Fully Extended

Figure 3-1 1 4

Max Cr 4.0 at 28'

? n

.9 E

H ,.0 =
1.0

-'"4%'r"iZ
*''q
5' 10' 15. Angle of Attack

,*\'"Y

---1-

Max Ct 2.4 at 22"

Max C. 1. 6 a t 1 5 "

Figure 3-1 1 5

HICH LIFT DEVICES

--==-===:N
:::-:::::-::.-:=S=SN\.\::\=I-----------11----Figure13-1 Effect slot on airflow over an aerofoil 6 of at largeangleof attack

.:::=::::li=:::::::::t::::..._=

==-=-.i=::_=:-=NS\\\::::':::--==

Chapter TestYourself. 13:


I A Fowler flap is one which when selected: a) increases camber and wing area. b) increaseswing area only. c) increases camber only. d) dumps lift only.

Refpara13.2
2 When the angle of attack of a wing is increased: a) the boundary layer becomesthinner. b) the transition point moves aft. c) the boundary layer thickens. d) boundary layer thicknessis unaffected.

Refpara13.6 163

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES in As the angleof attackof a wing is increased levelflight: turbulentat the separation a) laminar flow at the front of the wing becomes point. turbulent at the transition b) laminar flow at the front of the wing becomes point. at c) boundarylayerseparation the leadingedge. will d) boundarylayerseparation not occurbelowthe stallingangle. Ref para 13.6 on employed a wing: Vortex generators that the root endstallsfirst. a) ensure that the tip stallsfirst. b) ensure c) arelocatednearthe trailing edge. ahead control surfaces. of d) arenormallypositioned
Ref para A vortex generator is designedto:
!

I I

a) enhancewing tip vortices. the b) re-energise boundary layer. c) delay M",i d) increaseair pressure.

i
I l

Refpara13.6

74

Stabif ity
14.1 fntroduction The studyof aircraftstability can comprex, for the so purpose thischapter subject be.extremery of the witt..ue greatrysimpiiT;;stabilityis first defined senirarterms"'ro-ii'#'r in thenbe ,..n r,o, the aircraft designer incorpo"rates stability an aircraft. into "/,4.2 Definitions To quote Newtons's raw again,'a first bodywil tendto remain a state in of restor of uniformmotion;Jii JiJturueo externar by force,.where such bodyis sodisturbed, a rr"uiiiti ir".on".rn.d with themotion of the bodvaftertheexternar for;; h;;;;rr.19y"0. rr,i, moiron maybest be considered under headind,ri;il r;"b'ity and two dynamic stabilitv: 14.3 StaticStability Staticstabilitv describes immediate the reaction the bodyfoilowing of disturbance' (bynamic. rt"bilit ;;;t'., ttr. subsequent reaction.) The response related is ,ill..::qry1,9e"1-1Om state by useof the terms positive, neutrar negative and posrtrve itauifity. stability indicatesreturn a towards position the prior to distuib'ance, neutrar ,turJ'ityiG takingup oI a newposition a constant of rerationsli; i; negative stab'itv indicates "o"ii"ro;ilil.rs";;; irrl""ri'eril, whereas u iJ;l1i" originar state. exampres.s{royn rr.lp-i"o The rtrouro makethiscrear. Notethatin colloquial usage positiu.ry riuur.'u'J,iigu,ru.rv - ---o ,t"tr" "[ uruurry smbre and unstablerespectively.-

@ O

tntt^rstabirity N"* position Figure 14-t Static Stability Analogies

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT

Inordertorelatetheresponseofabodytoitsinitialstateofequilibrium 'bowl and ball' in illusthe it is usefulat this ,tug" ti * the analogyof to a

position fromitsinitial is i."ir"" i."#ig i+-riiiitte Uatt displited its staticstabilitv' If it 6"ff will describe

new posirion,the ..;;;;';iitt. it is said to have positive tendsto roll back ;;";;; "lgir.r position, from its original position it has stability;if it tendst; ;;ll f;rih., fouy iti newpositionit has if stability,urrO tn. ball tendsio remainin nesative neitral stabilitY.

Neoative SloPe Ne!ative Static StabilitY

Neutral Static StabilitY Positive SloPe Positive Static StabilitY

Disturbance Removed

of Figure14-2Craphof the Degrees Stability

Theconceptofstability.degree,canbeexpressedmoreusefullyi plotttd on t!: vertical axis' graphicalform of e:ii ti-Z iisplacement' is volts'etc'No scale given moments' may referto anysyst;, egdistance' hours, or to uury from microseconds to the horizontal ".il;hl;--uy

*ii#ffi

the to it in theresponse thisformmakes possible measure twoparameters: the ""tr;ie;;.. or ttluitityusing following

is the response (a) The sign of the slopeindicateswhether favourible or unfavourable' staticstability' of (b) The slopeof the curveis a measure the it to disturbance is necesof the Beforeconsidering response theaircraft aboutthe three into components tt. saryto resolve ,n?i# of'ti'. uit"tuft theCG' through body u*.t Passing
AXIS Longitudinal(x) Lateral (Y) Normal (z) MOTION (ABOUT THE AXIS) Roll(P) Pitch(q) Yaw(r) STABILITY Lateral Longitudinal Directional (Weathercock) 166

'i t

STABILITY It is important to realize that the motion involvedis angularvelocity and the disturbanceassumed an angular displace-"rri. In the first is instance is helpful to consider it thesecomponents separately although, in other than straightand levelflight, the motion of t^he ajrciaftis m6re complex, in a levelturn the aircraftis pitchingand yawing. eg

14.4 Directional Stability


A simpleapproachboth to directionaland to longitudinalstabilityis to consider simpledart. The flightsor vanes a da--rt a of ensure that th-e dart is alignedwith the flight path. consider first the pair of vaneswhich impart positivedirectionalstability;thesemay bi referredto as the verticalstabilizers. Figurel4-3 showihow a displicement yaw through in an angleB, resulting sideslip, in produces restbring a -o-.rrt and, thei6fore, positivedirectional(staticfstability. Two poin"ts worth noting: are (a) The dart rotatesaboutits centreof gravity (CG). (b) The momentumof the dart momentarilycarriesit along the originalpath, ie the relativeairflow Ref,is equaland oppositeto the velocltyof the dart.

(ptanView)

Figure 14_3 The positive Stability a dart of

may be unstable.Reference to _.An aerodynamic l!up" like a fuselage Figl4-4 shows that this occurs whenthecentieof pressure (cp) is in front of the CG.
167

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT
Force

I I
I

,
I I I

Flight Path

Unstable Moment

(Plan View)

of StaticStability a Figure14-4The Negative of BodyWhen CP is ahead CC' Streamline

therefore,to add a vertical stabilizeror fin to prodrtce It is necessary, the^CP p*iti". Or*ctional rt"Uifii' and this has the effect of moving "U.t keel surface iliAitt. CC iFig i+ii. rit generalit may be said that the while the keel "iifr.-f"*f"ge aheld of itre Cb has an unsiableinfluence, the rudder behind ttre CC trasa stableinfluence.(For simplicity, surface to is considered be'locked'.)
Restoring Moment

(PlanView)

Unstable lnfluence

Stable Influence

( S i d eV i e w )

of with the addition a fin Stability Static 14-5Positive Figure

.t6B

STABILITY given displacement, thereforesideslipangle,the degree and of Io.. u positivestabilitywill depend uponthesize theresiorinlg of moment,which is determined mainly by: (a) Designof the verticalstabilizer. (b) The momentarm. Designof the Fin and Rudder The vertical stabilizeris a symmetrical aerofoil and it will producean aerodynamic forceat positiveangles attack.In sideslip, of thLrefore, the total sideforce the fin and rudderwill be proportionaiio the lift coefon ficient and the area.The lift coefficient uary, ason any aerofoil,with will aspect ratio and sweepback. high angles sideslip is possible the At of it for fin to stalland to avoidthis thedesignei increase siallingangleby can the increasingthe sweepback, decreasing aspectratio or uy ritting the multiple fins of low aspect ratio. MomentArm The positionof the centreof gravity,and therefore distance the between the cG and thecentreof pressure theverticalstabilizer, of may be within the control of the pilot. Forward movementof the cG will lengthenthe momentarm thereby increasing directionalstability:rearwardmovethe ment will decrease directionalstability the LongitudinalStability The analogy of the dart can be usedwith advantage introduce the to conceptof staticlongitudinalstability.In this case dart is viewedfrom the the side and the horizontalstabilizers producea pitching moment (M) tendingto reduce displacement pitch. on anaircraff, the tailplane the in and elevators perform the functionsof a horizontal stabilizerand the conclusions reached be equallyvalid. For simplicity,the explanation will is limited to stick-fixed staticstability,ie elevatorjlocked. Figure l4-6a showsa wing with the cp forward of the cG bv the distance A nose-up x. displacement increase aneleof atiack. will the increase the -lift (L) by the amount dr and increase i,ing pitching th. momentby the amountdrx. The resultis to worsenthe nose-ufdisplacel ment: an unstable effect.In the figure at b, the cp is aft of the cG and thewing momentresulting from a displacement pitchwill bestabilizing in in its effect. The pitchingmomentis alsoaffected the movement the cp with by of angleof attackand it follows,therefore, that the relativepositionsof the cP and cG determinewhetherthe wings have a stableor unstable character.

169

OF PRINCIPLES FLICFlT

Contribution a Unstable

of in 14-6 Variations the Position CPand CG' Figure

influan the therefore, wing may h-ave unstable Taking the worst case, this' to overcome enceand the horizoniutrtuUitlr.r must be designed -'-ih;rilplified of growth of a system diajia- i" eig 14-7illustrateJthe in an increase angleof forces0". to OirpfuJ.-.ni in f,itctr, in this case wing (and all the attack.The tail contributionmust overcome unstable ;lir;;j ";r;ibutions for positivestaticlongitudinalstability.. --il; attack 0.g... of poritiu.'stability for a givenchangein angleof and the tail O.p.rO, ipon the differencebetweenihe wing moment moment,ie (Total Lift,.il)y is ,n-J.."t, this difference calledthe restoring - (Total Lift*i,r)x = net pitchingmoment' The main faltors whiih affectlongitudinalstabilityare: (a) Designof the tailPlane' (b) Positionof the CG.
170

STABILITY

Tailplane Wing

x =+_1<___---

y ________-->]

lAircraft CG
dL t"ir Lrait

Figure Changes Forces Moments to a Small 14-7 in and due Nose-up (da) Displacement Design of the Tailplane The whole-tailplaneis an aerofoil and the lift force resulting from a change in angle of attack will be proportional to the cr,u'and the lrea. The incriment in lift from the tail will depend upon the slope of its c. curve and will also be affectedby the downwash angle behindlhe wing (if the downw-ashchangeswith angle of attack). The tail design features which may affect the restoring moment are therefore: (a) Distance from CP,.l to CG (moment arm). (b) Tail Area. The total lift provided by the wing = Cr__i,eQS and the total lift produced by the tail = Cr,.lqS. For a given aerofoil of given planform, the cr- varies with angle of attack at a constant q (EAS). Therefore in comparing tail momentJwith wing moments, it is necessary only to compare the reipective area(s)and moment arms (CG position). (c) Tail Volume.The productof the tailplaneareax moment

arm is known as the tail volume. The ratio of the tail usedby 1olum9to the wing volumeis the main parameter thedesigner determining longitudinalstabilityof the in the aircraft.

(d) Planform.The slopeof the Cr curvefor a lifting surface is

affectedby aspect ratio, taper and sweepback. planThe form of the tailplanethereforeaffectsthe changein Cr_ with changein angleof attack causedby a disturbance.
171

OFFLICHT PRINCIPLES will the For example, Cr increments be lower on a sweptplanform. back tail than on one of rectangular in Wherea disturbance angleof attack (e) Wing Downwash. resultsin a changein the angle of downwashfrom the wings, the effectiveangle of attack at the tail is also nose-up if For changed. example, the aircraft is displaced then the effective and the downwashangleis increased, The total tail angleof attack on the tailplaneis reduced. havebeenand lift will not be asgreatasit would otherwise in so the restoringmoment is reduced.This decrease for stability is compensated by moving the CG farther the forward,therebyincreasing momentarm. Positionof the CG The positionof the CG may be marginallyunder the control of the pilot of thi aircraft. From Frg l4-7 it can be seenthat its positionaffectsthe of the ratio of the tail momentto the wing momentand therefore degree stability.In particular: the of a) Aft movement the CG decreases positivestability. the b) Forward movementof the CG increases positive stability. the Because position of the cG affectsthe positive longitudinal in the stability,it alsoaffects handlingcharacteristics pitch. The aerodynamic pitching moment producedby deflectingthe elevatorsmust override the restoring moment arising from the aircraft's positive For a given elevator manoeuvre. stability,ie the stabilitythat opposes in therewill be a smallresponse an aircraftwith a forward CG deflection in (stable condition)and a largeresponse an aircraft with an aft CG (less condition). stable NeutralPoint the Manual gives permittedrangeof movement EveryaircraftFlightcrew of mainly by the degree The forward positionis determined of thL cG. requiredin the particular aircraft type. of greater manoeuvrability to importance thepilot is the aft limit for the cG. If the cG is movedaft, where be the permittedlimits, a positionwill eventually reached ouiside In is wing moment(increasing) equalto the tail moment(decreasing). the the restoringmoment is zero and the aircraft is therefore this situation neutrallystable.This positionof the CG is known as the neutralpolnt. The aft limit for the CG, as quoted in the flightcrew manual, is safely
172

STABILIry forward of the neutral point. If the loading limits for the aircraft are exceeded,.it possible havethe cG positi,on or aft of, the neutral is to on, point. This unsafe situationis aggravated when the controlsare allowed to 'trail', ie stickfree. CG Margin (Stick Fixed) The larger the tail area,the larger the tail moment, and so the farther aft is the cG position at which the aircraft becomes neutrally stable.The distancethrough which the cG canbemovedaft from the quoteddatum, to reachthe neutralpoint, is calledthe static(or cG) margin,and is an indication of the degreeof longitudinal stability. The gr6aterthe cG margin, the greaterthe stability, ega training or fighter aircraft, may have a marginof a few inches a largepassenger but aircraftmay havea margin ofa few feet.

Figure t',.#X|]:ilenr Curves 14-8 and

14.5 Trim Point (Stick Fixed) Figure l4-8 (the brokenline) showsa curveof aircraftpitchingmoment coefficient. aboutthe cG vs cr. Thezero-liftpitchingmorient, cro, cv, is negativefor most aerofoil sections. The negaiiveslo-pe the curve of denotes stability,ega pitch-up,increasing cr_,generaGs nose-down the a restoring momentabout the cG. The curvewill however, nevercrossthe positive horizontalaxis,whichmeans that thereis no valueof cr at which the aircraft will be in trim (wherec*= a).If cvo can be madepositive by introducinga nose-up pitchingmoment,then the curveis raiied (the solidline) and the aircraftcanbe broughtinto trim. This canbe achieved by settingthe tailplaneat a lower angleof incidence than the mainplane to generate down-load. a

173

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT LongitudinalDihedral is the Theiifferencebetween two settings known aslongitudinaldihedral, but hasno effecton thebasicstabilityof theaircraft.Varyingthetailplane of only shiftsthe trim point. As the Cl vs angleof attackcurves incidence lines(up to the as and tailplanemay be regarded straight the mainplane doesnot dependon alpha change, stall),the variation in lift per degree nor settings on their difference. the initial incidence ElevatorAngle to Trim from the trim point, the aircraft'slongiIf the angleof attackis increased pitchingmoment.To tudinal stabilitywill producea stable,nose-down maintainthe new angleof attack,an equaland oppositemoment,noseby When this is achieved, raising_ up, will be requiredfrom the elevators. ie a the elevators, new trim point is established, at the higher angleof nosea madeto produce greater the attackon themainplane, tail hasbeen applies on camber thetail. Thereverse up momentby alteiingtheeffective when the angleof attack on the mainplaneis reduced.This does not usuallyaffectthe positivelongitudinalstability. Centre Aerodynamic writes In texi bookson stabilityit is usublto find that the aerodynamicist 'aerodynamic centre'(AC) rather than of the centreof pressure. of the The AC is a point within the aerofoil,and usuallyaheadof the CP, about of whichthepitchingmomentis independent angleof attack;it is a convetreatmentof stability nient andialculated datum for the mathematical and control. Stick-FreeLongitudinalStabiltty in If the elevatoris allowedto trail freely,the change tail forcedue to a will dependon the position taken up by the floating displacement Usuallythe elevatorwill trail with the relativeairflow and this elevator. with thetail moment conditions, the will reduce tail moment.Under these and, is the between tail and wing moments changed the reduced. balance the therefore, positionfor the CG, about which the momentsare equal, the will be farthef forward, because lesseffectivetail requiresa longer the arm.That is, theneutralpoint is fartherforward,soreducing moment of CG margin.Sincethis margin is a measure the longitudinal stick-free are stabilityit follows that when the elevators allowedto float free the longitudinalstabilityis reduced. Only) Stability (SteadyManoeuvres Manoeuvre paiagraphs longitudinalstaticstabilitywasdiscussed the In thepreceding from the condition of trimmed in to with respect a-disturbance incidence A pilot must alsobe ableto hold an aircraft in a manoeuvre levelflight.
174

STABILITY and the designer to provideadequate has elevatorcontrol appropriate to the role of the aircraft. Thefollowingparagraphs consider effects an aircraftof a disturthe on bancein angleof attack and normal acceleration. shouldbe carefully It notedthat the initial conditionis, as before,steadylevelflight. The differencebetweenstatic and manoeuvrestability is that manoeuvre stability dealswith a disturbance angleof attack (u) and in load factor (n) occurringat constantspeed, whereas staticstabilitydeals with a disturbance angleof attackat constantload factor (n = l). in If an aircraft is trimmedto fly straightand level(the initial condition, Fig l4-9a),and is then climbed,dived and pulled out of the dive so that at the bottom of the pull-out it is at its original trimmedvaluesof speed and height(Fig 1a-9b), thentheaircraftcanbeconsidered havingbeen as 'disturbed'fromits initial conditionin two wavs.both contributinsto the overallmanoeuvre stability: (a) It now has a greaterangleofattack to producethe extra lift requiredto maintain a curved flight path (L = nW). This is the sameas the static stabilitv contribution discussed earlier. (b) It hasa nose-up rotation about its CG equalto the rate of rotation about its centreof pull-out.

a L e v e lF l i g h t

b Pull-Oul

Figure 14-9 Forces Actingon an Aircraft in a Steady Manoeuvre.

175

O FF PRINCIPLES LIGHT the Because aircraft is rotatingabout its own CG, the tailplanecan be to considered be moving downwardsrelativeto the air or, alternatively, to the air can be considered be moving upwardsrelativeto the tailplane. angleof attackof thetailplanewill beincreased the In eithercase effective stability is greaterthan the static (seeFig la-10); thus the manoeuvre stabilityin levelflight.

Vertical Velocity

Angleof Attack in 14-10Increase Tailplane Figure VelocitY dueto itsVertical

If the aircraft's longitudinal stability is greater in manoeuvre, the neutral stability will be farther aft than position of the CG which achieves and level case. This position of the CG is called the ior the straight manoeuvre pbint (corresponding to the neutral poir't) and the distance betweenthe-CG and the manoeuvrepoint is called the manoeuvre margin. It will be seenthat for a given position of the CG, the manoeuvre margin is greaterthan the CG margin. Effect of Altitude ionsider an aircraft flying at two different heights at the sameIAS (ie the same value of Cr) and apply the same load factor in each case' Since the TAS is higher at altitude, the rate of pitch of the aircraft decreases (Centripetal force = MV' = MdiV, where 0) = rate of rotation). r in Figure 14-11shows the decrease tailplane angle of attack-dueto the of pitch. At the same IAS, the higher aircraft higher TAS and lower rate has less manoeuvre stability because of the reduction in the tailplane contribution.

176

STABILITY

C h a n g ei n Angle of Attack a t H i g hA l t i t u d e

C h a n g ei n Angle of Attack at Low Altitude Low Altitude H i g hA l t i t u d e

Figure

Effectof Altitude on the Tailplane Contribution

Lateral Stability (Stick Fixed) When an aircraft is disturbedin roll about its longitudinal axis the angle of attack of the down-going wing is increased and that on the up-going rving is decreased(seeFig 14-12).As long as the aircraft is not near the stall the differencein incidenceproducesan increase lift on the downof going wing and a decrease the up-going wing. The rolling moment on 'damping-in producedopposes initial disturbance the and resultsin a roll' effect.Sincethe damping-inroll effectis proportional to the rate of roll of the aircraft, it cannot bring the aircraft back to the wings-levelposition; thus in the absence any other levellingforce, an aircraft disturbed in of roll would remain with the wings banked. Therefore, by virtue of the damping-in roll effect, an aircraft possesses neutral static stability with respectto an angle of bank disturbance.However, when an aircraft is disturbed laterally it experiences not only a rolling motion but also a sideslipping motion causedby the inclination of the lift vector (seeFig

t4-12).
The forcesarisingon the different parts of the aircraft as a resultof the sideslipproducesa rolling moment tending to restore the aircraft to its initial wings-levelposition. It is seenthereforethat the lateral static stability of an aircraft reactsto the sideslipvelocity(v)or a displacement rn yaw (seeFig l4-13b). This effect has iconsideiable influence on the (lateraldynamic stability) of the aircraft. long-termresponse

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

Components U p - G o i n gW i n g Angle of Attack Reduced

Roll Components Down-Going ing W Angle of Attack Increased

Figure4-12Damping-in 1 RollEffect Each different part of the aircraft will contribute towards the overall value of the lateral static stability and these contributions will be of different magnitude depending on the condition of flight anci the particular configuration of the aircraft. The more important of these contributions are: (a) Wing contribution due to: (D Dihedral. (ii) Sweepback. (b) Wing/fuselageinterference. (c) Fuselageand fin contribution. (d) Undercarriage, flap and power effects.

178

STABILITY

Resultant Force Producing Sideslip

\----\---\

sioeslip
velocity(v)

Figure 14-.1 VectorActionof Forward 3 and Sideslip Velocities

Dihedral Effect Dihedral effect can be explained in a number of ways but the explanation illustrated at Fig 14-14 has the advantage of relating dihedral effect to sideslip angle. In Fig 14-14 it will be seen that due to the geometric dihedral, a point nearer the wing tip (A or D) is higher than a point inboard (B or C). A sideslip to starboard will therefore produce the following effects: (a) Starboard Wing. The relative airflow will crossthe wing

(from A to B) at an angleequalto the sideslip angle.Since point A is higherthan point B this will producethe same effectasraisingthe leadingedgeand loweringthe trailing edge,ie increasing the angleof attack. So long as the aircraft is not flying near the stalling speedthe lift will increase. (b) Port Wing.By a similar argument, angleof attack on the the port wing will reduceand its lift decrease. A stablerolling momentis thus producedwhenever sideslip present is (ie following a disturbance yaw). This contribution depends the in on dihedralangleand slopeof the lift curve.It will therefore alsodepend on aspect ratio beingincreased with an increase effective in chord length.It is alsoaffectedby wing taper.This is one of the most important contributions to the overall stability and, for this reason,the lateral static
179

OFFLICHT PRINCIPLES 'dihedral effect' although there are a stabilityis often referred to as the number of other important contributions.

thanBA Higher Increased Angle of Attack

Effect Dihedral 14-14 Figure Sweepback wing sweepback has the effect of producing an additional.stabilizing 'effective' dihedral of the wing (10" of contiibution thus increasing the sweephas about the sameeffect as 1" of dihedral). Figure 14-15illustrates the principal effects on wing geometry of sideslip. by (a) Angte of Sweep.The component of flow accelerated theproportional to the cosineof the angle of se"iion-ca-ber is sweep. The angle of sweep of the leading (low) wing is and that of the trailing wing is increasedby the decreased sideslip angle. A stable rolling moment is therefore induced bY the sidesliP. (b) Aspect Ratio. On the leading (low) wing the span is increased and the chord decreased,which is an effective increase in aspect ratio. On the trailing (high) wing, the span is decreasedand the chord is increasedresulting in a riduction in aspect ratio. This again produces a stable rolling momeni becausethe more efficient (low) wing produces more lift.

180

OFFLICHT PRINCIPLES 'dihedraleffect'althoughthere are a stabilityis often referredto as the numberof other important contributions.

thanBA Higher Increased Angle of Attack

Effect Dihedral 14-14 Figure Sweepback wing sweepback has the effect of producing an additional.stabilizing 'efiective' dihedral of the wing (10" of contiibution thus increasing the sweephas about the sameeffect as 1' of dihedral). Figure l4-15 illustrates the principal effects on wing geometry of sideslip. (a) Angte of Sweep.The component of flow accelerated by theseciion-ca-ber is proportional to the cosineof the angle of sweep. The angle of sweep of the leading (low) wing is and that of the trailing wing is increasedby the decreased sideslip angle. A stable rolling moment is therefore induced bY the sidesliP. (b) Aspect Ratio. On the leading (low) wing the span is increased and the chord decreased,which is an effective increase in aspect ratio. On the trailing (high) wing, the span is decreasedand the chord is increasedresulting in a riduction in aspect ratio. This again produces a stable rolling momeni becausethe more efficient (low) wing produces more lift.

.rB0

STABILITY (c) TaperRatio.Another, smallereffect,arises from a tapered w!ng. An increasein taper ratio, defined as tip chord, affectsthe lift coefficientand also producesa small stable rolling momentin sideslip.

Trailing

Effect of SweeDBack

Figure 14-15 Effect Sideslip a of on Swept Planform

Variation with speed The changesin the slope of the lift curve associated with changesin aspect ratio and sweep result in variations in lift forces of the 'leading' and 'trailing' wings. The contribution of sweepto the lateral (static) stlbility .t81

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF more important at the higher valuesof Cr-,ie at the thereforebecomes This is very because Cr curvesare divergent. the lower forward speeds, 'dihedraleffect'variesconsiderably it important because meansthat the a rangeof the aircraft.At high speeds lowerangleof attack overthe speed thereforethe stabilityat high speeds than that for low speeds, is needed To is much lessthan that at low speeds. reducethe stability to a more to value at the higher anglesof attack, it may be necessary reasonable dihedral(ie anhedral)on a swept-wing incorporatesomenegative aircraft. Handling Considerations 'dihedraleffect' of sweepback sideslip in It has beenshown that the produces strongrolling moment.This has beenreferredto somewhat a of as imprecisely roll with yaw.Two applications this effectat low speeds, are whereit is strongest, worth considering:
(a) Cross-Wind Landings. After an approach with the aircraft heading into a cross-wind from the right, the pilot must yaw the aircraft to port to align it with the runway prior to touchdown. This action will induce a sideslip to starboard and the pilot must anticipate the subsequent roll to port in order to keep the wings level. lil'ingDrop. The greatertendencyof a swept-wing aircraft to drop a wing at a high angle cf attack (aggravatedby a steep curved approach) may be further increased by a large deflection of corrective aileron. In such casesthe dihedral effect of sweepbackmay be utilized by applying rudder to yaw the nose towards the high wing - sideslip to the left, roll to the right. It must be said, however, that modern design has reduced the tip-stalling tendency and of improved the effectiveness ailerons at high incidence and the problem is not as acute as it might have been in the'transonic era'.

I I I

I t

(b)

WinglFuselage Int erfer ence (a) Shielding Effect Most aircraft will be affected by the shielding effect of the fuselage.In a sideslipthe section of 'shadow' of the the trailing wing near the root lies in the fuselage.The dynamic pressureover this part of the wing may be lessthan that over the rest of the wing and therefore produces lesslift. This effect will tend to increasethe 'dihedral effect' and on some aircraft may be quite considerable. 182

a H i g hW i n g

"r"r$

q=
Drag I

b Low Wing and High Fin

*_,6\
C Tee-Tail

\ _-=--=---h-

Figure4-16Wing/Fuselage 1 Configuration.

(b)

Vertical Location A stronger contribution towards lateral stability arises from the vertical location of the wings with respectto the fuselage.It is helpful to start by consideringthe fuselageto be cylindrical in cross-section. The sideslipvelocity will flow around the fuselage,being deflectedupwards acrossthe top and downwards underneath. Superimposing a wing in this flow has the following effect, illustrated in Fig 14-16: 183

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT (i) wing will lie ina region High Wing.A high-mounted of-upwash on the up-streamside of the fuselage its tending to increase overall angleof attack' side on Converiely, the down-stream of the fuselage by the wing ii influenced the downwashtendingto Its reduce angle of attack' The differencein lift produced by each wing will cause a restoring with sideslip'This effect has moment to increase to to beendemonstrated be equivalent l'-3'of dihedral.

(ii) Low lV'ing. The effect of locating the wing on the is bottom oi the fuselage to bring it into a regionof sideand into upwash on the up-stream downwash The angle of the fuselage' on the down-strearrrside of the leading(low) wing will be decreased of attack andthatofthetrailingwingincreased.Thisgivesrise to an unstablemoment e(uivalent to about 1"-3o anhedral. on lateral From thesefacts it can be seenthat there is zero effect The fuselage. effectis ,t"Uiriiv *rr"n the wing is mountedcentrallyon the. junction' i;;**d as separatiorio"".,.tat the wing/fuselage I e Fus lageFin Contr ibutions there will be a componentof drag Si;; ihe aircraft is sideslipping, velocity.If lhe dragline of the aircraftis abovethe o"oori"n the sideslip U'.u ..rtoring momenttendingto raisethe low wing' C"ffi;Ji*ifi is therefore'acontribution towards positivelateral ihir";;;itdration contriC"nu"rr.ly, rJiag line belowthe CG will be an unstable ,t"-Urftty. of by line is determined the Egometry the f"tio". 1.n. position'ofthe?rag are: coitributions, illustratedin Fig 14-16, ".rti." uir"tuit b.rt the major (a) High wing. (b) Low Wing and High fin and rudder' (c) Tee-tailconfiguration. as well as The tee-tail configuration makes the fin more effective contributingits own extradrag. and Flap Contributions Slipstream of the whichreduce degree positivelateralstability effects i;;;6;rtant areillustratedin Fig 14-17:
184

STABILITY

a Destabilizing Effect Slipstream of

Increase Lift in due to Dihedral Effect

Effectof Flaps b Destabilizing

of 14-1 Destabilizing 7 effect Flapand Figure Slipstream.

(a)

Slipstream.

Due to sideslip the slipstream behind the

propeller or propellers is no longer symmetrical about the longitudinal axis. The dynamic pressurein the slipstream is higher than the free stream and covers more of the trailing wing in sideslip.The result is an unstable moment tending to increase the displacement.This unstable contribution is worse with flaps down.

185

O FF PRINCIPLES LIGHT (b) distribution flapsalter the spanwise Flaps. Partial-span in a pressure across wing. The local increase lift coefof near the root has the effect of moving the ficient 'half-span'centreof pressure (in towardsthe fuselage a The momentarm of the wing lift is thus sense). spanwise riduced and a given changein Cr due to the dihedral moment.The overalllateral effectwill producea smaller by stabilityis thereforereduced loweringinboard flaps. The designgeometryof the flap itself can be used to flap a controlthiscontribution.In particular, swept-back effect,whereasa the hinge-linewill decrease dihedral it. will increase hingeJine swept-forward

DesignProblems that an aircraftshouldhavepositivelateralstaticstability. It is desirable the If, however, stabilityis too large,it canleadto the dynamicproblems later: listedbelow,someof which arediscussed ip (a) Lateraloscillatoryproblems, Dutch roll. (b) Large aileron control deflectionsand forces under conditions. asymmetric to (c) Large rolling response rudder deflectionrequiring movement to counteractthe possibility of aileion 'autorotation'undercertainconditionsof flight.

Stability 14.6 Dynamic General motionand the fromequilibrium, resulting is Whenanaircraft disturbed
actingon andmoments forces in changes theaerodynamic corresponding true This is especially for displacethe airiraft may be quite complicated. ment in yaw *irich affectsthe aircraftboth in the yawingand the rolling planes. of the Someof the factorsaffecting long-termresponse the aircraft are as follows: (a) Linearvelocityand mass(momentum). (b) Staticstabilities roll, pitch and yaw. in aboutthe threeaxes. (c) Angularvelocities I I Angular .J (d) Momentsofinertiaaboutthethreeaxes. I momentum
186

STABILITY (e) Aerodynamicdamping momentsdue to roll, pitch and yaw. consider a body which has beendisturbedfrom equilibriumand the sourceof the disturbancethen removed.If the subsequent systemof forces andmoments tendsinitially to decrease displacement, that the then body is saidto havepositivestaticstability.It may, however, overshoot the equilibriumcondition and then oscillateabout it. The terms for possible formsofmotion whichdescribe dynamicstabilityof thebody the are listedbelow: a) Amplitude increased negative stability.
b) c) d) e)

Amplitudeconstant neutralstability. Amplitude'damped'- positivestability. Motion heavilydamped; oscillations cease themotion and becomes'dead-beat' positivestability. Motion diverges negative dynamicstability.

Figure 14-18illustratesthesevarious forms of dynamicstability; in eachcase shown,the body haspositivestaticstability.

.NegativeDynamic Stability

Negative Dynamic Stability (Divergence)

PositiveDynamic Stability (Damped Phugoid)

Figure 4-18Forms f 1 o Motion

187

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT

by Dynamicstabilityis more readilyunderstood useof the analogyof whenthe disturbance For example, earlier. the'bowl and ball'described the is removed ball returnsto the bottom of the bowl and is saidto have about a neutral or equistaticstability. However,the ball will oscillate to librium positionand this motion is equivalent dynamicstabilityin an aircraft. are If the oscillations constantin amplitudeand time then a graph of The amplitudeshowsthe the motion would be as shownin Fig 14-19. of the motion, and the periodic time is the time taken for one extent completeoscillation.This type of motion is known as simpleharmonic motion. Periodic Time will dependupon the degree oscillation The time takenfor onecomplete strongerthe static stability, the shorterthe of static stability, ie the periodictime.

Harmonic 9 Simple Figure-14-i Motion. Damping In thi simple analogy given it is assumedthat there is no damping in the system;the oscillations will continue indefinitely and at a constant amplitude. In practice, however, there will always be some damping if only the because viscosity of the fluid (air) is a damping factor which is proportional to the speed of mass. Damping can be expressedas the time required (or number of cycles)for the amplitude to decay to. one half of its initiai value (see Fig l4-18 Damped Phugoid). An increase in the damping of the system (eg from a more viscous fluid) will cause the oscillations to die away more rapidly and, eventually, the damping will In be such that the oscillation ceases. this case,after the disturbance has been removed, the mass returns slowly towards equilibrium but does not overshootit, ie the motion is'dead-beat'(Fig l4-18 - PositiveDynamic Stability). 188

STABILITY DynamicStability of Airuaft Dynamicstabilitydepends the particulardesign the aircraftand the on of speedand height at which it is flying. It is usuallyassumed that for 'conventional' aircraft the couplingbetween longitudinal(pitching)and lateral(includingdirectional) motionscanbe neglected. This enables the longitudinaland lateraldynamicstabilityto be considered separately. DesignSpecification Oscillatorymotions which have a long periodictime are not usually important;evenif the motion is not naturallywell damped, pilot can the control the aircraftfairly easily. ensure To satisfactory handlingcharacteristics, however, is essential all oscillatory it that motionswith a periodic time of the sameorder as the pilot's response time are heavilydamped. This is because pilot may get out of phase the with the motion and pilot(PIO)may develop. induced oscillations Theminimumdampingspecified is that oscillations may decayto one half of their original amplitudein one complete cycleof the motion. Somemodern aircraft do not satisfy this requirement in many cases hasbeennecessary incorporate and it to autostabilization systems such as pitch dampersor yaw dampersto improvethe basicstabilityof the aircraft. Longitudina DynamicStabili ty I Whenan aircraftis disturbed pitch from trimmedlevelflight it usually in oscillates about the originalstatewith variationsin the valuesof speed, height and indicatedload factor. If the aircraft has positivedynamic stability,these oscillations graduallydieawayand theaircraftreturns will to its initial trimmedflight condition.The oscillatory motion in pitch can be shownto consistof two separate oscillations widely differingcharof acteristics; phugoidand the short-period the oscillation,Fig 14-20.
Displacement

Figure 14-20Basic Components Longitudinal of Dynamic Stability

189

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF Phugoid thiJis usuallya long period,poorly dampedmotion involvinglargevarichanges and heightof the aircraft but with negligible ationsin the speed in which motion energy as in load factor(n).It canbe regarded a constant The interchanged. potentialenergyand kinetic energyare continuously phugoid oscillationis usually damped, and the degreeof damping of h.pendson the drag characteristics the aircraft.The moderndeveloptowards low-drag designhas resultedin the phugoid oscillation ment more of a problem. becoming Short-Period Oscillation This oscillatorymotion is usually heavily dampedand involveslarge and in of changes loadfactorwith only smallchanges speed height.It can of as a pitchingoscillationwith onedegree freedom. simply be regarded will depend oscillation takenfor onecomplete As stited earliei the time it in thiscase is theperiodictime of the shortupon thestaticstability,and periodoscillation. Stability Factors The longitudinaldynamicstability of an aircraft,that is, the mannerrn which it returnsto a conditionof equilibrium,will dependupon: (a) Staticlongitudinal stability. pitch damPing. (b) Aerodynamic (c) Momentsof inertiain Pitch. (d) Angle of pitch. (e) Rate of pitch.

i l I

ililt
ilttl
oscillation 1 Figure 4-21 Short-period

190

STABILITY Lateral DynamicStability When an aircraft in trimmed level flight is disturbedlaterally, the resulting motion consists the following components: of (a) RollingMotion. Initially theroll will only change angle the of bank, and will be rapidly damped. (b) SpiralMotion. A combination bank and yaw will result of in a gradually tighteningspiral motion if the aircraft is unstable thismode.The spiralmotion is not usually in very importantbecause, evenif it is divergent, rateof diverthe gence fairly slowand the pilot cancontrol the motion. is (c) DutchRol/. This is an oscillationinvolvingroll, yaw and The periodictime is usuallyfairly short and the sideslip. motion may be weakly damped or even undamped. Because these of characteristics the Dutch Roll oscillaof tion, lateraldynamicstabilityhas alwaysbeenmore of a problemthan longitudinaldynamicstability. Spiral Stabilily The lateralstabilityof an aircraftdepends theforcesthat tendto right on the aircraftwhena wing drops.At thesame timehowever, keelsurface the (includingthe fin) tendsto yaw the aircraft into the airflow, in the direction of the lowerwing. Oncethe yaw is started, higherwing, beingon the the outsideof the turn and travellingslightly fasterthan the lower, produces more lift. A rolling moment is therebyset up which opposes, and may be greater than,thecorrecting momentof thedihedral,since the roll due to yaw will tend to increase angleof bank. the If the total rolling momentis strongenoughto overcome restoring the forceproducedby the dihedraland dampingin yaw effects, angleof the and the aircraft will enter a diving turn of steadily bank will increase increasing steepness. is known asspiralinstability.A reduction fin This in area, reducingdirectional stability and the tendencyto yaw into the gainin lift from the raisedwing and therefore results a smaller in sideslip in greaterspiralstability. This form of instabilityis not very important.Many high performance aircraft when yawed,either by prolongedapplicationof rudder or by power,will develop rapid rolling motion in the directionof asymmetric a the yaw and may quickly entera steep spiraldive;this is due to the interactionof the directionaland lateralstabilitv. DutchRoll Oscillatory instability is more seriousthan spiral instability and is of commonly found to a varying degreein combinations high wing
191

PRINCIPLES OFFLIGHT (particularlyat low IAS) and high altitude. loading, sweepback by Oscillatoryinstability is characterized the combinedrolling and yawingmovementor'wallowing'motion. When an aircraft is disturbed The motion may be eitherof the two extremes. laterallythe subsequent of causes oscillatoryinstability are complicatedand a aerodynamic of simplifiedexplanation oneform of Dutch Roll is as follows: Consider a swept-wingaircraft seenin planform. If the aircraft is more lift due to the yawed,say to starboard,the port wing generates to of largerexpanse wing presented the airflow and the aircraft accordingly rolls in the directionof yaw. However,in this casethe advancing to of port wing also hasmore drag because the larger areaexposed the a airflow. The higher drag on the port wing causes yaw to port which resultsin the starboardwing obtaining more lift and reversingthe direction of the roll. The final resultis an undulatingmotion in the directional and lateral planeswhich is known as Dutch Roll. Sincethe motion is restoringforce, one method of temperingthe causedby an excessive the lateral stability by settingthe wings at a slight effectsis to reduce angle. anhedral The lateral dynamicstability of an aircraft is largelydecidedby the relativeeffect of: (dihedraleffect) (a) Rolling momentdueto sideslip (weathercock stability). (b) Yawing momentdue to sideslip stabilitywill leadto spiralinstabilitywhereas Too much weathercock effectwill leadto Dutch Roll instability. too much dihedral 14.7 SUMMARY Static and Dynamic Stability of Aircraft with the motion of a body after an externalforce Stabilityis concerned reactionwhile its Staticstabilitydescribes immediate hasbeenremoved. reaction. the describes subsequent dynamicstability Stabilitymay be of the followingtypes: (a) Positive- the body returnsto the position prior to the disturbance. (b) Neutral - the body takesup a new position of constant to relationship the original. from the original to (c) Negative thebodycontinues diverge position.

192
I

l-

STABILITY The factorsaffectingstaticdirectionalstabilityare: (a) Designof the verticalstabilizer. (b) The momentarm. The factorsaffectingstaticlongitudinalstabilityare: (a) Designof the tailplane. (i) Tail area. (ii) Tail volume. (iii) Planform. (iv) Wing downwash. (v) Distance from Cp,uirto CG. (b) Positionof CG. (D Aft movementof the CG decreases positive the stability.

(ii) Forwardmovement the CG increases positive of the stability. Manoeuvre stabilityis greater than the staticstabilityin levelflight and a greaterelevatordeflection necessary hold the iircraft in isteady is to pull-out. The factorsaffectingstaticlateralstabilityare: (a) Wing contributions due to: (D Dihedral. (iD Sweepback. (b) Wing/fuselage interference. (c) Fuselage fin contribution. and (d) Undercarriage,flap powereffects. and Someof thefactorsaffecting long-termresponse theaircraftare: the of (a) Linear velocityand mass. (b) The staticstabilities roll, pitch and yaw. in I f Angular (d) Momentsof inertia about the threeaxes J I momentum
193

(c) Angular velocities about the threeaxes

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF (e) Aerodynamic dampingmomentsdue to roll, pitch and yaw. upon: The longitudinaldynamicstabilityof an aircraft depends (a) Staticlongitudinalstability. (b) Aerodynamic pitch damping. (c) Momentsof inertiain pitch. (d) Angle of pitch. (e) Rateof pitch.

IiI )
jt

Angular momentum

by The lateral dynamicstability of an aircraft is largelydecided the relativeeffectot a) b) Dihedraleffect. Weathercockstability.

Chapter14: TestYourself
I Stability about the normal or vertical axis is provided by: a) the rudder. b) the fin and keel surface. c) the tailplane. d) the wings and keel surface.

Refpara 14.4
2 Longitudinal stability is increasedif the: a) CP moves forward of the CG. b) CP acts through the samepoint as the CG. c) CG is forward of the CP. d) thrust acts on a line below total drag.

Refpara 14.4
3 Lateral stability may be increased: a) with b) with c) with d) with trailing edge flaps lowered. a high wing. anhedral wings. low set wings.

Refpara 14.4 194

STABILITY 4 Directionalstabilitymay be increased with: a) reduced staticmargin. b) pitch dampers. c) horn balance. d) yaw dampers. Ref para 14.4 Lateralstabilitymay be increased with: a) increased dihedral. b) increased anhedral. c) lowered trailing edgeflaps. d) yaw dampers. Ref para 14.4

195

15 Forces Flight in
15.1 Introduction
The four forces acting in level flight are lift, weight, drag and thrust. The lift acts through the centre of pressure,the weight through the centre of gravity. The drag and thrust act along lines parallel to the longitudinal axis and this is illustratedin Fie 15-1.

THRUST

WEIGHT

1 Figure5-1

For straightand levelflight theseforcesmust be in equilibriumbut if thentheopposing forces arecoincident act thepointsthroughwhichthese pairsmust be equal. = Weight Lift Thrust = Dras

15.2 PitchingMoments The positionsof the CP and CG vary throughoutflight, and undermost conditionsare not coincident,CP varyingwith angleof attack and CG varying as fuel is used.The resultis that the opposingforces(Lift and Weight)setup a couplecausingeithera nose-uppitch, or a nose-down pitch, depending the relativepositionsof CP and CG. This is on in illustrated Fig l5-2 and 15-3.
196

I I

I I
I I

il

I
I t

I I

NosE DowN
PTTCHTNG MOMENT

/ I
DOWNLOAD

Figure 5-2 1

N O S EU P PiTCHING OMENT M

Figure 5-3 1

Ideally, the pitching momentsarising from the Thrust and Drag couples shouldneutralize eachother in levelflight, but the idealis difhcult to attainand,asfar aspossible, forces arranged in Fig l5-1. the are as With this arrangement, T/D couplecauses nose-up the a moment,and the L/IV couple a nose-down moment, the lines of action of eachcouple, beingsuchthat the strength eachcoupleis equal.If, now, the engine of is throttled back,the T/D coupleis weakened, the L/TVcouplepitches and the nosedown. The tailplaneand/or elevatorhas a stabilizingfunction in that it supplies forcenecessary counterany residual the to pitchingmoments. If any nose-upor nose-down pitch occurs,the elevatordeflectioncan be alteredto provide an up or down load to trim the aircraft.This is also shownin Fig l5-2 and l5-3. If the elevatorhasto producea down load balancing force,this effectivelyincreases aircraftweight.So,to maintainlevelflight at the same the speed, angleof attackmust be increased maintainlift. The increase the to in dragis known as trim drag.
197

PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT between Angle of Attack,IAS and Altitude The Relationship weightthen: that in levelflight lift equals assuming Lift=Weight=%pV2SCL ie our normal theory of flight formula + angleof attack where: P = density V=TAS S = wing area of C. = a constantcoefficient lift thenthe equationmust also As for a givenweightlift will be constant, be constant.The only variablesin the equationare density,TAS and t/zpYz is that the expression angleof attack. It must be remembered or dynamicpressure IAS. In view of this, for a fixed IAS and weightthe angleof attackwill be constantfor any altitude. Looking at it from a differentpoint of view,if IAS (%pY') is increased the then,to keeptheequationbalanced, angleof attackmustbedecreased To and viceversa. summarise: (D
(ii)

At constantweight and IAS, angleof attack regardless altitude. of


and If IAS is increased,angle of attack must be decreased vice versa.

For optimum aerodynamic efficiency,the maximum amount of lift will be produced for the least amount of drag. This, of course, means flying at the maximum lift/drag ratio which has already been shown to occur at a fixed angle of attack, usually around 4o. It was also shown that for a given weight this will representa frxed indicated airspeed, regardlessof due to use of fuel, then it will be height. If however, the weight decreases to necessary decreasethe indicated airspeed to maintain the same angle of attack.

Glidingand Turning 15.3 Effects Climbing, of


(a) Climbing During a climb, an aircraft gains potential energy by virtue of elevation, achievedby one or a combination of two means, viz: (a)

Use of propulsiveenergyabove that requiredfor level flight. of Expenditure the aircraft'skineticenergy.


198

(b)

t
t

I I

I
I

FORCES FLIGHT IN In a climb, althoughthe weightcontinues act verticallydownwards to the lift doesnot. The lift is now at right anglesto the fliglit path of the aircraft,and effective weightcan now be resolved into twb components, one-supported the lift and the other actingin the opposite by directionto the flight path, in the samedirectionas drag. From this, two thingscan be seen: f,rrstly lift is now lessthan that requiredin straightand level the flight, W 99r y, and secondly, thrust hasto be equaland opposite the to the suT of drag and weightcomponents alongthe flight path T= D + W Sin y. This is shownin Fig 15-4.It is still considered sufficiently correct to assume = D up to about 15"climb angle(Cos 15. = 0.9659, the L ie error is lessthan 2%). Rate andAngle of Climb Figures l5-4(a) and (b) show that rate of climb is determinedby the amount of excess power, and angle of climb by the amount of excess thrust left after opposing drag.

-/ :

-/1

l,. t
\1ru 8 cos
W Sin8 \,.
W E I G H TC O M P O N E N T PERPENDICULAR TO FLIGHTPATH.

y A N G L EO F " CLIMB

Figure 5-4 1

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

Rate of Climb Fig 15-4(a) Fig 15-a@) Therefore Therefore S i n y = Vc = Rate of Climb V in Speed Climb S i n y= Thrust - Drag Weight V c = Thrust- Drag V Weight

V c = V (Thrust- Drag)
Weight Power(Avaliable) Power(Required) Weight = Excess Power Weight Vt-Vd whereVt = Thrust HorsePower w Vd = Drag Horsepower

Angleof Climb From Fig l5-a(b) it can be seenthat for the maximum angle of climb, where Sin y = Thrust - Drag, the aircraft should be flown at a Weight Thrust and Drag. between speedwhich givesthe maximum difference if Alternatively, climb angle= 0, ie levelflight, then Thrust-Drag -0 Weight But if climb is vertical,ie 90o,then Thrust=Drag+Weight or Thrust-Drag - 1 - ' W.ightthe So,it canbe deduced, factorcontrollingthe angleof climb will be the ofthrust overdrag. excess PowerAvailableand PowerRequired differsfrom that of ajet engine, Thethrustpowercurvefor a pistonengine as shownin Fig 15-5.The main reasonfor this is that the thrust of a jet

FORCES FLIGHT IN remains virtuallyconstant a givenaltitude,regardless speed, at of whereas the piston engine,under the sameset of circumstances for a given and bhp, suffersa loss at both ends of its speedrangebecause reduced of propellerefficiency. THP(avail)=@

5s0

The horsepower requiredto propel an aircraftis found by

Pwr(reqd)=W
Thecurvedepicted Fig 15-5 beassumed applyequallyto a piston in can to jet propelledaircraft,ie the airframedrag is the sameregardless or a of power and speed. The increase power requiredat the lowestspeed in is caused rapidly risingeffects induceddrag. by of

POWER AVAILABLE

POWERAVAILABLE PISTON

/L

THRUST HORSE POWER

POWER READ (DRAG TAS) x

M I N D R A GS P E E D

MIN POWER SPEED

TAS. (K)

Figure 5-5 1

201

P R I N C I P LO F F L I G H T ES Climb Performance The best climbing speed(highestrate of climb), is that at which the excess power is maximum, so that after somepower is used in overcoming drag, the maximum amount of power is available for climbing. The vertical distance between power available and power required representsthe power available for climbing at that speed.Note, in Fig l5-5, that this speedfor the piston engineis approximately l75K (TAS), and for the jet approximately 400K. ln the latter, there appears to be a fairly wide band of speedswhich would still give the same excesspower; in practice the higher speedis used in the interest of engine efficiency. At points X and Y all available power is being used to overcome drag, therefore these points are the V-in zfld V-u* for the particular power setting. Effect of Altitude The THP ofjet and piston enginesalike decrease with altitude, due mainly to decreasingair density, so that the power available curves of both types are lowered. Figure 15-6 shows power available and required curves for both enginetypes,at MSL and 40,000ft. In Fig l5-4, it is indicatedthat, at altitude, the power required to fly at minimum drag speedis increased, becausethough Vvo.ueremains the same at all heights, in EAS terms, the speedused in calculation of THP is TAS, which increaseswith altitude for a given EAS. Therefore the THP required to fly at any EAS increases with altitude. Also, from Fig l5-4, speed for best rate of climb also with altitude. The altitude at which rate of climb becomes decreases zero is known as the absoluteceiling.Serviceceilingis the altitude at which the rate of climb has dropped to 100 fpm.

Power Reqd. M.S.L.

, i

Power Reqd 40,000 ft

Power Avail.

40,000 ft

100

200 100

300

400 2A0

ft. EAs 40-@0

Figure 5-6

F O R C EIS F L I G H T N

Power A v a i l .M . S . L . Power Avail. 40,00oft.

THRUST HORSE POWER

Power Reqd. M.S.L

Power Reqd. 40,000fl


) t - - -

100

2OO 100

300

400 zoo

40,000 fl 500 EAS. 300

Figure (cont'd) 5-6

(b) Forcesin a Glide For a steadyglide,enginegiving no thrust, the Lift, Drag and Weight forcesmust be in equilibrium(ignoringdeceleration Figure l5-7 effects). by shows Weightbalanced the resultant Lift and Drag. The lift vector, of actingperpendicular theflight (glide)path,is now tiltedforward,whilst to the drag vectorstill actsparallelto the glidepath. To maintainairspeed, to energymust be expended overcome this drag, and the sourceof this ie energyis the aircraft'spotentialenergy, Attitude. When the aircraftis placedin a nosedown attitude,asin a descent, the component of weight in the direction of the flight path augments the thrust, the aircraft will accelerate, and drag will change,so, in lift a order to achieve balancedcondition with a constantairspeed, thrust must be reduced. From the foregoing, may be seen it that the controlling factor of the glideangleis the lift/drag ratio of the aircraft.An increase in weightwill not affectglideangle,asall components expandby the will proportion,but an increase weightwill increase in same alongflight speed path.

PRINCIPLES FLICHT OF

L=Wcos E D=WSin E L ,.'l TOTAL REACTION

VSinU

1 Figure 5-7

for Gliding (Descent) Endurance is that the minimum rateof descent achieved in It canbe seen Fig 15-7(a) = x V (ie power.required) but, D by makingV Siny as smallaspossible, givel aelght the rate effects),thus for a WV Sin fiignoring deceleration wherethe powerrequired(DV) is least. iJ of descent least,at the speed for Gliding (Descent) Range If distinceis to be maximum,glideanglemustbe minimum,asevidentin Fie 1s-7(b). D=Max=WCosy Therefore T=Min=WSinY W Cosy = Max WSinY but WCosT = L D WSinY on The best angleof glide thereforedepends maintaining an angle of attack which givesthe bestLift/Drag ratio, or for maximum endurance the aircraftshouldbe flown for minimumdrag.

204

FORCES FLIGHT IN Effect of Wind Gliding for minimum rate of descent, for endurance, unaffected or is by wind, because positionat the end of glideis unimportant.But when the gliding for range,the target is the point of arrival, thus the aim is maximumdistance overthe ground. for rangeis achieved explained previously, by flying for Gliding as ie minimum drag. However,that appliesonly in still air conditions.The grounddistance approximately effectof a headwind beto decrease will by the ratio "t ffi. An increase airspeed of could reduce time the wind the

effectwould act, and thus improve ground distance. Similarly,if there werea tailwind,grounddistance would beincreased, reduction speed a of would improve the distance,sincethe wind effect time would be increased. Effect of Weight providedspeed adjusted Variationin weightwill not affectglideangle, is to suit the all up weight.A simplemethod of estimating changes, speed (up to compensate weightchanges to about 20o), is to adjustspeed for (EAS) by half the percentage changein AUW, eg a weightreductionof l0% would necessitatedecrease speed 5o/o. a in of Althoughrangeis unaffected weight,glideendurance by with decreases weightincrease. Penetration is Speed the optimum gliding speed any wind speed. for (c) Turning During a turn weightstill actsverticallydownwards a second but force, from the aircraft travellingalonga curvedpath. centrifugal force,occurs This centrifugal forcehasto be opposed a centripetal forcewhich can by part of the lift force.Because lift also only be obtainedas a resolved the hasto balance weightin addition to the centripetal the force,it is evident that in turn thelift hasto be increased a greater to valuethanweight.This in is illustrated Fig l5-8. If the aircraftis banked,with the angleof attackconstant, vertical the component lift will be too smallto balance weight,thusthe aircraft of the will descend. Therefore, angleof bank increases, as angleof attackmust the be increased, verticalcomponentis then sufficientto maintainlevel flight, whilst the horizontal componentis sufficientto produce the force. requiredcentripetal

205

PRINCIPLES FLICHT OF

I
Figure 5-8 1

Effect of Weight lift If the IAS in a turn is maintainedat a constantfigure the increased in only be obtainedby an increase the angleof attack.The in0rease can in lift will, of course,producemore induceddrag whiuhwill requirean is the increase thrust. As the angleof attack has beenincreased Vving in will be increased. the nearerto its stallingangle,therefore stallingspeed the in The increase the value of lift is, in fact, equivalentto increasing is weight. The amount by which this is apparentlyincreased aircraft's 'n'. For instance, the weight is apparently if load factor or calledthe 'n' becomes in two and this is called a 29 tttrn. The increase doubled from the with the load factormay be calculated speed associated stalling followingformula: = Stallingspeed normal stallingspeedx V g load (n) of an For example aircraft with a normal stallingspeed 100$-S:arVine increased 100x V 2 = 140kt by out a 29 turn would haveits stallingspeed approximately. lift levelturn, thrustbeingignored, is providingboth a force In a steady forceto turn the aircraft.If the same weight,and a centripetal to balance indethe TAS and angleof bank canbe sustained, turn radiusis basically pendent weightor aircraft type. of

206

FORCES FLICHT IN Minimum RadiusTurn To achieve minimum radiusturn, it can be shownthat: a (a) Wing loadingmust be aslow as possible. (b) Air mustbe asdense possible, as at MSL. as ie (c) The maximumvalue of product of Cr and angleof bank must be obtained.NOTE: nol maximum angleof bank, sinceangleof bank is increased increase lift force to the requiredfor thecentripetal force.To do this, at thecritical angleof attack,speed must be increased, an increase but in speed may cause fall in maximumvalueof Cr. a The Maximum RateTurn To achieve maximumrate turn, it can be shownthat: a (a) Wing loadingmust be aslow aspossible. (b) Air mustbe asdense possible, at MSL. as as (c) The maximumvalueof theproductof angleof bank,speed and Cr must be obtained.Note, as for the samereasons givenin preceding paragraph. Altitude With increase altitude, there is an increase the minimum radius, in in mainlydueto theEAS/TASrelationship. additionalincrease caused An is by thereduction Cr-u*, in because MachNo is higherat altitudefor a given TAS. An increase altitudewill cause rate of turn to decrease. in the Effect of Thrust Evenin levelflight, it canbe seen that someaircrafthavetheir thrust line inclined to the horizontal,thus producinga componentof thrust augmenting lift. In the minimum radiusturn, and maximum rate turns discussed, aircraftis flown for Cr-u*, the which is obtainedat the critical angle,the thrust component assists so eitherlesslift is requiredfrom lift, the wing, or the turn can be improved.However,the reductionof thrust with increasing altitudewill cause reductionin turning performance, a in additionto that caused theEAS/TASrelationship thegreater by and Cr-u" reduction.

207

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES Effect of Flap Lowering of flap produces more lift, also more drag at any given EAS. A smaller radius of turn may thus be achievedwith flap, providing the flap limiting speedis not a critical factor, and the available power is sufficient to overcome the extra drag. (d) Turning and Manoeuvres:EssentialPoints to Note

Centripetal force: Consider an object swinging around at the end of a piece of string the object travels along a curved path produced by the pull ofthe string acting on the object. Since this radial force is directly towards the centre the force is accelerationmust also be towards the centre. This centre-seeking called centripetalforce, and in accordancewith the third law of motion, is opposedby an equal force called the centrifugal force. Centripetal force in the casewe are consideringis also called Horizontal Component of Lift. Although the object on the string is following a curved path of motion, it is continually trying to obey the first law of motion, ie to continue travelling in a straight line . . . true or false?True - should the string be released, centripetal force is removed and the opposite reaction (centrifugal force) disappearssimultaneously. In this instance,the object at once obeys the first law of motion and flies off in a straight line at a tangent to its previous circular path. It is important to realisethat, without centripetalforce,no objectwhether a car or aircraft can be made to turn, and the first law of motion applies. Centripetal force during a given turn is directly proportional to the mass of the body, the square of its speedand is inversely proportional to the radius of the turn. It is calculated from the formula: Centripetalforce = W V' ,,; ; (in lb)

force Centripetal Where: W


Y2

m V2..-. (ln Newtons) r the weight/orm is the mass or the squareof the TAS in feet/sec m/sec = the radiusin feetor metres = the sravitationalforceof 32.2ftlsec/sec

r
o

208

FORCES FLICHT IN To calculate acceleration the towardsthecentre, followingformuia the applies:


Acceleration Where
r12

a
v -

tt2

the velocityin feet/sec metres/sec or

= the radiusin feet or metres

Turning forceis required. This centripetal force For an aircraftto turn, centripetal the is derivedby resolving inclinedtotal lift forceinto two components, namely: (a) Verticallift component (b) Horizontal lift component that providesthe centripetal Thus, it is the horizontallift component to of forcerequired pull theaircrafttowardsthecentre theturn asit moves However, duringa alonga path of circularmotion.(Referto Fig 15-9). into a horizontal turn, lift hasa doublerole to play.Not only is it resolved force,but alsohasto providea lifting to component providecentripetal forcesuchthat the aircraft maintainsa constantheightduring the turn. It will be seenfrom Fig l5-9 that any iriclinationof total lift from the
TOTAL LIFT

CENTRIPETAL FORCE

WEIGHT

1 Figure 5-9

209

PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT of verticalresultsin a smallervefiicalcomponent lift, which would then the be too smallto balance weightof the aircraft. the to Therefore, preventthe aircraftfrom descending, angleof attack total lift. Oncethis to increased maintaina greater mustbe progressively of the hasbeenaccomplished, verticalcomponent lift is largeenoughto maintain level flight, while the horizontal componentis large enough in force.However,an increase angle the to generate requiredcentripetal in of attack resultsin an increase drag, which must be balancedby an is in increase powerif the speed to remainconstant. SteepTurns of as turn is classified a turn havingan angleof bank in excess 45 A steep Larger bank anglesrequirea largerangleofattack to produce degrees. of However,the penaltyof largeangles the requiredtotal lift increment. so the attackis drag.Eventually, aircraftwill reacha speed low, that any in further increase angleof attack will result in a stall. At this instant, angleof attack and induceddrag are so high that full power is usually constant. to necessary keepthe speed
R L I F TI N C R E A S E E O U I R E D

.l Figure5-10 210

IN FORCES FLICHT Wing Loading Wing loadingis the weightof the aircraft dividedby the wing area. W SinceL = W and L = Ct'/zpY2S,then = CrVrpY'S Thus wing loading(ie the weightcarriedby a wing of givenarea)affects both the maximumand minimum stallingspeeds. the wing loading by However,modern tendencyis to increase the speed,and to use flap to the decreasing wing area and increasing landingspeeds. reduce Load Factor The load factorof a givenaircraftin a givenconditionof flight is defined as the lift dividedby the weight.It is denotedby n. n In straightand levelflight, L = W; therefore = l. In any manoeuvre or wherelift is greater smallerthan weight,L = nW. root is the In any manoeuvre, stallingspeed proportionalto the square of the load factor. (Vn) Limit load factor. Calculationof centripetal force and loadingduringa turn: lb, Consideran aircraftweighingI 1,500 flying at 200knots (338'sec)in a turn havinga radiusof 2000feet. Centripetalforce= y y' g r - 1 1 5 0 0x 3 3 8 ' = 32.2 x 2000 force = 20,400Ib Centripetal
Refer to Figure l5-l I for the wing loading calculation.The wing loading which is equal to lift may be calculated by Pythagoras' Theorem, where: TL2=F2+L2 TL={pzayz

TL = rvD0400t;I5mz
TL = 23418lb or Accelerated g stallsin a turn: of in any As alreadydiscussed, increase bank angle(tightening the turn) the Eventually, angleof attackreaches the affects stallingspeed. adversely in the criticalangle,resulting the buffet.
211

P R I N C I P LOS F L I C H T EF

l.C.L,

WI

F i g u r e1 5 - 11

However,should one wing stall beforethe other, the aircraft would tendto roll in or out of the turn, due to unequallift distribution.This roll 'flicking movement'. resultin a cases may in some. Recoveryis initiated by moving the control column forward and, in the doing so, decreasing angleof attack, therebyunstallingthe aircraft. 'high speed' stall. or'accelerated' is This occurrence known as a Minimum RadiusandMaximum Rate of Turns (ie the As theangleof bankis increased, horizontalcomponent centripetal force, the The increases. greaterthis centre-seeking force)consequently (ie minimum radius). lessthe radiusbecomes

that: l5-12demonstrates Figure = =-Jhn| HCL

w = v wv'lgr gr

212

FORCES FLIGHT IN

Figure5-12 1

A verticalbankedturn is impossible because evenif Total Lift becomes infinity no verticalcomponentcan be obtained.However,evenwith a (apartfrom verticalbank thereis a limit to the radiusof the turn because sideslipping),the wingsmust provide all the horizontal force (ie Ct Yz by V2S), represented the formula: (D Centripetalforce = W V'lg r (vertical (ii) force = Cr %pV2S but - Centripetal bank) ZWI(CIpSS) is Straightand levelstallingspeed givenby the equation: W = L = CL-u,/rpY'S Therefore: WV2/gr = = r or
Cr %pY2S

(iii) (iv) (v)

213

P R I N C I P LO S F L I G H T EF Therefore, by substituting this value of W into the equation (iv), we get:

(vi) Equation(vi) showsthat whenC.-u* is equalto the Cr, the radiusof the when Cr is at a maximumvalue, turn will be minimum. (Obviously, the angle of attack is the stalling angle and the radius of turn = V2S
gt

= (2 Cr-.*) ,Lpyrs g Cr-pS = fILt\ x Cs(-.J \g / cr

Load factor: Total weight = 23418 = 2.0 Aircraft weight 11500 The loadingon the aircraftis thus 2.0. it Furthermore, is true to saythat the load factor variesasthe secant ( of the bank angle. I ) (Cosine) bank turn. an Consider aircraftin a 60 degree = 60 Cosine degrees 0.5 = 60 Secant deerees 2.0 bank turn. Thus,the aircraft hasa load factor of 2.0during a 60 degree during a turn: Determination the stallingspeed of the increases which requires additionallift consequently Any manoeuvre This is true of any turn and the load factor and thusraises stallingspeed. from the formula: may be calculated the stallingspeed x New stallingspeed= Old stallingspeed Vlotdltctor let the example, us assume aircrafthad a basicstalling From theforegoing during the turn speed 85 knots at grossweight.The newstallingspeed of is therefore: NewV = oldV, x Vn = 85 X \/T = 120 knots.

214

FORCES FLIGHT IN

Answer the following questions I During a turn havinga bank angleof 45 degrees, stallingspeed the is 100knots.Calculate basicstallingspeed. the Answer: 84 knots 2 Assume aircraftweighingI I,500poundspulling out of a dive.If an a forceof 4 gwasregistered, what wasthe centripetal forceand the new stallingspeed the basicstallingspeed if was78 knots? pounds 156 Answer:46,000 knots. ; Thus, the minimum radiusof turn is settled the stallingspeed that by of poweris the final deciding aircraft.However, engine factor in settlingthe minimum radius.

To summarize: I) 2) 3) provid'ed Fly at any speed powercan maintainit. engine Fly at the maximumpermissible load factor (Cr-.,). Air must be as denseas possible(densityis a factor in the lift formula).

Maximum RateTurns In this turn, the angularvelocityof the aircraft during a turn must be as high aspossible: ie Velocity (ftlsec) radius (f0 = Time

Thus minimum time will resultif the radiusis kept at a minimum value and the aircraft is flown at a minimum speed(ie whereCr_ maximum). is To summarize: l) 2) 3) Fly at the stallingspeed. Fly at maximumload factor. Air must be asdense possible. as

2' t5

OF FLICHT PRINCIPLES Turns ClimbingandDescending than the distance During I climbingturn, the outerwing travelsa greater inner wing. This resultsin the outer wing having a larger angleof attack which leadsto an overbanksituation. Bank must thereforebe held off during climbing turns. The opposite turns,wherebank must be held on. for applies descending

I (9

z
F f

J0
z

=
u

o I
92?

u z z T .Horizontaldistancetravelled. INNERWING ....*

iE I
I

Horizontaldistancetravelled OUTERWING

o z

;
E U F l

A of A Outer wing

ol I

.---""" t

A of A Inner wing {greatest}

Chapter15 TestYourself.
I With increasingaltitude the power required from a piston engine: a) reducesand power available increases. and power available increases. b) increases and power available reduces. c) increases and power available remains constant. d) increases

Ref para 15.3

2 The height at which the rate of climb drops to 100 fpm: a) is termed the absolute ceiling. b) is known as the rated ceiling. c) is the serviceceiling. d) is the critical height.

Ref para 15.3 216

FORCES FLIGHT IN its If the weight of an aircraft is increased, glide rangewill: a) be the same. b) be increased. c) be reduced. Ref para 15.3 in 4 With an increase aircraft weight:

will remain the same. a) glide endurance will increase. b) glide endurance will reduce. c) glide endurance Ref para 15.3 5 In a turn the centrifugaleffectis opposedby: a) centripetalforce b) thrust only. c) a componentof weight. of d) a component thrust and weight. Refpara15.3

16 High Speed Flight


16.1 lntroduction
Low speed aerodynamics is based on the assumption that air is incompressible;the attendant errors are negligible since at low speedsthe amount of compression is negligible. At speedsapproaching that of sound, however, compressionand expansionin the vicinity of the aircraft are sufficiently marked to affect the streamline pattern about the aircraft. At low subsonic speedsa flow pattern is establishedabout the aircraft, but at high subsonic and supersonicspeedsthe flow around a given wing can be controlled, and its behaviour predicted. In the transonic range where a mixture of subsonic and supersonic flow exists, marked problems of control and stability arise, necessitatingspecial designfeatures to minimise the effects of compressibility.

15.2 Definitions
(a) Speed of Sound The speed at which a very small pressure disturbance is propagated in a fluid under certain conditions. Speedof sound is proportional to the absolute temperature(K) and can be calculated from the formula: Local speedofsound (LSS) = 39 x @ Therefore, the higher the temperature, the higher the LSS' In fact, at MSL at ISA LSS = 661 kt, and at 30,000ft LSS = 589 kt. Derivation of the formula for ISA conditions is as follows:

LSS=C x Therefore C-

\f28-86K=661 =CruD88-'f

661 = 38.95'

\r&rK
the For practicalpurposes, figureof 39 may be used. (b) Mach Number(M) The ratio of True Airspeed(TAS) to the Thus to of local speed soundapplicable air temperature.

218

H I C HS P E E F L I C H T D

MachNo (M) =
TAS = 529kt.
(c) (d)

ffi

therefore sea at leveltemperature l5oC


_ 5 2 9 _ 0.80 661

LSS = 661kt. M

Free Stream Mach No ( Mrs) The Mach number of the flow at a point unaffected by the presenceofthe aircraft. Local Mach Number (M) When an aerofoil is placed in a subsonic airflow, the flow is acceleratedin some places, and slowed down in others. The local Mach number is the speedat some specified region of flow, and may be greater than, the sameas, or lower than Mrs. Critical Mach Number ( M",i,) This is the lowest Mes which for a given aerofoil and angle of attack, gives rise to a Mr of 1.0 on the aerofoil. As will be seen, M".i, for a wing varies with angleof attack. Compressibility Mach Number The Mach number at which, because of compressibility effects, control of an aircraft becomes difficult, and beyond which loss of control is probable. Critical Drag Rise Mach Number relates the Mach number to an appreciableincreaseof drag associated with compressibility effects,usually 10-15%higher than M",i,.

(e)

(0

(e)

16.3 Airflow
(a) (b) (c) (d) flow when freestreamMach numbersare suchthat Subsonic local Mach numbers lessthan M 1.0at all points. are Transonic flow, the Mes is high enoughto produceM1, sorns of which are greater than M 1.0. Supersonic flow, Mrs is such that at all points Mr are greater thanM 1.0. Hypersonic flow, Mnsis greater than M 5.0.

16.4 Speed Sound of


Anything which movesthroughthe air creates pressure wavesand,what may not be generally realised, thesewavesnot onlv travel out in all 219

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF ofsound. Ifthe from the objectbut they radiateat the speed directions of lessthan the speed soundthesepressure at a speed objectis moving an waveswill be ableto move awayfrom the object.When considering moving at very high speedit is possiblethat the sound waves aircraft is the cannotget awayfrom it, because aircraft'sspeed closeto the radiof It is this whichgivesriseto theproblems high ation spiedof thewaves. flight. speed the illustrates situationof an aircraftflying at lessthan Figure 16-1(a) wavessent of the speed sound.If its startingpoint is A, thenthe pressure awayand by the from the aircraftaremovingsteadily out in all directions they will be well clearof the aircraft.This should time point B is reached with the situationillustratedin Fig 16-l(b) wherethe be contrasted wavesare of aircraft is travellingjust at the speed sound.The pressure pile up ahead of alsotravellingat the speed soundwith theresultthat they wave,alsocalleda shockwave' of the aircraft and form into a pressure

M =0.5

3
J

o z
Waves Formed by Object Moving FoNard {a) Pressure at LessThan Localspeed of Sound (a) Waves Formed by Object Moving FoMard {b) Pressure at Local Spesd of Sound

(c) Pressure Waves forming Mach Cone with Obiect Moving Foruard at a Speed Greaterthan lhe Local Speedof Sound

Figure

H I C HS P E EF L I G H T D shownin Fig l6-l(c). An aircraft travellingsubstantially fasterthan the speed soundwill leaveits own pressure of waves behindand form a cone of pressure waves illustrated Fig l6-l(d). as in 16.5 ShockWaves When a shockwaveis formedthe pressure distributionover the wingsis materiallyaltered,causingconsiderable alterationsin the valuesof lift and dragand alsoaffecting control operation. couldbearguedthat few It civil passenger transport aircraft are capableof reachingthe speedof sound,however, air overthe uppersurface the wing is deliberately the of accelerated orderto produce and eventhoughtheaircraftitselfmay in lift be flying belowthe speed sound,someof theair flowingoverthewings of may beaccelerated Mach 1.0.Whentheairflow overtheuppersurfaces to of the wing reaches Mach 1.0,the actualspeed the aircraftis calledthe of critical Mach Number or M".i,.When this point is reached shockwave a forms overtheuppersurface thewing because pressure of the waves from the rear of the wing that aretrying to moveforward aremeetingair travellingat exactly same the speed flowingbackward. This is similarto trying to movealonga movingwalkwayin thewrongdirectionat the same speed as the walkwayis travelling.The point at which this shockwaveusually forms is just aft of the point of maximumcamberof the wing wherethe acceleration the air is greatest. front of the shockwavethe flow is at of In or higherthan Mach I whilst behindthe flow it is still subsonic. At theshockwave,the normallawsof physics seem breakdown and to as the air passes through the shockwavethe pressure increases the and temperature increases. the speed the aircraftis increased further If of still the regionof supersonic flow on top of the wing also increases the and shock wave will start to move back towardsthe trailing edge.On the undersurface curvatureof the wing is usuallylessthan on the the uppersurface and the shockwavewill form later.However,oncehaving formed,if the actualspeed the aircraftis further increased, shock of this wavewill alsomove rearwardand when the actualspeed the aircraft of reaches Mach I both shockwaves will havemigratedto the trailing edge of the wing. At the sametime anothershockwavewill form closeto the leadingedgeof the wing, this is calledthe bow wave.If speed further is increased bow wavewill actuallytouch the leadingedgeof the wing this and is thentermedan'attachedbow wave'.This is illustratedin Fig l6-2 and further speed increases not change relativepositionsof these will the two shockwaves, will just bendthem backwards. but The next diagram, Fig l6-3, illustrates behaviour the shockwaves the of from a speed below Mach I to onewell in excess the speed sound. of of

OF PRINCIPLES FLICHT

Figure 6-2 1
Flow Subsonic (a)M = 0.6 Flow Subsonic Flow Subsonic

------------>

Wave Shock InciDient and of increase Pressure Density Sudden in Velocity Fall

Supersonic P
(b)M = 0.8 Supersonic

Flow Subsonic

Flow Subsonic

>;===
Flow Subsonic Flow Subsonic

Flow Subsonic -----------tr-

Wave Shock Fullvdeveloped and lncrease Pressure DensitY of Fallin Velocity Flow Supersonic (c) lV= 1.0 Flow Supersonic

------>

Flow Sonic

Bowwave approaching \ fromfront

=
E Supersonic

Supersonic Subsonic Supersonic Supersonic

_------->

Flow Supersonic

( d )r v= 1 . 1

@
= :

FullyDeveloped bowwave Flow Supersonic --------------t (e)[/ = 2.0

1 Figure 6-3

H I C HS P E E F L I C H T D

16.6 Wave Drag for For aircraftnot designed transonicand supersonic flight, the formashockwaveswill havea markedeffecton lift, drag and also tion of these on the general stabilityof the aircraft and its control.The basiccause of is of the problems the separation the airflow behindthe shockwavedue This causes boundary layer to separate, to the rise in pressure. the produced the wing and an increase drag. reducing amountof lift the by in 'wavedrag'in This increase drag is very marked3t M".itand produces as previouslymentionedin the chapteron total drag. If speedcan be further againstthis drag force the shockwaveswiil move increased thus reducing amountof separated and, towardsthe trailing edge, the air in fact,thelift will startto increase againand thedragdecrease. However, this will only occur in aircraft which are designed transonicflight for lift is but the total developed at higherspeeds less than at subsonic speeds for the same angleof attack.This is because is less any givenwing Cr for and angleof attack at supersonic speeds. change both lift The in section and drag areillustratedin the followinggraphs, Fig l6-4 and Fig l6-5. It shouldbe notedthat this lossof lift which occursasa resultof the shock waveis not dissimilarin effectto that produced a low speed stall. For by it calleda'high speed this reason is sometimes stall' and givesriseto the first of thecontroldifficultiesencountered flying an aircraftat or above in
Mcrit.

UD

t
McRtr 1.0 Figure 16-4 Variation of Co with Mach No at Constant Angle of Attack

viz: energydrag and boundary Wave drag arisesfrom two sources, layerseparation. Energy drag stemsfrom the nature of changes occurring as a flow rise the a crosses shockwave.Energylost dueto temperature across shock
223

O FF PRINCIPLES LIGHT drag on the aerofoil.The more obliquethe shockwaves, wavebecomes latermore extensive the lessenergythey absorb,but sincethey become Mnsincreases. ally and affectmore air, energydrag risesas of at iloundary layer separation; certainstages shockwavemovement (Fig l6-3). The turbulencerepreflow separation thereis considerable through to sentslost energyand contributes the drag. As Mns increases to the trailing edgeand sepathe transonicrangethe shockwavesmove thus ration decreases, drag decreases. Thetotal effecton dragis shownin Fig l6-4 (CDbrokenline),thehump with by in thecurvebeingcaused drag associated the trailing edgeshocks of loss,separation the boundarylayerand the formaarisingfrom energy tion of the bow shockwaveaboveM 1.0. 16.7 Reduction of Wave Drag To reducethe effectof wave drag, shock wavesmust be as weak as wingsmusthavea sharpleadingedgeaswell asa thin possible, therefore, iection to keepthe deflectionangleto a minimum so producinga weak bow shockwave.The thin wing will have a reducedcamber,thus the and will gradient across wing shockwaves besmaller, the pressure adverse may Fuselages be treated will be reduced. of the shockwaves the strength in in a simiiar manner,for a givenminimum crosssection,an increase wavedrag. will reduce (within reason) length

on of 16.8 Effects Compressibility Lift


to To consider this aspectit is necessary start at a speedwhere compressibility effects become significant and seehow they vary with increasing Mach No. (a) Subsonic Risein Ct An increasein velocity is always accompanied by a decreasein pressure, and since the velocity increase in a compressible flow is greater than that in an incompressible flow for the same wing, the pressure will be lower,lhus lift is greater for a wing in a compressibleflow' At low speed,where air can be consideredincompressible,lift is proportional to V2, ie Cr can be assumedconstant for the same ingie of attack. At moderately high speedsdensity changes at becomesignificant, lift increases a rate higher than indicated by V', ie Cr increasesfor the same angle of attack' Another factor affecting Cr is the amount of warning the air compressibility getsof the wing's approach. As speedincreases iffects increaseand the reducedupstream warning causesflow displacement to start closer to the wing. This effectively 224

H I G H P E EF L I C H T S D increases angleof attack,soincreasing Thereis a slight the Cr. lossof lift due to movement the stagnation point forward, of but overallthereis an increase Cr. in (b) TransonicVariationsin Cr In consideringthis aspect,five significant speeds selected, B,C, D and E in Fig 16-5, are A, and areused Fie 16-6. in

.l Figure 6-5 At A l.l4rs= 0.75, the flow accelerates rapidly from the stagnation point along both upper and lower surfaces,giving a sharp drop in pressure,and the wing is above M".i,. Over the top surface of the wing, as yet there is no shock wave, and Cr has risen by 60% of its low speedvalue for the same angle of attack. Over the bottom surfaceflow is still subsonic. At B Mes= 0.81.With the acceleration this speed, shock to the wave has formed and is strengthened,and will be approximately 60% chord (Fig 16-3); there is no shock wave on the undersurface. Behind the shock wave on the rear part of the wing there is no real change in pressure differential betweenupper and lower surfaces;ahead of it and behind the 40% (approximately) chord, pressure differential has increasedconsiderably due to supersonic acceleration up to the shock wave. This effectively increasesthe C1 to roughly double its incompressiblevalue. It also causesthe CP to move rearward to approximately 30% chord. Flow under the bottom surfacebecomes sonic. = 0.89.A shockwavehasformed on the undersurface At C }i{.{.es 225

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT and moved to the trailing edge,while the upper shockwave for The reason the differing virtually stationary. hasremained is the effecteachshockwavehason the boundary behaviour to leads a pressure of layer.Suchan arrangement shockwaves suchthat the wing behindthe upper shockwave distribution from the lift, is producingnegative which hasto be subtracted producingarea. Lift coefficienthas droppedto positivelift valueand centre belowits incompressible 30o/o approximately 300/o chord.The olpressuremovesforward to approximately movement is the relative B for reason the slopebetween and C upperand lower shockwaves. between shockwaveis forcedto the At D Mrs= 0.98.The top surface negativelift is replacedUVt-!" trailing edge,the area of l}oh differential.The Cr is approximately orthodbx pressure to hasmovedrearward approxiabovebasicvalue,andthe CP by of mately45ohchord;this movement the CP is experienced range. all aircraftgoingthrough the transonic At EMrs= 1.4.AboveM l'0 thebow shockwaveforms,and The wholeof to at M 1.4is almostattached the leadingedge. midis at approximately thewing is producinglift, and the CP less to a valueof 30oh than chord positlon.The Cr-is reduced point movingtovaluedueto thestagnation its incompressible and to the lossof leadingedge, the mostlorward point on the pressure energythrough the bow shockwave. above The shockwavepositionsfor eachstationconsidered areshownin Fig 16-6.

Mrs=075

M r s= 0 . 8 1

Mrs=098

1 Figure 6-6

H I C HS P E E F L I C H T D

15.9 Supersonic in CL Fall tl


t

The full explanation this aspect beyondthe scope these of is of notes,but it suffice hereto point out that in practice, decrease lift between any in the upperlimit of the transonic rangeand Mo, 1.4would be masked trim by resulting from passing changes throughthetransonic range. Thepractical progressively resultis that the lift curveslopebecomes more gentlewith in an increase Mrs in the supersonic range.The variationsin Cr at supermainly on attendant problems sonicspeeds depend with compressibility pressure gradient increases increase speed, of and adverse with speed increase.

16.10 Effects lncreasing of Mach No on Stability


LongitudinalStability Transonic Most aircraft operatingin the transonicrangeexperience nosedown a pitch with speed increase, mainly due to two causes: (a) Rearwardmovement CP which increases of longitudinal stability. (b) Modification of airflow over the tailplane.The effectof mainplaneshock wavesis to modify the flow over the tailplanewhich will tend to pitch the aircraft nosedown. The effectson an aircraft'shandlingcharacteristics nosedown pitch of are two-fold. (i) At someMach No an aircraftwill become unstable with respect speed, to necessitating rearwardmovementof a the control column.This particularproblemis dealtwith more fully in Mach Trim.

(iD The requirement for a large up deflection of reduces amountof available elevator/tailplane the control for manoeuvres. deflection r Supesonic LongitudinalStabilit y The rearward movement the CP in the transonic of range continues the as into flight. Thus all aircraft experience aircraft accelerates full supersonic a markedincrease longitudinalstability. in Transonic Lateral Stability flight, Disturbances therollingplaneareoftenexperienced transonic in in
227

OFFLICHT PRINCIPLES due on Someaircraft one wing starts to drop when M",i, is exceeded, shockwavesdo the differenceinlift on th'etwo winggbecause mainly to not form at identicalMach numbersand positionson eachwing. Lateral StabilitY Supersonic lifton aftersideslip, the lowerwing developing Li.i"i ri"Uitity depends, forceisthusreduced flight thecorrecting in CrSince decreases supersonic lesseffective.Another are and dihedral and sweepback consequently friction drag, dueto surface effectis the lift/dragratio decreasing adverse between differences due to pressure in the decrease lift/drag raiio being at the pressures thewing tips and combinedwith upperandlowersurfaces Mach cones' their associated Stability Directional an and engines, consequently aft CG, has iear mounted ihe trendtowards act' Also, the supersonic arm meanta decreased aboutwhich the fin can in decrease Ct for a given angleof attack causedby sideslipmeans.a the Subsonically, fuselageside force in ieduction in fin effectiveness. are actsin front of the CG and the verticalfin surfaces ableto a sideslip flight the fuselage condition. In supersonic ou.r"o*. the destabilising flight no sideforcemovesforward.As long as the aircraft is in balanced the longitudinalaxis a but if the relativeairflow is off piour.- arises, in by This is caused asymmetry the forceat the noseresults. hestabilising the gradientacross pressure producinga two shockwaves of strength t-he nose.

16-7 Figure 228

H I C HS P E EF L I G H T D The noseforce illustratedin Fig 16-7is tendingto preventthe nose beingturned into the relativeairflow and is thereforedestabilising. The forceincreases with speed and hasa longerarm than the fin and rudder. The point of applicationof the forceis difficult to define,but is located at that part of the fuselage wherethe cross-sectional is increasing. area One answerto this problemis to fit longerfins and increase their numbers, thereis a limit if only for wavedragconsiderations. better but A methodis the fitting of yaw dampers, whichhavealreadybeendealtwith. Mach Trim The device which corrects compensates longitudinalinstabilityat or for high Mach numbers the Mach Trimmer.As statedpreviously, some is at Mach numberan aircraftwill become unstable with respect speed; to this is potentiallydangerous sinceany inattentionon the part of the pilot in allowing a small increase Mach No will producea nosedown pitch, in which will give further increase Mach No, in turn leadingto even in greater nosedown pitch.However, Mach Trimmerwill in fact correct the or compensate the initial increase speed. for in The Mach Trimmer is sensitive Mach numberand is programmed to to feedinto the elevator/stabilisersignalwhichis proportionalto Mach a number so that stability remainspositive.The signalfed into the elevator/stabiliser simplycauses their deflection a directionto compenin satefor the trim change. Mach trim operationin normalconditions not be shownup by the will behaviour theaircraft,but will usuallybeindicated activationof the of by trim wheeland/orilluminationof a monitor lisht. Mach trim operationshouldbechecked againstMach numberfor any significant change flight condition. in SomeKev PointsSo Far Fixed Trim tabs are usedto correctpermanentout-of-trim faults and can only be adjusted the ground. on

2
J

Fixed Trim tabsshouldonly be adjusted an engineer. by A Balancetab is fitted to assist pilot in moving the controlsin the flight. A Servotab is activated movement the control columnwhich by of directly movesthe tab which then aerodynamically movesthe control surface. On somesupersonic aircraftlongitudinaltrim is achieved moving by fuelfrom onefuel tank to another. The tanksarepositioned fore and

229

PRINCIPLES LIGHT O FF aft underthe floor and by pumpingfuel from oneto the other the C of G is moved. 6 7 8 9 drag. ratio wing givesimprovedlift and reduced A high aspect will of Employment sweptwings,or wingswith sweptleadingedges, delayM"6,. For a givenwing areaat a givenangleof attack a sweptwing will produce lift. less wing is moreproneto tip stall. A swept

movementof airflow over a sweptwing may be reduced 10 Spanwise by: Wing Fences. LeadingedgeNotches. edges. or Savr, DogtoothLeading Vortex Generators. Wing Blowing.

Chapter 16: Test Yourself.


I Most aircraft operating in the transonic speed range experience: a) no pitch change. b) a nose up pitch change. c) a nose down pitch change. d) none of the above.

Refpara16.l0
2 During the transonic speedrange the: a) C of P moves forward. b) C ofP doesnot move. c) C of G moves aft. d) C of P moves aft.

Refpara16.10

Auto Mach Trim will primarily function: a) at all speeds. speeds. b) only at high subsonic speeds. c) only at supersonic range. speed d) within the transonic

Ref para

230

H I C HS P E E F L I C H T D 4 As an aircraftaccelerates throughtransonic supersonic to flight: a) longitudinalstabilityincreases. b) longitudinaland lateralstabilityincreases. c) longitudinalstabilityreduces. d) longitudinal lateral and stability reduces. Ref para 16.10
Wave drag arisesfrom two sources: a) interferencedrag and boundary layer separation. b) energy drag and boundary layer separation. c) energy and induced drag. d) boundary layer separation only.

Refpara16.6

231

17

Manoeuvres Their and Fundamental

Failure Trimand Engine Affects,

17.1 Introduction of aspects theprinciples those to is Thischapter intended bringtogether of manoeuvres anaircraft. in of of flightthatareinvolved some thebasic 17.2 Li ft
Example: Increasedweight whilst maintaining level flight An increaseof weight will require an increaseof lift to maintain level flight, which will normally be initiated by aft movement of the control column to produce an up deflection of the elevators. The movement of the elevatorsUP will produce a down load on the tailplape, resulting in the longitudinal axis rotating about the lateral axis to increasethe angle of attack. The increasein angle of attack will result in the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Centre of Pressure Will move forward. Transition Point Will move forward. Boundary Layer Will become thicker. Separation Point Will move forward Stagnation Point Will move down and aft towards the underside of the wing. Induced Drag Will increaseas the angle of attack and the resultant lift increases. 232

(0

FUNDAMENTAL MANOEUVRES THEIR AND EFFECTS

(e)
(h)

Upwash and Downwash Will increaseas the angle of attack is increased. Power In order to maintain level flight with increasedangle of attack and maintaining constant airspeed, then power must be increasedto balance the increasein dras. Power Required It may also be said Power Available reducesand Power Required increases. Stalling Whilst the stalling angle will remain the same,due to the weight increasethe stalling speedincreases.

(i)

(f)

17.3 LaftRelatedto Camber


Whilst different cambers are used for wing sectionsto satisfy individual type requirements,a number of basic principles must be appreciated. Example: High Camber wing at zero angle of attack: (a) (b) Will produce some lift and some drag High Camber wing sections will produce some lift and some drag even when at small negativeanglesof attack.

Example: Symmetrical wing sections: (a) (b) Will produce no lift and some drag at zero angle of attack. Must have a positive angle of attack to produce lift.

17.4 Yaw to Port (Conventional and KeelSurface) Fin


The following principles are applied to an aircraft when it is yawed to port. (a) (b) (c) Left rudder pedal pushedforward causingrudder trailing edge to move to port. Some part of the leading edge of the rudder will move to starboard. This action will cause the aircraft to yaw about the normal or vertical axis to port. 233

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES (d) The airflow over the starboard wing is now at a greater velocity than that over the port wing and so more lift is being generated by the starboard wing than the port wing, the result being a roll to port. So a yaw to port will also result in a roll to port.

(e)

Fin 17.5 Yaw to Port (Large and KeelSurface).


(a) Left rudder pedal pushedforward causingrudder trailing edge to move to port and rudder leading edge to starboard. Aircraft yaws to port about the normal or vertical axis. Action of rudder on a large fin causinga lift force of high magnitude to cause the fin to move about the longitudinal axis towards the right in a clockwise rotational movement when viewed from the rear, hence a roll to starboard, So it can be said on an aircraft with a large fin and keel surface when the aircraft is yawed to port it will tend to roll to starboard. It can therefore be said that an aircraft with a normal or conventional sizedfin and keel surfaceis spirally stable in that when yawed to port it will readily roll to port and allow a spiral to be executedin a stable manner. If, however, the aircraft has a large fin and keel surface,when yawed to port it will tend to roll to starboard and will resist a ipiral to port by rolling out of it and so can be said to be spirally unstable.

(b) (c)

(d)

Note:

LevelFlightat a Whilst Maintaining of 17.6 Increase Spe.ed altitude constant


An increaseof speedfor a given angle of attack will result in an increase of lift and so in order to maintain a constant altitude: (a) (b) The angle of attack must be reduced by pushing the control column forward. The reduction in angle of attack will result in the Centre of Pressuremoving aft.

234

FUNDAMENTAL MANOEUVRES THEIR AND EFFECTS


(c) (d) (e)

The induceddrag reducing. The TransitionPoint and Separation Point movingaft. The StagnationPoint moving forward and up towards the leadingedge. The BoundaryLayerbecoming thinner. Induceddrag will reduce the square the speed. as of Profiledragwill increase the square the speed. as of

(0
Note:

17.7 StallingAngle
It must be notedthat for a givenwing shape stallinganglewill remain the the same regardless speed, of weight,altitudeor any otherfactor and can generally regarded beingin the order of l4o to l5o. be as

17.8 Stalling Speed


Unlike the stallinganglethe stallingspeed a variablequantity. is (a) (b) (c) The stallingspeed beincreased theC of P is forward will if of the neutralpoint. The stallingspeed will be reducedif the C of P is aft of the neutralpoint. The stallingspeed bereduced a power-on will if approach is made with a propeller-driven aircraft due to an increased thrust componentfrom the propellerand the airflow tendingto re-energise wing boundarylayer. the

17.9 Multi-Engined Aircraft


Before describing the various procedures involved in multi-engined aircraft we are going to look at the aerodynamics enginefailure and of asymmetric flight. Under normal conditionsof flight, thrust is providedin equalproportions to provide Total thrust which is opposedto Total drag, the two forcesactingthrough the aircraftcentreline. (Fig l7-l) Considerthat the right-handenginefails. Immediately, Total thrust movesfrom the aircraft centreline the thrust line of the left engine. to Furthermore,the right hand propellernot only ceases producethrust to but generates considerable a amountof drag until the propelleris feathered!With Total thrust moving to the left and Total drag moving to the
235

P R I N C I P LO S F L I C H T EF

rorAl rHRUsr I

in Drag Thrust Total and 1 Figure7-1Total Flight Normal right, the opposing forces causea yaw towards the failed engine. (Fig

t7-2) action is taken are as follows: The eventsthat follow if no corrective the yaw producesa roll in the samedirection (like further effectsof rudder),and the aircraft nosewill follow the down-goingright wing tip into a spiraldive.It hasa similareffectto putting a bootful of right rudder in andthen leavingthe aircraft to sort itself out without any help from othercontrols.

E FAILED NGINE

Failed Thrust and Drag,RightEngine 1 Figure 7-2Total

FUNDAMENTAL MANOEUVRES AND THEIR EFFECTS

17.1OMinimumControlSpeed
In a multi-engined aircraft the aerodynamic consequences engine of failure are dealt with by applying rudder to oppose yaw to prevent the yaw/roll/spiral dive sequence. The rudder, however, like any other flying control, is only as effective as the airflow over it and herein lies a problem. If you let the speeddrop too low the rudder will lose its effectivenessand will be incapable of combatting the yawing force of the live engine,aided and abetted by drag from the failed engine. The minimum speedat which it is possibleto maintain direction on one engine (known as minimum control speed),cannot be quoted as a single figure for any particular aircraft as it varies according to circumstances. The following are the primary factors that affect it: I Altitude: Since more power means more asymmetric thrust (and therefore yawing action) it follows that minimum control speedwill be at its highest at full throttle altitude where maximum power can be developed. Load: A fully loaded aircraft must, speedfor speed,fly at a higher angle of attack than when nearly empty. A higher angle of attack means more drag and that in turn demandsmore power. So, back to square one; more power, more yaw, more yaw and, in consequence, higher a minimum control speed. Drag: This takes us back to Point 2. More drag means more power means more yaw, etc. Drag is rnentionedhere as a separate item to draw attention to the fact that flying with cooling flaps open and the landing gear extendedwill demand more power from the live engine - and will therefore mean an increasein minimum control speed. Flaps: Use of flap spoils the lift/drag ratio eventhough someflaps give very little drag increaseuntil after the first l0 to l5 degrees depression. of As a guideline it is probably best to regard the flaps as coming under 'drag' the heading of and leave them up, unlessthe aircraft manual specifically advisesotherwise. Windmilling: While some of the early light twins had fixed-pitch propellers, these types are universal. days constant speed/feathering The drag from a windmilling propeller is very considerable 237

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT 'anti-thrust' (ie however,and sinceit will provide a greatdeal of higherthan-usual will drag),minimumcontrol speed be appreciably that windmillingdrag is Remember untii the propelleris feathered. drag- and that is Poison. asymmetric Pilot limitations: trim, so the pilot Modern aircraft are equippedwith adequate by shouldnot be hampered the physicallimitation of beingunable and training in to apply sufficieni rudder. Adequate experience procedures will ensurethe ability to operateat low asymmetric minimumcontrol speeds. Critical Engine: and rotate in the samedirection,slipstream propellers When bothof yaw. In the case create to havea natural tendency torqueeffecfs turn clockwise propellers aircraft,wherethe -ode.n piston-engine is from the rear,the yaw tendency to the left. whenseen powerandthat,in turn, induces loss means of Failureof an engine To a drop in speed. maintain height the angleof aTack must be so increased that the aircraftis flying alongin a tail-down/nose-up attitude. are In the tail-downattitudethe propshafts inclinedupwardsand If tilted backwards. you the topsof the propellerdiscsaretherefore propeller blade(ietheone the think ibout it, that means down-going rotaduringclockwise from astern on theright of thediscwhenseen on bl?-dg the other tion) will havea biggeranglethan the up-going side. It is a cursewlll known to pilots taking off in a tailwheel shaftis effectively the until thetail is raised, propeller aircraft.where, tilted. in in As illustrated Fig 17-3,andkeeping mind that we aremaintaining height on reducedpower in a tail-down flight attitude: angle,more thrust thJdown-goingbladehas an increased because propellerdiscthan by the right half of the 6y is beinggenerated th-e left. 1i Jffect, the ientre of thrust for the port engineis moved whilst that for the starboardengine towardsthe aircraft centreline is movedaway. by The amountof yawingforce that can be generated an engine arm, through on depends the amouniof thrust and the moment whi"h it acts.Sincemomentarm B is longerthan momentarm A, the starboardenginewill clearly exert more yawing force during flight than could the port engine. engine-out the yaw (andtherefore higherminimum bonr.qu..rily, thegreater resultfrom thelossof the port would in this instance control speed) the engine.In other words, when the propellersrotate clockwise, is criticalengine on the left.
238

AND EFFECTS MANOEUVRES THEIR FUNDAMENTAL


up Lowspeed/nose

1 Figure 7-3

which Figure 7-4An exaggerated 1 comparison forces of is standpoint portengine the the shows froma control that lvorse to lose one It is not always easy to demonstrate a meaningful difference in minimum control speed between the port and starboard engines, but much ado has been made of the subject. In any case,some popular light twins now have handed propellers,the left one turning clockwise and the right one anticlockwise, thus the minimum control speedis tlre same for 'V' codes relating to multi-engine both engines.The following is a list of aircraft handling: 239

PRINCIPLES FLICHT OF Vr Decision speedduring tdke-off, Up to that speedthere should be enough runway for the aircraft to stop if, for any reason,you should decide to abandon the take-off. Beyond Vr you are committed to presson and take offon one engine. Rotate speed: At this stagethe nose should be lifted to attain the take-off attitude. Take-off safety speed; This is, in fact, minimum control speedwith an added safety margin to cater for the following factors which could apply if an enginefails during or immediately after take-off: (a) Element of surprise (b) Failure of the critical engine (ie the port) (c) Landing gear down, flaps in take-off position, propeller windmilling (d) Pilot of averagestrength and ability Provided the aircraft has attained Vz, it should be possible to maintain direction and height while things are being sorted out. Y^", Minimum Control Speed- Ground: Should an engine fail during the take-off run, this is the minimum speedat which direction can be maintained. Some aircraft with good nosewheelsteeringcan handle the situation at any speed provided the nosewheelis in contact with the ground. Y^"^ Minimum Control Speed- Air: This is the minimum speedat which it is possibleto maintain direction after failure of the critical engine.No safety allowance is made for any of the items in Vz so it is of little practical value other than for demonstration purposeswhile training multi-engine pilots. Y^", Minimum Control Speed- Landing: This is the lowest speedat which it is possibleto maintain direction when full power is applied following failure of the critical engine while in the landing configuration. This speedis important since it relatesto the asymmetric overshoot. Vn" Never exceedspeed: The ASI should be marked with a red radial line at this speed. Vno Normal Operating Speed: 'maximum structural cruising speed', this is the top of Also called the green arc marked on the ASL Beyond this speed we enter the yellow or cautionary area which must be avoided while flying in turbulence. 240

V. V2

FUNDAMENTAL MANOEUVRES THEIR AND EFFECTS Yr"" Speedfor best engine-out rate of climb: This should be marked on the ASI as a blue radial line and is often 'blue referred to as the line' speed. V3 The all enginesscreenspeed: The speed at which the aeroplane is assumedto pass through the screenheight with all enginesoperating on take-off. The all enginessteady initial climb speed: The speedassumedfor the first segmentnoise abatement take-off procedure.

V4

Yo, The target threshold speed: The scheduled speed at the threshold for landing in relatively favourable conditions. Yr^u,The maximum threshold speed: The speedabove which there is an unacceptablerisk of overrunning; normally assumedto be Vo' + 15 knots. Y*u The minimum demonstratedlift-off speed: The minimum speedat which it is possible to leave the ground (all engines)and climb out without undue hazard. Additional'V' Vs codesrelating to general aircraft handling:

Stall speed: The speedat which the aircraft exhibits those qualities acceptedas defining the stall. The minimum speedin the stall: The minimum speedachievedin the stall manoeuvre.

Y.,

Y"o Stall speedin landing configuration: Y.o Maximum operating speed: The maximum permitted speedfor all operations. Mro - maximum Mach operating speedfor all operations. Y.,, Maximum demonstratedflight diving speed: The highest speeddemonstrated during certification. Moo - highest Mach speeddemonstrated during certification. Y*o The rough-air speed: The recommendedspeedfor flight in turbulence. M*o - recommendedMach Number for flight in turbulence. VB Design speedfor maximum gust intensity: One of the parametersused in establishingVoo

P R I N C I P LOS F L I G H T EF Vc Design Cruising speed: One of the speedsused in establishingthe strength of the aircraft.

VD Design Diving speed: Another of the speedsused in establishing the strength of the aircraft. VF Flap Limiting speed: The maximum speedfor flight with the flaps extended.

Y r*, Speed for minimum drag: Yr*, Speedfor minimum power'. Vr" Maximum speedforflight wilhflaps extended: Vro Maximum speedfor operatingflaps: V," Maximum speedfor flight with gear extended: Design Manoeuvring speed: Maximum speedfor full deflection of controls: Best angle of climb speed: Best rate of climb speed: Screenspeed(and screenheight): The speedassumedat 35 feet above the runway after take-off and at 30 feet above the runway on approaching to land, which is used in establishingthe field performance of the aeroplane. Zero rate of climb speed: The speedat which, for a given thrust from the operating engines, the drag of the aircraft reducesthe climb gradient to zero.

V,o Maximum speedfor operating gear: VA VA V* V,

17: Chapter TestYourself.


On a twin-engined aircraft, with clockwise rotating propellers (Right Handed), with reduced power and a tail down attitude the critical engine will be: a) either port or starboard. b) the port engine. c) the starboard engine' Ref para 17.9

1 4 1

EFFECTS AND MANOEUVRES THEIR FUNDAMENTAL Vuo speed. a) is the maximumoperating b) is the flap limiting speed. c) is the minimumpowerspeed. speed. manoeuvring d) is the design

Ref para17.10

V* is the: a) zero rate of climb speed. b) best rate of climb speed. c) best angle of climb. d) maximum speedfor full deflection of controls.

Refpara17.10

At a constant height an increaseof aircraft weight requires: a) an increaseof power. b) an increaseof power available. c) a reduction in angle of attack. d) an increasedstalling angle.

Ref para 17.2

With an increasein angle of attack of an aerofoil: a) the C of P moves aft. b) the C of G moves aft. c) the separation point moves aft. d) the stagnation point moves aft.

Ref para 17.2

243

1B

of Inspections Controls Duplicate

18.1 PilotResponsibility
part of a duplicateinspecto A pilot is authorised carry out the second if: tion of an aircraft'scontrol systems (a) he is licensed that type of aircraft. on made has (b) the control system only had a minor adiustment to it. (c) thereis no licensed available. engineer made to This is intendedto coverminor adjustments control systems light aircraftawayfrom base. on ChapterA5 - 3 refersto this Requirements BritishCivil Airworthiness authorisation. are The following paragraphs basedon BCAR Chapter,A'5 3 and Procedures. Civil Aircraft Inspection 18.2 Control SystemDefinition by is A control system definedasa system which the flight attitudeor the is inspection thereA propulsive forceof an aircraftis changed. duplicate for the following: fore required (a) Flying control systemswhich include primary flying with tabs, together rudderandailerons), controls(elevator, by the pilot to used flaps, airbrakesand the mechanisms them. operate controls,which includeprimary engine system (b) Propulsive (eg conlrolsand relatedsystems throttle controls,fuelcock usedby controls,oil coolercontrols)and the mechanisms the crew to operatethem.

244

INSPECTION CONTROLS OF DUPLICATE

Inspection ControlSystems of 18.3 Duplicate


is of A duplicateinspection a control system definedas an inspection which is hrst madeand certifiedby one qualifiedpersonand made and certified by a secondqualified person. subsequently mustnot be to subject duplicateinspection or Components systems betweenthe first and secondparts of the disturbedor readjusted part of the inspection must, as near as and the second inspection, after the first part. possible, follow immediately or of due In somecircumstances, to peculiarities assembly accessito for bility, it may benecessary both partsof theinspection bemade simultaneously. in of A duplicateinspection the control system the aircraft shallbe made: (a) beforethe first flight of all aircraft after initial assembly. repair, (b) before the first flight after the overhaul,replacement, of the system. or adjustment modification The two parts of the duplicateinspectionshall be the final operathe is of tions,and asthepurpose theinspection to establish integrity If, all of the system, work should have beencompleted. after the the control systemis duplicateinspectionhas been completed, disturbedin any way beforethe first flight, that part of the system in which hasbeendisturbedshallbe inspected duplicatebeforethe aircraft flies. is The correct functioningof control systems at all times of vital licensed it is essential suitable that and to importance airworthiness, of approvedinspectionorganisaand members aircraft engineers should or for tions responsible the inspection duplicateinspection The inspecconcerned. with the systems conversant be thoroughly that eachandevery to tion mustbecarriedout systematically ensure freely assembled, is ableto operate and is part of the system correctly without risk of fouling.Also rangeof movement over the specified locked,cleanand correctlylubrithat it is correctlyand adequately in cated,and is working in the correct sense relation to the of movement the control bv the crew.

Authorised Certify DuplicateInspections to 18.4 Persons


parts of the duplicate to authorised makethe first and second Personnel
245

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF inspection control systems accordance of in with Chapter,A.5 3 of BCAR are asfollows: (a) (b) Aircraft engineers appropriatelylicensed Categories in A, B, C andD. Membersof an appropriatelyapprovedInspection Organisation who areconsidered the ChiefInspector by competent makesuchinspections. to For minor adjustments control systems to when the aircraftis awayfrom base,the second part of the duplicate inspectionmay be performedby a pilot or flight engineer licensed the type of aircraftconcerned. for

(c)

Tension Rod

S h e a rP i n InspectionHole Cable End Fitting

Control Cable

Figure 1B-2(a)
Not more than 3 threads showing

Figure 1B-2(b)
i L

INSPECTION CONTROLS DUPLICATE OF

Thread must show above nut the

Fibre or Nylon insert

Fr---r-l t
t

l l

SPRING WASHER

LOCKING PLATE

(b) SPLIT INNING P

'l Figure 8-3

247

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

18.5 FlyingControlSystems
General Points Movement of the pilot's flying controls can be transmitted to the aircraft control surfacesby a systemof flexible steelcables.Although one of the oldest methods of control, it is still used extensivelytoday. An alternative type of control systemis formed from light alloy tubes. Thesetubes form a iigio link systemthat also gives positive control under all flight conditions. Both methods will be considered in some detail in this chapter. to Where it is necessary changethe direction of a control run, whilst maintaining a strong, flexible and positive connection, a sprocket and chain system may be fitted at appropriate points in the control run. Since all flying control systemsstart in the cockpit, we shall begin this discussion by looking at controls which the pilot operatesin order to fly the aircraft. Control Column The control column is the most important singlecontrol that the pilot has to operate.Its movement controls both the ailerons and the elevators.The dual controls illustrated in Fig 18-4 are interconnectedso that movement of one has exactly the same effect as movement of the other. We shall, therefore, consider the movement of only one of them. As illustrated in Fig l8-4, the control column is pivoted at a mid-position to allow sideways movement about that point. The bottom of the unit is attached to the aileron control system so that sidewaysmovement of the control column will move the ailerons. The control column is pivoted on the angled crank of a torque tube which also carries a lever arm to which the elevator control systemis attached. Moving the control column fore and aft rotates the torQue tube, thus moving the elevators. Rudder Bar and Pedals The rudder is controlled from the cockpit by moving the rudder pedals. These pedals may be separateunits or are attached to a rudder bar. Moving the rudder pedals operates a mechanical system to which the rudder is attached.Putting the left foot forward swingsthe rudder to port; conversely,putting the right foot forward swingsthe rudder to starboard. The rudder bar (or individual rudder pedals) can be adjusted to suit the leg reachof the pilot. Trimming Tab Controls We have seen that the primary control surfaces(ailerons, elevators, rudders) are moved by operating the pilot's controls. This may be as a direct result of physical effort on the part of the pilot, or it may be as a result of a signalfed from the pilot's controls to a powered flying control 248

INSPECTION CONTROLS DUPLICATE OF

c o n t r o lc o l u m n (port)

a i l e r o nc o n t r o l

adiustable top s

'elevatorcontrol tube r i g g i n gp o i n t s t o r q u et u b e assembly

a i l e r o nc o n t r o lc a b l e

F i g u r e B - 4D u a lC o n t r oC o l u m n s 1 l

P R I N C I P LO S F L I G H T EF

brake toe oedal

s P r i n gl o a d e d Plunger

Bar 1 FigureB-5Rudder andPedals unit. In the first instance - ie with no power assistance the control tabs fitted to them, as described surfacesnormally have small trimming in previous chapters. These trimming tabs are controlled from the cockpit, as illustratedin Figure l8-6. An aircraft is said to be irimmed when there is no load on the control column or rudder bar/pedals, and the aircraft is flying steadily without any changein direction or altitude. The controllable trimming tabs ensure thit, for iny unwanted variation from the trimmed condition, the appromay be re-trimmed to remove the loading on the priaie contiol surface(s) pilot'r control. Trimming 1abs, where fitted, are adjusted frequently during each flight. Methods of Operating Control Systems job it Ba"n co"t".ol iystem"in an aircraft is constructed for the particular differencesin the design has to do. Consequently,there are considerable of control systems- not only between those in different aircraft, but between different systemsin the same aircraft. We cannot deal with all the variations in a book of this type. We can however, deal with the common areasin control sYstems. 250

DUPLICATE INSPECTION CONTROLS OF

.l Figure 8-6 Trimming TabControls

As alreadystated,flying controlsare normally operatedby cablesor by control tubes,and eachmethodwill now be considered. 18.6 Control Cables points General providea strong,light andflexiblemethodof control and areused Cables in Cables operate tensionand can, in extensively aircraftcontrol systems. can be therefore, only be usedto pull the control. However,two cables in loop to providea pull in both direcarranged theform of a continuous tions(Fig l8-7).

PRINCIPLES FLICHT OF

q=
fai rleads control columns

control lever

controi cables

turnbuckles

i
i

Figure 18-7 Cable System Construction of Cables Flying control cablesare normally preformed; that is, the strands in the cable are formed into the shape they will assumein the complete cable. The cables,which are made of galvanigedor corrosion-resistantsteel,are impregnated with an anti-friction lubricant during manufacture.

core or king wire

INSPECTIONCONTROLS DUPLICATE OF A cableis madeup of steel wireswhich,in turn, areformedinto strands, as illustratedin the two examples Fig l8-8. Each strand consists of of wires(7 or 19)which are wound helicallyin one or more layers, several the centrewire beingknown as the corewire or king wire. Eachcableis (usually7), wound helicallyaroundthecentre madeup of several strands by or corestrand.The cableis described the numberof strands contains it and by the numberof individualwiresin eachstrand.Figure l8-8ashows that a 7x7 cableconsists 7 strands, of eachhaving7 wires;Figure l8-8b showsa7xl9 cable- 7 strands, eachhavingl9 wires.Thenumberof wires in eachstrand,the number of strands,and the overall diameterof the the cabledetermine breakingload of thecable. For example, a7x l9 cable has of 6.4mm(%in) overall diameter a minimumbreaking loadof 70001bf. eitherby theminimum breakingload, whichmay be Cables classified are quotedin cwtf, lbf or kN, or by the nominal diameter inches. in It is often necessary coil a cablewhenhandlingit for assembly to into an aircraft.The coil shouldbe of largediameter;neverlessthan 50 diaTo meters the cableinvolvedandwith a minimumdiameter 150mm. of of avoid kinking the cable, and thus making it unserviceable, uncoiling should be done by rotating the coil so that the cable is paid out in a straightline. Pulleys Pulleysare usedto changethe direction of operationof flying control and to give support on long straightruns. A cableguide (or cables, retainer)is fitted to the pulley to ensurethat the cableremainson the pulley.A typicalpulley,with its retainer,is illustratedin Fig l8-9. When a that the cableendfittingsdo adjusting control,it is importantto ensure the Also not foul the pulley,otherwise cablemovement will be restricted. misalignment between cableand pulley:this must the look for possible 2'(Fig l8-9b). not exceed

F i g u r e 8 - 9P u l l e y 1

P R I N C I P LO S F L I C H T EF Screwiack A cable-operatedtrimming tab control systemusually operates a Screwjack at the output end of the system.The screwjack(Fig 18-10)is attached by means of an adjustable rod to the trimming tab. The cable movement rotutes the sprocket of the screwjackto reposition the trimming tab. This unit acts as i lock, retaining the trimming tab in the desiredposition until the cockpit control is next moved.

trimming tab

1B-.1 Screwjack 0 Figure

18.7 CableTensioning
to Needfor tension.For a wire cablecontrol system operateeffectively, bejust sufficientto operate the cabletensionmust be correct.It should an tensionimposes the control - neithertciotaut nor too slack;excessive whilst a slackcable resultsin load on the control system, unnecessary to are laterthat cablesystems tensioned We response. shallsee ineffective for instructions with the servicing value,in accordance a pre-determined is The valuechosen suchthat sufficienttensionis the particularsystem. The temperatures. rangeof temperovera rangeof operating maintained upon whether depends satisfactory atureoverwhich the tensionremains (see later). or not a cabletensionregulatoris fitted in the system change,cable stretch,and generalwear of supporting Temperature and adjusted be parts aifect the tensionwhich must, therefore, checked compensating have cablesystems Some intervals. at is necessary specified fitted which ensureeffectiveoperation over a much wider range devices be than would otherwise possible. of temperatures Turnbuckles to It is normal to useturnbuckles adjustthe tensionof cablesin flying in Thereare two typesof turnbuckles commonuse(Fig control systems. l8-11) and the typefitted will matchthe end fittings on the cables.
254

DUPLICATE INSPECTION CONTROLS OF

undercut identifies LH thread

Figure 8-1 1 1

Whenconnecting cables togetherusinga turnbucklethe threads must be at evenly engaged each end. It is important to ensurethat sufficient threadsare engaged, otherwise load on the cablecould strip the the threads. (Fig 18-I I a) not morethan three With theAmerican typeof turnbuckle threadsshouldbe visible. Cable end frttingsthat engage with the British tensiontype of turnbuckle(Fig l8-l 1b)havesmall'witness' holes The drilledin theirshanks. turnbucklethreadmust at leastreachtheseholesfor the connections to be 'in safety'. All turnbuckles lockedin the approved are mannerusinglockingwires or clips,as shownin Fig 18-l and 2.The Britishtypeis alsolockedwith lockingnuts. Adjusting the tensionin a cublesystem There are many different types of metal in an aircraft, eachof which at expands a differentratewith increasing temperature. effectof this The is in in a cablesystem that the tensiontendsto decrease with an increase altitude.Thus,to retainsufficient tensionat altitude,the pre-determined load must be high. This requiresa strong structure,with a resulting increase weight.Furthermore, in comparedwith a tensionregulated (see later),stress system and staticfriction are alsohigher. While tensioning being carried out to the correctvalue of preis the loadby evenly adjusting the turnbuckles the system, all in determined positions the pilot'scontrol and the relevant control correctrelative of
255

O FF PRINCIPLES LICHT using frequently is The mustbemaintained. cabletension checked surface are as a tensiometer the adjustments made.

Regulator CableTension which,whenfitted in a device A cabletensionregulatoris a mechanical allows the cablesunder all conditionsof temperature cable system, to and structuraldeflections take up and let out equallyon each change The compensating sideof the circuit, thus maintaininguniform tension. with eitherone or two unit of a tensionregulatormay be manufactured in belowand illustrated Fig 18a springs; doublespringunit is described 12. quadrants, of This type of regulatorconsists a pair of springJoaded in lengthof the cables. for with a pointerand scale recordingthe change end through slotsin the recessed of the grooved are The cables inserted points.The at quadrants and the cableendsare secured the anchorage lengthof the cable basicpurposeof the regulatoris to keepthe effective or constantevenwhen the actual length has beenincreased decreased graphis used, or of eitherby change temperature structuralflexing.The the whenassessing cable reading, with the regulatorscale in conjunction how the regulatorfunctions. later).Let us see tension(see

.l Regulator Figure 8-12 CableTension

256

INSPECTIONCONTROLS OF DUPLICATE of Figure l8-l3a showsthat any extension the cablesattachedto the The regulator give equal slackening the cables. of quadranttendsto and to thecablequadrants, this thenimpart a rotarydisplacement springs it causing to link armsto the crosshead, by is movement transmitted the This movementis controlledby the move freelyalongthe lockingshaft. springsto governthe cablesat their correct pressure compression of pre-set tension. showsthat any shorteningof the cableswill have the Figure 18-13b This givesa of effect,tendingto giveequaltensioning the cables. reverse inwards and movesthe crosshead of rotary displacement the quadrants along the lockingshaftby the actionof the link arms. a 'regulated'control, that whenthepilot operates Figurel8-13cshows it tilts the crosshead on its lockingshaft,causing to lock on to the shaft. as and operate a leverto givethe are Both quadrants now lockedtogether pilot positivecontrol of the system.

l o c k i n gs h a f t

Regulator Figure 18-13CableTension

257

OFFLICHT PRINCIPLES system. is A tensiometer not usedto checkthe tensionin a regulated by of on is Thecabletension adjusted both sides thecircuit (usually means scale. is until thecorrectreading obtainedon theregulator of turnbuckles) and upon the prevailingtemperature, the The readingobtaineddepends is correct readingfor that temperature obtainedfrom a specialgraph manual(Fig l8-12). printedin the relevant compenregulator havebeensetto thecorrecttension, After thecables neartheir point of entry both cables by sationmay be checked grasping to the regulator and forcing both cablesin towards each other. The shouldbe smoothand even.If the movementof the quadrants resulting is regulatorfails to move,or the movement jumpy, it may indicatethat causing havebeenwronglyriggedsothat the tensionis uneven, thecables to thecrosshead tilt and'lock'the system. Comparedwith a cable system,a regulatedcable control system Because this, the levelof tension of a ensures relativelyconstanttension. this reduced; in turn provides: canbe *Lower staticfriction *Lessstructuralweight *Improvedresponse 18.8 MechanicalStops movesto its designed that the control surface The nextcheckis to ensure whenmovedby the cockpit position,in both directions, maximumtravel control. The maximum travel of a primary control surfaceis limited in each (limit) stops. These stops(Fig l8-14)arefitted to directionby mechanical limit the control surfacemovementin either direction and thus avoid the travel.In a manualsystem, stopsareusually due damage to excessive pair ofstops,known asthe and control surface, a second nearthe located stops,are fitted to limit the pilot's control overridestopsor secondary to stopsare adjusted a the main stop fail. Secondary movementshould under normal operatingconditions.In powered clearance specified
c o n t r o lc o l u m n

striker plates

AILERON STOPS

adjustablestops

1 M S F i g u r e B - 1 4 e c h a n i c a lt o p s

DUPLICATE INSPECTIONCONTROLS OF the control systems, mechanical stopsarelocatedon the input sideof the powered flying control unit (PFCU); usuallythey arelocatednext to the pilot's control in the cockpit,thuslimiting the control system movement from that position.During the riggingprocedure, main mechanical the (primary)stopsmay needto be re-setto ensurethat the control surface reaches, doesnot exceed, maximumtravelposition. but its

18: Chapter TestYourself.


I An American type turnbuckleis in safetywhen: a) it is wire locked. b) not more than threethreads showing. are holesareobscured. c) the inspection d) the lock nuts are tight. Ref para 18.7 2 Primarycontrol stopsarelocated: a) at the control surface. b) at the control column. positionin the control run. c) at any convenient d) at the mixer unit. Ref para 18.8 Automatic cabletensionis provided by: a) turnbuckles. b) control stops. regulators. c) tension d) pulleys. Ref para 18.7 4 Ifa control system cabletensionis too high: a) control surfacerangeof movementwill be reduced. b) controlswill be easier move. to wearwill take placeon cables c) excessive and pulleys. d) flutter is more likely to occur. Refpara18.7 5 Whena pilot carriesout a duplicate inspection: a) he or shemust signthe first signature block. b) he or shemust be an ATPL holder. c) he or shemust alsobe a type ratedengineer. must be available. d) no otherengineer
Ref para 18.4

19

AircraftConstruction

19.1 AirframeStructuralDesign
This chapter is intended to be a brief introduction to the study of uirf.u-.t f.om the designer'spoint of view, including some of the general problems confronting him.

19.2 Definitions
To avoid misconceptionsof the engineeringterms used in this chapter a list of definitions is given below: The force exerted between two contacting bodies or S/ress: as parts of a body. It is measured the load per unit area' Strain: Elastic Limit The deformation causedby stress.It is recorded as the change of size over the original size' When stressexceedsthe elastic limit of a material' the 'set', and on releaseof material takes up a pefinanent the load it will not return completely to its original shape.

The ratio of stressover strain' Srffiess or Rigidity: That point beyond which, if stress is increased, the Ultimate material will fail' Strength:

a 19.3 Designing new Aircraft The Specification of is of in Theinitialstep theproduction a newaircraft thepreparation a terms performan-ce.in of speed, the will state required thir splcifrcatio.t. in conditions whichthe etc. ring., ceilingand payload The general suchas typeof runway are alsostated, io'operate uiiriuii is re{uired
260

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION temperature conditionsand altitude.The strength and lengthof surface, availablerunwaysmust also be taken into accountso that new aircraft may useexisting runways, and in mostcases may operate worldwide.The will and specification alsogivethe strengthrequirements will stipulatea factor of safetyto allow for unforseen contingencies for accidentally or are exceeding basicdesignlimitations.If the strengthrequirements too severe, aircraftwill be penalized excessive the by structuralweight;if not In severe enough,there is a risk of failure of structural components. choosingthesestrengthconditions,the aim must be to ensurethat the aircraftwill be ableto carry out all the normal manoeuvres appropriate to but to its role. It is desirable makethe airframeas strongas possible, weightneeded ensure to adequate strength certain for the extrastructural manoeuvres must not be out of proportion to the advantagegained. Manoeuvresfor which the aircraft is not stressed called prohibare ited manoeuvres. 19.4 The Design has When the specification beenproduced,the designteam will decide what they considerto be the bestform and sizeof aircraft to meet the At it requirements. this stage mustbe emphasized any aircraftdesign that is inevitablya compromise between conflictingdemands payload the of performance, economy,reliability, cost, easeof mainterequirements, nance andsoon.Thedesigner's preference influence ultimate own will the layout of the airframe;this explainswhy there are so many different correctfor shapes layoutsfor aircraft,althougheachis more or less and for and rangeare usuallyso dominant its task.The requirements speed that only an aerodynamically cleanmonoplane design can be used,and on the designeffort is concentrated achieving minimum drag by careful positioningof wings,fuselage, unit, and engines, by the cleanest tail and possiblestowageof radar aerials,etc. Still further reductionsin drag the by arepossible eliminating tail unit, and eventhe fuselage, usinga by flying wing design; the problems longitudinalcontrol and stability but of are then difficult to solvesatisfactorily. everyheavy or high speed In much caremust be taken to providecontrolswhich requirethe design, themandwhichareeffective throughout leastpracticable forceto operate range. the speed The next stagein the development a new aircraft is usuallywindof tunneltesting. Work startsin the wind-tunnelon modelsof the selected to design checkthe exactoutlineof the aircraft,thelift and drag,to work under all out maximum air loads that will be exertedon all surfaces stability and possible flight conditions,togetherwith the performance, at control of the airuaft, so that errors can be detected an early stage modifiedasnecessary. and the design
261

PRINCIPLES LIGHT O FF woodenmock-upis often During the wind-tunnelteststagea full-size to madeso that positionsmay be found for modelsof all the equipment be carriedin it. The mock-up is also usefulto checkthe field of view, and headroomfor flightcrewand passengers, to ensuresufficientspace and to checkthe positionof controlsin relationto the instrumentpanel, the etc.In general, mock-upworksasa rough3-D checkon all thedimenstaff and draughtsmen. sionsmadeby the design of is A detailed design the airframestructure thenbegun.Probablythe most important part is the calculationof the strengthof the aircraft. The airframe has to be sufficientlystrong to withstand aerodynamic, from landingand handlingloads.The aerodynamic loadsarecalculated for in wind-tunnelexperiments the acceleration speeds the specificaand tion and multiplied by the factor of safety. Loads imposed by manhandling the ground,especially light aircraft,are often many on on loadsand must be allowedfor if the timesgreater than the aerodynamic with 'Do not pushhere'and 'No step'signs. aircraftis not to be covered the design must includeare: Other features detailed (a) A smoothskin of the requiredaerodynamic form. (b) Sufficientstiffness retdin its correctshapeunder aerodynamic to loads. (c) Mounting pointsfor the engines. (d) Protectionfor flightcrewand radio gear,often in a pressurized heatingand/or refrigerationfor crew, passengers compartment; and equipment. (e) Suitable points,to enable aircraftto be dismantled breakdown the for transport,or repairby replacement components. of (l) The minimumnumberof points requiringservicing examinaand to tion, and easyaccess them. The overall designmust lend itself to easyand cheapproduction rising,necessitating With aircraftspeeds constantly methods and repairs. is structure providethe strength, requirement becoming to this a complex more difficult to meet. the arrangement the aircraft is settled, structural of When the general In has freedomof choice, may proceed. this the designer complete design by but he is usuallyinfluenced pastpracticeand experience. is has One of the main problemsthat a designer to overcome that of weight.An increase lo/oin the weight of the structurecan of excessive increase the grossweight of the aircraft. in mean as much as 5ohto l0o/o more effectwhereincreased creatOs lift Briefly,thisis dueto the'snowball' more fuel for the same largerengines, and therefore drag, necessitating
262

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION performance. Conversely, a saving of loh in the weight of the structure can result in 5o/otol0% reduction in total weight of the completed aircraft. As the various components are manufactured some are set aside for fatigue testing. This, for example, can involve placing whole wing structures in deviceswhich can vibrate and flex the wing at various frequencies, thereby simulating in a relatively short time many thousands of flying hours. These tests are usually continued until a unit fails, in which event the unit can either be modified or strengthenedand the safelife tirne of the wing can be calculated. The fuselages most pressurizedcivil transport are often subjectedto of 'tank a test'. The fuselageis completely immersedin a large tank of water, and the pressure inside it is raised until the differential between the inside and outside of the cabin is similar to that during flight at cruising altitudes. The pressurecan then be raised and lowered, simulating climbs and descents.This is normally continued until fatigue failure occurs, which may indicate that strengthening is required or it can serve to give an indication of the safe life of the fuselase.

19.5 StructuralRigidity
In the early days ofaircraft designan aircraft was consideredto be acceptable if it was made strong enough to withstand the direct air loads acting upon it. As aircraft speedsincreasedit was found that vibration could occur in the wing and tail units and it often appearedto be associated with the control surfaces. In some instances the vibration was sufficiently severeto causecomplete disintegration of the airframe. After several years of research an explanation was evolved for a phenomenon now known as flutter. Design features to overcome flutter are nowadays incorporated as a matter of course in aircraft design. The following paragraphs present a simple non-mathematical explanation of a very complex subject. Vibration may occur in three ways and can be caused by the wing bending or flexing, by wing twisting, or by control surfacemovement. The vibration due to wing flexing and twisting can be controlled by structural rigidity, whilst control surface movement is governed by the elasticity in the control cablesor rods. Figure l9-1 illustrates the way in which a wing may twist in torsion: The torsional axis can be taken as the line about which the wing will twist if a force is applied to the wing, other than on the line of the axis itself. A wing will not twist if a force is applied to the torsional axis. The wing may, however, bend or flex under this force, as illustrated in Fig l9-2.It can be seen that the torsional axis is an important feature of the wing structure and can be taken as the point or line about which the wing will either twist in torsion, or bend in flexure. 263

PRINCIPLES FLlCHT OF

Figure 19-1Wing Twistor Torsion

The third form of vibration is causedby the control surfaceitself in of because incorrectbalancingor slackness vibratingin the airstream forms of vibration are, in themselves, the control runs. The first two and harmless can quickly be dampedout by the rigidity of the airframe. However, when brought about by an externalforce, for examplethe leadto strucwill furtherreactions occurwhichmay eventually airstream, tural failure.

,/,'4
\ atr'

or 19-2 Wing Bending Flexure Figure

19.6 Flutter of It failure. is a violentvibration of cause structural Flutteris a possible


264

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION caused interaction their mass theaerofoilsurfaces by of and aerodynamic loads.Threeforms of flutter affectthe wins: (a) Torsionalflexuralflutter. (b) Torsionalaileronflutter. (c) Flexuralaileronflutter. TorsionalFlexural Flutter as This occurs a resultof thewingflexingand twistingundertheinfluence loads.The sequence events as follows: of aerodynamic of is (a) The wing is takento bein stable horizontalflight with the torsionalaxisaheadof the CG of the wing. The lift (L) is balanced thereaction(R) caused the bendingof the by by wing due to the aircraftweight. (b) A disturbance causes incidence the wing to be the of momentarilyincreased, resulting an increase lift; L is in in now greater than R and the wing flexes upwards.Because of inertia, the CG will lag behindthe torsionalaxis and therebyfurther increase angle of incidence, the and so increase evenmore. lift (c) Stiffness the wing bringsthe torsionalaxisto rest,but of inertia causes CG to travel farther, decreasing the the angle of incidence. is then lessthan R, and the wing L startsto descend. (d) Stiffness the wing bringsthe torsionalaxisto rest,but of inertiacauses CG to travelfarther,increasing incithe the dence.L is again greaterthan R and the flutter cycle beginsagain. Torsional flexural flutter can be preventedin the design,either by ensuring that the wing is sufficiently stiff so that the critical flutter speed is far in excess the permissible maximumspeed, by ensuring of or that the CG of the wing is on, or aheadof, the torsionalaxis. TorsionalA ileronFlutter This is caused thewingtwistingunderloadsimposed it by themoveby on mentof theaileron.Figurel9-3 shows sequence a half cycle, the for which is described follows: as (a) The aileronis displaced slightlydownwards, exertingan increased liftins forceon the aileronhinse.

O FF PRINCIPLES LIGHT (b) The wing twistsaboutthe torsionalaxis- thetrailingedge rising,takingthe aileronup with it. The CG of the aileron is behind the hinge line; its inertia tendsto make it lag behind, increasingaileron lift, anr,lso increasingthe twistingmoment. (c) The torsional reactionof the wing has arrestedthe twisting motion but the air loads on the aileron, the stretchof its control circuit, and its upward momentum, the it cause to overshoot neutralposition,placinga down edgeof the wing. load on the trailing (d) The energystoredin the twistedwing, togetherwith the the load of the aileron,cause wing to twist aerodynamic cycle is then repeated. in the oppositedirection.The eitherby massTorsionalaileronflutter can be prevented CG is on, or slightly balancingthe aileronsso that their aheadof, the hinge line, or by making the controls Both methodsare employedin modern irreversible. controlsand no manual aircraft;thosewith fully powered all do reversion not requiremass-balancing; otheraircraft mass-balanced. havetheir control surfaces
Torsional ot ElasticAxis

19-3 Torsional Figure AileronFlutter

266

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION Flexural Aileron Flutter Flexuralaileronflutter is generally similarto torsionalaileronflutter,but is caused the movement the aileronlaggingbehindthe riseand fall by of of the outer portion of the wing asit flexes, therefore tendingto increase the oscillation.This type of flutter is preventedby mass-balancing the aileron.Thepositioning themass-balance of weightis important- the nearerthe wing tip the smallerthe weight required.On many aircraft the weightis distributed alongthe wholelengthof the aileronin the form of a leadingedgespar,therebyincreasing stiffness the aileronand the of preventing concentrated a weightstartingtorsionalvibrationsin the aileronitself. So far only wing flutter hasbeendiscussed, a few moments but considerationwill showthat mass-balancing must alsobe appliedto elevators and ruddersto preventtheir inertia and the springiness the fuselage of startingsimilar troubles.Mass-balancing extremely is critical; henceto avoid upsettingit, the painting of aircraft markingsetc is no longer The dangerof all forms of flutter is that allowedon any control surface. the extentofeach successive vibrationis greaterthan its predecessor, so that in a second two the structure or may be bent beyondits elasticlimit fail. and consequently

Centre of Pressureof Wing

Figure

AileronReversal

OFFLICHT PRINCIPLES to To raiseonewing,the aileronattached that wing is lowered(Fig 19tlie increases lift of the aileron(Az),exertingan upwardforceon 4). This the hinge. If the wing has insufficient stiffnessit will twist about its torsionil axis, raisingthe trailing edge,relativeto the leadingedge, the therebyreducingthe incidenceof the wing. This in turn decreases the may exceed lifting wing (L:), and in particularlybad cases lift of ihe less effectof the aileron(ie L, + A: becomes than 1' + Ar).As a resultthe - the opposite This is known as effectto that intended. wing goesdown aileronreversal. Divergence divergence' lack of torsionalrigidity in the wing causes cases, in ext"reme the increased, lift of the wing of If the incidence a wing is momentarily will and will alsoincrease, the centreof pressure move forward' Should both the the torsionalaxis of the wing be behindthe centreof pressure, the couplewhich is of increase lift and its forward movementmagnify Conversely, incidence. twisting the wing in the direction of increased angle of incidence,the the shouldthe initiil disturbancedecrease behindthe of lift decreased and the aft movement the centreof pressure the torsionalaxistend further to reduce incidence. by this In both cases twistingactionis opposed the torsionalreaction of with the of the wing; but since lift forceincreases the square the speed, beyondwhich the speed), (knownasthe divergent thereis a ciitical speed of couplewill build up more rapidly with change incidence aerodynamic the consequently wing will than the torsionalreactionof tlie wing, and continueto twist until it breaksoff. This is avoidedin eitherof two ways: in by making the wing sufficientlystiff in torsion (but not necessarily the maximumpermisis speed well beyond flLxure)so-thatthe divergent the for siblespeed the aircrait;or by designing wing so-thatits torsional cannot axis,in which casedivergence axisis in front of the aerodynamic occurat any speed. 19.7 TheStructure The basicforcesactingon an aircraftin flight, ie lift, weight,thrust,drag, are all primary criteiia in the designof the aircraft's structure.The the of has designei to-.ntu.. that thestrength theairframeexceeds normal safetymargin. on operatingloadsimposed it, by the ryqr1ir9d -uii*uand throughoutthe flight envelope, Theseforcei will vary considerably move(g), airspeed_, turbulence, on aredependent suchthingsasloading in changes configuration(loweringof landing ment of control surfaces, gear,etc)and landing. " wasalmoststandard configuration On oldertypesof aircraft, abiplane wing structures and the useoi externalwiresand bracingstrutsenabled
268

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION to be made which were extremely rigid compared with the weight and strength of the component parts. The wings and fuselageswere built up from a light framework of wooden ribs, spars and formers covered with a skin of fabric tightened by doping. The wires and struts bracing the mainplanes formed what was, in effect, a large lattice girder; wires were also used to brace the tailplane and fin. As the top speedof aircraft increased,so the shape and layout of the aircraft, and the materials used in its construction changed. The monoplane layout became universal, bringing with it the more sophisticated problems of designing a thin unbraced wing that was strong enough to resistthe tension, compressiveand twisting loads imposed upon it. Metal was used for formers, ribs and as an outer skin in place of the plywood and fabric of the earlier aircraft. The conflicting requirements of light weight and strength usually resulted in a compromise, and aluminium alloys are usedextensivelyin medium speed,subsonicaircraft. For supersonic aircraft, the kinetic heating effect of prolonged supersonic flight could cause the conventional light alloys to lose some of their strength and specially formulated light alloys have to be used; other materials, such as stainless steel,which is heavier,stronger and more expensive, have to be used in the construction.of aircraft designedfor continuous supersonic flight at the higher Mach numbers. Some examples of airframe construction are shown in Fig l9-5 a, b, c and d.

Figure 19-5aStressed or Monocoque Skin Construction

Stressed skin is a type of constructionin which the skin of the aircraft proportion of the load on the aircraft. takesa considerable

PRINCIPLES FLICHT OF

| Longeron

Bracino Struts'

Cross Wi166 Bracing

Figure 19-5b WarrenCirder

on Used extensively older light aircraft designsin which the skeleton frametakesmost of the load and the skin very little.

.19-5c Wing Cantilever Figure

Wing Figure 19-5d Braced

270

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION

19.8 Wing Construction Spars In order to resistthe bendingforcesimposedon it, an idealsparis given a certaindepth.An example this is an ordinary ruler, which will flex of easilywhen loadedon the upper or lower flat surfaces, is very stiff but whena loadis appliedto theedge. Unfortunately,themodernwing is thin precluding useof a deepspar.Two, three,or more in cross-section, the sparsare usedin the wing to givethe necessary strength. sparusually A consists solidboomsat the top and bottom, connected a thin plate of by web. Normally theseare manufacturedas separate items and riveted together, somespars madein one piecefrom monoblocforgings, but are machinedto perfectshape.Figure 19-6illustratesthree typical spar sections. Stressed-skin Although somelight aircraft still have parts of the airframecoveredin fabric, most aircraft today are metal clad. In subsonic aircraft,the wing skeleton spars of and ribsis covered with a light alloy skin.This is riveted to the frameworkand is designed stiffenthe wing by taking someof to the loads.This type of constluctionif known as 'stressed skin' and produces relatively a strongwing without too largea weightpenalty. The wing canwithstandtwistingor torsionloads,and is usuallystrengthened by the additionof span-wise stringers withstandthe bendingor flexure to loadings.

a. b

Simple plate web and extruded booms. 'Fail-safe' spar in which no crack can propagate. S p a r m a c h i n e d r o m s i n g l ef o r g i n g . f

Figure 19-6 Typicalsparsections

271

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

wing Stressed-skin construction 19-7 Figure

Machined Skin The faster an aircraft flies, the greater the rigidity required of the strucof ture. To achievethis the stressed-skin the slower aircraft is replacedby a machined skin manufactured from a solid billet of metal. The metal is milled away by high precision machines so that in its final form the contour of ttrb wing-is very accurately reproduced, together with the necessarystrengthening buttressesand ribs. Altogether up to 90oh of the originil metal will becut away, leaving a structure that is not only extremelystrong and preciselyshaped,but also light in weight. The panels so produced are joined together to form a rigid, strong wing.

skinwing construction Figure|9-8 Machined

Torsion-Boxes of the In this form of construction skinsof the upperand lower surfaces a box. To the wingjoin the front and rear sparsrigidly togetherto form and to the rear sparthe trailing the thefron-tiparis attached leadingedge capacityof the skin the and ailer'on flaps.To increase load-carrying edge, it ifis the bet'ween spars, commonto corrugate and then coverthe corrugationswith ihin sheet.This form of constructionis much usedand a iariation of it, which has a number of spars,one behind the other, particularlysuitedto aircraftwith low of forminga series boxes,appears aspect ratios.
272

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION

Figure Torsion Construction 19-9 Box

D-Spar Construction The front spar, which takes most of the bending load, is placed as near as possible to the point of maximum thickness of the wing, and the skin of the leading edge is rigidly attached to it to form a D-shaped tube, which takes nearly all the torsional stresses the wing. of

Figure 19-10D-Spar Construction

ControlSurfoce For speeds to 300-350kt fabric-covered up aileronsbuilt up on a spar Higherspeeds demand rigidity that can a andribsareusuallysatisfactory. coveringbuilt up in much the same only be obtainedby a stressed-skin way asa D-sparwing.Additional stiffness be obtainedby employing can in longitudinalfluting of the skin (ie spaced corrugations); this design eliminated. most of the ribs can be Braced Wings featureis usedalmostexclusively smallhigh wing aircraft. in This design to The bracingstruts,running from the fuselage a point about half-way the of alongthewing, relieve spars muchof their verticalload and anchor can saveweightin the wing, but them in tension.The designer therefore this form of constructionis limited to because the additional drag, of aircraftwith a low top speed.
273

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF Fuselage Construction presenta basicallysimplerstructureproblem than do wings. Fuselages is A fuselage usuallybuilt up from a skeletonof framesor transverse joined by longitudinalgirdermembers 'stringers', whole the or members by skin.The shape the cross-section of frameworkbeingcovered stressed will vary with the job that the aircraft has to perform. of the fuselage this Pressurized transportaircraft havecircularcross-sections; hasbeen found to be the most suitableshapeto resistthe differentialpressures. fuselage; beingan easy this section Light aircraftoftenhavea rectangular to and strongshape construct.

B Figure 19-1 Typicalpressure 1 cabindoors Pressurization

passengers freight vessel a sphere; is and The ideal shapefor a pressure pressurized aircraft the transport are best carried in a box shape.In and thepressure these two shapes much aspossible as combines designer ends. form of a circular tube with hemispherical cabin is usuallyin the is easyto constructfrom light alloys and the stresses This structure The problemsof are inducedby pressurization not difficult to calculate. providingopenings doors,windows,etcaremoredifficult.Wherecutfor is skin, additional strengthening outs are made in the stress-carrying path around the aperture; to needed around the edges provide a stress the strongrims alonearenot sufficient, loadsmustbegraduallyabsorbed concentration structure preventany sudden to stress by ihe surrounding for that could leadto fatigue.The ideal shape any openingin a pressure which is of course, why many aircraft have cylindershouldbe an ellipse Elliptical door shapes not so practicable are their windowsthis shape. door is and the more commonshape a rectangular from a loadingaspect (Fig 19-11). corners. with rounded
274

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION SealingProblems cabin shquldbe airtight; in practice,leaksare kept Ideally, a pressurized to a minimum. Sealingmust be effectiveunder all conditions,including the structural flexing that occursduring flight, and the expansionand contraction causedby temperaturevariation. For doors, the sealing the medium normally usedis an inflatabletube, fitted between door edge and the aircraft structureand inflated to form an airtight seal(Fig 19-12). passing of thecabinmust be adequately sealed out Control rodsor cables whilst allowing movementand self alignmentwith a againstleakage, that minimumof friction.The sealshownin Fig l9-13is a typicalexample in relieson grease conjunctionwith packing rings to provide an airtight seal.

Aircraft skin
I UDE

clamping strip Sealing bead Rubber tube Door (a) Tube Deflated

Tube bulges and bends against bead when inflated Care should be taken that

{b} Tube Inflated

Door Figure 19-1 Methodof Sealing 2

Air Supersonic craft Structures To achieve strongerairframesthe machinedskin type of construction for originallydevised wingscanalsobe appliedto mostpartsof the fuselage. However, for aircraft designedfor prolonged flight at high haveto beused.Because the of materials speeds evenstronger supersonic Mach Number, parts of the skin can be kinetic heatingeffectat high aluminiumalloyslose raisedto over 120"CatM2.0. At this temperature strength Therefore, order to retain acceptable in 40%of their strength. honeycomb sandsteel are andrigidity,largepanels madefrom a stainless This consists a core,built from thin stripsof stainless of wich,(Fig 19-14). steelin the form of a honeycomb,and brazedtogether.The finishedcore to of is then machined the shape the requiredpaneland placedbetween It alsoof stainless steel. is thenheated innerandouterskins, ready-shaped joints havebeenbrazedtogether. This until all the in an inert atmosphere light structure whichwill retain rigid andrelatively results an extremely in of its strength temperatures around260"C. at
275

P R I N C I P LO F F L I C H T ES

Nipple

Control Cable

Felt Glands

R u b b e rS e a l i n gG a s k e t

{-'Cabin'

+,Atmosphere,

--...+

Figure 19-1 Methodof sealing 3 controlcable

Layer of Bonding or brazing material making perfectseal

Figure 19-14 Section stainless of steelhoneycomb panel sandwich

Complete

airframes can be built up from honeycomb

sandwich

panelling,pre-shaped described the previousparagraph,with as in steel boundarymembers, transverse extrudedstainless strutsand attachhave the ment points incorporated.Areas subjected large stresses to illusand Figure 19-15 densityof the coreincreased, the skin thickened. tratesihe sectionof the wing of an aircraft designed continuousflilht for
276

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION havea solid of at speeds aroundMach 3. The leadingand trailing edges by sandwich supported coreand the skin is of a honeycomb honeycomb steelspars.At this point mention must be madeof the weldedstainless for A of 'safelife' and 'fail-safe'. structuredesigned a structuralconcept given safelife is one in which actual testing of similar structureshas the to the enabled designer calculate minimum flying hoursbeforewhich 'safelife' for that failure will occur. This figure is then the structural A'fail-safe' structure onein which,by duplicating is particularstructure. path is available a load.Therefore, for primary structures, alternative an if one memberfails, the remainingstructurecan carry the load for a this limited time. In somecases will involvean extra weightpenalty,but by often the standbypart can justify its existence performingsome cabin,which task.An example this is thewindowof a pressure of separate consistsof two layersof glasswith a sandwichof dry air between. differentialis supportedby the inner layer,but Normally, the pressure shouldthis fail thenthe outer lavercan be madeto take the load.

A S o l i d h o n e y c o m bl e a d i n ga n d t r a i l i n g e d g e s B Honeycomb sheeting C Stainlesssteel welded soars D M a c h i n e de x t r u d e ds h a r p t r a i l i n ge d g e

.l for designed Mach 3 Figure 9-15 Wing section

Airframe Limitations Except during landing, or manoeuvring on the ground, all loads on an aircraft structure are imposed aerodynamically in two ways, either as the result of a manoeuvre or becauseof atmospheric disturbance, (eg gusts). Limitations, such as indicated speeds,Mach number, accelerations, weights and CG positions, are imposed for reasons of safety. These usually depend on factors not related to the skill of the pilot. All airframe limitations are quoted in the Flightcrew Manual for the type, and must intentionallv. not be exceeded 277

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF the Limitations take into consideration aircraft'srole, structure,and Disregard controllability,and areimposedonly whenthey are essential. and weakens aircraft structureso that the of limitationsleadsto damage flight. or it may fail immediately on a subsequent IAS Limitations The airloadsacting on the airframe dependprincipally upon dynamic (the %pYzeffect)and vary roughly as the squareof the IAS. pressure pressure, whichis 35 lb per square how the dynamic Figurel7-16 shows to foot at 100knots, increases no lessthan 875lb per squarefciot at 500 knots. Thereforeat a certainspeedthe total load on someparts of the up airframe,usually the wings or tail structure,increases to the safety is of the tail structure oftenthe limiting factorbecause limit. The strength or a considerable down load, producedby the elevators tailplane,is the to requiredto keepthe wingsat the angleof attacknecessary produce g. at largeamountof lift whenmanoeuvring high

o
J

o
f

.E
G

Knots IAS

Figure19-l 6 Effectof IASon the dynamicpressure experienced an aircraft by

is A further consideration that at high IAS the loads on the airframe aeroelastic distortionwhich could so alter may be greatenoughto cause of the stability characteristics the aircraft as to make its behaviour unpredictable.
278

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION The maximum permissible IAS given as the service limitation in the Flightcrew Manual is slightly lower than the designmaximum IAS, which is the highest figure for which the aircraft is stressed.The difference between the two gives the pilot a small safety margin. If the design maximum IAS were permitted, even the slightest inadvertant exceeding of it would almost certainly causedarnageto the aircraft. Mach Number Limitations A Mach number limitation is usually imposed when violent compressibility buffetting may lead to structural failure, or when loss of control due to compressibility effects may cause the aircraft to exceed the structural limitation before control can be regained.Alternatively it may be necessaryto impose a Mach number limitation in the early stagesof an aircraft's servicelife becausetrials have not been completed to allow clearanceto a higher Mach number. When a Mach number limitation is imposed it may be quoted as a definite figure, such as 0.88M, or as a specificcondition of flight, eg when a nose-up trim change occurs. On some aircraft Mach number limitations are imposed at low altitudes, becauseeven temporary or partial loss of control at the high accompanying IAS could quickly result in a dangerous situation; the larger aerodynamic and g loads set up by violent behaviour, added to the already large loads imposed by the high IAS, might well be more than the airframe could absorb. Flight in Turbulence Turbulent air imposes g loads on the airframe, the effect of which is proportional to the IAS. If turbulent air is encountered when flying at high IAS, the air speed should be reduced to that recommended in the Flightcrew Manual for safeflight in theseconditions. Speedshigher than the recommendedfigure may result in damage to the airframe, whereas may lead to difficulty in control. lower speeds Prohibited Manoeuvres The flying controls enable the pilot to manoeuvre the aircraft into any attitude. Some of theseattitudes may lead to dangerously high loadings which the aircraft has not been designedto withstand. To and air speeds protect the pilot and the aircraft certain manoeuvresare prohibited. Undercarciageand Flap Limiting Speeds The speedlimitations for the raising and lowering of the flaps and undercarriage arise either from the limited strength of the components to withstand the air loads, or from the power of the operating mechanism. The limiting speedstill applies with the servicein the extended position unlessthe Flightcrew Manual statesa higher speed.Further, should the 279

PRINCIPLES LICHT O FF or the undercarriage flaps be loweredat higherspeeds trim and stability and the airframeoverstressed. of the aircraftmay be markedlyaffected Unlessthe FlightcrewManual for the type statesthat the flaps are manoeuvres, theyshouldnot be usedunderconditions designed assist to greaterthan thoseof steady levelflight. It should of loadingappreciably be notedthat thefiguresquotedarelimitationsand arenot recommended at operations. as the bestspeeds which to performthese WeightLimitations Weight limitationsare imposedon all aircraft, the determiningfactors particularlyfor the landingcase, of beingthe strength the undercarriage, at by and the loadsthat can be absorbed the wingswhen manoeuvring the maximum permissibleg. On twin and multi-enginedaircraft the power is sometimes performance asymmetric on critical, and exceeding drop in performance. the weightlimitationsmay resultin a serious FlightcrewManuals often give more than one weight limitation, for example: a) Maximum weight for take-off and gentlemanoeuvres only, and a lower limitb) Maximum weight for all other permittedforms of flying, and a still lower limitc) Maximum weightfor landing. This meansthat at the highestweight the aircraft must be handled gently, moderateturns should be made and only small amounts of g Also the IAS and Mach numbershouldbe kept well within the imposed. limitationsuntil the weight falls to the limit at which all forms of flying only are permitted.The limits imposedfor landingshouldbe exceeded load cannot be landing must be made and excess when an emergency jettisoned. thiscase everycaremustbetakento avoidlargeshockloads In and the aircraftlandedas gentlyaspossible. CG Limitations Flying limitationsincludethe most forward and most rearwardpermissible positionsof the CG. The aircraft should be flown at standard loadingsat which the CG is within safelimits. Allowanceshouldalways of be madefor any shift of the CG as fuel is used.Non-observance CG noseor and limits can leadto instability at all speeds to uncontrollable reaching the ofthe elevators at tail-heaviness low speeds, latter because the limit of their movement.

AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION

Yourself. 19: Chapter Test


STRAIN is: I In an aircraftstructure as a) measured the load per unit area. ofsize overthe originalsize. b) the change ofsize. c) the originalsizeoverthe change as d) measured the total forceactingon a givenstructuralsection. Ref para 19.2 2 Rigidity is the: of a) change sizeoverthe originalsize. b) ratio of strainoverstress. overstrain. c) ratio of stress of d; measure loadper unit area. Ref para 19.2 is structure alsoknown as: 3 A monocoque a) rigid construction. b) stressed skin. c) warrengirder. d) quasiconstruction R ef para r9.7 4 Warren girder constructionemploysthe principle of: a) the aircraftskin takingmost of the load. b) the aircraftskin taking minimal load. c) all metalconstruction. d) all wood construction. Ref para 19.7 by: 5 Torsionalaileronflutter may be caused a) wing flexure. balance forward of the aileronhingeline. b) mass C c) control surface of G on the hingeline. d) fitting of hydraulic servosto the aileron control system. Ref para 19.6

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PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT SomeMore Key Points I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 l0 II l3 In levelflight Lift, Weigtit,Thrust and Drag aresaidto act through the centreof gravity. Induceddragis proportionalto lift. Induceddrag is greatest the wing tip. at proportionalto speed. Induceddrag is inversely Profiledragis proportionalto speed. The stallingangleis the angleabovewhich a wing will stall. At zeroangleof attack a cambered wing will producesomelift and somedrag. At zero angleof attack a symmetricalwing will produceNO LIFT but somedrag. Induceddrag reduces with increased aspect ratio. A high aspect ratio wing hasa long spanand a shortchord. An increase aspect of ratio results a reductionin stallingangle. in With increasing speed stallingangleremains same. the the

12 With increasing altitudethe stallingangleof wing remains same. the 14 With increased aircraft weightthe stallingspeed increases. 15 With the aircraft CG on its forward limit the stalling speedis increased. 16 3" to 4" angleof attack is known asthe optimum angleof attack. 17 From zerodegrees angleof attackup to theoptimumangleof attack the Lift/Drag ratio increases. l8 20 2l 22 Above the optimum angleof attackthe LiftlDrag ratio reduces. Aileron flutter is primarily caused wing flexure. by Aileron flutter is most likely to occuron a flexiblewing with rigid ailerons high speed. at Aileron flutter may be reducedwith massbalanceof the control surfaces. 19 The optimumangleof attackis the bestangleof attackin thecruise.

23 The objective massbalance to bring the control surface of is CG to hinseline. the surface
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AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION 24 Massbalancing achieved fitting weightsto the control surface is by which act forward of the hingeline.

25 When the angleof attack is increased flight the C of P will reach in its farthestforward point just belowthe stallingangle. 26 In flight an increase angleof attack will resultin the transition in point movingforward.

27 As the angleof attack is increased flight the BoundaryLayer will in thicken. 28 In level flight the stagnationpoint is that position where air is brought to restjust in front.of the aerofoilleadingedge. point is staticpressure 29 The stagnation plus dynamicpressure. 30 3l In flight, with an increase angleof attack,thestagnation in point will movedown and aft. When trailing edgeflaps are loweredin flight the wing centre of pressure movesaft.

32 Whentrailingedgeflapsarelowered flight thewing stallingangle in is reduced. 33 Slatsare normallyfitted in front of the aileronsat the wing leading edgeto increase stallingangle. the

34 Sweptwingsare employedto delayM"",. 35 For a givenwing areaand angleof attacka sweptwing will produce lesslift than a straightwing. 36 A sweptwing tendsto increase lateralstability. 37 A sweptwing is more prone to tip stall. 38 movementof airflow over a sweptwing may be reduced Spanwise by Wing Fences, Leading EdgeNotches,Extendedor Saw Tooth LeadingEdges, Vortex Generators. or

39 The purposeof a vortex generatoris to re-energise boundary the layer. 40 Vortex generators normally fitted on the upper wing surface are towardsthe leadingedgein front of the control surfaces. Some aircraft may havethem across complete the span. Balancetabs are fitted to control surfaces assistthe pilot in to moving the controlsby reducing control columnloads. A Springtab is fitted to reduce control columnloadsat high speed.
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PRINCIPLES OF FLICHT 43 44 45 46 An AmericanTypeTurnbuckleis in safety whennot morethanthree are threads showing. An AmericanType Turnbuckleis lockedby wire locking. range wing the As an aircraftaccelerates throughthetransonic speed C of P will moveaft producinga nosedown pitchingmoment. The nose down pitchingmomentgenerated an aircraftaccelerates as throughthe transonic speed rangeis adjusted trimmedout by the or Auto-Mach Trim System. from root Washoutof a wins is the reductionin ansleof incidence to tip. profile drag at V-o. Induceddrag equals An increase aircraftweightwill haveno affecton gliderangebut of glideendurance. will reduce

47 48 49

50 Generallya V or ButterflyTail, will aid spin recovery. FINAL TEST. I The angleof attackof an aerofoilis the anglebetween: a) chord and the longitudinalaxis. b) wing and the lateralaxis. c) wing leadingedgeand trailing edge. d) chord and the relativeairflow. 2 Directionalcontrol of an aircraft is achieved useof the: by a) rudder. b) elevators. c) fin. d) ailerons. from: 3 The wing spanis the distance a) leadingedgeto trailing edge. b) wing tip to wing tip. centreline. c) wing tip to fuselage d) wing tip to wing tip minusthe width of the fuselage.

CONSTRUCTION AIRCRAFT 4 The threeaxesofan aircraft are saidto act through the: a) centreofpressure. centresection. b) wing leadingedge c) centreof gravity. d) transitionpoint. 5 The chord line is a: at to a) line tangential the wing surface the leadingedge. from upperand lower surfaces. b) line equidistant from root to tip. leadingand trailingedges, between c) line equidistant leadingedgeto trailing edge. d) straightline from 6 Yawing is a rotation about the: axis. a) longitudinal b) lateralaxis. point. c) transition d) normal axis. ratio wing hasa: 7 A high aspect a) long spanand long chord. b) long chord and short span. c) long spanand short chord. d) short spanand high chord. 8 Rolling is a rotation of the aircraftabout the: a) longitudinaland normal axis. b) lateraland normal axis. axis. c; longitudinal d) lateralaxis. with the useof: 9 Lateralcontrol is achieved a) rudder. b) tailplane. c) elevators. d) ailerons.

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PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT of 1 0Pitchingis the movement the aircraft about: a) the normal axis. b) the lateralaxis. c) the longitudinalaxis. d) all threeprimary axes. l 1 Adverseyaw when rolling about the longitudinalaxis may be prevented useof: by a) a smallerfin. lateralcontrol surfaces. b) equaldeflection c) differentialailerons. dihedral. d) increased 12 ln a FriseAileron control system: a) the up-goingaileronmovesthrough a greateranglethan the down goingaileron. aileronleadingedgeprotrudesinto the airflow. b) the down-going increased drag. c) the up-goingaileronproduces d) the down-goingaileronallowsair to spill from belowthe wing to the upper surfaceof the aileron. is l3 When an aircraftfitted with spoilers rolled to port the: up. a) port spoileris deflected down. b) stbd spoileris deflected up c) port spoileris deflected and the stbd down. d) port upperspoilerup and port lower spoilerdown. 14 The primary control stops: at a) will be engaged the control column when the surfaceis fully deflected. at will leavea small clearance the control column b) when engaged stops. secondary at will leavea small clearance the control surface c) when engaged stops. secondary one at the control column the other at the control d) are duplicated, surface.

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AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION l5 An American type control Turnbuckle is in safety: a) when at least three threads are showing. b) when the inspection hole is covered by thread. c) when the inspection hole is clear. d) wtren not more than three threads are showing. l6 A stiff nut is in safetywhen: a) it cannot be tightened with the fingers. b) the thread of the bolt is level with the face of the nut. c) the threaded portion of the bolt is above the level of the nut. d) the threaded portion of the nut is above the level of the end of the bolt. , , . 17 Inset hingesprovide: a) mass balance to assistcontrol movement. b) aerodynamic balance to prevent flutter. c) aerodynamic balance to prevent control snatch. ) aerodynamic balance to assistin control movement. l8 The lowering of leading edge flaps will causethe C of P to: &) move aft. b) move aft and towards the wing root. c) move forward. d) remain in the sameposition. 19 A servo tab is normally employed on:

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a) transonicaircraft. aircraft. bi largesubsonic light aircraftonly. q) to heavyloads. subjected occasional d) control surfaces in of 20 To limit the rangeof movement control surfaces flight:
a) cablesare tensionedto a set value. Ul primary and secondaryinternal control stops are provided. c) primary and secondaryexternal control stops are provided' d) control tension regulators are provided.

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PRINCIPLES OFFLICHT 2l For an aircraft without cabletensionregulatorsfitted in the flying to: an in'temperature cause will cabletension controlsystems, increase a) decrease. b) increase only at high altitude. c) increase only at low altitude. d) increase. 22 Anti-balanceTabs: a) movein the samedirectionas the control surface. directionto the control surface. b) movein the opposite c) havea fixedvalueanddo not movein relationto thecontrol surface. to d) are directlyconnected the control column. 23 The purposeof a springtab is to: a) providefeelfeedbackin a control system. in b) providea reduction thepilot'seffort to movethecontrolsagainst high air loads. staticfriction for the controls. c) providea constant loadresistance surface at d) providea constant to deflection all speeds. 24 As a trailing edgeplain flap is loweredto the max lift positionthe C of P will: a) moveforward. b) moveforward and towardsthe wing root. c) moveaft and towardsthe wing tip. d) moveaft and towardsthe wing root. 25 A Fowler Flap will increase: a) wing area. b) wing areaand camber. ratio. c) wing areaand aspect ratio. d) wing areaand fineness Final TestAnswers 6.d l.d l.c 2.a 3.b 8.c 9.d 4.c l0.b 5.d ll.c l2.c l3.a l4.b l5.d
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l6.c l7.d l8.c l9.b 20.b

2l.d 22.a 23.b 24.d 25.b