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CastorOil.in - Home of Castor Oil

Comprehensive Castor Oil Report








Comprehensive Castor Oil Report
A report on castor oil & castor oil derivatives

(Updated ʹ November 2010)











CastorOil.in
A5C, Anugraha Apartments,
41 Nungambakkam High Road
Chennai ʹ 600034, Tamilnadu, India
Phone: +91-44-45590142
Mobile: +91-98413-48117
Email: narsi@castoroil.in
Web: www.castoroil.in




Copyright: All material & content contained in this document are the copyright of Clixoo.
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Comprehensive Castor Oil Report
Table of Contents

1- Castor Oil Manufacturing .................................................................................................. 5
1.1 Key Manufacturing Processes for Castor Oil & Derivatives ........................................... 6
1.1.1 Castor Oil Manufacturing Processes - Summary .................................................... 6
1.1.2 Castor Oil & Derivatives Manufacturing Processes - Details ................................ 10
1.1.2.1 Castor Oil Extraction - Details ....................................................................... 10
1.1.2.2 Castor Oil Filtration ʹ Details ........................................................................ 18
1.1.2.3 Castor Oil Refining - Details .......................................................................... 21
1.1.2.4 Typical Processes & Equipments of Castor Oil Refinery Plants ...................... 24
1.1.2.5 Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives Production ................................................. 25
1.2 Indicative Costs for Setting up Small and Medium Scale Castor Oil & Derivatives
Manufacturing Plants ...................................................................................................... 34

2 - Castor Oil Market ........................................................................................................... 36
2.1 Value Chain for the Castor Industry ........................................................................... 37
2.2 The Castor Oil Market ................................................................................................ 37
2.3 Supply & Demand of Castor Oil .................................................................................. 39
2.4 Indian Castor Oil Industry .......................................................................................... 44
2.4.1 Castor Oil Exports - Historical Scenario ............................................................... 44
2.4.2 Castor Oil Exports ʹ Current Scenario ................................................................. 47
2.4.3 Castor Seed Production and Acreage in India ...................................................... 48
2.4.4 India-wide Data from Castor Crop Survey 2009-10.............................................. 50
2.4.5 Cropping Season in India ..................................................................................... 53
2.4.6 Castor Cultivation & Yields in India - Points ......................................................... 53
Ϯ͘ϰ͘ϳ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ SƚĂƚƵƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ CůŽďĂů CĂƐƚŽƌ Cŝů lŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ .................................................... 53
2.5 Demand - Supply Estimates for Castor Oil Derivatives ............................................... 55
2.5.1 Current Demand-Supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives .................................................................................................................. 56
2.5.2 Future Demand-Supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives .................................................................................................................. 57

3 - Castor Oil Chemicals & Derivatives ................................................................................. 61
3.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 62
3.2 Properties & Chemical Composition of Castor Oil ...................................................... 62
3.3 Chemical, Physical Properties & Specifications of Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives .... 65

4 ʹ Castor Oil Prices............................................................................................................. 77
4.1 Historical & Current Price Data for Various Grades of Castor Oil, Castor Seeds .......... 78
4.2 Castor Oil & Castor Seed Price Volatility .................................................................... 81
4.3 Factors that Affect Prices ........................................................................................... 83
4.4 Castor Oil Futures Market .......................................................................................... 84

5 - Castor Cultivation ........................................................................................................... 87
5.1 Introduction to Castor Crop ....................................................................................... 88
5.2 Castor Crop Sowing ................................................................................................... 88
5.3 Castor Crop Growth ................................................................................................... 90
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5.4 Castor Crop Harvest ................................................................................................... 93
5.5 Castor Cultivation Seasons ......................................................................................... 93
5.6 Hybrid Castor Seeds & Genetic Engineering of Castor Plant ....................................... 94
5.7 Yields for Castor Seeds and Castor Oil from Seed ..................................................... 102
5.8 Castor Cultivation FAQ ............................................................................................. 103

6 - Castor Oil End-uses ....................................................................................................... 107
6.1 Current End Uses for Castor Oil & Derivatives.......................................................... 108
6.1.1 End Uses ʹ by Castor Oil Grade / Derivative ...................................................... 108
6.1.2 Castor Oil & Castor Oil Derivatives Uses ʹ By Industry ...................................... 122
6.1.3 Use of Castor Oil in High-end Derivatives .......................................................... 129
6.2 Future Possible End-uses and End user Industries for Castor Oil and Derivatives ..... 139
6.2.1 Biopolymers and Castor oil ............................................................................... 139
6.2.2 Castor Oil as Feedstock for Biodiesel ................................................................. 146
6.2.3 Other Possible Future End Uses for Castor Oil & Derivatives ............................. 164

7 - Castor Seeds ................................................................................................................. 166
7.1 Introduction to Castor Seeds ................................................................................... 167
7.2 Castor Seeds Production & Supplies ........................................................................ 167
7.3 Castor Seeds Prices & Trends ................................................................................... 168
7.4 Castor Seeds Packaging & Storing ............................................................................ 168
7.5 Castor Seeds Varieties & Hybrids ............................................................................. 168
7.6 Castor Seed Factoids................................................................................................ 169

8 - Castor Meal .................................................................................................................. 170
8.1 Castor Meal Uses ..................................................................................................... 171
8.2 Castor Meal Composition ........................................................................................ 171
8.3 Castor Meal Supply & Demand ................................................................................ 172
8.4 Toxicity in Castor Meal ............................................................................................ 173
8.5 Energy Content in Castor Meal ................................................................................ 174
8.6 Castor Meal ʹ Other Points ...................................................................................... 175

9 - Castor Oil Distribution & Logistics ................................................................................ 176
9.1 Castor Oil Storing & Packaging ................................................................................. 177
9.1.1 Castor Oil Storage ............................................................................................. 177
9.1.2 Packaging.......................................................................................................... 177
9.1.3 Shelf Life ........................................................................................................... 177
9.2 Castor Oil Transportation & Logistics ....................................................................... 177
9.2.1 Distribution from Farms to Refinery .................................................................. 177
9.2.1 Transport .......................................................................................................... 178
9.2.2 Cargo Handling ................................................................................................. 178
9.2.3 Density & Volume Expansion ............................................................................ 178
9.2.4 Cargo Securing .................................................................................................. 179
9.2.5 Risk Factors and Loss Prevention ...................................................................... 179

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10 - Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers............................................................ 182
10.1 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in India........................................... 183
10.2 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in China ......................................... 192
10.3 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in Brazil .......................................... 193
10.4 Other Prominent Suppliers .................................................................................... 194

Appendix 1 ........................................................................................................................ 195
1. Demand - Supply Estimates for Sebacic Acid .............................................................. 195
2. Price of Sebacic Acid .................................................................................................. 196
3. Sebacic Acid Companies and Suppliers ...................................................................... 196

Appendix 2 India Export Details on Castor Derivatives͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙͙.198

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Comprehensive Castor Oil Report
1 - Castor Oil Manufacturing

This chapter comprises the following topics

Key Manufacturing Processes for Castor Oil & Derivatives - 1.1
o Castor Oil Manufacturing Processes ʹ Summary - 1.1.1
o Castor Oil & Derivatives Manufacturing Processes ʹ Details - 1.1.2
ƒ Castor Oil Extraction ʹ Details - 1.1.2.1
ƒ Castor Oil Filtration ʹ Details - 1.1.2.2
ƒ Castor Oil Refining ʹ Details - 1.1.2.3
ƒ Typical Sections & Sub-sections of Castor Oil Refinery Plants - 1.1.2.4
ƒ Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives Production - 1.1.2.5

Indicative Costs for Setting Up Small and Medium Scale Castor Oil & Derivatives
Manufacturing Plants - 1.2



HIGHLIGHTS


Castor seeds contain about 48-50 percent oil by weight.

The overall castor oil & derivatives manufacturing process is: Sowing -> Cultivation ->
Harvest -> Seed Dehulling & Cleaning -> Oil Extraction -> Oil Filtration & Purification -
> Oil Refining -> Production of Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives.

While castor oil by itself is used in diverse applications, chemical derivatives of castor
oil find further uses in industrial applications and their domains of use are increasing
rapidly.

The global market for generation II castor oil derivatives is estimated at about $300
million. For generation III derivatives, where half of the generation II derivatives are
converted, the estimated market worth is close to $350 million.


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Comprehensive Castor Oil Report
1.1 Key Manufacturing Processes for Castor Oil & Derivatives

Castor Oil Production ʹ Overall Concept

Castor plant grows wild in many tropical countries wher it is considered native. It is grown
commercially in plantations for oil, in countries like India, China and Brazil. The seeds
contain about 48-50 percent oil by weight.

To extract the oil they must be crushed and pressed.

The oil thus extracted is purified, and the purified oil is further refined.

Modification of the refined oil to produce various grades and derivatives is achieved by a
variety of chemical processes including oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal treatments to
produce derivatives for specific applications.

The four main stages thus in the production of castor oil, castor oil grades and derivatives
are:

a. Extraction of oil
b. Purification of the extracted oil
c. Refining the purified oil
d. Performing chemical reactions on the refined oil to produce various grades and
derivatives

This chapter dwells into each of the above four in depth.

1.1.1 Castor Oil Manufacturing Processes - Summary

This section provides a summary of each of the four processes, viz., Extraction,
Filtration/Purification, Refining, and Grades & Derivatives Production. The following section
provides extensive details on each of the four.

Castor Oil Extraction - Summary

Extraction of oil from castor seeds is done in a manner similar to that for most other oil
seeds.

The ripe seeds are allowed to dry, when they split open and discharge the seeds.

The seeds are dehulled after harvesting. Dehulling can be done by hand (laborious) or,
more commonly, by machine. Small-scale hand-operated dehullers are also available. The
dehulled seeds are cleaned, cooked and dried prior to oil extraction. Cooking is done to
coagulate protein (necessary to permit efficient extraction), and for efficient pressing.

The first stage of oil extraction is pre-pressing, normally using a high pressure continuous
screw press ʹ called the expeller. Extracted oil is filtered, and the material removed from
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Comprehensive Castor Oil Report
the oil is fed back into the stream along with fresh material. Material finally discharged from
the press, called castor cake, contains 8-10% oil. It is crushed into a coarse meal, and
subjected to solvent extraction with heptane to extract further oil.

Castor Oil Filtration & Purification - Summary

Once the oil has been extracted from the seed, it is necessary to remove impurities present
in the oil. The filtration systems are designed to remove particulates, water, dissolved gases,
and acids. The equipment that is normally used for filtration is a filter press.

Castor Oil Refining - Summary

The filtered oil (called the crude or unrefined oil) is sent to the oil refinery. The steps to
refine the crude oil include:

Settling and Degumming of the Oil - Done to remove the aqueous phase from the lipids,
and to remove phospholipids from the oil.
Neutralization - The neutralization step is necessary to remove free fatty acids from the
oil.
Bleaching - Bleaching results in the removal of coloring materials, phospholipids and
oxidation products.
Deodorization of the oil - Deodorization results in the removal of odour from the oil

Production of Castor Oil Grades & Derivative Chemicals - Summary

Using a variety of chemical reactions and/or processes, the refined castor oil is transformed
into its various grades and a plethora of useful chemical derivatives.

Examples of the chemical reactions used: Hydrolysis, Esterification, Alcoholysis,
Saponification, Halogenation, Oxidation, Polymerization, Hydrogenation, Epoxidation, etc.

Examples of processes used: Degumming, Bleaching, Dehydration, Splitting & Distillation,
Evaporation etc.

The chemical reactions and processes used to prepare various grades and derivatives will be
discussed in detail later in this chapter.

So, the overall castor oil & derivatives manufacturing process is:

Sowing -> Cultivation -> Harvest -> Seed Dehulling & Cleaning -> Oil Extraction -> Oil
Filtration & Purification -> Oil Refining -> Production of Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives

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Representative Diagram for Jatropha Oil Extraction & Filtration




Intake
Seed cleaner
Dehuller
Seed
pretreatmen
t
Screw or hydraulic
press
Breaker crusher
Solvent extraction
plant
Oil filter press
Oil filter
press
Hammer or
attrition mill
Meter
Meter
Meter
scale
To storage tanks and refinery
Meal for fertilizer
First grade crude oil
Press cake
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Process Flow for a Typical Oil Refining Plant



CRUDE OILS AND FATS
Storage
crude oils
tank
Other services
Soap stock Neutralisation section
BLEACHING
Sterin separation
section
Sterin
DEODORISER
Sterin Storage
tank
Refined Oil Distilled Fatty Acid
Deoderiser Steam Distillation
Refined Oil Final Packing
Pretreatment
Byproduct
processing
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1.1.2 Castor Oil & Derivatives Manufacturing Processes - Details

1.1.2.1 Castor Oil Extraction - Details

Castor oil extraction can be divided into two main stages:

1. Pre-extraction
2. Extraction

1. Pre-extraction ʹ Seed Cleaning & Preparation

Seed Cleaning

The castor beans have some foreign materials and dirt that get separated by hand picking.
The seed cleaner pictured below is a basic type of seed cleaner for efficient cleaning of
seeds.



More sophisticated and mechanised seed cleaners are available in the market, and some of
these seed cleaners have capacities of over 10 T / hour.

Drying, Heating & Conditioning

The cleaned beans are sun dried in the open, until the casing splits and sheds the seeds. The
beans are further dried in the oven at 60°C for seven hours to a constant weight in order to
reduce their moisture content, which initially would have been about 5 to 7%. Pre-heating
or drying the seeds prior to expelling also improves the release of the oil by breaking the cell
walls and by thinning the oil.

In some cases, drying is achieved by spreading the seeds outside, exposed to the heat of the
sun. In other cases stoves or pans are used for pre-heating.

There is a likelihood that the seed will burn while using a pan, which will not happen if a
double-boiler is used. A double-boiler is an arrangement in which one pan is placed inside a
larger pan without touching the bottom or sides. Water is placed at the bottom of the larger
pan and is heated to produce steam that heats the seed in a more controlled manner,
preventing it from burning.

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Shelling / Dehulling & Winnowing

Most oil-bearing seeds need to be separated from their outer husk or shell. This process is
referred to as shelling, dehulling or decorticating. Shelling increases the oil extraction
efficiency and reduces wear in the expeller as the husks are abrasive.

A wide range of manual and mechanical decorticators are available.

In general some 10% of husk is added back prior to expelling as the fibre allows the machine
to grip or bite on the material.

After dehulling, the shell may have to be collected separately from the kernels by
winnowing. At small scale this can be done by throwing the material into the air and
allowing the air to blow away the husk. At larger scales mechanical winnowers are available.

Milling & Grinding

Milling: Milling is carried out to reduce the size of particles and improve the efficiencies of
extracting oil.

Grinding: Mortar and pestle are normally used to crush/grind the beans into paste (cake).
This process weakens or ruptures the cell walls for oil extraction.

2. Oil Extraction

Oil Yield from Different Oil Seeds

Typical oil yields from 100 kg. of oil seeds

Oilseed Yield
Castorseed 43 kg
Sunflower 32 kg
Copra 62 kg
Cottonseed 13 kg
Linseed 42 kg
Mustard 35 kg
Soybean 14 kg
Groundnut Kernel 42 kg
Rapeseed 37 kg
Palmfruit 20 kg
Palm Kernel 36 kg
Sesame 50 kg

The cleaned and prepared castor seeds are sent for extraction. Oil extraction is done usually
in two stages.
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1. The first stage employs pressing the seeds for oil ʹ this stage is also called expelling
2. The second stage uses a solvent extraction method to extract the remaining oil.

Pressing / Expelling

Expellers - Old Method

The old and traditional expellers comprise a pestle and mortar that is traditionally animal
powered. Its capacity is approximately 50 kg a day although this will vary depending on the
size, strength and number of animals used. Animals need to be replaced after 3 or 4 hours
work as they tire. The old methods are rarely used these days except by small processors.

Expellers - New Methods

New methods of oil expelling use presses to extract the oil from the seed.

Small presses like the Bielenberg ram press can be powered by hand, by one or several
operators. Capacity is then typically 1-10 kg/h of seeds.

Larger capacity presses, especially the screw presses, are powered by engines.

The strainer type press has its oil output in the form of strainers. The strainers are built up in
the form of bars, and their inter-spacings (gaps) are adjustable. The whole press tube mostly
consists of the strainer. The diameter of the screw increases over the length to get a rising
compression of the seed. Sections with changing diameter can be found several times on
the screw. During the flow of the seed through the press, the oil is drained via the strainer,
which surrounds the pressing space. The choke size can be adjusted to press the seed
harder. With some types of strainer presses it is possible to change segments at the worm
screw in order to change the compression of the seed. Other manufacturers offer extra
screws. In addition the choke size and the rotation speed should be adjusted when pressing
different kinds of seed. Strainer presses exist in a wide capacity range from approximately
15 to 2000 kg/h of seed. The press cake comes out of the choke formed as flat plates.

Broadly, the expellers / presses used currently can be classified into two types:

Manual Presses
Motor Driven Expellers

Manual Presses

Small-scale manual presses have been promoted by a number of organisations. As these
machines do not require any power source their running costs are minimal.

Types of manual presses include:

Spindle press
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Bridge press, also known as a screw press
Ram press
Hydraulic press

Manually powered spindle presses are usually small table mounted devices with a capacity
of around 2 to 5 kg per hour.

The bridge press comprises a cylinder that contains the seed. The seed is compressed by
rotating a screw down onto it. The screw is held in place by a frame that bridges over the
seed container. As the seed is compressed the oil drains through holes in the cylinder onto a
collection tray. The process is relatively slow as the cylinder needs to be filled, compressed
and then the remaining cake needs to be removed

Ram presses use a lever mechanism to produce high pressures on a piston that forces the oil
out of the seed. Manual ram presses can be tend to be hard work

Hydraulic presses use a hydraulic pump to exert a high pressure on the seed. The process is
similar to a screw press, in that the seed has to be loaded into a cylinder and then pressed
to extract the oil, which runs onto a collection tray. Once the seed has been pressed the
remaining cake needs to be removed.

Motor Driven Expellers

Motorised expellers, usually screw-type expellers, are now common in the oilseeds industry
worldwide.

Motor driven expellers are now very common in the Indian castor oil industry as well. The
running costs of the equipment are reasonable. The oil yield is relatively high at around
60%, although production is slow.

In India in particular a number of efficient small or "baby" motorised expellers are available
with a capacity of up to 100 kg/hr. A typical machine has a central cylinder or cage fitted
with eight separate sections or "worms". This flexible system allows single or double-reverse
use and spreads wear more evenly along the screw. When the screw becomes worn only
individual sections require repair, thus reducing maintenance costs. As the seed passes
through the expeller the oil is squeezed out, exits through the perforated cage and is
collected in a trough under the machine. The solid residue, oil cake, exits from the end of
the expeller shaft where it is bagged.

Screw type expellers have capacities ranging from 1 T / day to 10 T per day.

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Picture of a Typical Oil Expeller with Cooking Kettle




Large Scale Oil Expellers

Single Chamber & Double Chamber Oil Expellers

Medium and large-scale castor oil processors use motor driven oil expellers that are of the
single or double chamber model.

Single Chamber Design Oil Expeller



Capacity range

Capacity of single chamber machine varies between 1 ton to 25 tons a day. Some
giant single chamber oil expellers can reach a maximum capacity of over 400 T per
day.
Single chamber machine has the capability to crush all kinds of seeds including
castor. Other seeds that can be crushed are: palm kernel, nut cotton seeds, copra,
rape seeds, sunflower, canola, ground nuts.

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Components of Single Chamber Design

Cooker
Cooker includes steam kettle, mounted on the expeller for pre-heating of seeds.

Gear Box
Double reduction, heavy duty gear box is used to stand radial casting gear which increases
durability and efficiency of machinery.

Main Shaft
Steel shaft with water cooling arrangements is used to control the temperature of chamber.

Worm Assembly
For ensuring long life of machinery high grade carbon steel that is especially hardened is
normally used.

Electrical Components
Electric motors are used to make single chamber design, including reversible switch panel
board to give an easy restart.

Double Chamber Design Oil Expeller




Capacity Range

1. Capacity of double chamber design machine ranges between 5 tons to 100 tons per
day. Some giant double chamber oil expellers can reach a maximum capacity of over
700 T per day.

2. Double chamber machine is suitable for pre-pressing and complete full pressing in
one expeller. It also includes a benefit of better oil recovery by providing double
crushing

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Components

Worm Assembly
High grade and hard facing carbon steel is used in this expeller. This increases durability and
life of machinery.

Gear Box
Heavy duty gear box is used for double reduction; this also increases the efficiency of
machinery.

Cooker
Cooker installed in machinery includes steam kettle which preheats seeds. The cooker is also
used for recovery & bottle pressing of seeds.

Electrical Components
Reversible switch panel board is used to restart machine after power failure or overloading.

Main Shaft
Special steel main shaft with water cooling arrangements is used to control the pungency of
chamber.

Typical Features of Presses / Oil Expellers

Cast iron bodies & base
Foundation frame
Single reduction gear box with spur gears
Fabricated chambers with multiple sections
Case hardened worm assembly
Oil expeller chamber cage
Thickness of cake can be changed while running the oil expeller
Oil pump
Tapper roller bearings.

Special Facilities in New Expellers

Thickness of cake can be changed to find and adjust cone at the point of optimum
Traditional oil pump is replaced by a vacuum one.
Due to ready foundation frame, no foundation of any machine required in the
ground. In addition, you can shift the machine from one place to another as and
when required.
Tapper roller bearings make expeller very sturdy and durable. No ball bearing fitted
anywhere.
As some of the expellers are very compact, it is today possible and economical to
import them by air.

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Solvent Extraction

Solvent extraction is a process that is used to recover a component from either a solid or
liquid. In this process, the material in which the component of interest is present is
contacted with a solvent that will dissolve the solutes of interest. Solvent extraction is of
major commercial importance to the chemical and biochemical industries, as it is often the
most efficient method of separation of valuable products from complex feedstock or
reaction products.

In the case of castor oil extraction, the solvent extraction stage comes after the expeller
stage. The cake that leaves the expeller has about 10% of oil remainig in it. This is taken to
the hexane solvent extraction stage, where the remaining oil is recovered.

The crushed castor seeds that come from the expeller are mixed with a solvent in a
commercial extractor. Solvents used for extraction include heptane, hexane and petroleum
ethers.

Hexane is the most commonly used solvent from the above.

The castor oil dissolves in the solvent, and the pulp is filtered out from the solution. The oil
and solvent are separated by means of fractional distillation. Fractional distillation is the
separation of a mixture into its component parts by heating them to a temperature at which
several fractions of the compound will evaporate.

Hexane Solvent Extraction ʹ Schematic Diagram (Haas et al., 2002)

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Castor Oil Extraction ʹ Other Points

Over the past three decades, the markets have shunned Brazilian castor beans, due
to the allergens found in the oil extracted from them. However, a new processing
technique could overcome this problem. The main task is to develop a new
processing technique: single acetone extraction of oil from crushed beans. This
technique should reduce or even eliminate allergy problems and produce better
quality oils and presscake at a lower cost. It has already been tested successfully in
the laboratory, and it would be worth backing up its validation on an industrial scale
with varietal research to develop an allergen-free clone. (Reference: Revitalizing the
castor bean sector in Brazil - Jan 2006 -
http://www.cirad.fr/en/actualite/communique.php?id=356 )

1.1.2.2 Castor Oil Filtration ʹ Details

8ĞĨŽƌĞ ƚĞĐŚŶŝĐĂů ƵƐĞ ƚŚĞ Žŝů ƐŚŽƵůĚ ďĞ ĐůĞĂŶĞĚ ŽĨ Ăůů ƉĂƌƚŝĐůĞƐ х ϱ ʅŵ͘ AĨƚĞƌ ĞdžƚƌĂĐƚŝŽŶ ĨƌŽŵ
seed, castor oil contains 1-13% solids by weight. These solids need to be separated from oil.
The filtration stage of castor oil achieves this objective.

The solids can be separated from the oil by means of sedimentation, filtration or
centrifugation, or by a combination of these processes.

Castor oil filtration process could comprise one or more of the following steps:

Filtration

Clarification

Sedimentation

Centrifugation

Filtration

Filtration can be achieved by allowing the oil to stand and then filtering the clear oil by
gravity through fine cloth. A better but more expensive method is pumping the crude oil
through a filter press
The basic principle of filtration is blocking any particle in the oil against a membrane.

The easiest way of filtering is using a cloth.

Using filter cloth in home made devices can give very good filtering results. As the filtering
processes are not pressurized, purification is very good though speed is low. For home users
and small factories (up to some liters per hour) this can be an attractive low-cost option as
the process can run unattended without purchasing special hardware. It is recommended to
sediment the oil for some days before filtering to avoid short changing interval of the filter
cloth.
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While filtering using a filter cloth is a fairly simple and cost-effective method, it might not be
suitable for large-scale producers.

The professional and organized sector in the castor oil industry today uses filters that are
more automated. These are called filter presses.

Filter Press

Filter presses are separation devices used for solid or liquid separation. These work on feed
pressure or squeeze pressure to filter solid content in a product.

The filter presses also use filter cloth for the filtering process, but they are far more
mechanized than manual filtering using filter cloth alone.

The professional and large-scale oil processors use more efficient methods - filter presses
using plate or leaf filters.
Picture of a filter press



Plate Filter Presses

Plate filter presses are the most widespread types of filter presses used despite their
relatively high investment cost.

A filter comprises a set of vertical, juxtaposed recessed plates, presses against each other by
hydraulic jacks at one end of the set. The pressure applied to the joint face of each filtering
plate must withstand the chamber internal pressure developed by the oil pumping system.

This vertical plate layout forms watertight filtration chambers allowing easy mechanisation
for the discharge of solids. Filter clothes finely or tightly meshed are applied to the two
grooved surfaces in these plates.

Orifices feed the crude oil to be filtered under pressure in the filtration chamber. They are
usually placed in the center of the plates allowing a proper distribution of flow, right
pressure and better drainage of oil within the chamber. Solids gradually accumulate in the
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filtration chamber. The filtrate is collected at the back of the filtration support and carried
away by internal ducts.

Plate filters are flexible and can be extended by adding more frames for bigger capacities.
Filtered cake discharging can be manual or automatic.

Features of Filter Presses

Capacity

The widely used filter press has a capacity of filtering oil from 1 ton to 50 tons a day.

Pump
Special plunger pump is used for transfer of oil from storage tank to filter press.

Filter Cloth
Filter cloth includes special polyester filter cloth which does a fine filtration of oil.

Plates
Adjustable plates are used so that filter cloth can be cleaned easily.

Clarification

Filtering will remove insoluble contaminants such as fibre but the remaining oil will also
contain moisture, resins and colorants from the seed. Clarification is a relatively simple
method of removing these unwanted elements and can be done by letting the oil stand
undisturbed for a few days and then separating the upper layer, or by using a clarifier in
which the oil is held in a tank with a heat source.

The oil is boiled to drive off water and to destroy naturally occurring enzymes and
contaminating bacteria. After heating the oil is allowed to stand and the contaminants
separate out. The oil is filtered through a cloth and is reheated to ensure that all the
moisture has been removed

Sedimentation

SĞĚŝŵĞŶƚĂƚŝŽŶ ŝƐ Ă ƐŝŵƉůĞ ĂŶĚ ĐŚĞĂƉ ǁĂLJ ŽĨ ĐůĞĂŶŝŶŐ ďLJ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ĞĂƌƚŚ͛Ɛ ŐƌĂǀŝƚLJ͗ Ăƚ ƚŚĞ ĞŶĚ
of the sedimentation process, the solids settle at the bottom of the tank. It is a cheap
cleaning method because no hardware has to be purchased, only a storage tank large
enough to keep the oil about a week with little or no flow.

This process is however only recommended for small processing capacities of about one ton
of seed per day.

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Centrifugation

Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the centrifugal force for the separation of
mixtures. More-dense components of the mixture migrate away from the axis of the
centrifuge, while less-dense components of the mixture migrate towards the axis.

Centrifugation is a much faster method for particle separation than sedimentation. It must
be noted however that centrifugation hardware is relatively expensive for small scale
processors.

At the end of the above steps in the filtration process, the castor oil is ready for refining.

1.1.2.3 Castor Oil Refining - Details

The Refining Process

Filtered Castor Oil Æ De-gumming Æ Neutralization Æ Dewaxing Æ Bleaching &
Deodorizing

In some markets further refining of castor oil beyond the filtration stage is not required as
the complex flavours of unrefined oils are preferred. International markets in many
developed countries tend to prefer oil that has been refined further.

The main aim of refining is to remove impurities such as colloidal matter, free fatty acid,
colouring and other undesirable constituents, thus making the oil more resistant to
deterioration during storage. The general method of refining used for edible oils is
applicable to castor oil.

The main processes involved in castor oil refining are:

Degumming,
Neutralization,
Dewaxing,
Bleaching & Deodorizing

Degumming

Gums in edible vegetable oil must be removed to avoid color and taste reversion during
subsequent refining steps. The removal of phospholipids (referred ƚŽ ĂƐ ͚ĚĞŐƵŵŵŝŶŐ͛Ϳ ŝƐ ƚŚĞ
first step in the process of refining castor oil.

The process usually involves a single-stage phosphoric acid treatment and a single-stage hot
water treatment, followed by continuous removal of the hydrated gums in a de-gumming
centrifuge.

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Neutralization

Neutralizer

Neutralization is a reaction between acids and bases to produce salts.

All crude vegetable oils prepared for human consumption are neutralized to remove free
fatty acids and latex-like matter and then washed to reduce the soap content of neutral oil.
Neutralization produces a more stable product.

Effective neutralization results in enhanced effectiveness of subsequent steps, such as
bleaching, deodorizing and furthermore, results in high yields of a quality product.
Neutralization also aides in the removal of phosphatides, removal of free fatty acids, mineral
and color bodies.

Neutralization can be done in one of two ways:

(a) Alkali (Chemical)
(b) Steam Stripping (Physical).

In the Alkali/Chemical method, caustic soda (alkali) is mixed in the proper amounts with
castor oil at 66-77
o
C and the aqueous solution is removed, leaving the neutral oil behind.
Some plants use sodium carbonate or potassium hydroxide for alkali. The alkali reacts with
the free fatty acids to form soap, which is an important byproduct. Processors remove the
traces of soap and moisture through water washing and vacuum drying. In some cases,
centrifuges separate neutral oil from soap-stock and wash water.

Steam stripping is done under vacuum, to remove moisture, free fatty acids, odour
elements, and other impurities from the oil. As it is performed under vacuum conditions,
the oil can be kept at a low temperature, preserving its chemical structure by not subjecting
it to temperatures in which undesirable dehydration reactions can occur.

De-waxing

De-waxing refers to the removal of high melting point waxes extracted from castor oil.
While the wax does not negatively affect the functionality of products the presence of wax
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does affect the appearance of product. The de-waxing process that has proved most
effective & efficient is to reduce the temperature down to 23-24
o
Celsius within cooling
tanks known as crystallizers, and then filtering out the wax crystals either in a rotary drum
vacuum filter or in filter presses made out of polypropylene plate & frame filters.

Bleaching & Deodourizing

Bleaching

The appearance of dark colour oil can be lightened by bleaching. Bleaching, the process for
removing these pigments from fats and oils, occurs when 1% bleaching clay is added to oil
under vacuum at approximately 107-110
o
Celsius. The oil is later agitated and filtered to
remove the clay. The high temperature drives moisture from the clay to absorb the
pigments. Some systems also use activated carbon in the place of clay.

A high-tech bleaching plant may be equipped with hermetic leaf filters and operates under
vacuum to prevent oil oxidation. The oil is cold-mixed with metered quantities of bleaching
earth and/or other bleaching agents, heated to the correct temperature and pumped to a
bleaching chamber operating under vacuum where an adequate retention time is provided
to ensure effective bleaching. The oil/earth slurry is further pumped through hermetic leaf
filters operating in sequence to enable continuous bleached oil (filtrate) discharge.

Deodorization

Volatile compounds present in the oil that produce bad odours can be eliminated through
the process of deodorization.

Deodorization represents the last major processing step in refining of castor oil. It separates
out the impurities and creates three groups of compounds:

1. Saponifiable compounds: free fatty acids, partial glycerides, esters, and gummy
constituents.

2. Unsaponifiable compounds: parafinic hydrocarbons, olefinic and polyolefinic materials,
sterols, triterpenic alcohols, and

3. Oxidative reaction products: aldehydes, ketones & peroxides.

This highly specialized process uses a type of steam distillation under high vacuum to
remove objectionable volatile components. The bleached oil pumps through a de-aerator
where the pretreated oil is de-gassed. This de-aerated oil passes through a heat exchanger
where the oil is heated by exchanging the heat of the deodorized oil. Deodorization further
heats the oil to the stripping temperature in a pre-heater. The oil then flows to a flash
chamber and thereafter to an oil distributor inside falling film deodorizer. The oil descends
counter-current to the stripping steam in the form of a very thin film and becomes
completely deodorized. The process condenses cools and stores the distilled fatty acids.

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The deodorized oil pumps through a heat exchanger to the polishing filter and thereafter
passes through a cooler.

1.1.2.4 Typical Processes & Equipments of Castor Oil Refinery Plants

Process Methods Involved Equipments Used
Degumming

Single stage Phosphoric acid
treatment
Single stage hot water treatment
Gums tank

Neutralization
Alkali/ Chemical method
Steam Stripping
Neutralizer
Soap/gums tank
Water/oil/gravity separator
Lye/brine/hot water tank
Neutralized oil tank
Oil pump
Soap stock pump
Hot water pump
Dewaxing
Removal of high melting point
waxes
Crystallizers
Rotary drum vacuum filter
Filter presses made out of
polypropylene plate
Frame filters
Bleaching
Removal of pigments from fats and
oils
Bleacher
Barometric condenser
Earth dozer
Bleached oil tank
Filter press
Filter pump
Vacuum pump
Deodorization
Steam distillation under high
vacuum
Falling film deodorizer
Storage tank
Cooler
Polish filter
Pump
Vacuum system

Other Equipments in a Castor Oil Refinery Plant

Reactor
Centrifuge
Tray drier
Crystallizer
Pressure filter
Distillation assembly
Air compressor
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Elevators
Conveyors
Pressing worm and gears
Worm wheel
Plunger pumps
Electrical/cables
Pipe, valves, fittings
Instruments/gauges
Insulation
Cooling tower

1.1.2.5 Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives Production

While castor oil by itself is used in diverse applications, chemical derivatives of castor oil find
numerous uses in industrial applications and their domains of use are increasing rapidly.

The global market for generation II castor oil derivatives, which include sebacic acid,
undecyclenic acid, heptaldehyde, polyols and dimer acid, is estimated at about $300 million.
For generation III derivatives, where half of the generation II derivatives are converted, the
estimated market worth is close to $350 million.

Generation III derivatives include the esters and salts of generation II derivatives as well as
derivatives such as methyl-12-hydroxystearate while generation I derivatives include
hydrogenated castor oil, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, dehydrated castor oil acid, and ethoxylated
castor oil among others.

Quite naturally, the prices and profit margins of higher generation castor derivatives are
significantly higher than the basic grades. The generation I derivatives such as HCO and 12-
HSA respectively cost about 20% and 50% more than the basic castor oil grades.

Key Derivatives of Castor Oil, Starting Products & Methods of Production

Product Name Starting Product Method of Production
Commercial Castor Oil Castor Seed Crushing & Expelling
First pressed Degummed
Grade Castor Oil Commercial Castor Oil Degumming
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.) Commercial Castor Oil Bleaching
Refined Castor Oil (Extra Pale
Grade) Commercial Castor Oil Bleaching
Refined Castor Oil (Pale
Pressed Grade) Commercial Castor Oil Neutralization and Bleaching
Neutralized Castor Oil Commercial Castor Oil Neutralization and Bleaching
Refined Castor Oil (DAB-10) Commercial Castor Oil Neutralization and Bleaching
Castor Oil Pharmaceutical
(I.P/B.P./U.S.P.) Commercial Castor Oil Neutralization
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Turkey Red Oil Commercial Castor Oil
Sulphonation and
Neutralization
Blown Castor Oil (10 to 250
Poise)
Refined Castor
Oil (F.S.G./B.S.S.) Oxidation
Ricinoleic Acid
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.)
Saponification and
Acidification
Methyl Ricinoleate
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.) Esterification
Hydrogenated Castor Oil
(Flakes/Powder/Granules)
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.) Hydrogenation
12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid (12-
H.S.A.)
(Flakes/Powder/Granules)
Hydrogenated Castor Oil
Liquid
Saponification and
Acidification
Methyl-12-Hydroxy Stearate
(Flakes) Methyl Ricinoleate Hydrogenation
Urethane Modified Castor Oil
(UMCO)
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.) Urethane Reaction
Glyceryl-Tri-(12-Acetyl
Ricinoleate)
Refined Castor Oil
(F.S.G./B.S.S.) Acetylation
Dehydrated Castor Oil
(Commercial) Commercial Castor Oil Dehydration
Glycerin Spent Glycerin Lye
Treatment, Evaporation and
Distillation

Generic Chemical Reactions of Castor Oil for Manufacture of Various Grades & Derivatives

Reaction Type Nature of Reaction Added Reactants Type of Products
Ester Linkage Hydrolysis
Acid, enzyme or
Twitchell reagent
catalyst Fatty acids, glycerol
Esterification
Monohydric
alcohols Esters
Alcoholysis
Glycerol, glycols,
pentaerythritol, and
other compounds
Mono- and
diglycerides,
monoglycols, etc.
Saponification
Alkalies, alkalies
plus metallic salts
Soluble soaps,
insoluble soaps
Reduction Na reduction Alcohols
Amidation
Alkyl amines,
alkanolamines, and
other compounds Amine salts, amides
Double Bond
Oxidation,
polymerization
Heat, oxygen,
crosslink agent Polymerized oils
Hydrogenation
Hydrogen
(moderate
pressure) Hydroxystearates
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Epoxidation Hydrogen peroxide Epoxidized oils
Halogenation Cl
2
, Br
2
, I
2
Halogenated oils
Addition reactions S, maleic acid
Polymerized oils,
factice
Sulphonation H
2
SO
4
Sulphonated oils
Hydroxyl Group
Dehydration,
hydrolysis,
distillation Catalyst (plus heat)
Dehydrated castor
oil, octadecadienoic
acid
Caustic fusion NaOH
Sebacic acid, capryl
alcohol
Pyrolysis High heat
Undecylenic acid,
heptaldehyde
Halogenation PCl
5
, POCl
3

Halogenated castor
oils
Alkoxylation
Ethylene and/or
propylene oxide
Alkoxylated castor
oils
Esterification
Acetic-, phosphoric-
, maleic-, phthalic
anhydrides
Alkyl and alkylaryl
esters, phosphate
esters
Urethane reactions Isocyanates Urethane polymers
Sulphation H
2
SO
4

Sulphated castor oil
(Turkey red oil)

Details of Manufacture for Specific Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives

Industrial / Commercial Castor Oil

Industrial castor oil is obtained from a mixture of the first pressing and the second phase of
production - solvent extraction

First Special Grade Castor Oil

Castor oil FSG is produced by refining commercial grade castor oil using bleaching and
filtering processes.

Cold Pressed Castor Oil

Cold pressed castor oil is a virgin form of castor oil extracted in its natural form by pressing
ƚŚĞ ƐĞĞĚƐ ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚ ƵƐŝŶŐ ƐƚĞĂŵ ĐŽŽŬŝŶŐ͘ 1ŚŝƐ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ ŚĞůƉƐ ƉƌĞƐĞƌǀĞ ƚŚĞ Žŝů͛Ɛ ŚĞƌďĂů ĂŶĚ
healing properties. The cold pressed grade is considered a valuable laxative in the pharma
industry.

Pale Pressed Castor Oil

The Pale Pressed Grade of Castor Oil is obtained from the first pressing of the castor bean
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Pharma Grade Castor Oil

Pharmaceutical grade castor oil is produced from the first pressing of castor seed in which
the oil does not lose any medicinal qualities. Produced as per USP, JP, BP, EP, IP, DAB
pharmacopoeia, it is used as emollient for pharmaceutical creams and lotions.

Dehydrated Castor Oil

Castor oil has only one double bond in each fatty acid chain and so is classified as non-drying
oil. However, it can be dehydrated to give semi-drying or drying oil which is used extensively
in paints and varnishes.

Being a polyhydroxy compound, its hydroxyl functionality can be reduced through
dehydration or increased by inter-estirification with a polyhydric alcohol.

The dehydration process is carried out at about 250
o
C in the presence of catalysts (e.g.,
concentrated sulphuric acid, activated earth) and under an inert atmosphere or vacuum.
Under this condition of dehydration, the hydroxyl group and adjacent hydrogen atom from
the C-11 or C-13 position of the ricinoleic acid portion of the molecule is removed as water.
This yields a mixture of two acids, each containing two double bonds but in one case, they
are conjugated.

The presence of an acid containing conjugated double bonds results in an oil resembling
tung oil in some of its properties. Thus, castor oil, which is non-drying, can be treated and
converted into a semi-drying or drying oil known as dehydrated castor oil.

DCO Fatty Acid

DCO can be converted to dehydrated castor fatty acid by hydrolysis and distillation.
1ƌŝŐůLJĐĞƌŝĚĞƐ ŚĂǀĞ ϯ ĨĂƚƚLJ ĂĐŝĚƐ ĂƚƚĂĐŚĞĚ ƚŽ Ă ŐůLJĐĞƌŽů ďĂĐŬďŽŶĞ ƐŽ ŚLJĚƌŽůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ ͞ĐƌƵĚĞ͟
vegetable oil would break down the triglycerides into their constituent fatty acids. The fatty
acids are then distilled from the mixture.

Hydrogenated Castor Oil

Hydrogenated castor oil or castor wax is a hard, brittle wax. It is produced by addition of
hydrogen to castor oil (hydrogenation process) in the presence of a nickel catalyst. This is
done by bubbling hydrogen gas into the castor oil, during which the ricinoleic acid becomes
fully saturated to give a viscous waxy like substance with a melting point of 61-69
o
C.

High catalyst concentration is required for the good results. A temperature range of 125-
135
o
C and pressure range of 2-2.5 kg/cm is required for the saturation of double bond.

The object of the hydrogenation is not only to raise the melting point but also to improve
the keeping qualities, taste and odor. As the reaction itself is exothermic, the chief energy
requirements are in the production of hydrogen, warming of the oil, pumping and filtering.
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12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid

12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid is a waxy hydroxyl fatty acid. The source for the production of 12-
hydroxy stearic acid is castor oil which contains up to 85% ricinoleic acid in the form of
triglycerides. To produce 12-HSA, castor oil is subjected to hydrogenation, and as a result of
it, the ricinoleic acid gets saturated at the place of the double bond and transforms into 12-
hydroxyl stearic acid. This process is carried out at room temperature under a pressure of 40
psi with alcohol as a solvent.

In the hydrogenation process, the castor oil transforms into a solid mass, hydrogenated
castor oil (HCO). The HCO consists of saturated glycerides of 12 HSA (upto 80%), ricinoleic
(2-4%), stearic with traces of palmitic (10-15%), and oleic with traces of linoleic (1-4%) acids.

12 HSA is isolated from HCO by saponifying the latter with a 20-25% NaOH solution,
followed by decomposing the soaps obtained with hydrochloric acid.

Properties of hydrogenated castor oil and of 12 HSA isolated from it depend substantially on
the quality of castor oil, conditions of its hydrogenation, saponification of hydrogenated
castor oil, decomposition of soaps by hydrochloric acid, washing, drying and storage of
commercial 12 HSA.

Sulfonated Castor Oil

Sulfated castor oil, also known as turkey-red oil, represents one of the earliest chemical
derivatives of castor oil.

The traditional method of preparing turkey-red oil is to add concentrated sulfuric acid at a
controlled rate to castor oil over a period of several hours with constant cooling and
agitation of the reaction mass to maintain a temperature of 25-30
o
C. After acid addition is
complete, the reaction mass is washed then neutralized using an alkali solution or an amine.

Castor oil sulfation results largely in sulfuric acid esters in which the hydroxyl group of
ricinoleic acid has been esterified. However, the other reactions can also take place. For
example, the double bond can be attacked to produce an ester or the hydroxysulfonic acid.
Hydrolysis of the sulfuric acid esters occurs during the reaction and subsequent treatment
forming hydroxy acids and sulfuric acid. These hydroxyl acids can be further sulfated.

Commercially sulfated castor oil contains ca 8.0-8.5 wt % combined SO
3
, indicating that the
surfactant properties result from the sulfation of only one of the reactive points in the
unmodified triglyceride. The sulfate group acts as a hydrophile imparting excellent wetting,
emulsification, and dispersing characteristics to the oil. The anion-active product is used in
the textile industry for fiber wetting ability and as dye agent to obtain bright, clear colors.

Sulfonation of castor oil using anhydrous SO
3
yields a product having better hydrolytic
stability than that from the sulfuric acid reaction. The organically combined SO
3
is low
compared to the amount of SO
3
introduced to the reation: the final product contains only
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8.0-8.5 wt % combined SO
3
although 17 wt% SO
3
is added. The product contains less
inorganic salts and free fatty acids than the sulfuric acid product.

Blown Castor Oil

Blown or oxidized castor oil is prepared by blowing air or oxygen into it at temperatures of
80 ʹ 130
0
C, with or without catalyst to obtain oils of varying viscosity .The process is called
oxidative polymerization. This increases the viscosity and specific gravity of the oil.

Blown castor oil is the potential replacement for phthalates, and an important drying oil
used in surface coating, lubricants, adhesive for inks and lacquers. Blown castor oil is
available in the standard viscosity 5-10 poise, 20-25 poise, 30-35 poise, 45-55 poise, 90-110
poise.

Ricinoleic Acid

Ricinoleic acid (12- hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid) is an unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid
that naturally occurs in mature castor plant (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae). About
90% of content in castor oil is the triglyceride formed from ricinoleic acid. Ricinoleic acid is
obtained from castor oil through hydrolysis, usually carried out under basic conditions, by
treating it with NaOH.

Castor oil + NaOH Ricinoleic Acid + Glycerol
(hydrolysis)

Industrially, ricinoleic acid is manufactured by saponification or fractional distillation of
hydrolyzed castor oil. When this acid is pyrolyzed (heated in the absence of air), it breaks
down to give undecylenic acid and n-heptaldehyde.

Methyl 12-HSA

Methyl 12 HSA is formed by direct esterification of 12 HSA with methanol.

Esterification is the chemical process for making esters, which are compounds of the chemical
structure R-COOR', where R and R' are either alkyl or aryl groups. The most common method for
preparing esters is to heat a carboxylic acid, R-CO-OH, with an alcohol, R'-OH, while removing
the water that is formed. A mineral acid catalyst is usually needed to make the reaction occur at
a useful rate.

Sebacic Acid

Sebacic acid, a 10-carbon dicarboxylic acid, can be synthesized from phenols and cresols,
ďƵƚ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ŽdžŝĚĂƚŝŽŶ ŝƐ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚ Ă ͞ŐƌĞĞŶĞƌ͟ ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘

Sebacic acid is manufactured by heating castor oil to high temperatures (about 250
o
C) with
alkali. This treatment results in saponification of the castor oil to ricinoleic acid that is then
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cleaved to give capryl alcohol (2-octanol) and sebacic acid. Although the sebacic acid yields
are low, this route has been found to be cost competitive.

Ricinoleic Acid --> Alkali Fusion @ 250 deg C --> 2-Octanol CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CH(OH)CH
3
+ Sebacic
Acid COOH(CH
2
)
8
COOH+ H
2


The complete reaction is as follows:


























The process is based on the caustic oxidation of castor oil. The modern method, which also
claims higher yields, uses castor oil and molten caustic. The type of reaction used affects the
purity of the sebacic acid, and the modern conversion technology is reported to yield
sebacic acid with a higher purity.

Pyrolysis of ricinoleic acid results in heptaldehyde and undecenoic acid. Alkali fusion of this
mixture results in 10-hydroxydecanoic acid.

With 10-hydroxydecanoic acid, an increase to two moles of alkali/mole ricinoleate and at
temperatures of 250 to 275
o
C produces capryl alcohol (also called 2-Octanol - C
8
H
18
O) and
sebacic acid.

In the actual reaction, the castor oil and caustic are fed to a reactor at a temperature of 180
to 270
o
C where the ricinoleic acid undergoes a series of reactions with evolution of
hydrogen to give disodium sebacate and capryl alcohol.
Alkali Fusion @ 250 degrees C
Pyrolysis

Alkali Fusion @ 200 deg C
CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CH(OH)CH
2
CH:CH(CH
2
)
7
COOH
Ricinoleic Acid

CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CHO + CH
2
=CH(CH
2
)
8
COOH
Heptaldehyde Undecenoic Acid
CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
COCH
3
+ CH
2
(OH)(CH
2
)
8
COOH
2 Octanone 10-Hydroxydecanoic Acid

CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CH(OH)CH
3
) + COOH(CH
2
)
8
COOH + H
2


2-Octanol Sebacic Acid

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When the reaction is complete, the soaps are dissolved in water and acidified to a pH of
about 6. At this pH, the soaps are converted to free acids that are insoluble in water. The
disodium sebacate is then partialy neutralized to the half acid salt which is water soluble.
The oil and aqueous layers are separated. The aqueous layer containing the half salt is
acidulated to a pH of about 2, causing the resulting sebacic acid to precipitate from the
solution.

It is then filtered, water washed, and finaly dried.

A number of process improvements have been described, which include the use of white
mineral oil having a boiling range of 300 to 400
o
C or the use of a mixture of cresols. These
materials act to reduce the reaction mixture's viscosity, thus improving mixing. Higher
sebacic acid yields are claimed by the use of catalysts such as barium salts, cadmium salts,
lead oxide, and salts.

Production of Sebacic Acid from Adipic Acid

An electro oxidation process was developed by Asahi Chemical Industry in Japan and was
also piloted by BASF in Germany. It produces high purity sebacic acid from adipic acid.

The process consists of three steps:

1. Adipic acid is partially esterfied to the monomethyl adipate
2. Electrolysis of the potassium salt of monomethyl adipate in a mixture of methanol
and water gives dimethyl sebacate
3. The last step is the hydrolysis of dimethyl sebacate to sebacic acid

Overall yields are reported to be about 85% for this process.

Undecylenic Acid

The pyrolysis of castor oil at 700
o
C under reduced pressure has been used to obtain
heptaldeyde and undecylenic acid. (Pyrolysis is the chemical decomposition of organic
materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam.)
Heptaldehyde can be further hydrogenated to produce alcohol for use as a plasticizer.

Another method is via the hydrolysis of Methyl Undecylenate. Methyl Undecylenate is
hydrolysed to give Undecylenic Acid.

(CH
2
=CH (CH
2
)
8
COOCH
3
) Methyl Undecylenate Æ H
2
O Æ Undecylenic Acid (CH
2
=CH
(CH
2
)
8
COOH)

Methyl Ricinoleate

The crude castor oil is transesterified, in the presence of excess methanol and traces of
sodium methylate acting as a catalyst. The reaction takes place at 80
o
C in an agitated
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jacketed reactor. The reactor is fed continuously to maintain the methanol/ester molar ratio
at 3/1. At the end of the reaction, methyl ricinoleate and glycerol are formed and the
methyl ricinoleate is separated from glycerol phase by settling. The glycerol, which
represents 9% of weight of the oil treated, is recovered. The methyl ester is washed with
water to remove the last traces of glycerin.

Castor Oil Æ Methanolysis Æ Methyl Ricinoleate.

Methyl Undecylenate

Methyl ricinoleate is pyrolyzed at high temperature, yielding heptaldehyde, methyl
undecylenate and a small amount of fatty acids. Pure heptaldehyde and methyl
undecylenate are isolated by fractional distillation.

CH
3
-(CH
2
)5-CH (OH)-CH
2
-CH=CH-(CH
2
)7-COOCH
3
(Methyl Ricinoleate) Æ Heat Æ n-
Heptaldehyde (CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CHO) + Methyl Undecylenate (CH
2
=CH (CH
2
)
8
COOCH
3
)

2-Octanol

Caustic fusion of castor oil in the presence of NaOH results in sebacic acid and 2-Octanol
(also called Capryl alcohol)

CH
3
-(CH
2
)5-CH(OH)-CH
2
-CH=CH-(CH
2
)
7
-COOH (Ricinoleic Acid) + NaOH Æ133
o
C air Æ HOOC-
(CH
2
)
8
-COOH (Sebacic Acid) + CH
3
-(CH
2
)
5
-CH(OH)-CH
3
(2-Octanol)

Heptaldehyde, Heptanoic Acid & Heptyl Alcohol

Heptaldehyde & Heptanoic acid are produced by the pyrolysis of castor oil.

Castor Oil is pyrolyzed in the presence of 0.5% benzoyl peroxide. The operating parameters
are optimized to obtain high yields of heptaldehyde and undecylenic acid.

Ricinoleic Acid --> (pyrolysis) --> Heptaldehyde CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
CHO+ Undecylenic acid CH
2
=CH
(CH
2
)
8
COOH

Heptaldehyde is oxidized to form heptanoic acid in liquidphase, employing oxygen as
oxidizing agent.

Hydrogenation of heptaldehyde with nickel catalysts will yield heptyl alcohol. The optimum
conditions found for quantitative conversion of heptaldehyde to heptyl alcohol are
temperature - 100°C, nickel catalyst concentration - 2% based on heptaldehyde (w/w),
hydrogen pressure -145 psig and reaction time of about 1 hour.

Details for the Production of 10-Undecenoic Acid (Undecylenic Acid) and Heptaldehyde by
Pyrolysis

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For the production of 10-Undecenoic Acid and Heptaldehyde by pyrolysis of castor oil, batch
process is seldom used for the reaction. The starting material could be either castor oil,
riciloneic acid or its methyl ester.

In general, the reaction is carried out in a tubular reactor, empty or packed, at 450 to 600
o
C and 1 atm with the residence time of less than 1 min. gaseous reaction products
containing primarily 10-Undecenoic acid and Heptaldehyde are condensed. If castor oil is
used as the starting material, acrolein formed by the decomposition of glycerol part of the
triglyceride is evolved along with the other products. Acrolein is highly poisonous and
should be handled with the utmost care. Depending upon the recovery of acrolein, it is
probably desirable to use acids rather than the oil as the starting material. If this is done,
glycerin can also be removed.

Many workers have carried out the reaction at reduced pressure (40 to 100 mmHg) which
ƌĞĚƵĐĞƐ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂďůLJ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ͞ƐƉŽŶŐLJ ŵĂƐƐ͟ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ƌĞĂĐƚŽƌ ĚƵĞ ƚŽ ƚŚĞ
polymerization of the residual mass. This spongy mass, if formed, will clog the reactor.

Reactors of different material such as Fe, Cu, porcelain, and silica, have been used. It is
expected that these materials will catalyze the decomposition of the triglyceride.

Devaux and Sornet claimed higher yields of 10-Undecenoic Acid and Heptaldehyde by
heating castor oil at 300 to 320
o
C by means of dry or superheated steam or hot inert gas.

Some information is available regarding the effect of temperature and the reactor material
of construction/packing on the yields of 10-Undecenoic Acid and Heptaldehyde. Vernon and
Ross investigated the properties of the Pyrolysis products of castor oil as a function of
temperature. Most of the decomposition occurs in the temperature range of 400 to 500
o
C
from their experiment it is deducted that the glyceryl portion of the molecule is broken off
around 425
o
C, giving off acrolein.

1.2 Indicative Costs for Setting up Small and Medium Scale Castor Oil &
Derivatives Manufacturing Plants

The earlier section provided detailed inputs on equipments and processes required in the
manufacture of castor oil and derivatives. We provide brief inputs here on the cost of
setting up a castor oil and castor oil derivatives plant. Please note that these are indicative
costs based on experiences of setting up similar plants in India. All costs are based on inputs
provided in the year 2009.

Typical cost structures for castor oil plants are provided below. These are only indicative
numbers provided solely for completeness. A detailed costing of castor oil plant details is
beyond the scope of this report.

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Notes: TPD = Tons per Day, TCI is Total Capital Investment = Plant, Machinery & Factory Infrastructure +
Working Capital

Sources for data:

Internal databases of eSource India comprising past quotations and commercial data
Government of India and State Government of Gujarat Investment data

Assumptions & observations for the above cost table:

Starting products will be procured from the best prices from outside and need not be
prepared internally.
The reason behind TCI increasing disproportionately between 1 TPD and 10 TPD is owing
to the fact that a large part of work for a 1 TPD plant is done manually, which requires
less capital expenses. For higher production volumes, there are increased expenses on
machinery and automation that leads to a disproportionate increase in capital expenses
and hence TCI.
Capital Investment Costs include factory costs and cost of real estate


SUMMARY

Castor oil manufacturing is similar to that of other oil seeds and hence the oil can be
manufactured utilizing the existing equipments that are locally available. The castor
seeds contain about 48 to 50 percent oil by weight, and the extracted castor oil can
be further processed to derive a number of derivatives, currently used in numerous
industrial applications.



Name Capacity TCI Cost - US $ Mill
Castor Oil 1 TPD 0.05-0.06
Castor Oil 2 TPD 0.10
Castor Oil
Commercial 10 TPD 1.0
Castor Oil
Commercial 30 TPD 2.75
Hydrogenated
Castor Oil 10 TPD 0.7
Sebacic Acid from
Castor Oil 0.5 TPD 0.1
Dehydrated Castor
Oil 1 TPD 0.08
Castor Oil
Emulsifier 0.2 TPD 0.03
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2 - Castor Oil Market

This chapter comprises the following topics

Value Chain for the Castor Industry ʹ 2.1
The Castor Oil Market - 2.2
Supply & Demand of Castor Oil ʹ 2.3
o Castor Oil Supply Data ʹ 2.3.1
o Demand & Consumption of Castor Oil ʹ 2.3.2
Indian Castor Oil Industry ʹ 2.4
o Castor Oil Exports - Historical Scenario - 2.4.1
o Castor Oil Exports - Current Scenario ʹ 2.4.2
o Castor Seed Production & Acreage in India ʹ 2.4.3
o Indiawide Data from Castor Crop Survey 2007-08 ʹ 2.4.4
o Cropping Season in India ʹ 2.4.5
o Castor Cultivation & Yields in India ʹ Points ʹ 2.4.6
Demand-Supply Estimates for Castor Oil Derivatives 2.5
o Current Demand-supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives ʹ 2.5.1
o Future Demand-supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives ʹ 2.5.2


HIGHLIGHTS

Castor oil has a worldwide demand that is rising 3 to 5 % per annum.

The world production of castor oil crop is concentrated in a few countries. As a
result, there are only a few large exporters of castor oil fulfilling a significant portion
of world demand.

The world castor seed production is about 1.4 million tons per annum. India is a
major producer with about 70% share, followed by China and Brazil with about 20%
and 10 % respectively.

European Union imports over 1,00,000 tons of castor oil annually, and almost all its
imports are from India.

The total amount of castor oil production worldwide is relatively very low when
compared to other oilseeds.
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2.1 Value Chain for the Castor Industry

The following figure shows the value chain of the castor industry with different layers in the
market structure. The chart clearly indicates that the value chain involves many
intermediaries. These intermediaries prevent efficient price discovery and price
dissemination.

Value Chain for Castor Industry



2.2 The Castor Oil Market

The world production of castor oil crop is concentrated in the hands of few countries and
that is why there are just a few exporters of castor oil fulfilling a large level of demand of the
world.

The major exporters of castor oil are the leading producing countries of it namely India,
China and Brazil of which only India has been successfully meeting the domestic and the
world requirements. The country holds a share of 70% in the total exports. The other two
countries have experienced an increase in their domestic demand and hence are not
capable of exporting a high quantity of oil. In Nov 2009, the Nigerian government
Producer

Commission Agent

Commission Agent

Stockist
Private
Agency
Government
Agency
Processor
Oil
Wholesaler
Industrial
Users
Other
Consumers

Exporters
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announced that it was paying special attention to castor cultivation. It announced that the
Raw Materials Research and Development Council of Nigeria would collaborate with
farmers to boost castor production, while urging government to establish castor seed
plantation in the different states. Nigeria has a lot of castor seed which has great market
potential but the challenge is need of a factory to produce castor oil
1
.

Characteristics of Castor Seed and Oil Market

Castor Seed Production - The world castor seed production is over 1 million tons
per annum. India is major producer with about 70% share, followed by China and
Brazil with about 20% and 10 % respectively.
Minor Players - Some of the other countries that are minor players in the castor
oil market are: Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Pakistan, Philippines, Sudan,
Indonesia, Thailand & Russia
Increasing Demand - Castor oil has a demand worldwide that is constantly rising
at 3 to 5 % per annum.
American Imports - America imports over 90% of their consumption. Castor
plants have not been farmed on a commercial scale in the United States since the
early 1970s. (During the 1950s and 1960s, approximately 85,000 acres of castor
were grown annually in the United States. Since then domestic production
decreased and was abandoned in 1972).
Uncertain Supply - The world castor seed production has fluctuated between 1.2
and 1.5 million tons in the period of 2001 to 2007. India's production ranged
between 0.8 and 1.1 million tons during the same period.
Substitutes - Recent developments of artificial substitutes of castor oil in the
world market has subjected the demand to large fluctuations. As castor seed
production presents some problems (toxicity of the seed, allergic reactions),
Lesquerella species were proposed as a valuable source in the USA (up to 70% in
the oil) of ricinoleic acid and also of lesquerolic acid, the C20 homologue of
ricinoleic acid. It must be noted however that this species is still in the
preliminary stage of use.
Hoarding & Long Storing Period - It is a common practice for the castor seed
growers and crushers to hoard the commodity before selling in expectation for
better prices
Spot Market ʹ There is a well-developed and organized spot market in India
Volatile Prices in the Indian Castor Oil Market ʹ Castor seed and castor oil prices
are highly volatile with wide price fluctuations, and the uncertain market
conditions discourage buyers from making long-term commitments. Indian prices
are not only unsteady, but there is also no way overseas buyers can take a view
of the market beyond the short-term. There is excessive speculation rampant in
the futures market which finds a ready reflection in the spot market. Unless
buyers are assured of steady and foreseeable prices, the dependence on India as
a source of castor oil supply could be diluted over time, according to some
experts.

1
http://234next.com/csp/cms/sites/Next/Money/Business/5481131-147/story.csp
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Brazil and China - traditional producers of castor seed and the only competitors
to India - the two countries have started to show signs of expanding their
production base. Brazil has a National Biodiesel Strategy which proposes castor
as one of the feedstocks for biodiesel production. Planting of Mamona (castor
bean plant) is being promoted especially in the northeast and the country has
launched a biodiesel blending obligation program which proposes 2% by 2007
(800 M l/y), 5% by 2013 (2 B l/y), and goal of 20% by 2020 (12 B l/y). A total of 23
companies were chosen by auction as biodiesel suppliers. Analyzing the raw
materials used by the companies, castor oil is used by 8 companies.
European Market Consumers - Servicing the fastidious European market - mainly
coating industry - is not easy. Most buyers were highly demanding in terms of
very specific, tailor-made quality and delivery schedule including the time at
which the lorry must enter the factory premises and unload goods. This is not
easy for Indian castor oil suppliers.
lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ lĂĐŬ ŽĨ cĂƐƚŽƌ Oŝů k Θu - There is a distinct lack of investment in research
and development of castor oil in India. Experts feel that much of research and
development work for newer application of castor oil is mainly taking place in
Europe and elsewhere.
Major Castor Growing Countries in the Future ʹ While it is currently just three
countries ʹ India, Brazil & China ʹ that are the top producers of castor seeds and
oil, there are a few countries that could become significant players in future.
These include Ethiopia, Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.
Because of widely fluctuating world supplies and the structure of the world
market, prices for castor oil vary considerably. This affects cash flow, makes
corporate planning difficult, and discourages investment in new products for
many companies. These factors have encouraged many companies to start
finding substitutes for castor oil. For instance, in the USA, commercial production
of transgenic canola containing 15% ricinoleic acid has been explored.

Market Influencing Factors in Castor Trade
Variations in castor seed domestic acreage, based on yield and price realization
Indian, Chinese and Brazilian crop sizes
Crop development based on monsoon progress in key growing regions
Domestic demand for castor oil from Indian companies
Comparative prices with other vegetable oils in the domestic market

2.3 Supply & Demand of Castor Oil

Castor Oil Production (ŝŶ ͚000 T)

Countries
Jan-Dec
2009
Jan-Dec
2008
Jan-Dec
2007
Jan-Dec
2006
Jan-Dec
2005
Russia 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
Ethiopia 2.3 2.4 2.0 1.5 1.5
Brazil 42.5 52.3 43.3 48.7 70.2
China,PR 81.4 83.1 81.5 90.2 101.7
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India 375.8 413.0 367.6 351.2 335.2
Thailand 5.4 5.7 5.6 5 4.5
Oth countries 24.4 23.8 22.5 21.9 21.2
Total 531.8 580.3 522.6 518.5 534.3
Source ʹ CastorOil.in and derived from data obtained from sources such as Oilworld - www.oilworld.biz

Observations from the Above Table

Major countries producing castor oil are India, China, and Brazil.
There is a significant difference in castor oil production among countries: India is by far
the largest producer of castor oil, contributing over 70% of the total production in 2009.
China and Brazil together contribute 23% of the total world production in castor oil
during 2009.

Castor Oil Imports (͚000 T)

Countries
Jan-Dec
2009
Jan-Dec
2008
Jan-Dec
2007
Jan-Dec
2006
Jan-Dec
2005
Belgium-Lux 0.9 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.3
Bulgaria 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3
Czech Republ

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2
Denmark

0.4 0.9 0.3 0.5
Finland 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.6 .
France 17.8 85.3 48.9 43.9 66.3
Germany 33.6 34.3 32.6 27.4 22.8
Ireland

0.1
Italy 1 0.6 1.3 3.6 6.5
Netherlands 24.6 15.3 19.3 14.8 15.3
Poland 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1
Portugal 0.1 0.1 . . .
Slovenia . 0.1 . . .
Spain 2.4 2.5 3.5 3 3.3
Sweden 0.7 . 0.3 - .
U.K. 5.2 3.5 5 5.5 4.6
EU-27 87.2 143.5 113.3 100.4 120.2
Norway 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Switzerland 4 5.6 5.6 5.8 4.2
Croatia 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Serbia/Monten 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1
Other Europe 4.3 6 5.9 6.2 4.5
Russia 1.8 2.4 2.2 2.2 3
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Ukraine 0.6 0.7 1 0.7 1.2
C.I.S 2.4 3.1 3.2 2.9 4.2
S.Africa,Rep 2.1 2.4 2.8 2.2 1.9
Canada 5.5 4.6 2.9 3.3 2.2
U.S.A 32.1 48.8 44.3 45.9 41.8
Mexico 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.3
Brazil 8.8 6.8 3.7 . .
China,PR 124.2 73.4 70.4 79.5 53.6
Japan 13 19.4 19 17.6 26
Korea,South 4.4 5.8 4.6 3.9 4.5
Taiwan 2.1 2.8 3.7 2.9 2.9
Thailand 12 16.8 10.6 11.4 15
Turkey 2.1 4.8 2.7 2.1 1.9
Oth countries 10 8.7 9.9 8.7 8.5
Total 312.3 348.8 298.8 288.8 288.5
Source ʹ CastorOil.in and derived from data obtained from sources such as Oilworld - www.oilworld.biz

Observations from the Above Table

Of the countries listed above, China was found to be the largest importer of castor oil.
China imports about 40% of the total imports, followed by Europe (28%)

Castor Oil Exports (͚000 T)

Countries
Jan-
Dec
2009
Jan-
Dec
2008
Jan-
Dec
2007
Jan-
Dec
2006
Jan-
Dec
2005
Belgium-Lux 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3
France 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Germany 0.9 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.3
Netherlands 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.5
Spain 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1
U.K. 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1
EU-27 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.2 1.6
U.S.A 6.7 6.8 3.9 4 2.5
Brazil 0.9 0.2 0.7 4.2 11.8
India 280 315.5 270 255 245
Oth countries 20.9 22.7 20.7 23.2 26.2
Total 312.3 348.8 298.8 288.8 288.5
Source ʹ CastorOil.in and derived from data obtained from sources such as Oilworld - www.oilworld.biz

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Observations from the Above Table

India is by far the largest castor oil exporter worldwide and it exports 70-75 percent
of its total production.
Compared to 2008, exports from India decreased by more than 10 percent in 2009.

Summary of Production, Imports and Exports from Prominent Countries/Regions
ϮϬϬϵ ĚĂƚĂ ;ŝŶ ͚000 Tons)

Country Production

India 375.8
China 81.4
Brazil 42.5
Total 499.7
Country Imports
China 124.2
Europe (27) 87.2
USA 32.1
Japan 13
Thailand 12
Total 268.5
Country Exports
India 280
USA 6.7
EU (27) 1.9
Brazil 0.9
Total 289.5
Source ʹ CastorOil.in and derived from data obtained from sources such as Oilworld - www.oilworld.biz

Castor seed - World Area, Production and Productivity

Countr
y
Harvest
Season
Production ('000 T) Yield (T/ha) Harvest Area ('000/ha)
09-
10(F)
2008-
09 2007-08
09-
10(F)
2008-
09
2007-
08
09-10
(F)
2008-
09
2007-
08
Brazil
Jun-
Sept 92 123 94 0.58 0.76 0.6 158 163 156
China
PR
Sep ʹ
Jan 190 190 170 0.9 0.86 0.81 210 220 210
India
Nov ʹ
Mar 880 975 990 1.06 1.08 1.15 830 900 860
Other
Countri
es 115 117 112 0.62 0.63 0.61 185 186 183
Total 1277 1405 1366 0.92 0.96 0.97 1383 1469 1409
Source: ISTA Mielke, Oil World, Germany, F- Forecast
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The US Supply Scenario

Caschem and Arizona Chemical Company were the major producers of castor oil derivatives
in the US. Caschem produced almost all castor oil derivatives except for undecyclenic acid
where Arkema (earlier Atofina) is the lone producer. Arkema produces undecyclenic acids
and heptaldehyde mostly for pharmaceutical and cosmetic niche applications. Undecyclenic
acid is also used in the manufacture of fuel, air and brake tubing. Arizona's castor derivative
product lines included methyl-12-hydroxystearate, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, hydrogenated
castor oil, specialty ricinoleate esters, specialty dimer acids, sebacic acid and capryl alcohol.

The US sebacic acid industry changed significantly with the exit of the two players (in 2003)
and the entrance of a newcomer. Both the companies opted to leave the market under
pressure from low-priced sebacic acid imports from China and high production costs.
Arizona Chemical permanently shuttered its Dover, Ohio, sebacic acid facility. The
manufacturing of hydrogenated castor oil derivatives for the lubricating grease and coatings
industries were not affected.

CasChem, a subsidiary of Cambrex Corp., also emptied its sebacic acid inventories and
mothballed its highly automated sebacic acid plant in Bayonne, N.J. The company began
producing sebacic acid in early 2000 using proprietary processing technology. Like Arizona
Chemical, Cas-Chem considers the domestic market unprofitable because of pressure from
cheaper Chinese imports. However, Cas-Chem will continue to produce sebacate esters,
which is said to be more profitable and where the market tends to focus more on.

Undaunted by the competitive pressures of Chinese imports and the currently flat market
situation, Genesis Chemicals Inc. has entered the US sebacic acid market. A privately held
company, Genesis started full-scale production of sebacic acid at the end of 2002 at its new
plant in Loveland, Ohio. The company has a full-scale manufacturing facility for castor oil
derivative production through a joint venture in China. Genesis Chemi-cals' Chinese venture
also grows its own castor crops in Northern China for captive use.

Meanwhile, even though there are only few major producers of castor oil derivatives in the
US, supply is adequately maintained as there are quite a few brokers who outsource from
several offshore suppliers.

Castor crop has not been grown on a large-scale in the United States since the early 1970s.
During the 1950s and 1960s, approximately 85,000 acres of castor were grown annually in
the United States. Since then domestic production decreased and was abandoned in 1972.
Source: USDA.

To restart domestic production, it is felt that industries in the United States and
administration need to focus on the following:

Sufficient number of special built harvesters to harvest the seed from plants after a
killing frost.
Contractual agreements by the processor to market castor oil over a period of years.
Detoxification and deallergenation of castor meal to allow use in livestock feeds.
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Development of improved hybrids to increase yield and oil percentage of castor
seed.
Development of breeding lines with improved disease and insect resistance, drought
tolerance, and shatter resistance.
Mutagenesis and genetic research to eliminate ricin, the toxic seed protein.
Acquisition and preservation of germplasm useful to a breeding program.

Castor Oil Production from Minor Producing Countries

The following data for 2009 provides an idea of the quantum of supplies from countries that
are only minor suppliers of castor oil:

Country Production in Jan ʹ Dec 2009
(1000T)
% of world supply
Ethiopia 2.3 0.43
Russia 1.0 0.18
Thailand 5.4 1.01
Others 24.4 4.58
Source ʹ CastorOil.in and data derived from sources such as Oilworld - www.oilworld.biz

2.4 Indian Castor Oil Industry

India is the largest producer of castor seed and oil. It contributes about 1 million tons of
castor seed with and over 4,00,000 tons of castor oil to the world total production. The
annual domestic consumption of castor oil in India is only about 80,000-1, 00,000 tons. Of
this, the soap industry consumes about 25,000 tons, the paint and allied industries 35,000
tons and the lubricant and derivatives industry 20,000 tons. In terms of % split between
castor oil and derivatives, about 40% of castor oil consumption in India is in the form of
derivatives and 60% for the various castor oil grades. About 85% of total castor oil
consumed in India is sold in bulk, the rest (about 15%) in retail.

2.4.1 Castor Oil Exports - Historical Scenario

Castor crop plays an important role in the agricultural economy of the earning substantial
foreign exchange through export of castor beanƐ ĂŶĚ ŽŝůƐ͘ A ƐŝŐŶŝĨŝĐĂŶƚ ƉĂƌƚ ŽĨ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ
oil production (over 70 per cent) is exported. The country annually exports about 300
thousand tons of castor oil thereby earning foreign exchange worth US$ 170 ʹ 200 million.
India is the first country in the world to exploit hybrid varieties on a commercial scale in this
crop. Major markets include Europe, USA, Japan and now China and Thailand.

Region-wise Export Statistics of Castor Oil (including derivatives, US$ Millions)

Region 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07
East Asia 53.7 41.1 28.8 85.8 70.8 90.6
South Asia 1.2 0.5 1.0 0.7 1.4 0.9
West Asia 1.7 2.0 2.6 2.6 3.8 4.9
Africa 2.3 1.6 2.1 2.8 3.3 4.4
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East Europe 13.6 13.7 7.0 3.3 3.4 3.1
West Europe 110.1 65.1 57.7 113.5 88.9 102.4
North America 39.4 18.4 14.4 30.4 36.5 33.6
Latin America 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.8
Total 221.6 145.1 120.9 239.5 208.9 240.9
Source: Pharmexcil India
Note: Values derived based on US$/Re exchange rates at respective years.

Castor Oil and its Fractions Exports

S.No. Country Values in Rs. Lacs Quntity in thousands

2008-2009 2009-2010 %Growth 2008-2009 2009-2010 %Growth
1 AFGHANISTAN
TIS
36.57 54
2 ARGENTINA 39.97 137.62 244.3 65 216 232.31
3 AUSTRALIA 858.12 637.04 -25.76 1,276.42 982.27 -23.04
4 BAHARAIN IS 5.88 22.83 288.37 6 38 533.33
5 BANGLADESH
PR
3.23 17.31 436.66 3 24.65 721.67
6 BELGIUM 509.31 1,651.20 224.21 808.01 2,813.44 248.19
7 BRAZIL 1,524.27 4,188.98 174.82 2,659.12 8,037.13 202.25
8 BULGARIA 9.17 8.75 -4.61 10 10 0
9 CANADA 83.95 9.86 -88.26 131.14 15.43 -88.23
10 CHILE 24.29 26.16 7.71 35 34.27 -2.07
11 CHINA P RP 45,908.00 79,627.04 73.45 82,241.39 1,47,430.05 79.27
12 COLOMBIA 36.14 79.22 119.22 54 122 125.93
13 CONGO P REP 1.83 2.12 15.53 3.33 3.6 8.01
14 COTE D' IVOIRE 0.13 0.31 132.02 0.3 0.95 216.67
15 DENMARK 169.28 12.19 -92.8 249 20 -91.97
16 EGYPT A RP 177.45 297.55 67.69 255 493.16 93.4
17 EQUTL GUINEA 0.04 0.06
18 FIJI IS 0.9 1
19 FINLAND 270.52 248.97 -7.97 457 476 4.16
20 FRANCE 45,033.10 22,087.66 -50.95 76,865.00 41,868.70 -45.53
21 GERMANY 2,991.16 1,370.59 -54.18 4,641.23 2,196.69 -52.67
22 GHANA 0.02 9.18 59,896.08 0.19 15.2 7,987.23
23 GREECE 46.47 64
24 GUATEMALA 3.24 2.1 -35.28 7.8 3.51 -54.97
25 GUYANA 0.64 1
26 HONG KONG 108.85 78.04 -28.31 167.4 125.04 -25.31
27 INDONESIA 251.89 15.48 -93.85 348.02 24.08 -93.08
28 IRAN 643.13 349.64 -45.63 928.8 550.32 -40.75
29 IRAQ 152.3 261.01 71.38 229 412.6 80.17
30 ISRAEL 155.02 124.68 -19.57 197 168.6 -14.41
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31 ITALY 811.01 694.67 -14.34 1,145.80 931.31 -18.72
32 JAPAN 9,763.09 6,004.31 -38.5 16,395.81 10,679.92 -34.86
33 JORDAN 79.51 34.29 -56.88 105 48 -54.29
34 KENYA 187.59 24.44 -86.97 277.6 36.17 -86.97
35 KOREA RP 3,621.03 2,583.76 -28.65 8,320.59 4,347.94 -47.74
36 KUWAIT 139.19 83.75 -39.83 182.2 139.94 -23.19
37 LATVIA 136.62 113.61 -16.84 198 169 -14.65
38 LEBANON 44.42 23.77 -46.48 64 34 -46.88
39 LIBERIA 1.11 1.53 37.63 2.4 3.89 61.99
40 LITHUANIA 53.7 36.72 -31.62 85 65 -23.53
41 MALAYSIA 449.85 895.95 99.17 677.08 964.94 42.51
42 MALDIVES 0.14 0.14
43 MAURITIUS 9.36 1.55 -83.44 23.65 3.16 -86.64
44 MEXICO 224.68 649.6 189.13 338.9 1,068.33 215.23
45 MOROCCO 13.73 38.04 177.12 18 56.34 212.99
46 MOZAMBIQUE 12.35 15.73 27.3 18 22.31 23.96
47 NEPAL 31.92 29.28 -8.27 66.75 66.66 -0.13
48 NETHERLAND 36,283.48 33,881.18 -6.62 61,772.22 65,273.80 5.67
49 NEW ZEALAND 16.36 13.02 -20.38 19.15 15.98 -16.58
50 NIGERIA 78.15 30.1 -61.48 128.79 53.6 -58.38
51 NORWAY 11.26 16
52 PANAMA
REPUBLIC
0.1 0.2
53 PERU 48.07 13.59 -71.74 65.09 18 -72.35
54 PHILIPPINES 94.34 30.87 -67.27 144 51 -64.58
55 POLAND 86.23 27.29 -68.35 129 50.09 -61.17
56 QATAR 13.44 17
57 REUNION 1.65 1.22 -25.89 2.69 2.66 -1.04
58 RUSSIA 1,766.29 1,098.33 -37.82 2,535.00 1,777.67 -29.87
59 SAUDI ARAB 349.41 278.18 -20.38 495.83 425.67 -14.15
60 SENEGAL 0.36 1
61 SINGAPORE 297.57 377.12 26.73 410 578.29 41.05
62 SLOVENIA 42.88 66
63 SOUTH AFRICA 1,659.30 1,038.89 -37.39 2,543.43 1,689.26 -33.58
64 SPAIN 989.37 289.73 -70.72 1,693.00 591.7 -65.05
65 SRI LANKA DSR 78.69 90.56 15.08 121.67 192.82 58.47
66 SWEDEN 0.14 378.18 278176.53 0.1 764 763899.99
67 SWITZERLAND 31.99 57
68 SYRIA 146.21 310.82 112.59 225.09 520.5 131.24
69 TAIWAN 1,265.03 1,130.25 -10.65 1,952.40 1,859.35 -4.77
70 TANZANIA REP 0.03 17.24 64,714.29 0.05 27.2 54,296.00
71 THAILAND 8,182.90 8,334.34 1.85 13,018.32 15,592.00 19.77
72 TRINIDAD 5.61 2.52 -55.08 18.58 3 -83.85
73 TUNISIA 1.61 2
74 TURKEY 1,802.49 1,435.07 -20.38 2,787.79 2,463.10 -11.65
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75 U ARAB EMTS 1,020.79 581.37 -43.05 1,471.10 953.49 -35.19
76 U K 3,181.60 3,121.34 -1.89 5,215.14 5,631.41 7.98
77 U S A 21,473.59 22,177.55 3.28 36,159.06 42,224.54 16.77
78 UGANDA 0.6 1.01
79 UKRAINE 515 277.92 -46.03 771 442.5 -42.61
80 UNSPECIFIED 53.06 1,186.54 2,136.16 84.04 2,330.30 2,672.97
81 UZBEKISTAN 3.32 2
82 VENEZUELA 12.58 12.11 -3.74 16 18 12.5
83 VIETNAM SOC
REP
45.41 75.34 65.93 69 128.1 85.65
84 YEMEN
REPUBLC
0.94 1.38 46.56 2.89 2.2 -24.01
85 ZAMBIA 4.54 9.89
Total 1,94,165.03 1,98,732.03 2.35
Source: Ministry of Commerce, India
Note: For India Export of Castor Derivatives, refer Appendix 2

2.4.2 Castor Oil Exports ʹ Current Scenario

Indian Export of Castor Oil (Excluding Derivatives)

Year Volume (MT) Value (Rs Crore ) Value per T (Rs / T)

1998-99 193,913 595.98 30734
99-00 234,824 897.56 38223
00-01 227,033 806.07 35505
01-02 204,877 556.22 27149
02-03 163,862 520.85 31786
03-04 161,619 603.27 37327
04-05 208,176 788.56 37879
05-06 182,159 627.43 34444
06-07 195,610 653.05 34995
07-08 176,177 757.29 42985
08-09* 308,625 1821.57 59022
Notes:
(1) 1 $US= Rs 45 approx. in Mar 2010. There have been significant fluctuations in the US$/INR rate during
this period; * - including bulk and container
(2) Please note that all the above data are for exports that do not include the castor oil derivatives, but
only the main grades of castor oil.

Castor Oil Current Data - Countries Exported to by India

Countries that currently import castor oil from India are

European Union
USA
Japan
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Thailand
China

Castor Oil Export Percentages to Various Regions from India (2006-2007) (excluding
derivatives)

Region % Exports Volume of Exports (MT)
W Europe 45 87750
E Asia 25 48750
N America 20 39000
E Europe 5 9750
Africa 3 5850
Latin America 2 3900

Break-ƵƉ ŽĨ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĂŶĚ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĚĞƌŝǀĂƚŝǀĞƐ ŝŶ IŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ

An approximate estimate is provided below for the break-up of castor oil & castor oil
derivatives exports. This % has been ĚĞƌŝǀĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ƐƚĂƚŝƐƚŝĐƐ ŽŶ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĞdžƉŽƌts over the last 5
years.
Castor oil grades: 80%
Castor oil derivatives: 20%

2.4.3 Castor Seed Production and Acreage in India

Castor Growing Areas in India & its Production

Castor grows under tropical conditions. It needs heat and humidity and does best in regions
where both are ample. India, gifted with an ideal climatic condition, has recorded the largest
produce of castor seed in the last few decades.

The states in India that are the major producers of castor are

Gujarat
Andhra Pradesh
Rajasthan
Karnataka
Orissa
Tamil Nadu
Maharashtra

The Indian state of Gujarat produces over 65% of the total castor seeds in India followed by
Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan which contribute about equal share. In Gujarat, Castor
cultivation comprise 6 districts of North Gujarat, viz., Mehsana, Banaskantha, Sabarkantha,
Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad and Kutch, with the first two being the two most important.

Andhra Pradesh relies on the districts of Nalgonda, Mehboobnagar, Prakasam, Guntur and
Ranga Reddy for the production of castor seeds.
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State % Share of Production of Castor Oil in India (2006 ʹ 07, estimate)

State % Share of Production
Gujarat 66
Rajasthan 14
Andhra Pradesh 12.5
Karnataka 3.2
Tamilnadu 1.4
Maharashtra 1.6

Major Trading Centers of Castor in India

The major trading centers of castor and its derivatives in India are:
Rajkot (Gujarat)
Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
Gondal (Gujarat)
Gadwal (Gujarat)
Bhabar (Gujarat)
Disa (Gujarat)
Kadi (Gujarat)
Jedcherla (Andhra Pradesh)
Yemignoor (Andhra Pradesh)

Castor Seed Acreage and Production in India

Year Area ('000 ha) Production ('000 tonnes) Yield (kg/ha)
1985-86 637 308 480
1990-91 810 716 880
1995-96 880 930 1060
1996-97 776 770 990
1997-98 810 800 990
1998-99 835 840 1070
1999-00 782 765 979
2000-01 1080 883 818
2001-02 716 652 911
2002-03 583 428 733
2003-04 712 796 1111
2004-05 743 793 1068
2005-06 864 990 1146
2006-07 628 762 1213
2007-08 786 1053 1339
2008-09
840 1114 1326
Source: Ministry of Agriculture, GOI

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2.4.4 India-wide Data from Castor Crop Survey 2009-10

CŽŶĚƵĐƚĞĚ ďLJ͗ 1ŚĞ SŽůǀĞŶƚ LdžƚƌĂĐƚŽƌƐ͛ AƐƐŽĐŝĂƚŝŽŶ ŽĨ IŶĚŝĂ Θ A͘C͘NŝĞůƐĞŶ

Gujarat

Total area under Castor crop in Gujarat for the year 2009-10 is 4.37 lakh hectares. It has
decreased by 3% as compared to previous year. Area under Castor crop has increased in
all the major castor growing districts except Ahmedabad, Patan, Rajkot, Surendranagar
and Vadodara.

Estimated total production of Castor Seeds in Gujarat for the year 2009-10 is 7.34 lakh
tonnes, it has increased by merely 1% as compared to previous year. However this
growth is mainly in the districts such as Vadodara (28%), Ahmedabad (24%), Rajkot
(19%), Patan (16%) districts and Sabarkantha (8%).

Average yield for the year 2009-10 is 1679 kg/hectare as against 1608 kg/hectare during
the year 2008-09.

Districtʹwise Area, Yield and Production of Castor Seeds in Gujarat (2009-10)




District
Estimated Area Under
Crop * ('000 ha.)

Estimated Production * ( '000
tonnes)

Estimated Yield * (Kg/ha.)
2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change
Ahmedabad 12.00 14.26 19% 19.89 24.60 24% 1657 1725 4%
Banaskantha 102.41 97.93 -4% 180.72 178.24 -1% 1765 1820 3%
Bharuch 7.20 6.81 -5% 11.14 9.60 -14% 1547 1409 -9%
Gandhinagar 30.40 29.24 -4% 53.62 55.25 3% 1764 1890 7%
Jamnagar 12.36 10.36 -16% 21.60 17.77 -18% 1748 1716 -2%
Kachchh 67.88 52.21 -23% 73.18 61.19 -16% 1078 1172 9%
Kheda 13.10 10.83 -17% 20.36 17.04 -16% 1554 1574 1%
Mahesana 53.37 52.09 -2% 93.29 98.22 5% 1748 1886 8%
Panchmahal 2.35 1.95 -17% 3.51 2.76 -21% 1494 1414 -5%
Patan 37.50 41.22 10% 62.92 72.77 16% 1678 1765 5%
Rajkot 12.81 15.20 19% 19.80 23.59 19% 1546 1552 --
Sabarkantha 54.81 54.33 -1% 94.98 102.35 8% 1733 1884 9%
Surendranagar 29.11 34.87 20% 46.62 43.07 -8% 1602 1235 -23%
Vadodara 11.00 11.42 4% 15.69 20.02 28% 1426 1754 23%
Others 4.80 4.65 -3% 7.84 7.81 -- 1597 1679 5%
Total 451.10 437.37 -3% 725.16 734.28 1% 1608 1679 4%
* Nielsen India estimates
Source: http://www.seaofindia.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-10.pdf

Rainfall - This year, Castor producing districts of Gujarat state have received 478 mm, which
is 31% lower than average rainfall in these districts. About 56% farmers perceived that the
rainfall during sowing period was favourable this year.
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Rajasthan
Total area under Castor crop in Rajasthan for the year 2009-10 is 1.18 lakh hectares.
It has decreased by 7% as compared to previous year. This year, area under Castor
crop has mainly decreased in Hanumangarh (43%) and other major district is Sirohi
(4%). Where as the area under crop is increased in Pali district by 10%.

Estimated total production of Castor Seeds in Rajasthan for the year 2009-10 is 1.26
lakh tonnes. It has decreased by 8% as compared to previous year. Production in
Hanumangarh and Sirohi district has decreased by 66% and 18% respectively as
compared to previous year. As against this, the production in Pali, Jodhpur, Barmer
and Jalore districts has increased this year.

Average yield for the year 2009-10 is 1065 kg/hectare, which is 1% lower than
previous year. Yield has mainly decreased in Hanumangarh and Sirohi districts. Last
year also yield was lower than the average yield of Rajasthan

Districtʹwise Area, Yield and Production of Castor Seeds in Rajasthan (2009-10)




District
Estimated Area Under
Crop * ('000 ha.)

Estimated Production * ( '000
tonnes)

Estimated Yield * (Kg/ha.)
2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change
Barmer 6.01 5.98 -1% 6.33 6.60 4% 1053 1104 5%
Hanumangarh 17.93 10.18 -43% 13.60 6.07 -66% 758 597 -21%
Jalore 49.11 48.85 -1% 56.81 58.13 2% 1157 1190 3%
Jodhpur 15.84 15.94 1% 16.83 17.67 5% 1062 1108 4%
Pali 3.58 3.92 10% 3.66 4.12 13% 1021 1052 3%
Sirohi 27.93 26.94 -4% 32.40 26.48 -18% 1160 983 -15%
Others 7.27 6.65 -7% 7.80 7.08 -9% 1076 1065 -1%
Total 127.67 118.46 -7% 137.41 126.16 -8% 1076 1065 -1%
* Nielsen India estimates
Source: http://www.seaofindia.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-10.pdf

Rainfall - This year, Castor Seeds producing districts of Rajasthan state have received 214
mm average rainfall, which is 43% less than average rainfall in these districts. Almost all
farmers opined that rainfall during sowing and post sowing was inadequate this year.

Andhra Pradesh

Total area under Castor crop in Andhra Pradesh for the year 2009-10 is 1.35 lakh
hectares. It has decreased by 30% as compared to previous year. Area under Castor
crop has decreased in all other districts of Andhra Pradesh this year except Kurnool.
Similar trend has observed in last year also. Since last 2-3 years, area under Castor
crop in Andhra Pradesh is continuously decreasing.

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Estimated total production of Castor Seeds in Andhra Pradesh for the year 2009-10 is
0.44 lakh tonnes. It has decreased by 38% as compared to previous year due to
decrease in area and yield.

Average yield for the year 2009-10 is 325 kg/hectare, which is 12% lower than the
previous year.

Districtʹwise Area, Yield and Production of Castor Seeds in Andhra Pradesh (2009-10)




District
Estimated Area Under
Crop * ('000 ha.)
Estimated Production
*
( '000 tonnes)

Estimated Yield * (Kg/ha.)
2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change 2008-
09
2009-
10
% Change
Kurnool 14.85 18.53 25% 6.59 6.17 -6% 444 333 -25%
Mahbubnagar 118.29 79.25 -33% 41.20 24.55 -40% 348 310 -11%
Nalgonda 33.05 18.36 -44% 13.53 6.83 -49% 409 372 -9%
Rangareddy 5.34 4.24 -21% 1.94 1.56 -20% 363 367 1%
Other
Districts

20.16

14.15

-30%

7.44

4.61

-38%

369

326

-12%
Total 191.70 134.53 -30% 70.70 43.72 -38% 369 325 -12%
* Nielsen India estimates
Source: http://www.seaofindia.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-10.pdf

Rainfall - This year, all the Castor Seeds producing districts of Andhra Pradesh state have
received 460 mm average rainfall, which is 10% lower than average rainfall in these districts.
Except Nalgonda district, all other districts have received Normal rainfall this year. Heavy
rainfall during last week of Sept and 1st week of October washed out crop at many places,
mainly in Kurnool and Mahboobnagar districts.

All India

Total area under Castor crop in India for the year 2009-10 is 7.40 lakh hectares. It
has decreased by 10% as compared to previous year.

Estimated total production of Castor Seeds in India for the year 2009-10 is 9.34 lakh
tonnes. It has decreased by 4% as compared to previous year.

Average yield for the year 2009-10 is 1261 kg/hectare as against 1180 kg/hectare
during the year 2008-09. It has increased by 7% as compared to previous year.

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Stateʹwise Area, Yield and Production of Castor Seeds in India (2009-10)





District
Estimated Area Under
Crop * ('000
ha.)
Estimated Production
*
( '000 tonnes)

Estimated Yield *
(Kg/ha.)
2008-
09
2009-
10
%
Change
2008-
09
2009-
10
%
Change
2008-
09
2009-
10
%
Change
Gujarat 451 437 -3% 725 734 1% 1608 1679 4%
Rajasthan 127 118 -7% 137 126 -8% 1076 1065 -1%
Andhra
Pradesh

192

135

-30%

71

44

-38%

369

325

-12%
Other
States #

56

50

-11%

43

30

-30%

760

600

-21%
Total 826 740 -10% 976 934 -4% 1180 1261 7%
* Nielsen India estimates; # Secondary source
Source: http://www.seaofindia.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-10.pdf

2.4.5 Cropping Season in India

Castor is planted during July or August and harvested around December or January. The
seedpods are dried, de-podded and brought to the market yards during January for trading.

2.4.6 Castor Cultivation & Yields in India - Points

Despite phenomenal increase witnessed in the production and productivity of castor
over the last ten years, there still exist wide regional disparities in the per hectare
yields of castor.
With the exception of Gujarat, where the per hectare yields (1630 kg/ha) have
registered three fold increase since 1970, the general productivity levels of castor in
all other parts are around 500 kg/ha. A multitude of factors such as its cultivation in
sub-marginal and marginal lands under rainfed conditions with practically little or no
inputs, use of poor quality seed and inefficient crop management are responsible for
such dismal yield.
The area under castor in Andhra Pradesh has gradually declined in the last five
decades.
Ruling varieties and hybrids of castor in India include Aruna, Sowbhagya, Bhagya,
Kranti and GCH-4.

2.4͘ϳ IŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ SƚĂƚƵƐ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ Global Castor Oil Industry

As mentioned earlier, India is the undisputed leader in castor oil production. India supplies
over 70% of the total production of castor oil in the world.

PŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ ĨŽƌ ϮϬϬϳ-08 were about $ 170 million, which is not a very
large value given the potential for this industry.

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There are two reasons for this low quantum of export revenues:

The total amount of castor oil production worldwide (and thus by India), is relatively
very low when compared to production of other seed-oils.
A ůĂƌŐĞ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞ ŽĨ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ ĂƌĞ ƚŚĞ ďĂƐŝĐ ĐŽŵŵŽĚŝƚLJ ŐƌĂĚĞƐ ǁŝƚŚ ǀĞƌLJ
little value addition.

Low Volumes of Castor Oil Production

The worldwide production of castor oil is about 500,000 T per annum. A look at the table
below will show how small this quantity is when looked at from a larger perspective.

Worldwide Production of Fixed Oils

Oilseed Approximate Annual
Production
(in million T)
Soybean Oil 34
Palm Oil 35
Rapeseed Oil 17
Sunflower Oil 10
Cottonseed Oil 4
Groundnut Oil 4
Palm Kernel Oil 3.5
Coconut Oil 3
Corn Oil 2
Sesame Oil 0.7
Linseed Oil 0.5
Castor Oil 0.5
Note: Figures for 2005-06

The total volume of oils and fats produced was about 145 million T in 2007-08, among which
oils from oilseeds would be about 120 MT (CastorOil.in estimate).

One can see that castor oil has less than 0.5% of total world market for oils from oilseeds.

Admittedly, one cannot compare castor oil volumes with the volumes of oils such as palm oil
or soybean oil because these are edible oils and hence they have much larger usage and
demand in the food market. However, the fact that an oil with use as versatile as that of
castor oil has a share of less than 0.5% shows what tremendous potential it has for future
growth.

Low Value Addition by the Indian Castor Oil Industry

The basic grades of castor are the commercial grade, first special grade etc.

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The basic and generation I derivatives are essentially considered commodities and
incorporate small value additions, and provide thin margins (in the range of 5%). The value
additions and profit margins for generation II & III derivatives are significantly higher and
these are very attractive.

The combined revenue potential from the generation II & III derivatives is about $650
million.

Data based on 2007-08 exports show that generation II & III derivatives accounted for less
ƚŚĂŶ ϮϬй ŽĨ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ ;ďLJ ǀĂůƵĞͿ͘ lƚ ŝƐ ĞƐƚŝŵĂƚĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ǀĂůƵĞ ĨŽƌ ŐĞŶĞƌĂƚŝŽŶ lll
derivatives alone will be almost an insignificant percentage of the total Indian castor oil
exports.

What is the Existing & Current Potential that the Indian Castor Industry Should Capitalize
On?

Compare $650 million to $175-200 million - ƚŚĞ ǀĂůƵĞ ŽĨ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĞdžƉŽƌƚƐ - and the
value is India is losing out becomes clear. In spite of being the largest castor oil exporter by
far (75% of global exports), India is able to capture only about 25% of the total value from
the market.

Thus, while India could gain a lot more from both higher production of castor oil as well as
higher value addition, it is most likely that a higher focus on value added products will be the
most optimal method for the short and medium term, owing to a number of structural and
market related factors.

2.5 Demand - Supply Estimates for Castor Oil Derivatives

According to the industry nomenclature, generation I derivatives include hydrogenated
castor oil, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, dehydrated castor oil acid, and ethoxylated castor oil
among others. Generation II castor oil derivatives include sebacic acid, undecyclenic acid,
heptaldehyde, polyols and dimer acid. Generation III derivatives include the esters and salts
of generation II derivatives as well as derivatives such as methyl-12-hydroxystearate.

The global market for generation II castor oil derivatives is estimated at $300 million (based
on 2007 data). For generation III derivatives, where half of the generation II derivatives are
converted, the estimated market worth is close to $350 million (based on 2007 data).

Overall, the castor oil and derivatives industry have shown an average demand growth of
about 4% per annum for the period 2000-2007. While the demand for castor oil and castor
oil derivatives is on the increase, except for some of the derivatives such as HCO, 12-HSA,
the demand is quite relatively low in quantities for reliable data availability. Data availability
for demand and supplies for many of these derivative chemicals is sparse as well.

The following table provides qualitative estimates of worldwide demand and demand-
supply gaps for the various grades and derivatives of castor oil. While we have made an
attempt at quantifying the qualitative benchmarks at the end of the table, the numbers
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should be taken more as intelligent estimates rather than as official data, because there are
no official data available for specific grades and derivatives of castor oil.

It is requested that the following data hence be considered as approximate and qualitative
estimates. These have been computed based on secondary data, industry interactions, and
transactions done by CastorOil.in in the past 4 years.

2.5.1 Current Demand-Supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives

Product Demand
Current Demand
Supply Gap
Castor Seed High Medium
Castor Meal / Castor Residue High High
Hydrogenated Castor Oil (HCO) Medium Medium
12 Hydroxy Stearic Acid (12 HSA) Medium Medium
Methyl 12 HSA (Hydroxy Stearate Acid) Low-Medium Medium
Blown Castor Oil Low-Medium Medium
Sulfated/Sulfonated Castor Oil, Turkey Red Oil Medium Medium
COLM (Urethane Grade) Medium-High Medium-High
Commercial Grade Castor Oil Very High Medium
BP Grade Castor Oil Medium Medium
Deodorized/Deodourised Castor Oil Medium Medium
European Pharmacoepia Grade Castor Oil Medium Medium
Extra Pale Grade Caster Oil Low Medium
Pale Pressed Grade (PPG) Grade Caster Oil Medium Medium
First Pressed Degummed Castor Oil Medium-High Medium
First Special Grade (FSG) Castor Oil Very High Medium
United States Pharmacopia (USP) Castor Oil High Medium
Dehydrated Castor Oil (DCO) Medium-High Medium
Ethoxylated Castor Oil Medium High
C 3 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Glycerine Very High Low
C-7 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Heptanoic Acid Low Medium
Heptaldehyde Low Medium
Heptyl Alcohol (Heptanol) Low Medium
C 11 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Undecylenic Acid Very High
1
Very High
1

Undecanoic Acid Low NA
Undecylenic Aldehyde Low NA
Undecylenic Alcohol Low NA
Calcium Undecylenate Low NA
Zinc Undecylenate Low NA
Allyl Undecylenate Low NA
Sodium Undecylenate Low NA
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Methyl Undecylenate Low NA
Ethyl Undecylenate Low NA
C 18 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Esterols Not known NA
Ricinoleic Acid Medium Medium
Methyl Ricinoleate Low-Medium Medium
Sebacic Acid Very High
2
Medium-High
2-Octanol Low Medium
1
A very large percentage of Undecylenic Acid is used by Arkema to manufacture Nylon 11
2
Large percentage of Sebacic acid is used for the manufacture of Nylon 6

Notations for Demand
Very High: 50,000 T and above per year
High: 30,000 - 50,000 T per year
Medium-High: 15,000-30,000 T per year
Medium: 5,000-15,000 T per year
Low-Medium: 1,000-5,000 T per year
Low: Less than 1,000 T per year

Notations for Demand-Supply Gap

Medium: There exists some demand over and above supply, but there has not been a
significant amount of demand that has gone unmet

Medium-High: There have been some instances where a significant demand has gone unmet

High: There have been many instances where a significant demand in the market has gone
unmet

Low: There have been very few instances when a significant demand has gone unmet
NA: denotes that info on demand supply gap is not available owing to the negligible demand
volumes

2.5.2 Future Demand-Supply Estimates for the Various Grades of Castor Oil and
Derivatives

Growth of Key End-User Segments

The major end-use industries for castor oil derivatives castor oil are:

Lubricants & Greases
Coatings
Personal Care & Detergent
Surfactants
Oleochemicals

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Growth of Key End-user Industry Segments for Castor Oil Derivatives

Industry % Growth (CAGR), based
on 2005 data
Potential
Lubricants & Greases 2 44 million T by 2012
Coatings 4.9% (about 11% in Asia!) -
Personal Care & Detergent 6% $375 billion by 2012
Surfactants 4% $16.65 billion by 2012
Oleochemicals 4% 8.5 million T by 2012

Over the past one decade, the growth in demand for castor oil and derivatives has been
about 4-5% per annum (CAGR). If one looks at the table above, this % growth seems to be in
line with the CAGR for the various industries. However, one must remember than a very
large percentage of the high value added derivatives are produced by companies outside
India, and India simply supplies the commodity oils to them. That is, while the demand in
quantity for Indian castor oil has been growing at 4-5%, India gets a small share of the actual
profits that result from high value add.

Apart from this, there are other emerging segments that could hold even more significant
potential for castor oil derivatives.

LĞƚ͛Ɛ ůŽŽŬ Ăƚ ƐŽŵĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ŽƚŚĞƌ ƐĞŐŵĞŶƚƐ ŝŶ ǁŚŝĐŚ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĐĂŶ ƉůĂLJ Ă ƌŽůĞ͗

Growth Prospects for Bio-based Products

A McKinsey & Co. 2006 survey provides the following data for the potential for bio-based
materials in 2010

Market segment
Market size in 2010
($billion)
Growth %
2005-10
CAGR 2005-10
Biofuels 42 100 15%
Plant extracts 23 20 3.7%
Pharma ingredients 20 100 15%
Bulk chemicals and
polymers 15 50 8.5%
Food ingredients 11 35 6.1%
Oleochemicals 8 6 1.1%
Enzymes 4 100 15%

An analysis of the above table shows that there are some market segments that have much
higher growth potential and in which castor oil could play a significant role.

Among the segments in the table above, it is doubtful whether castor oil can have a
ƐŝŐŶŝĨŝĐĂŶƚ ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ ƚŚĞ ďŝŽĨƵĞůƐ ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ͕ ŐŝǀĞŶ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů͛Ɛ ƌĞůĂƚŝǀĞůLJ ŚŝŐŚ ĐŽƐƚ ĂƐ ǁĞůů ĂƐ ƚŚĞ
small quantities of castor oil produced when compared to the massive volumes required for
transportation fuel. However, in high growth segments such as pharma ingredients,
biopolymers and food ingredients castor oil could have a considerable role to play. While in
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some of these segments (pharma for instance), castor oil already is a contributor, it is
expected that there will be many more segments within pharma as well as the other two in
which castor oil can significantly increase its presence.

Demand-Supply Estimates

Based on its research, CastorOil.in makes following estimations for future demand of
various products. Please note that most of these are based on qualitative inputs as scarce
official inputs are available for some of the derivatives mentioned

Product Future Demand Current Demand
Castor Seed Very High High
Castor Meal / Castor Residue Very High High
Hydrogenated Castor Oil (HCO) Very High Medium
12 Hydroxy Stearic Acid (12 HSA) Very High Medium
Methyl 12 HSA (Hydroxy Stearate Acid) Medium-High Low-Medium
Blown Castor Oil Medium Low-Medium
Sulfated/Sulfonated Castor Oil, Turkey
Red Oil
Medium-High Medium
COLM (Urethane Grade) Very High Medium-High
Commercial / Industrial Grade Castor Oil Very High Very High
BP Grade Castor Oil Medium-High Medium
Deodorized Castor Oil Medium-High Medium
European Pharmacoepia Grade Castor
Oil
High Medium
Extra Pale Grade Castor Oil Low Low
Pale Pressed Grade (PPG) Grade Castor
Oil
Medium-High Medium
First Pressed Degummed Castor Oil Medium-High Medium-High
First Special Grade (FSG) Castor Oil Very High Very High
United States Pharmacopia (USP) Castor
Oil
High High
Dehydrated Castor Oil (DCO) Very High Medium-High
Ethoxylated Castor Oil High Medium
C 3 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Glycerine Very High Very High
C-7 Derivatives of Castoroil
Heptanoic Acid Low Low
Heptaldehyde Low Low
Heptyl Alcohol (Heptanol) Low Low
C 11 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Undecylenic Acid Very High Very High
Undecanoic Acid Low Low
Undecylenic Aldehyde Low Low
Undecylenic Alcohol Low Low
Calcium Undecylenate Low Low
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Zinc Undecylenate Low Low
Allyl Undecylenate Low Low
Sodium Undecylenate Low Low
Methyl Undecylenate Low Low
Ethyl Undecylenate Low Low
C 18 Derivatives of Castor Oil
Ricinoleic Acid High Medium
Methyl Ricinoleate Low-Medium Low-Medium
Sebacic Acid Very High High
2-Octanol Low Low

Notations for Demand

Very High: 25,000 T and above per year
High: 10,000 ʹ 25,000 T per year
Medium-High: 5,000-10,000 T per year
Medium: 2,500-5,000 T per year
Low-Medium: 1,000-2,500 T per year
Low: Less than 1,000 T per year

SUMMARY


There is a significant demand supply gap for castor oil and its derivatives in the market. The
demand for castor oil is increasing at the rate of 3 to 5 percent per annum, but only three
countries, namely India, China and Brazil are currently supplying to the world market. In
addition, castor oil has less than 0.5 percent of the total world market for oils from seeds. In
the context of castor oil derivatives, relatively few companies are involved in production.
This shows the significant potential for new entrepreneurs in this sector.

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3 - Castor Oil Chemicals & Derivatives

This chapter comprises the following topics

Introduction ʹ 3.1
Properties & Chemical Composition of Castor Oil ʹ 3.2
Chemical, Physical Properties & Specifications of Castor Oil Grades & Derivatives ʹ
3.3


HIGHLIGHTS


Castor oil and derivatives find applications in diverse industries.

The high viscosity makes the oil useful as a component in blending lubricants.

Because of its higher polar hydroxyl groups, castor oil is not only compatible with but
will also plasticize a wide variety of natural and synthetic resins, waxes, polymers
and elastomers.

Castor oil has excellent emollient properties as well as a marked ability to wet and
dispeƌƐĞ ĚLJĞƐ͕ ƉŝŐŵĞŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ ĨŝůůĞƌƐ͘ lŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ĐŚĞŵŝĐĂů ĚĞƌŝǀĂƚŝǀĞƐ͕ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů͛Ɛ
application versatility is further enhanced.

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3.1 Introduction

While castor oil is popular in itself, its various derivatives and their unique properties and
consequent applications make castor oil even more important in the plant and vegetable
oils hierarchy.

Castor Plant Chemistry

Leaves: Per 100 g, the leaves are reported to contain on a zero-moisture basis, 24.8 g
protein, 5.4 g fat, 57.4 g total carbohydrate, 10.3 g fiber, 12.4 g ash, 2,670 mg Ca, and 460
mg P.

Seeds: The seed contains about 5% moisture, 12.0ʹ16.0% protein, 45.0ʹ50% oil, 3.0ʹ7.0
NFE, 23ʹ27% CF, and 2.0ʹ2.2% ash. Seeds are high in phosphorus, 90% in the phytic form.
Also present in the seed are 60 mg/kg uric acid and 7 ppm HCN. The seeds also contain a
powerful lipase, employed for commercial hydrolysis of fats, and amylase, invertase,
maltase, endotrypsin, glycolic acid, oxidase, ribonuclease, and a fat-soluble zymogen.
Sprouting seeds contain catalase, peroxidase and reductase.

Summary List of Key Derivatives of Castor Oil

Commercial Castor Oil First Pressed Degummed Grade Castor Oil
Refined Castor Oil - F.S.G./B.S.S. Refined Castor Oil - Extra Pale Grade
Refined Castor Oil - Pale Pressed Grade Castor Oil Pharmaceutical (I.P/B.P./U.S.P.)
Sulfonated Castor Oil - Turkey Red Oil Blown Castor Oil
Ricinoleic Acid Hydrogenated Castor Oil
12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid (12-H.S.A.) Methyl-12-Hydroxy Stearate
Methyl Ricinoleate Urethane Modified Castor Oil
Dehydrated Castor Oil (DCO) Glycerine
Urethane Grade Ethoxylated Castor Oil
Sebacic Acid Heptaldehyde
2-Heptanol Undecylenic Aldehyde
Methyl Undecylenate 2-Octanol
Undecanoic Acid Undecylenic Acid
Calcium Undecylenate Zinc Undecylenate
Zinc Ricinoleate Heptanoic Acid

3.2 Properties & Chemical Composition of Castor Oil

Castor oil's chemical formula is: CH
3
-(CH
2
)
5
-CH(OH)-CH
2
-CH=CH-(CH
2
)
7
-COOH

It is a fatty acid with 18 carbon atoms, a double bond between the ninth and tenth carbons,
and is hence also known as Dodecahydroxyoleic Acid. No other vegetable oil contains such a
diverse and high proportion of fatty hydroxyacids.

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Unique to castor oil is that regardless of where the beans are grown, the chemical
composition remains constant. It is this consistency that has allowed castor oil to be used as
the absolute standard for viscosity by the Bureau of Standards.

Castor oil has a molecular weight of 298, a low melting point (5°C) and a low solidification
point (12°C to -18°C). It is a monounsaturated fatty acid, soluble in pure alcohol, insoluble in
water and has some miscibility in petroleum aliphatic solvents. It resists heat and leaves
virtually no residue.

Castor Oil Chemistry and Composition

Castor oil is unique among all fats and oils in that:

It is the only source of an 18-carbon hydroxylated fatty acid with one double bond

Ricinoleic acid (12-Hydroxyoleic Acid) comprises approximately 87% of the fatty acid
composition

Product uniformity and consistency are relatively high for a naturally occurring
material

It is a toxic, biodegradable, renewable resource



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Castor Oil Composition vs. Composition of Other Vegetable Oils

Crop
% A vg. Oil
Content
Oleic
Acid
Linoleic
Acid
Linolenic
Acid
Ricinoleic
Acid
Castor 45% 3% 4.2% 0.3% 90%
Rape Seed 42% 32% 19% 7% -0-
Linseed 38% 20% 16% 50% -0-
Sunflower 48% 26% 62% -0- -0-
Soybean 18% 27% 53% 7% -0-
Palm 52% 40% 8% -0- -0-

Like other vegetable oils and animal fats, castor oil is a triglyceride, which chemically is a
glycerol molecule with each of its three hydroxyl group esterified with a long chain fatty
acid.

Apart from ricinoleic acid, the other fatty acids present are linoleic (4.2%), oleic (3.0%),
stearic (1%), palmitic (1%), di-hydroxystearic acid (0.7%), linolenic acid (0.3%), and
eicosanoic acid (0.3%).

The chemistry of castor oil is centered on its high content of ricinoleic acid and the three
points of functionality existing in the molecule. These are:

(1) The carboxyl group which can provide a wide range of esterifications;
(2) The single point of unsaturation which can be altered by hydrogenation or epoxidation
or vulcanization; and

(3) The hydroxyl group which can be acetylated or alkoxylated, may be removed by
dehydration to increase the unsaturation of the compound to give semi-drying oil.

The hydroxyl position is so reactive that the molecule can be split at that point by high-
temperature pyrolysis and by caustic fusion to yield useful products of shorter chain length.
The presence of hydroxyl group on castor oil adds extra stability to the oil and its derivatives
by preventing the formation of hydroperoxides.

Properties

Density @ 20°C 0.956-0.963g/ml
Refractive Index 1.477 -1.479
Saponification Number 177-187
Iodine Value 82-88
Unsaponifiable Matter 0.3-0.5%
Hydroxyl Number 160mm
Viscosity @ 20°C 9.5-10.0 dPa.S

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Crude castor oil is pale straw in colour but turns colourless or slightly yellowish after refining
and bleaching.

Like all other vegetable oils, castor oil has different physical and chemical properties that
vary with the method of extraction. Cold-pressed castor oil has low acid value, low iodine
value and a slightly higher saponification value than solvent-extracted oil, and it is lighter in
colour.

The oil is characterized by high viscosity, unusual for a natural vegetable oil. This behaviour
is due largely to hydrogen bonding of its hydroxyl groups. The high viscosity makes the oil
useful as a component in blending lubricants. The hydroxyl groups in castor oil account for a
unique combination of physical properties:

Relatively high viscosity and specific gravity
Solubility in alcohols in any proportion
Limited solubility in aliphatic petroleum solvents

The uniformity and reliability of its physical properties are demonstrated by the long-term
use of castor oil as an absolute standard for viscosity. Because of its higher polar hydroxyl
groups, castor oil is not only compatible with but will plasticize a wide variety of natural and
synthetic resins, waxes, polymers and elastomers. Castor oil also has excellent emollient and
lubricating properties as well as a marked ability to wet and disperse dyes, pigments and
ĨŝůůĞƌƐ͘ lŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌŵ ŽĨ ŝƚƐ ĐŚĞŵŝĐĂů ĚĞƌŝǀĂƚŝǀĞƐ͕ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů͛Ɛ ĂƉƉůŝĐĂƚŝŽŶ ǀĞƌƐĂƚŝůŝƚLJ ŝƐ ĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ
enhanced.

Although castor oil is a unique naturally-occurring polyhydroxy compound, a limitation of
the oil is the slight reduction of its hydroxyl value and acid value on storage; both values
may change by about 10% if stored for about 90 days. The reduction of these values is due
to the reaction between hydroxyl and carboxyl groups in the oil molecule to form estolides.

3.3 Chemical, Physical Properties & Specifications of Castor Oil Grades &
Derivatives

Commercial Grade Castor Oil

Appearance Pale Dark Yellow
CŽůŽƵƌ ŝŶ ϭ͟ CĞůů͕ ?нϱ8 LŽǀŝďond 30 units max.
Iodine Value 82 ʹ 90
Saponification Value 177 ʹ 187
Hydroxyl Value 160 min.
Acid Value 2.0 max.
Moisture & Volatiles 0.50% max.
Specific Gravity @ 20
o
C 0.954 ʹ 0.967

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BP Grade Castor Oil

CAS Number 8001-79-4
EINECS 292-293-8
Colour Nearly Colourless or Faintly Yellow
Relative Density at 20ºC 0.952-0.965
Moisture 0.3% max.
Iodine Value 82-90
Saponification Value 176-187
Acid Value 2.0 max.
Unsaponfiables w/w 0.8% max.
Optical Rotation between +3.5º and 6.0º
Hydroxyl Value 150 min.
Peroxide Value 5.0 max
Light Absorption 1.0 max

Pale Pressed Castor Oil

CAS Number 8001-79-4
Flash Point >440
o
F, >227
o
C
HCC V6
Boiling Point >450
o
F,>232
o
C
Vapour Density >Air
Colour Gardner 2 Max
Acid Value 1.5
% Moisture & Volatile 0.25 Max
Hydroxyl Value 160-168
Iodine Value 83-88
Saponification Value 175-185
Viscosity @ 25
o
C 6.3-8.9

Castor Oil U.S.P

CAS Number 8001-79-4
Flash Point 229
o
C (444
o
F) CC
Autoignition Temperature 449
o
C (840
o
F)
Appearance Light yellow viscous liquid
Odor Slight characteristic odor
Solubility Negligible (< 0.1%)
Specific Gravity 0.961-0.963 @ 15.5
o
C
% Volatiles by volume @ 21
o
C (70
o
F) 100
Boiling Point 313
o
C (595
o
F)
Melting Point -10
o
C (14
o
F)

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Dehydrated Castor Oil

CAS Number 61789-45-5
Appearance Viscous liquid
Colour Gardner 6 Max
Acid Value 5 Max
Iodine Value 123 Min
Hydroxyl Value 25 Max
Saponification Value 185 ʹ 194
Viscocity at 30 ºC 1.6 to 2.5 (poise 61 sec B4 cup)
Viscocity Gardner G ʹ J

Refined Castor Oil ʹ FSG (First Special Grade)

Appearance Pale Yellow, Viscous, Clear liquid
M .I .V. 0.25 % max.
F.F.A. (as oleic) 1.00 % max.
Acid Value 2.00 % max.
Iodine Value (Wijs) 82 ʹ 90
Saponification Value 177 ʹ 185
Hydroxyl Value 158 ʹ 163
Colour on lovibond in 5.2ϱ͟ĐĞůů Y- 20.0 Max. R - 2.0 Max.

Castor Oil BSS Grade (British Standard Specifications)

Specific Gravity at 25° C 0.954-0.960
Acid Value 2.0 Max.
Saponification Value 175.0 Min.
Iodine Value 81-90
Hydroxyl Value 158 Min.
Colour Gardner 2.0 Max.

Blown Castor Oil


Colour
Gardner Acid Value
Hydroxyl
Value
Iodine
Value
Saponification
Value
Viscosity
Gardner-
Holdt/Strokes
Z-1 6 Max 12-16 151-158 69-73 200-220 Z-1/25-35
Z-6 12 Max 10-17 130-140 56-65 210-230 Z-5,6/100-150
Z-8 16 Max 11-16 125-135 58-66 220-245 Z-8/450-600

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Urethane Grade


Color
Gardner
Acid
Value
%
Moisture
& Volatile
Equivalent
Weight
Hydroxyl
Value
Iodine
Value
Sapon
Value
Viscosity
@ 25º C
COLM
2 Plus
Max 2.0 Max 0.02 Max 342 160-168 83-88 175-185 6.3-8.9

Ethoxylated Castor Oil

Synonyms - Castor oil polyoxyethylene ether

Typical properties of Ethoxylated Castor Oil (the properties given are for EO-36)

CAS Number 61791-12-6
Appearance Clear or light yellow liquid
Density ( g / cm-3) @ 25
o
C 1.05
pH (5% in water) 5ʹ7
Cloud point, °C 68ʹ75
Hydroxyl Value, mg KOH/g 37ʹ45
Moisture, Percent Max 0.5

12 HSA

12 HSA (12 Hydroxy Stearic Acid) is a wax-like, odourless and tasteless compound. The basic
form of 12 HSA is a flake.

CAS Number 106-14-9
Formula C
18
H
36
O
3

Appearance White Colour Flakes
Acid Value 175 Min.
Iodine Value 3.5 Max.
Melting Point 75°C Min.
Saponification Value 180-190
Hydroxyl Value 155 Min.
Colour Gardner (G) 5G Max.
Moisture 0.5 % Max.

Turkey Red Oil

CAS Number 8002-33-3
Appearance Brownish yellow oil
Sp.Gravity 0.98
Melting Point
< 0°C
Boiling Point > 150°C
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Chemical Character Anionic
pH 7 ~ 8
Sulfonation Degree
Minimum 4.0
Solubility Miscible in water giving milky emulsion

HCO - Hydrogenated Castor Oil

CAS Number 61788-85-0
Hydroxyl Value 158
Iodine Value 3
Saponification Value 180
Acid Value 2
Melting Point °C 86
Specific Gravity 25°C 1.02
Color White to pale yellowish
Appearance @ 20°C: Solid (mobile liquid @ 30°C)
Odor Almost none
Flash Point °C 242 C DIN ISO 2592
Solubility in Water @ 20°C 100G/L
pH @ 100G/L H
2
O 6 ʹ 7

Ricinoleic Acid

Ricinoleic Acid (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid) is obtained by the hydrolysis of Castor Oil.
It is a light coloured liquid with a ricinoleic content of approximately 90%. Primary uses
include, coatings, plastics, inks and cosmetics

Biochemical studies have revealed that ricinoleic acid is produced in castor by the direct
hydroxylation of the common fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1). The hydroxylation reaction is
catalysed by a single, highly efficient enzyme, the fatty acid hydroxylase.



IUPAC Name - (E)-12-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid

Synonyms - 12-hydroxy-(cis)-9-octadecenoic acid

CAS Number 5323-95-5
Chemical Formula C
18
H
34
O
3

Mol Wt. 298.46
Physical State Viscous yellow liquid
Melting Point 5.5
o
C
Boiling Point 245
o
C
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Specific Gravity 0.94
Solubility in Water Insoluble
Vapour Density 10.3
Flash Point 224
o
C
Stability Stable under ordinary conditions
Appearance Viscous yellow liquid
Acid Value 175 min
Hydroxyl Value 150 min
Iodine Value 80-91
Saponification Value 180 min
Colour, Gardner 8 max

Methyl 12 HSA -Methyl 12 Hydroxy Stearate

Hydroxyl Value 160+
Iodine Value 3
Saponification Value 175+
Acid Value 1.2
Melting Point °C 52
Specific Gravity 25 °C 1.02

Sebacic Acid

Sebacic acid is a dicarboxylic acid.

Chemical, Physical Properties & Specifications of Sebacic Acid

Chemical Names
Decanedioic acid
1,8-Octanedicarboxylic Acid
Dicarboxylic acid C
10

Chemical Formula C
10
H
18
O
4

CAS Number 111-20-6
Physical State and Appearance
White flake or powdered crystal in its pure
state
Molecular Weight 202.24 g/mole
Color Colorless to light yellow
Odour Mild odor of fatty acid.
Boiling Point Decomposes
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Melting Point 132°C (269.6°F)
Specific Gravity 1.207 (Water = 1)
Density at 25
o
C 1.209 g per cubic centimeter
Dispersion Properties
See solubility in water, methanol, diethyl
ether, acetone

A Sample Producer Specification for Sebacic Acid - Form: Powder

Parameter
Values
Special High-grade High-grade I High-grade II
Sebacic Acid Content (%) 99.5 min 99.5 min 99.5 min
Ash Content (%) 0.02 max 0.03 max 0.05 max
Moisture Content (%) 0.3 max 0.3 max 0.3 max
Alkaifusion Specific Color
(Platinum-Cobalt Color
No.)
5 max 15 max 25 max
Melting Point Range
o
C 131 to 134.5 131 to 134.5 131 to 134.5

Form: Grain
Parameter Value
Sebacic Acid Content (%) 99.5 min
Ash Content (%) 0.03 max
Moisture Content (%) 0.1 max
Alkali Fusion Chromaticity (Platinum-Cobalt Color No.) 25 max
Melting Point Range,
o
C 131 to 134.5
Granularity (%) 95 and higher

Heptaldehyde

Synonyms: Enanthal, enanthaldehyde, enanthole, heptyl aldehyde, enanthic aldehyde, n-
heptaldehyde, heptanal, n-heptanal

CAS Number 111-71-7
Molecular Formula C
7
H
14
O
Appearance Colourless Liquid
Melting Point -43
o
C
Boiling Point 40 ʹ 42
o
C
Density (g cm-3) 0.818
Flash Point 35
o
C
Explosion Limits 1.1 - 5.2%
Water Solubility Slight
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2-Heptanol

Synonyms: Amyl methyl carbinol, 5-heptyl alcohol, heptan-2-ol, methyl amyl carbinol, 1-
methylhexanol

CAS Number 543-49-7
Molecular Formula C
7
H
16
O
Appearance Colourless Liquid
Boiling Point 160 ʹ 162
o
C
Density (g/cm
3
) 0.817
Flash Point 64
o
C

Undecylenic Aldehyde

Synonyms: 10-Undecenal; C-11 Aldehyde, undecylenic; 1-Undecen-10-al; 10-
Undecylenaldehyde; Undecylenaldehyde

CAS Number 112-45-8
Molecular Formula C
11
H
20
O
Molecular Weight 168.28
Appearance Clear, colorless to pale yellow liquid.
Flash Point 76
o
C ( 168.80
o
F)
Physical State Liquid
Appearance Clear, colorless to pale yellow
Odor Rose-like
Vapour Density 5.8
Boiling Point 235
o
C
Freezing/Melting Point 7
o
C
Solubility Insoluble
Specific Gravity/Density 845 g/ml

Methyl Undecylenate

CAS Number 5760-50-9
Formula C
12
H
22
O
2

Molar Refractivity 59.47 ± 0.3 cm3
Parachor 521.5 ± 4.0 cm3
Index of Refraction 1.444 ± 0.02
Surface Tension 29.5 ± 3.0 dyne/cm
Density 0.886 ± 0.06 g/cm3
Polarizability 23.57 ± 0.5 10-24cm3
Molecular Weight 198.3018800
Odor Type Earthy
Odor Strength Medium
Odor Description at 100.00% Earthy Fungal Rose Fatty Floral
Substantivity 24 Hour(s)
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Appearance Colorless to pale yellow clear liquid
Assay 98.00 - 100.00 %
Specific Gravity 0.87900 - 0.88900 @ 25.00 °C
Optical Rotation -2.00 to +2.00
Melting Point -28.00 - -27.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point 247.00 - 248.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg
Boiling Point 159.00 - 160.00 °C. @ 50.00 mm Hg
Acid Value 1.00 max. KOH/g
Shelf Life 24.00 month(s) or longer if stored properly
Flash Point (
o
F. ) > 200.00 °F. TCC (> 93.33 °C.)

2-Octanol

Synonyms: capryl alcohol, caprylic alcohol, ethylpentylcarbinol

CAS Number 123-96-6
Molecular Formula C
8
H
18
O [ Structural CH
3
(CH
2
)
5
COHCH
3
]
Appearance Colourless liquid with a pungent odour
Melting Point -38
o
C
Boiling Point 174 ʹ 181
o
C
Vapour Pressure 0.15 mm Hg at 25
o
C
Specific Gravity 0.819
Flash Point 71
o
C (closed cup)

Glycerine

Synonyms: Glycerol; 1,2,3-Propanetriol; Glyceritol; Glycic Alcohol; 1,2,3-Trihydroxypropane;
1,2,3-Propanetriol

CAS Number 56-81-5
Molecular Formula C
3
H
8
O
3

Molecular Weight 92.0542
Physical State Liquid
Appearance Clear
Odor Faint odour
Vapour Pressure .0025 mm Hg @ 5
Vapour Density 3.17 (H2O=1)
Boiling Point 290
o
C
Freezing/Melting Point 20
o
F
Autoignition Temperature 400
o
C ( 752.00 deg F)
Flash Point 193
o
C ( 379.40 deg F)
Decomposition Temperature 290
o
C
Solubility Miscible in water. Insoluble in chloroform
Specific Gravity/Density 1.4746

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Undecanoic Acid

Synonyms: 1-decanecarboxylic acid, hendecanoic acid, undecoic acid, undecylic acid, N-
undecoic acid, hendecanoic acid, N-undecylic acid, 1-decane carboxylic acid, N-undecanoic
acid

CAS Number 112-37-8
Chemical Formula C
11
-H
22
-O
2

Appearance Colourless to light yellow liquid or solid
Odour Waxy, creamy, coconut odour
Physical State and Appearance
Solid. (Low Melting Point Solid. Above
28.5
o
C it is a colorless to slightly yellow
liquid)
Flash Points Closed Cup: >93.333°C (200°F)
Molecular Weight 186.3 g/mole
Boiling Point 228°C (442.4°F)
Melting Point 28.5°C (83.3°F)
Appearance Colourless crystals

Undecylenic Acid

Synonyms: 10-Hendecenoic; 10-Henedecenoic acid; 10-Undecylenic acid; Undecyl-10-enic
acid

CAS Number 112-38-9
Chemical Formula C
11
-H
20
-O
2

Auto-Ignition Temperature 275°C (527°F)
Flash Points
Closed Cup: 148°C (298.4°F). Open Cup:
160°C (320°F)
Physical state and appearance Solid (low melting point solid)
Odour Fruity. Rosy
Molecular Weight 184.28 g/mole
Colour Yellow. (Light.)
Boiling Point
232 -235
o
C.@ 182 mm Hg; 230 ʹ 235
o
C.@
130 mm Hg.
Melting Point 24.5°C (76.1°F)
Specific Gravity 0.9072 (Water = 1)
Decomposition Temperature 275°C (527°F) @ 760 mm Hg

Calcium Undecylenate

CAS Number 1322-14-1
Chemical Formula C
22
H
38
O
4
Ca
Physical state and appearance Solid
Molecular Weight 406.62 g/mole
Melting Point Decomposes
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Zinc Undecylenate

Synonyms - Zinc diundec-10-enoate; Undecylenic acid zinc salt

CAS Number 557-08-4
Chemical Formula C
22
H
38
O
4
Zn
Physical state and appearance Solid
Molecular Weight 431.92 g/mole

Zinc Ricinoleate

Zinc Ricinoleate 13040-19-2
Melting Point 160
o
F
pH 6.6
Specific Gravity Approx. 600 kg/m3
Solubility in Water Insoluble
Appearance & Odour Beige pellets with characteristic odor
Flash Point >482
o
F
Auto Ignition Temperature Approx. 824.00
o
F

Heptanoic Acid

Synonym: 1-Hexanecarboxylic acid; Enanthic acid; Enanthylic acid; Heptylic acid; n- Heptoic
acid; n-Heptylic acid; Oenanthic acid; Oenanthylic acid

CAS Number 111-14-8
Chemical Formula CH
3
-(CH
2
)
5
-COOH
Flammability of the Product May be combustible at high temperature
Auto-Ignition Temperature 289°C (552.2°F)
Flash Points Closed Cup: >112°C (233.6°F)
Flammable Limits Lower: 1.1% Upper: 10%
Products of Combustion Carbon oxides (CO, CO
2
)
Physical State and Appearance Liquid (Oily liquid)
Odour Disagreeable. Rancid. Faint Tallow-like
Molecular Weight 130.19 g/mole
Colour Clear
pH (1% soln/water) Acidic
Boiling Point 222.2°C (432°F)
Melting Point -7.5°C (18.5°F)
Specific Gravity 0.92 (Water = 1)
Vapour Density 4.49 (Air = 1)
Water/Oil Dist. Coeff.
The product is more soluble in oil;
log(oil/water) = 2.4


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SUMMARY


Unique properties of castor oil make it versatile industrial oil with varied applications.

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4 ʹ Castor Oil Prices

This chapter comprises the following topics

Historical & Current Price Data for Castor Oil, Castor Seeds ʹ 4.1
Castor Oil and Castor Seed Price Volatility ʹ 4.2
Factors that Affect Prices ʹ 4.3
Castor Oil Futures Market ʹ 4.4


HIGHLIGHTS


Castor oil prices are highly volatile.

There is a wide intra and inter seasonal price variation. The price in US$ is made
even more volatile due to the volatility of the Indian Re. against the US $.

There is a price variation of about 30% between planting and harvesting seasons.


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4.1 Historical & Current Price Data for Various Grades of Castor Oil, Castor
Seeds

Castor oil prices are highly volatile. An example of volatility is seen in seed prices

There is a wide intra and inter seasonal price variation. The price in US$ is made even more
volatile due to the volatility of the Indian Re. against the US $.

The price increase of castor seeds has been quite dramatic since the middle of 2007. It
increased by over 30% between June 2007 and June 2008.

Usually, the prices of castor seeds firm up during the planting period that is Jul ʹ Aug due to
lesser availability. It eases down during the harvesting period (Jan ʹ Feb) as a result of
increase in supply. There is a price variation of about 30% between planting and harvesting
seasons.

Factors to watch out for regarding castor oil prices:

Production constant since 2-3 years
World demand for castor oil is increasing @ 3-5 % per annum
Export demand expected to increase significantly in future

Some other points to note about castor oil prices:

It is generally believed that being a versatile industrial oil with varied applications,
demand for castor oil is price inelastic. There is invariably a minimum quantity of this
commodity that is consumed annually by advanced countries irrespective of price.
Between 2006 and 2009, prices have fluctuated in a wide range between a low of
$650 a ton and the present high of $ 1,500 a ton.

Castor Seed

Average Prices for Castor Seeds
(all prices in US$, FOB Mumbai)
Year Prices - $ / MT
2004 400
2005 410
2006 350
2007 475
2008 (Jan - June) 575
2008 (Jun ʹ Dec) 675
2009 (Jan - Jun) 515
2009 (June ʹ Dec) 589

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Monthwise Castor Seed Price (Average)
(US$/T, NCDEX)

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Jan 318 434 511
524
629
Feb 325 449 546
487
627
Mar 336 462 594
489
640
Apr 325 486 580
519
663.5
May 316 473 580
539
695
Jun 317 470 612
532
731
Jul 342 481 699
543
804.5
Aug 344 479 707
574
819
Sep 368 477 698
592
889
Oct 391 478 662
592
812
Nov 404 497 651
639

Dec 398 513 637
648

Note: 1 US$= 45 Rs.
Castor Seed Price (Average)



Castor Oil

Castor Oil Prices (average price for commercial grade) ʹ US$/T, FOB Mumbai

Year Price
2002 675
2003 925
2004 850
2005 925
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2006 775
2007 1025
2008 (Feb) 1160
2008 (June) 1350
2009 (Jan) 1050
2009 (June) 1104
2010 (Jan) 1330

Monthwise Castor Oil Price (Average)
(US$/T, MCX)
Month 2006 2007 2008 2009
2010
Jan 692 950 1077 1050
1330
Feb 695 975 1161 1055
1314
Mar 723 1005 1282 1038
1367
Apr 711 1045 1288 1091

May 695 1011 1299 1115

Jun 697 991 1355 1104

Jul 737 1015 1471 1123

Aug 761 1021 1527 1195

Sep 804 1022 1501 1253

Oct 867 1025 1421 1250

Nov 909 1071 1413 1344

Dec 896 1092 1378 1390

Note: 1 US$= Rs 45

Castor Oil Price (Average)



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A Snapshot of Castor Seed, Castor Oil & Castor Cake Prices in Jul/Aug 2008 and Jan 2009 ʹ
do later

Jul/Aug 2008

All castor products hit a record high in Jul/Aug 2008. A look at the average prices below will
tell the story.
All prices in US $ / Metric Ton, FOB India
Product Price
Castor seed 700
Castor oil 1500
Castor cake 110

These prices were 20% higher than the already high prices existing in May 2008 (in the
middle of May 2008, castor seed prices were quoting at US $ 575-600 per MT). In spite of
such a sharp increase, industry professionals and traders have said that the demand had not
decreased considerably.

Jan 2009

The data for average prices in Jan 2009 tell an entirely different story.

All prices in US $ / Metric Ton, FOB India
Product Price
Castor seed 500
Castor oil 1050
Castor cake 65

It can be observed that there is a dramatic reduction in prices across all the castor products.
In spite of these low prices, suppliers say there is much less demand, primarily because of
the global economic downturn.

4.2 Castor Oil & Castor Seed Price Volatility

Monthly Price Volatility of Castor Seed and Oil in Mumbai Market (based on data between
2000 and 2006)

Monthly Var % 0-2 months 2-5 months 5 & above months
Castor seed 24 % 43 % 35 %
Castor Oil 25 % 40 % 35 %

Maximum Variation in Mumbai Markets in % Terms

Period Castor Seed Castor Oil
Daily 3.2 3
Weekly 7.8 7.2
Monthly 16 15
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Pricing Pattern

The price of castor seed is influenced by climatic conditions, prices of castor oil in the world
trade, production in India and Rotterdam prices in Europe. An analysis of spot prices for the
past few years clearly indicates that the commodity price is volatile.




Rationale for the Castor Seed Contract

Some of the main reasons for introducing the futures contract in castor seed are:

Fluctuating production of castor seed in India: There is significant fluctuation in the
production of castor seeds in India. The market participants like the farmers, traders, oil
millers, exporters and industries which produce value added derivatives face an eternal
price risk due to fluctuating production. Hence it is imperative to introduce a hedging
mechanism for efficient price discovery and price dessimation.



Volatile commodity: Market research done by NCDEX shows that the Annualized Price
Volatility is 15%.
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Wide usage of castor products: Castor oil and its derivatives are used as raw materials in
many industries like Paint, Lubricant, Textile, Pharmaceutical etc. They form a large part of
the variable cost for the production of the above products. Any negative fluctuations in the
price of the raw material may erode their profits. Hence, an efficient hedging mechanism is
essential to combat the price risk.

Large number of market participants: There are many intermediaries in the castor
distribution chain. These intermediaries prevent efficient price discovery and price
dissemination for the farmer. Hence the need for an effective market intelligence platform,
so that farmers take informed decisions.

Limited hedging options: Due to lack of transparency in the unorganized forward markets,
there is counter party risk, default and quality issues. Hence a genuine hedging tool needs to
be put forth for the castor industry.

More than 80% of production is exported: India exports nearly 80% of its production and is
highly vulnerable to the world prices set by other trading countries. Hence, there is a need
for futures contract to hedge their price risk.

Importance of Castor Seed and Castor Oil Futures

The following points underscore the importance of futures trading in castor seed and castor
oil

Uncontrolled and uncertain supply
Fluctuating and uncertain demand
Wide and unforeseen price variation
Wide intra and inter seasonal price variation
Homogenous nature and well-defined grades
Long storing period
Well-developed and organized spot market

4.3 Factors that Affect Prices

Characteristics of Castor Seed and Oil Market

Uncertain supply - The world castor seed production has fluctuated between
1.2 and 1.8 million tons since 1997 to 2001. India's production ranged
between 0.8 and 1.1 million tons during the same period.
Recent developments of artificial substitutes ʹ development of substitutes for
castor oil has subjected the demand to fluctuate in the world market
(especially Lesquerella fendleri)
Long storing period & hoarding - It is a common practice for the castor seed
growers and crushers to hoard the commodity before selling in expectation
for better prices.
Well-developed and organized spot market in India
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Market Influencing Factors in Castor Trade

The following factors influence castor oil prices, export volumes and overall castor
trading:

Crop development based on monsoon progress in key growing regions
Domestic demand for castor oil from the major Indian cities & export
demand of castor oil
Variations in castor seed domestic acreage worldwide and specifically in
India, based on yield and price realization
Indian, Chinese and Brazilian crop sizes
Comparative prices of other vegetable oils in the Indian and global markets
The castor seed price tends to firm up during the planting period and eases
down during the harvesting period. Prices tend to show significant inter-
seasonal variations
Castor seed growers and crushers hoard the commodity before selling in
expectation of better prices.
During some years (as it happened in 2006), due to better price realization in
cotton and pulses, farmers had shifted from castor thus reducing the total
area under castor.
Floods and drought in major castor growing states such as Gujarat and
Andhra Pradesh had also adversely affected the crop in some years (eg: 2006)

4.4 Castor Oil Futures Market

A few years back, the Government of India has removed all restriction on futures trading in
almost all commodities under the Forward Contracts Regulation Act (FCRA), and this
includes agricultural commodities such as castor seed and castor oil. Since then, there has
been a vibrant futures trading in castor seed and oil.

Castor Oil Futures Contract Specifications on the MCX (Multi Commodity Exchange, India)

Trading Unit 1 MT
Quotation / Base Value Rs / 10 Kg
Maximum Order Size 50 MT
Tick Size (Min Price Movement) 10 paise per 10 Kg
Daily Price Limits 3%
Price Quotes Ex Kandla
Max Allowable Open Position
For a client 20000 MT
For a member collectively for all clients ʹ 25% of
the open position of the market @ any point of
time
Delivery
Delivery Unit 10 MT (with tolerance limit of 250 Kg)
Delivery Centers Kandla
Quality Specifications
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Appearance @ 25% C Clear and free from suspended matters
Odour Slight
CŽůŽƵƌ ŶŽƚ ƚŽ ĞdžĐĞĞĚ ŝŶ ϱ Ь ͞ ĐĞůů ŝŶ Ă
Lovibond Tintometer / AOCS CC 13B-45 20 yellow maximum / 2 red maximum
Free Fatty Acid (AOCS CA 5A-40) 1% max
Hydroxyl Value (AOCS CD 13 -6) 160-168
Moisture and Volatile Values (AOCS CA 2C
-25) 0.25% max
Insoluble Impurities (AOCS CA 3 -46) 0.02% max
Ricinoleic Acid Content (ISO 5508 & 5509) 85% minimum
Density @ 30 C (ISO 6883 1995 CORR.
1/1996) 0.952 minimum
Solubility in alcohol @ 20
o
C
Completely without turbidity in 2 volumes of
specially denatured alcohol formula 3A (95%)
Flash Point 280
o
C minimum
Iodine Value 82-90
RI @ 40
o
C 1.47 ʹ 1.474
Specific Gravity @ 30 C 0.954-0.96
Test for presence of other oils Negative

Castor Seed Futures Contract Specifications on the MCX (Multi Commodity Exchange, India)

Trading Unit 10 T
Quotation / Base Value 20 kg
Maximum Order Size 500 MT
Tick Size (Min Price Movement) 10 paise
Daily Price Limits 3%
Price Quotes
For a client 20000 MT
For a member collectively for all clients ʹ 25% of
the open position of the market @ any point of
time
Max Allowable Open Position
Delivery
Delivery Unit 10 MT (+/- 1%)
Delivery Period Margin 25%
Delivery Centers Babhar, Disa, Pathan, Palanpur, Visnagar
Quality Specifications
Gujarat small castorseeds packed in 75 Kg
bags. Delivery samples will have to certified
by the Exchange designated quality surveyor
Oil content (on clean seed basis) Min 47%, Acceptable (45-47%)
Foreign matter and impurities
Stones, earth, straw or chaff including castor husk
/ pod maximum % by weight is specified and
checked


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Notes from MCX, India

Cash v/s Futures Prices Relationship: In general, futures markets compensate an individual
for the cost of purchasing a commodity today, storing it and delivering it in future. As a
result, one would ordinarily expect to see an upward trend in prices as contract months go
further out. Such a condition is known as Contango and is typical of many futures markets.

However, in castor seed & castor oil the flows of demand and production are not
synchronized. Stored inventories absorb demand fluctuations in periods between
production times. There is a likelihood of shortage in the physical market and peak arrival
months in the future. This may cause the spot price to rise above the futures price between
production times. Backwardation is a condition in which spot price is higher than futures or
the futures price is lower in the distant delivery months than in the near delivery months.


SUMMARY


The castor oil market price experiences significant volatility. Uncertain oil supply, recent
development of substitutes, long storing periods & hoarding are the main reasons for the
price fluctuations. In spite of these factors, there is invariably a minimum quantity of this
commodity that is consumed annually by advanced countries.


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5 - Castor Cultivation

This chapter comprises the following topics

Introduction ʹ 5.1
Castor Crop Sowing - 5.2
Castor Crop Growth ʹ 5.3
Castor Crop Harvest ʹ 5.4
Castor Cultivation Seasons ʹ 5.5
Hybrid Castor Seeds & Genetic Engineering of Castor Plant ʹ 5.6
Yields for Castor Seeds and Castor Oil from Seed ʹ 5.7
Castor Cultivation FAQ ʹ 5.8


HIGHLIGHTS


The most suitable soils for castor are deep, moderately fertile, with slightly acidic
conditions, well drained, sandy loams.

The fertilizer dose recommended for castor is 40 N-40 P-20 K kg/ha.

The minimum rainfall needed by the castor crop is 38-50 cm (15-20 in.)

Some of the high yielding castor varieties used in India are NPH-1 (Aruna), GAUCH-4,
and TMVCH.


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5.1 Introduction to Castor Crop

The castor plant is a coarse perennial, about 10 ft tall in the tropics, with the stem 7.5ʹ15
cm in diameter. Though it is a perennial, it usually behaves as an annual in the temperate
regions. Its stems are succulent, and the plant is herbaceous. Its leaves are alternate,
orbicular, and palmately compound, with 6ʹ11 toothed lobes. Its flowers are numerous in
long inflorescences, with male flowers at the base and female flowers at the tips. Petals are
absent in both sexes, sepals number 3ʹ5. Its stamens are numerous, 5ʹ10 mm long. Its
ovary is superior, is 3-celled with a short style and 3 stigmas.

1ŚĞ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ ƉůĂŶƚ͛Ɛ ĨƌƵŝƚ ŝƐ Ă ŐůŽďŽƐĞ ĐĂƉƐƵůĞ Ϯ͘ϱ Đŵ ŝŶ ĚŝĂŵĞƚĞƌ͕ ŽŶ ĂŶ ĞůŽŶŐĂƚĞĚ ƉĞĚŝĐĞů͕
spiny, green that turns to brown on ripening. The fruit usually contains 3 seeds. The seeds
are ovoid, tick-like and shiny. They are 0.5ʹ1.5 cm long, carunculate, vari-color with base
color white, gray, brownish, yellow, brown, red, or black. The outer patterns on the fruit are
gray or brown to black, the pattern varying from fine to coarse, and in shape the outer
patterns vary from veined or finely dotted to large splotches.

While castor is an important crop known for its versatility of uses, in many parts of the
western world, including the US, the crop is not planted on a large scale. The main reason
for this is the ricin, a toxin present in the seed coat. Besides the ricin toxin, there's another
compelling reason why this crop has fallen out of favor with growers. The shiny, beetle-
shaped seeds contain powerful allergens. People who work with the off-white meal ground
from castor beans may develop allergic reactions, such as hives or asthma.

5.2 Castor Crop Sowing

Soil

Castor does well in the soil which is not fit for valuable commercial and food crops. It can be
grown on a wide range of soils, provided they are fairly deep and well drained.

The most suitable soils for castor are deep, moderately fertile, with slightly acidic
conditions, well drained, sandy loams. While castor prefers deep sandy loam soil with a pH
of around 6, it can be cultivated on soils with pH range of 5 - 8.

The recommended soil pH requirements are:
6.1 to 6.5 (mildly acidic)
6.6 to 7.5 (neutral)

In India, it is equally successful in light and heavy loams of other states. The red sandy loams
and shallow light textured black soils of Andhra Pradesh state, Karnataka state and
deep/medium sandly loams of North Gujarat state and Rajasthan state are the principal soil
types on which castor is currently grown.

Heavy clays, with poor drainage, and marshy soils are unsuitable, as they favour excessive
vegetative growth at the expense of seed yield. In general castor genotypes cannot tolerate
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alkalinity or salinity, hence, avoid such problematic soils. It is highly intolerant of water-
logging and requires free draining soils.

Land Preparation

The land is repeatedly ploughed in summer, as and when the rains are received, and with
the onset of monsoon rains the clods are crushed by working a country plough or harrow to
bring the soil into proper tilth.

For good growth, castor requires a well pulverised seed bed with loose subsoil upto 45 cm
depth. For annual varieties the seedbed must be weed free as young plants are delicate.
Good weed control is essential, both pre- and post-emergence.

It does not require fine tilth, but for germination it requires adequate moisture for a longer
period in seed bed, preferably to a depth of 15-20 cm.

Deep ploughing is found to be advantageous in many regions of India as this practice helps
in absorption and conservation of more rain water. It is also a common practice on light soil
areas to plough the land once in summer months, followed by harrowing once or twice with
the receipt of pre-monsoon rains.

In clay loams only harrowing is done by blade harrows two to three times to bring the soil to
proper tilth. In laterite soils, deep ploughing is especially advantageous to break the
compact layers in sub soil.

Sowing

Castor bean is usually planted at the start of the rainy season during the latter part of May
and early June, or at the end of the rainy season in the late September and early October.
Sow in such dates / periods as to avoid wet weather in 2nd half of the crops life.

Castor bean seeds for planting must be healthy, vigorous, hardy and come from prolific
mother plants.

After the seedbed has been deeply cultivated, seeds in mechanized countries are planted 4ʹ
7.5 cm deep in rows 1 m apart; and about 50 cm apart within rows (some varieties can be
planted just 25 cm apart).

For unmechanized societies that prefer larger varieties, seeds are planted 60 by 90 cm
apart, 2ʹ4 seeds per hole, and then thinned to one plant.

The seed is sown either in the plough furrow, with a seed-drill or by hand-dibbling.

For an increased production of seeds, castor should be planted on fallow land, and should
not follow small grains or another castor crop. In India it is rotated with groundnuts, cotton,
dryland chillies, tobacco or horsegram.

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5.3 Castor Crop Growth

Fertilizers

The fertilizer dose recommended for castor is 40 N-40 P-20 K kg/ha.

Nitrogen Recommendations for Castor Beans

Soil Organic Matter % Nitrogen Application Rate lb/acre
< 2 100
2ʹ4.9 80
5ʹ10 60
> 10 40

Castor exhausts the soil quickly. So 45ʹ135 kg/ha of nitrogen is added in split applications in
some areas. Leaves, stalks and seed hulls are disked into the field following harvest. In India
89 kg/ha of nitrogen gives the highest yields. Where phosphorus is deficient, 40ʹ50 kg/ha of
P
2
O
5
is recommended.

Castor bean needs plenty of nitrogen especially during its early development. A hectare with
1,600 hills requires complete fertilizer (14-14-14) at planting time at the rate of 30 grams
per hill. Thirty days after the plant emerges, apply 125 grams of nitrogenous fertilizer (45-0-
0) per hill. Just before flowering, apply 16-20-0 at the rate of 250 grams per hill.

Please note however that unbalanced nitrogen application encourages growth of foliage at
the expense of flower and seed formation.

Water

Castor, being a deep rooted crop, is fairly resistant to drought.

Rainfall

The castor plant is a tropical/sub-tropical species and grows in areas of low rainfall. It is
sensitive to extreme climatic changes, especially extreme changes in rainfall distribution.
The minimum rainfall needed by the castor crop is 38-50 cm (15-20 in.).

In India satisfactory yields have been obtained on sandy soils receiving a rainfall of 30-50
cm, using the varieties with capacity for extremely quick root growth. In the Indian state of
Andhra Pradesh, a rainfall of 50-60 cm is considered optimum for producing good yields on
red loams.

Castor can withstand long dry spells as well as heavy rains but is highly susceptible to water
logged conditions. The ideal pattern of rainfall distribution for optimum growth will be
approximately 10 cm in each month evenly distributed during the crop growth period. There
should not be heavy and continuous rains during flowering. Continuous rains prior to
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planting are also not desirable as it will lower the soil temperature effecting the germination
and increase the fungal diseases.

Hail storms do considerable damage to the crop especially during the seedling stage.
Defoliation due to hail prior to flowering will have little effect on final yield, but hail storm
during flowering and capsule formation will cause considerable damage to the final yield.

Irrigation

The crop must have sufficient moisture during its growing period. In Brazil 2,400 cu m of
water is applied during the 3 months between flowering and harvest, with about 400 cu m
being applied at 15 day intervals. Furrow irrigation is preferred, but adoption of sub-
irrigation has been found to reduce weed problems.

Normally, irrigation commences after plants have 6ʹ8 leaves. Over-irrigation on heavy soils
should be avoided; final irrigation should be 3ʹ4 weeks before harvest.

Climate

Castor is essentially a warm season crop, cultivated in tropical, subtropical and temperate
regions. Its cultivation is largely confined to countries lying between 400N and 400S
latitudes. It grows in tropical and subtropical regions as a perennial plant and in temperate
climate as an annual plant.

A frost free growing period of 140-190 days depending on variety is highly essential for
obtaining satisfactory yields. The regions in which castor may be grown as a commercial
crop are restricted by this lack of frost tolerant types and the need for high temperatures
(optimum 20 - 25C, over 4.5 - 6 months) and low atmospheric humidity to achieve good
yields. In Europe, only the southern part is potentially suitable for castor production.

A moderate temperature of 20-26
o
C is highly favourable during crop period for obtaining
higher yields. The plant also grows in temperatures of 26.7-40.6
o
C. Temperatures above
41
o
C, even for a relatively short period, results in the blasting of flowers and poor seed set.
The effect is more marked if it coincides with moisture stress.

A low temperature (less than 15
o
C) in the seed bed prolongs the emergence of seedlings,
and makes the seed more liable to attack by fungal diseases and insects.

The crop grows best at an elevation of 460 meters (140.24 feet) above the sea level. In India
it is being cultivated up to an attitude of 2500m, but in regions where frosts are common
during the crop season, its cultivation is restricted to altitudes of 500 m.

Crop Protection

Diseases seldom do much damage ʹ though leaf spot (Cercospora reicinella), Rust
(Melampsora oricini) and Alternaria Leaf spot may occur.
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The seedling blight and Alternaria blight cause serious losses to this crop. The sowing of the
crop in low-lying and water-logged areas should be avoided to prevent the seedling blight
from appearing.

Pests that are Harmful to Castor Plant

Several insects are pests for castor crop. In India the Capsule borer (Dichocrocis
punctiferalis) bores into young and ripening capsules; and the Castor semilooper (Achoea
janata) is a pest too. In Tanganyika, the damage by capsid and myrid bugs is a limiting factor
causing immature fruits to drop. Green stinkbugs, leaf-hoppers, leaf-miners and
grasshoppers are pests that feed on the leaves.

In Africa there is a great variety of pests. Up to 50 species of insect can damage castor,
including grasshoppers, various larvae, and the more serious pests: capsid bugs, green stink
bugs, lygus bugs, Helopeltis. Sucking pests cause damage by puncturing, rather than actual
sucking. Whether these would also be a problem in Europe is unknown. The most
troublesome fungus for castor in Europe is thought to be Alternaria ricini.

Most of these insects may be controlled by insecticides. Dusting BHC 10% in early stages or
spraying 0.1% Carbaryl on the crop will give an effective control on these pests.

Weed Control

Weed control for castor crop is based on a pre-sowing application of trifluraline and a pre-
emergence application of linuron. Due to lack of selectivity, both products are usually
applied by farmers before sowing.

Harrowing is generally carried out when plants have between 2 and 5 leaves in order to
improve chemical weed control.

Some pre-emergence herbicides may be suitable for weed control but subsequent measures
will also be likely required.

Castor Growth ʹ Other Points

Defoliation speeds up maturity and makes the harvest easier. Pruning castor plants is
necessary for them to grow more productive branches. Start pruning 2-3 months
after the plants sprout or when it is already one foot high.

In case of seed production of castor, climatic conditions prevailing in a season has
profound influence on sex expression. High temperatures coupled with humidity
provide an ideal climate for producing more male flowers, and low temperatures are
most conducive for production of female flowers. This is one reason why winter is
the most ideal season for taking up hybrid certified seed production.

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5.4 Castor Crop Harvest

The first harvest is on the 6th month and every other month thereon.

Harvesting may be done by hand methods or be completely mechanized.

In the tropics most harvesting is by hand; the spikes are cut or broken off, the capsules
stripped off into a wagon or sled, or into containers strapped on the workers. Unless the
capsules are dry, they must be spread out to dry quickly.

The improved varieties mature in about 150 to 180 days. When one or two capsules in a
bunch show signs of drying, the whole cluster is generally removed and stacked, covered
and weighed in a corner of the field or in a pit. The harvesting of unripe capsules in this
manner has an adverse effect on the oil content of the seed and hence should be avoided. It
is preferable to collect the fruits, as and when they ripen.

When the whole crop is gathered, it is dried in the sun for a few days and the threshing is
done either by beating the dried capsules with a stick or by treading them under the feet of
bullocks. Winnowing is done in the usual manner.

Harvesting - Additional Points

A new system for dehusking the seeds during harvesting has been designed. About
90% of the husks are removed by the combine harvester. Although such a system
avoids an additional cost, the cost of the harvester modification remains too high
and harvesting capacity too low. Improvement of the harvester is currently going on
but an increase of the crop area should be necessary to reduce costs.

5.5 Castor Cultivation Seasons

Sowing, Growth & Harvest Stages for the Castor Crop - India

State Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar
Guj Sow Sow Grow Grow Grow Grow Harv Harv Harv
AP Sow Sow Grow Grow Grow Grow Harv Harv Harv

World Castor Seed Harvest Seasons

Country Main Harvest Season
India Dec - Mar
China Sep - Jan
Brazil May ʹ Sep
Paraguay May ʹ Sep
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5.6 Hybrid Castor Seeds & Genetic Engineering of Castor Plant

Genetic improvement of castor has mostly been confined to the exploitation of naturally
occurring genetic variability available in the base population and limited to selection for high
yield, desirable branching type, non-shattering capsules and seeds with higher oil content.
Mass selection and pedigree methods have been largely employed for developing
genotypes with desirable attributes. Based on the exotic pistillate line TSP-10R (Classen and
Hoffman 1950), the first hybrid castor, GCH-3 was developed. Subsequently the
development of andigenous pistillate line, VP-1 which is based on TSP-10R, gave new
impetus to hybrid castor development programmes and resulted in the release of three
hybrids, GAUCH-1, GCH-2 and GCH-4. However, extensive cultivation of the varities and
hybrids under high inputs, without proper scientific management and crop rotation, has
made them vulnerable to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses. Diseases, such as wilt, root
rot, bacterial blight, botrytis grey rot, seedling blight, and insects such as semilooper,
capsule borer, spodoptera litura, red hairy caterpillar, jassids, white fly, cause considerable
damage to castor.

New sources of disease and pest resistance and tolerance to stress environments are in
constant demand by the breeders. Ricinus is considered to be a monotypic genus and R.
communis is the lone species encompassing the many polymorphic types known in the
world (Weiss 1983). Several of these types were designated as species (R.communis, R.
macrocarpus, R. microcarpus) but they are intercrossable and fertile and are not true
species as usually defined in other plants. All the castor varities that have been investigated
cytologically are diploids with a 2n number of 20 and is reported to be a secondary balanced
polyploidy with a basic number of x = 5 (singh 1976). The great variability within the single
species of this genus has not been correlated with any observable cytological differences,
inversions, duplications etc, rather than to change in the whole chromosome complement
(Perry 1943).

Success in breeding of castor with yield stability is thus limited by a lack of exploitable
genetic variability for productivity traits and sources for resistance to diseases and pests.
Breeders have to resort to alternative approaches like mutations, wide (intergeneric)
hybridization and biotechnology for the creation of genetic variability and incorporation of
desired traits into castor. The effect of irradiation on castor seed and seedlings has been the
subject of a number of studies, aimed at producing mutatnts with specifically required
characters. In most of the studies various neutron-induced morphological abnormalities
have been described (Shivraj and Ramanarao 1963). The importance of induced mutatuions
in castor is well demonstrated in the development of productive semi-dwarfs with high yield
potential an early maturity and identification of variants for sex expression (Kulkarni and
Ankineedu 1966 et al., 1968). However, mutation technique using radiations could not be
exploited for the development of genotypes resistant/tolerant to biotic stresses.

Intensive studies on plant regeneration and transformation have led to the production of
transgenic plants in many crop plants. However, techniques for tissue culture and gene
transfer in castor as well as other Euphorbiaceous plants, with the expectation of Cassara
and Herea brasiliensis, are less advanced. The introduction of foreign genes by genetic
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engineering techniques requires an efficient in vitro regeneration system for the desired
plant species. Such a system must be rapid, reliable and applicable to a broad range of
genetypes. However, regeneration of plants from callus cultures of castor has been
problematic. There are only a few reports of plantlet differentiation in castor and in most of
the cases regenerated plantlets were obtaine from apical meristems and shoot tip callus,
and the plantlets had poor survival in the soil (Athma and Reddy 1983; Reddy et al., 1986;
Genyu 1988; Sangduen et al., 1987). Efficient protocols of plant regeneration have been
developed for jatropha species (Sujatha and Dhingra 1993; Sujatha and Mukta 1996; Sujatha
et al., 2005) but lack of a reliable system of regeneration in castor is a major bottleneck for
parasexual hybridization between the two economically important genera. This review
presets the progress and future prospects of tissue culture and genetic transformation in
castor.

Castor Varities in India

The varities of castor recommended for different states of India are:

State Variety Hybrid
Andhra Pradesh
Aruna, Bhagya, sowbhagya,
Kranti (PCS-4), Jwala, DCS-9
(Jyothi), kiran (PCS-136),
Haritha (PCS-124).
Uttar Pradesh Kalpi-6, T-3, T-4
Gujarat
GAUC-1, VI-9, S-20, J-1and
GCH 7
CH-1, GCH-2, GCH-3, GCH-6,
SHB-145, GCH-7 and (SKP 84 x
SKI 215
Tamil Nadu
TMV-1, TMV-2, TMV-3, TMV-
5, SA-1, SA-2, TMV-4, Jyothi,
CO-1 TNAUCH-1 and TMVCG*
Karnataka Jwala (48-1), RC-8, Jyothi
Maharashtra AKC-1, Girija GCH-6
Rajasthan GCH-6, RHC-1
Haryana CH-1
Punjab Pb. No.1
For all states Gujarat castor-2
DCH-32 (Deepti)
DCH-177 (Deepak)
GCH-4, GCH-5, DCH 519
For entire country DCH 519 M 574 x DCS 78
* Castor hybrid recommended for cultivation in Tamil Nadu is TMVCH by Oilseeds Research Station of the
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU) Tindivanam. This hybrid matures in 160-170 days. Its seeds contain
51.7% oil. It is moderately susceptible to semilooper pest and moderately resistant to wilt and grey mould.
Source: Indian Agricultural Research Institute, 2008.

Gujarat is the largest castor seed production in India. As a result of intensive hybridization
and selection programme ďLJ ƚŚĞ SĂƌĚĂƌŬƌƵƐŚŝŶĂŐĂƌ uĂŶƚŝǁĂĚ AŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ uŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ
research center, the following castor hybrids / varieties have been developed and released
for commercial cultivation in Gujarat State.
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I. GCH - 3

After the introduction of female line TSP-10-R from USA, it was utilized extensively in
hybridization programme. As a result first castor hybrid GCH-3 (TSP-10-R x JI-15) was found
to give 88 per cent higher yield than local variety. It was released as first castor hybrid in the
state for general cultivation in 1968. It, however, had the shattering characteristic.

II. J-1

By intensive selection, a number of inbred lines were isolated from local materials from
which a promising inbred line, JI-44 was released as J-1 in 1968 which gave 11% higher yield
than local variety, S-20.

III. GAUC-1

It was developed by selection from S-20, a local variety, which showed superiority over
improved variety J-1 by yielding 23.4% higher yield. It has green stem, double bloom, flat
leaves and early maturity. It was released for general cultivation in Gujarat in 1973.

IV. GAUCH-1

After development of female line VP-1, it was utilized extensively in hybridization
programme for developing superior hybrids. Among a number of single crosses made and
tested, VBH-44 (VP-1 x VI-9) was found superior to GCH-3. It was released for general
cultivation as GAUCH-1 in 1973. It possesses green stem, triple bloom, with 16% higher yield
over GCH-3 and non-shattering habit.

V. GCH-2

It was developed from a cross, VP-1 x J1-35 in Gujarat state. It has shown superiority over
GAUCH-1 by way of giving 13% more seed yield and was released for general cultivation in
1984. It has green stem with reddish tinch, possesses triple bloom and tolerance to root rot.

VI. GCH-4

It involves VP-1 as female and 48-1 as male parent. It was tested as SHB 18 and released as
GCH-4 for general cultivation in 1985. It is resistant to wilt and gives 13.25 and 9.30% higher
yields over GAUCH-1 and GCH-2, respectively. This hybrid was released as a national hybrid
in the year 1987. It possesses mahogany stem, triple bloom and flat leaf and it is highly
suitable for irrigated condition.

VII. GC-2

The variety was developed from the cross "1-21 x VI-9" following selection. This variety
possesses Jassids and wilt tolerance and early maturity. On the basis of results of
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coordinated trials, the variety was released at national level in 1994. It has showed 15%
yield superiority over check variety, GAUC-1.
VIII. GCH-5

In involves Geeta as a female and SH-72 as a male parent. It was tested as SHB-145. It is
resistant to wilt and it showed 13% yield superiority over GCH-4. The hybrid has been
released for irrigated and medium condition at national level in 1995 and for Gujarat state
in 1997.

IX. GCH-6

It involves JP 65 as female and JI 96 as pollinator. It gives 11.58% and 14.13% higher yield
than GCH-4 under irrigated and rainfed situation, respectively. It is resistant to root rot and
tolerant to wilt.

X. GCH-7

A high yielding wilt complex resistant hybrid has recently been identified.

Development of Pistillate Lines
2

The research center has developed a versatile pistillate line of castor, VP-1, which is
derivative of (TSP-10-R x J-1) F
2
x (JP-5 x 26006) F
2
. This is one of the most versatile pistillate
line, used as female in most of the presently cultivated hybrids and it is being used in all
castor growing states of India for developing hybrids and also for the development of
pistillate lines. As a part of development of new pistillate lines, through single, double and
three way crosses, a number of new pistillate lines are developed such as SKP-1 to SKP-117.
Out of these, SKP-4, 6, 13, 16, 19, 23, 42,72, 84, 106, 108,112,113 and 114 appear to be
promising in respect of resistance to wilt disease as well as these lines possess sex stability.
A new pistillate line Geeta has been developed from the male parent of castor hybrid GCH-
4, which is resistant to wilt. Another pistillate line JP-65 having NES mechanism has been
developed at Junagadh, Gujarat, India.

Development of Promising Inbred Lines and Hybrids
3

With a view to develop new inbred lines, intensive and extensive hybridization programme
was undertaken. As a result, 321 inbred lines have been isolated from segregating materials.
The most promising inbred lines are SKI-80, 90, 147, 160, 215, 217, 218, 225, 237, 202 269
232, 266, 267, 271, 280,283,285,291, 294, 306,314; and JI-122, 102, 106, 220, 227, 244, 256,
258, 263, 273, 303, 314, 319 and 320, while the most promising hybrids are SHB 706, SHB
725 , SHB 754, SHB 758, SHB 765, SHB 795, and JHB 665, JHB 882, JHB 887, JHB 888, JHB 905
and JHB 921. Many of these lines are resistance to wilt, root-rot, reniform nematode and
nematode-wilt complex.

2 http://www.sdau.edu.in/
3 http://www.sdau.edu.in/
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International Germplasm Center

A search of International Germplasm collections on the Bioversity web site combined with
the USDA-ARS castor germplasm at Griffin, GA (USA) identified 12 major sources of
germplasm and a total of 6,588 accessions. Extensive germplasm collections are held in
Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya and the former USSR, but availability of these
germplasm resources is not known. Additional castor germplasm can be obtained from
public breeders in South America including Brazil and Columbia. The feral castor can be a
valuable source of germplasm especially for adaptation to localized diseases, pests and
environmental conditions.

Major Germplasm Collections of Castor (Ricinus communis L.) as Listed by the Bioversity
International Directory (October 14. 2008)

Country Collection Agency
Accessions
Reported
Brazil CENERGEN/EMBRAPA 360
Brazil Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodao (CNPA) 199
Brazil Ernpresa Baiana de Desenvolvimento Agricola S.A. 528
Brazil Instituto Agronomico de Campinas (l.A.C.) 200
China Institute of Crop Science (CAAS) 1,689
China Institute of Oil Crops Research (CAAS) 1,652
Ethiopia Biodiversity Conservation and Research Institute 232
India
Region Station Akola, National Bureau of Plant Genetic
Resources (NBPGR) 290
Kenya National Dryland Farming Research Station, Kenya -
Kenya
National Genehank of Kenya. Crop Plant Genetic
Resources Centre, KARl 43
Romania Agricultural Research Station Teleorman -
Russia
N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of
Plant Industry 423
Serbia Maize Research Institute 69
Serbia Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops 43
Ukraine institute for Oil Crops 255
United
States USDA-ARS-PGRCU 364
World 39 Institutes
Source: National Agriculture Library, United States Department of Agriculture

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Castor Seed Varieties & Hybrids - Salient Points

Castor beans are graded based on moisture content, percentage of cracked and
broken seeds, and amount of foreign material. The allowable moisture content is 6
per cent.
The varieties of castor differ in the branching habits of plant, colour of the stem and
branches (red and green), the nature of capsules (smooth or shiny), duration (early
or late) and the size of seed.
One of the aspects usually considered while discussing grades and varieties is the
location where the castor seed was grown and harvested.
The most commonly traded varieties in India are Gujarat small seed and
Andhra Pradesh big seed
The Gujarat seed has oil content up to 48-50% which is more than that for
the Andhra variety.
Bangkok variety has two types - Bangkok brown & Bangkok white. Bangkok
brown spotted type is generally adapted to the Philippine conditions. Its seed
has few small chestnut light on its back side and large spots on the abdominal
side. Bangkok white spotted type, on the other hand, has few small chestnut
white spots scatted on its bask side.
The Brazilian is another common variety. It grows 1.83-2.44 meters (6-8 feet)
high depending on the soil type. The stalks are dark brown, 2.5 centimeters
(1 inch) in diameter, while internodes measure 10-20 cm (4-8 inches) long.
This variety has an oil content of 49.3 per cent.
An early maturing variety with 49 per cent oil content is Ethiopian. Its red
seed is big with small white dots on both sides.
The Lamao Red variety grows 1.83-2.44 meters (6-8 feet) tall. The stalks is
more than an inch in diameter at the middle portion, reddish brown from the
base to the tip, with internodes measuring 2.54 cm (1-4 inches).
Other castor bean varieties include Cimaron, Connex, Baker No.1, Baker 195 and the
Iranian variety.
Some of the high yielding castor varieties used in India are NPH-1 (Aruna), GAUCH-4,
and TMVCH.
A castor hybrid specifically recommended for cultivation in Tamil Nadu is TMVCH.
This hybrid matures in 160-170 days. Its seeds contain 51.7% oil. It is moderately
susceptible to semilooper pest and moderately resistant to wilt and grey mould.
In Brazil, the plant has also been bred to mature at a shorter height. Whereas the
castor-oil plant traditionally reaches three meters in height, making mechanised
harvest difficult, there are now varieties that grow to just 1.7 meters. More
information is available with the state-run Brazilian Enterprise for Agricultural
Research (EMBRAPA) (May 2008)
A list of hybrid seed developments from across the world:
South Africa - Varieties Baker 44, Baker 22, II23 and UC53
India
Tamil Nadu Research Centre for TMV 5 & TMV 6
Andhra Pradesh for Kranti Kiran and Jyothi
Brazil - EMBRAPA

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Some Short Term (annual) Varieties Tested in East Africa

Variety Time To Maturity
II23 7-10 Months
UC53 7-10 Months
Baker 44 5-7 Months
Baker 22 5-7 Months
Lynn 5-7 Months

Advantages of annual varieties: Higher yield potential, seeds seldom shatter and have
uniform hull strength and thickness.

Disadvantages of annual varieties: Pest susceptibility

Castor Genetic Engineering ʹ Salient Points

While experiments with producing genetically modified castor plants and seeds are
in their early stages, scientists and researchers are confident that with the
availability of molecular-breeding tools, there is a possibility for developing castor as
a reasonably safe crop. To this end, some scientists have developed methods to
genetically transform castor, and the implementation of some of the molecular-
breeding approaches could provide significant reduction of harmful components
present in the crop. For example, antisense gene technology has been successful in
reducing expression of specific proteins by greater than 99%.
Transgenic plants expressing the gene for the enzyme Oleoyl-12-hydroxylase - which
is directly responsible for synthesis of ricinoleate - produce limited amounts of
hydroxy fatty acid. To aid in development of transgenic substitutes for castor,
scientists are trying to determine which steps in the pathway lead to accumulation of
ricinoleate in the oil. This and other techniques have allowed scientists to identify
other enzyme activities from castor that lead to the high level of ricinoleate in its
seed oil. According to one research study, the steps leading to high production of
ricinoleate and incorporation into triacylglycerol include: (i) lyso-phosphatidylcholine
acyltransferase (LPCAT), which transfers oleate from oleoyl-CoA into the sn-2
position of phosphatidylcholine (PC) for hydroxylation; (ii) oleoyl-12-hydroxylase,
which hydroxylates the sn-2 oleate to form sn-2 ricinoleoyl-PC for hydrolysis; (iii)
phospholipase A#, which preferentially removes ricinoleate from the sn-2 position
and releases lyso-PC for re-incorporation of oleate by LPCAT; (iv)
diacylglycerolacyltransferase (DAGAT) preferentially incorporates ricinoleate to form
diricinoleins and triricinolein. Using process insights such as these, scientists are
making efforts to find suitable substitutes for the castor plant that do not have
ĐĂƐƚŽƌ͛Ɛ ŶĞŐĂƚŝǀĞ ƚƌĂŝƚƐ͘ (Reference:
http://www.biochemsoctrans.org/bst/028/0972/0280972.pdf )
Scientists are also aiming to build and insert slightly different versions of genes into
the castor plant, to block the action of the ricin and allergen genes. For example,
they want to construct antisense genes, which are genes that make nonsense copies
of the authentic ricin or allergen genes.
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Epoxy Oil from Castor? - Genetic engineering might someday be used to tweak
ĐĂƐƚŽƌ͛Ɛ oil-producing mechanism so that it could yield another valuable oil, known
as epoxy. An epoxy-based paint, for example, offers all the advantages of a premium,
oil-based paint, yet does not give off certain volatile chemicals that pollute the
atmosphere. That's unlike the solvents in oil-based paints, which can be an
environmental hazard. Some scientists think that production of epoxy oil by castor
plants is possible, because the chemical structure of epoxy oil is very similar to that
of castor oil. The modification that's needed to cue the castor plant to make epoxy
oil instead of castor oil is minor, compared to genetically engineer a corn plant or a
soybean plant to make epoxy oil, because the oils that those plants make are very
unlike epoxy oil.
Other aspects that have been identified while researching genetic modification for
castor seeds - Oleoyl-12-hydroxylase is the enzyme responsible for ricinoleate
biosynthesis in castor (Ricinus communis). The hydroxylase introduces the mid-chain
hydroxyl group, resulting in a fatty acid with numerous chemical uses. Other factors
involved in the high level of ricinoleate production by castor are the steady increase
in hydroxylase activity throughout development and the decline in oleoyl
desaturase. The glycol lipid oleoyloxyethyl phosphocholine is an effective inhibitor of
hydroxylase activity, and should prove to be a useful tool in following the movement
of labelled fatty acids through lipid pools.
Thomas A. McKeon of ARS' Western Regional Research Center in Albany, California
and colleague Grace Q. Chen, both in the Crop Improvement and Utilization
Research Unit, are some of the first in the world to genetically engineer castor
plants. In preliminary experiments, McKeon and Chen used marker genes to
determine whether their tactics for shuttling new genes into plants actually worked.
Now the scientists want to give the plants other genes - ones that could, among
other things, block production of ricin poison and the powerful allergens. (a 2001
report, URL: http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/jan01/plant0101.htm )
Castor plants are gradually revealing the secrets of how they make this prized
substance. Scientists with the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in Albany, Calif.,
are delving into the mostly-mysterious mechanisms. The researchers' probing has
revealed, for the first time, the starring role that a gene called RcDGAT may play in
directing the castor plant to put the oil's most important component, its ricinoleate.
ARS research chemist Thomas A. McKeon did the work at the ARS Western Regional
Research Center in Albany along with research chemist Jiann-Tsyh Lin and ARS
research associate and molecular biologist Xiaohua He. The scientists right now are
continuing to slip the newly identified gene into yeasts in laboratory experiments
that will determine more about how to harness RcDGAT's oil-making prowess.
(based on a Dec 2005 report)
In the United States, administrators and researchers are considering the large-scale
reintroduction of castor ʹ this is largely driven by a desire to replace the significant
annual importation of castor oil with a reliable, cost-effective, domestic supply of
ricinoleic acid. Failing reintroduction of castor, efforts are afoot to so that crops that
produce high levels of oleic acid, such as sunflower or rape-seed, are being
engineered to contain the gene required to produce hydroxyleic acid, thereby
yielding the desired ricinoleic acid in an established agronomic crop. Over the near
term the acreage of traditional crops will continue to dwarf that of new crops. In the
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long-term, alternative and possibly genetically engineered crops can make important
contributions in the industrial and agricultural sectorsͶif they can compete in the
marketplace with traditional crops.
Atofina (now Arkema) to introduce genetic varieties of castor-oil plant (March, 2002)
- The French chemicals group Atofina, is negotiating with the Brazilian Embrapa
(Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria) and with EBDA (Empresa Baiana de
Desenvolvimento Agricola) the introduction of new genetic varieties of castor oil
plant in Irece, the major producer of the Bahia state.
Atofina (now Arkema) ʹ FDL Co-operation for hybrid castor seeds - FDL has set up a
castor seed joint venture project with Atofina (now Arkema) in China to try to
ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ CŚŝŶĂ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ ƐĞĞĚ ĐƌŽƉ͕ ĂŶĚ ƚŚĞƌĞďLJ ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐĞ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ ƐƵƉƉůLJ ŽĨ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů
and reduce the raw material cost of castor oil for Atofina. FDL has supplied castor oil
to Atofina for many years predominantly from India but also from Brazil and China.
FDL set up a joint venture with a partner in China to encourage experimentation,
research and development of castor seed planting within China for the past six years.
FDL ŚĂƐ ĞĂƌůŝĞƌ ǁŽƌŬĞĚ ĐůŽƐĞůLJ ǁŝƚŚ AƚŽĨŝŶĂ͛Ɛ ŚLJďƌŝĚ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ ŝŶ CĞŶƚƌĂů
America for the development of high yield hybrid seeds, and has utilised their
knowledge for the identification of suitable hybrid seeds for experimentation within
China. These hybrid seeds have been shipped to China and plantation studies have
been carried out across various regions of China for identification of the most
successful hybrids for Chinese soil and climatic conditions. (Fuerst Day Lawson (FDL)
press release, date not published)
Commercial production of transgenic canola containing 15% ricinoleic acid is
currently under way.

5.7 Yields for Castor Seeds and Castor Oil from Seed

Castor Seed Yield

Average seed yields range from 900ʹ1000 kg/ha under irrigation, and 500 kg/ha without
adequate moisture. Some improved open-pollinated varieties in Brazil yield 1,300 kg/ha,
with exceptional yields up to 5,000 kg/ha. Average Indian yields are about 1000 kg/ha.

Under exceptional circumstances in the state of Gujarat in India, seed yields of 6000 Kg /
hectare have been recorded, but it should be noted that these yields have been registered
only for some limited growth areas.

FAO Data for castor seed yields (2006)

India: 973 Kg / hectare
China: 960 Kg / hectare
Brazil: 671 Kg / hectare

Castor Oil Yield

The Indian variety of castor has 48% oil content of which 42% can be extracted, while the
cake retains the rest.
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5.8 Castor Cultivation FAQ

We have provided brief answers to some frequently asked questions related to castor crop
cultivation.

Why is castor an annual crop while it is actually a perennial?

o It has been found that of the castor crop is grown as a perennial, the yield
decreases significantly over the years. As a result, castor has primarily been
used as an annual crop.

Is harvesting done manually or is it automated?

o Most harvesting done in India is manual in nature.

Intercropping of castor with other plants?

o Intercropping refers to growing more than one crop at the same place at the
same time. While crop rotation is done in a significant manner, there have
not been any significant instances of intercropping in the context of castor.

What are the safety laws that are followed in the castor industry ʹ especially in
areas where people come in contact with the seeds and/or castor meal?

o Based on observations at castor farms and oil mills in India, no specific safety
procedures have been found, except in cases where people come in direct
contact with castor meal. Even in these cases, based on observations, it can
be said that the safety precautions taken are only minimal.

Is spreading castor meal as fertilizer not a problem to those who spread it?

o In some cases, farmers use the castor meal as a fertilizer and in these cases
they spread the meal in the farms. From our interactions with the farmers, it
can be said that there is no major risk for the person using the castor meal as
a fertilizer, though it is advisable to wear safety gloves and any other
protection required by law.

How resistant is the crop to salinity?

o The castor crop can grow in soils with a reasonable amount of salinity.
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What are the fertilizers commonly used for castor crop cultivation?

o The fertilizers used most commonly are Diammonium Phosphate and Urea.

Provide more details on castor meal as fertilizer

o It is used extensively as fertilizer. Countries that use castor meal as fertilizer
in a significant way are countries such as Korea, Taiwan etc.

Is organic castor oil produced anywhere?

o Based on interactions CastorOil.in has had with vendors in the last few years,
it can be stated that few, if any, companies have made efforts to produce
organic castor oil.

How is soil fertility maintained?

o The two primary activities understaken for soil fertility are the use of
fertilizers & crop rotation

Is there a danger to the flora and fauna in the region owing to the toxicity of castor
beans?

o Castor beans need to be consumed in order for the toxicity to affect human
benigs or animals. From our interactions and discussions with the castor oil
industry professionals, there have been few, if any, cases of human or animal
mortality owing to accidental consumption of castor beans.

What are the spacing recommendations for sowing castor?

o After the seedbed has been deeply cultivated, seeds in mechanized countries
are planted 4ʹ7.5 cm deep in rows 1 m apart; and about 50 cm apart within
rows (some varieties can be planted just 25 cm apart).

o For unmechanized societies that prefer larger varieties, seeds are planted 60
by 90 cm apart, 2ʹ4 seeds per hole, and then thinned to one plant.

Is direct sowing preferred for castor? If yes, how deep should we sow?

o Castor plant can be raised by direct sowing or by planting of nursery raised
seedlings. In direct sowing, the seeds are usually planted in a row with a
depth of 4-7 cm.
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What are the recommendations with regard to water management and irrigation
for castor cultivation?

o Castor is usually grown under rainfed conditions. However, it has been
observed that it responds very well to irrigation. Castor, being a deep-rooted
crop, can extract water from considerable depth in the soil. Irrigation may
thus be relatively heavy and less frequent. For good yields, wherever possible
two to three heavy irrigations may be given. In case of soil moisture
deficiency at flowering stage, essentially one irrigation may be provided. In
heavy rainfall areas proper drainage is essential.

o Furrow irrigation is preferred, but adoption of sub-irrigation has been found
to reduce weed problems.

When does the first flowering start for the castor plant?

o Flowering starts early in the life of castor. The first flowers normally open 40ʹ
70 days after sowing.

When does the first harvest start for castor?

o The first harvest is on the 6th month and every other month thereon.

What are the average seed yields from the castor plant?

o Average seed yields range from 900ʹ1000 kg/ha per annum under irrigated
conditions, but some states such as Gujarat have reported yields in excess of
5000 Kg/ha. The official data for India suggests an average yield of about
1000 kg of seeds per hectare per year.

What is the lifespan of the castor plant?

o For all commercial purposes, castor is an annual plant. Though it is a
perennial, it usually behaves as an annual in the temperate regions and its
seed yield decreases significantly after the first year. As a result, the plant is
used as an annual crop.

What is the average oil content in castor seed?

o The seeds contain about 48-50 percent oil by weight.

To what extent are inputs such as fertilizer, water, and pesticides are required for
the castor crop when compared to other energy and food crops?

o Castor crop requires significantly less inputs than many other energy and
food crops. For instance, it requires only about half the amount of fertilizers
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required for sunflower (for a similar area) and less than 20% of fertilizers
required for crops such as groundnuts or sorghum.

Are the seeds used for sowing of special grade/ variety, different from the seeds
harvested? If yes, what are these grades and what are the prices?

o The seeds that are used for sowing for the castor crop are different, and
belong to the high yield variety (usually hybrid seeds).


SUMMARY


Castor does well in the soil which is not fit for valuable commercial and food crops. It can be
grown on a wide range of soils, provided they are fairly deep and well drained. However, to
produce good yield, the plant requires, a minimum amount of water, fertilizer and
maintenance. Average seed yields range from 900ʹ1000 kg/ha under irrigation, though
higher yields have been reported.

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6 - Castor Oil End Uses

This chapter comprises the following topics

Current End Uses for Castor Oil and Derivatives ʹ 6.1
o End Uses ʹ by Castor Oil Grade / Derivative ʹ 6.1.1
o Castor Oil & Castor Oil Derivatives Uses ʹ By Industry ʹ 6.1.2
o Use of Castor Oil in High-end Derivatives ʹ 6.1.3
Future Possible End-uses and End User Industries for Castor Oil and Derivatives ʹ 6.2
o Biopolymers and Castor oil - 6.2.1
o Castor Oil as a Feedstock for Biodiesel ʹ 6.2.2
o Other Possible Future Uses ʹ 6.2.3


HIGHLIGHTS


Castor oil and its derivatives today find major application in soaps, lubricants, grease,
hydraulic brake fluids, paints, polymers, perfumery products, surfactants, surface
coatings and inks, telecom & engineering plastics, pharma, rubber chemicals,
polishes, flypapers, and cosmetic derivatives.

Companies such as BASF produce plastics from renewable resources which contains
about 60 per cent sebacic acid ʹ a derivative of castor oil.

Castor oil is increasingly finding application in the manufacture of polyurethane
foams. The polyurethane is produced from polyols based on castor oil.

The world's largest single use of castor oil in one product, outside the lubricants
markets, is in the manufacture of polyamide 11 (Nylon 11). The commercially
available polyamide made from castor oil is Arkema's (earlier Atofina) Rilsan Nylon
11.



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6.1 Current End Uses for Castor Oil & Derivatives

Castor oil's application range is very wide. From the attractive uses such as cosmetics to the
areas of national security involving engineering plastics, jet engine lubricants and polymers
ĨŽƌ ĞůĞĐƚƌŽŶŝĐƐ ĂŶĚ ƚĞůĞĐŽŵŵƵŶŝĐĂƚŝŽŶƐ͕ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ƉůĂLJƐ ĂŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚ ƌŽůĞ ŝŶ ƚŽĚĂLJ͛Ɛ
industry.

The chemical structure of castor oil affords a wide range of reactions to the oleochemical
industry and the unique chemicals that can be derived from it. Some of these derivatives are
on par with petrochemical products for use in several industrial applications. In fact, they
are considerably superior since they are from renewable sources, bio-degradable and eco-
friendly.

Castor oil and its derivatives today find major application in soaps (bind ingredients in
cosmetic and soap formulas, humectant for soap products), lubricants (jet engine
lubricants), grease, hydraulic brake fluids, paints (varnishes ), polymers (basic ingredient in
the production of nylon 11, nylon 6-10, polyurethanes), perfumery products, surfactants,
surface coatings and inks, telecom & engineering plastics (polyamide 11), pharma, rubber
chemicals, polishes, flypapers, in addition to other chemical derivatives and medicinal,
pharmaceutical and cosmetic derivatives.

lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ lŶĚƵƐƚƌLJ-wise Castor Oil Consumption by End-use Industry

Industry Percentage
Soaps 30
Paints 40
Lubricants & Derivatives 30
Total 100
Source: based on data from 2005 to 2007; of the total consumption of about 85000 T per year, soaps, paints
and lubricants industries consume approximately 25000 T, 35000 T and 25000 T respectively.

6.1.1 End Uses ʹ by Castor Oil Grade / Derivative

Blown Castor Oil

Blown castor oil is a potential replacement for phthalates and is used primarily as a
plasticizer for lacquers, inks, adhesives, hydraulic fluids and leathers.

Castor oil has been long used as a plasticizer for celluloid and in lacquers but the blown oil
has been discovered to perform better.

Sulfonated Castor Oil

Sulfonated castor oil is castor oil that has been treated so that it is fully dispersible in water,
thus making it perfect for bath oil products. Also called Sulfated castor oil and Turkey Red
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Oil, it was the first synthetic detergent after ordinary soap. It is also used in formulating
lubricants, softeners, and dyeing assistants.

Being an anionic surfactant, it is an active wetting agent (a chemical agent capable of
reducing the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved). As such, it is used
extensively in dyeing and in finishing of cotton and linen. Generally, the ability of castor oil
and some of its derivatives to wet surfaces make them useful as excellent carriers of
pigments and dyes.

It is of medium viscosity and is usually used in bath oil recipes along with fragrance or
essential oils, or in shampoos.

It is the only oil that will completely disperse in water. It is a surfactant and therefore makes
a wonderful base for bath oil as it mixes well with water, producing a milk bath.

For instance, it is used to emulsify essential oils so that they will dissolve in other water-
based products or for super-fatting liquid soap if you want the soap to remain transparent.
This means that the oil will combine with the water in the tub, and not leave those little oil
bubbles floating on the top of the water.

Sulfonated castor oil is also used in agriculture as organic manure, in paper industry for
defoaming, in pharmaceuticals as undecylenate, in paints, inks and in lubricants.

Alternatives to sulfonated castor oil

Recent research has shown that, on sulfonation to the hydroxyl group, long-chain alkyl
ricinoleates produce surface-active compounds. Tetradecyl ricinoleate, for instance, shows
the best surface-active behavior and seems to be much better than that of sulfonated castor
oil.

Urethane Grade Castor Oil

Urethane Grade Castor Oil is a refined grade of castor oil for specific applications that
require minimum moisture. Typical applications include use in making urethane coatings,
adhesives and inks. This grade also finds use in urethane blowing and urethane molding.

BP Grade Castor Oil

This grade is used in pharmacy & medicinal applications in Great Britain

European Pharmacopia Grade

European Pharmacopia Grade refers to the castor oil specifications as laid down by the
European Pharmacopia standards. This grade is used in pharmacy & medicinal applications
in the European Union.

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Castor Oil USP

Castor Oil USP Grade refers to the castor oil prepared in conformity with the USP norms. It is
the grade used by the pharmaceutical industry in the USA.

First Pressed Degummed Grade

Castor oil that is first pressed, filtered and then degummed has the unique lubricating
properties of castor without the excessive buildup and carbon. This grade is hence used in
the lubricant industry in a significant manner.

Dehydrated Castor Oil

DCO can be used to improve the quality of house paints, enamels, caulks, sealants and inks.
It is used as primary binder for house paints, enamels, caulk sealant, and making varnishes.
This oil also works well in clear varnishes and hard finish coatings.

By far the most important coatings use of castor oil is in the form of dehydrated castor. In
commercial manufacture of dehydrated castor oil, the aim is to produce the most valuable
material for use as a drying oil. Dehydrated castor oil is now recognized as an individual
drying oil with its own characteristic properties and advantages. The drying oils owe their
value as raw materials for decorative and protective coatings to their ability to polymerize
Žƌ ͞ĚƌLJ͟ ĂĨƚĞƌ ƚŚĞLJ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĂƉƉůŝĞĚ ƚŽ Ă ƐƵƌĨĂĐĞ ƚŽ ĨŽƌŵ ƚŽƵŐŚ͕ ĂĚŚĞƌĞŶƚ͕ ŝŵƉĞƌǀŝŽƵƐ͕ ĂŶĚ
abrasion resistance films. The advantages claimed in surface coating applications include
excellent odor and heat bleachability, good drying properties, more uniform polymer
structure, and lack of after-yellowing.

DCO has advantages over tung oil because it is non-yellowing.

DCO can be converted to dehydrated castor fatty acid by hydrolysis and distillation. This
(dehydrated castor fatty acid) is used in the manufacture of alkyd resins, coatings, appliance
finishes, primers and inks. Alkyd resins in turn are used for paints, enamels, lacquers and
varnishes with high gloss, good adhesion and wetting qualities.

The vulcanization of DCO with sulphur has been reported: factice, the resulting product, has
been found to be a rubber additive with anti-ozonant and good flow properties.

If DCO is epoxidized, the product can be evaluated in poly (vinyl) compounds as a
plasticizer/stabilizer giving rise to the possibility that epoxidized castor oil may be capable of
replacing epoxidized soybean oil.

Ethoxylated Castor Oil

Ethoxylated castor oil is a nonionic surfactant having many industrial applications.
Used in polymer coating applications
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Used in the wool scouring industry, as it is an excellent cleaning agent for grease and
oil
Used in corrosion lubricants

HCO

Hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) or castor wax is a hard, brittle wax that is insoluble. It is
produced by adding hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst.

Hydrogenation of castor oil accounts for the largest single use of castor oil for a standard
commodity.

The HCO is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, but it is soluble in hot solvents. It is
water resistant while retaining lubricity, polarity and surface wetting properties. It is this
insolubility that makes HCO valuable to the lubricants markets. It is perfect for metal
drawing lubricants and multipurpose industrial greases.

Thus it is no surprise that HCO is mainly used for coatings and greases where resistance to
moisture, oils and other petrochemical products is required. The early use of HCO in greases
was to improve texture and oxidative stability of greases exposed to high sheer stress with
little effect on structure or consistency. HCO made its debut in greases as a replacement for
traditional soap thickeners, sodium, potassium and calcium.

Hydrogenated castor oil is also utilized in the manufacture of waxes, polishes, carbon paper,
candles and crayons. In addition, it finds use in cosmetics, hair dressing, ointments, and in
the preparation of hydroxyl-stearic acid and derivatives. Sometimes, HCO is used as a paint
additive, pressure mould release agent in the manufacture of formed plastics and rubber
goods.

Some new uses of HCO: HCO based rheology modifiers ʹ see the web page -
http://www.crayvallac.com/inks/download/Castor_Wax_Tec_Bulletin.PDF

12-HSA

12 HSA is used in grease manufacture, plastics lubrication and as a raw material for the
synthesis of more complex chemicals. It is used as a high hydroxyl castor based wax, as a
wax ingredient.

When reacted with an ester, 12 HSA provides a hard finish for the automotive and small
appliance industries.

Both HCO and 12 HSA have enjoyed popularity with the growth of lithium complex greases,
which are growing to be the largest segment of the grease market. These greases have excellent
heat tolerance like the sodium greases and the water resistance of calcium greases. The addition
of 12 HSA enhances the overall performance with better texture, improved heat stability and
improved dropping points. It simplifies the grease manufacturing process because it no longer
requires milling and homogenization steps that were normally used with lithium type greases.
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12 HSA soaps are used in mineral oil-based multipurpose greases making it possible for grease
to fill the requirements of a variety of needs in the automotive and truck greases.

In cosmetics: 12 HSA may be used for gelling liquid petroleum to produce brilliance. It may
be incorporated into cold creams and vanishing creams to give a jelly-like feeling.

In paints: 12-HSA is reacted with acrylic esters to produce hard, durable thermosetting
polymers used in high-quality automotive, industrial appliance and metal decorative
finishes.

In rubbers: 12-HSA functions as an activator and internal lubricant for natural and synthetic
rubbers.

Undecylenic Acid

Undecylenic acid has a long history as antifungal drug. It is used to treat some types of
fungus infections.

Undecylenic acid is a natural fungicide and is FDA approved in over-the-counter medications
for skin disorders or problems. It is the active ingredient in medications for skin infections,
and relieves itching, burning, and irritation. For example, it is used against fungal skin
infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm, and Candida albicans. It is also used in the
treatment of psoriasis.

Most organic fatty acids are fungicidal and have been used for centuries as antimicrobial
agents, originally in the manufacture of soaps. In the last 50 years, however, they have
found use both in vitro as yeast and mold inhibitors in food stuffs, and as topical and
systemic antifungals. Undecylenic acid is an economical antifungal agent and is the active
ingredient in many topical over-the-counter antifungal preparations. Undecylenic acid has
been shown to be approximately six times more effective as an antifungal than caprylic acid,
and is effective in maintaining a healthy balance of intestinal and vaginal flora.

When undecylenic acid is treated with hydrogen bromide in a non-polar solvent in the
presence of peroxide, reverse Markownikoff addition occurs and the main product is x-
bromoundecanoic acid. The product is then treated with ammonia to give x-
aminoundecanoic acid, which is a crystalline solid. Aminoundecanoic acid is the starting
material for nylon-11.

Related Chemical Reactions

(CH
2
=CH(CH
2
)
8
COOH) Undecylenic Acid Æ HBr Æ BrCH
2
.CH
2
(CH
2
)
8
COOH

BrCH
2
.CH
2
(CH
2
)
8
COOH Æ NH
3
Æ H
2
N(CH
2
)
10
COOH (w-Aminoundecanoic Acid)

Specific applications of undecylenic acid:

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An active ingredient in many topical over-the-counter antifungal preparations like
the (tinea pedis), diaper rash, and effective against denture stomatitis and herpes.
Several studies have demonstrated that undecylenic acid is 4-5 times as powerful an
antifungal agent as caprylic acid in the same dosage.
Undecylenic acid and its derivatives have a bi-functionality: surfactant as well as
natural bio-resistance properties.
Biocide in soaps and deodorants
Surfactant in hair lotions.
Starting material for Nylon-11
Malodorous/foul smelling paper mill effluents can also be deodorized by treating
them with an effective deodorizing amount ʹ such as an alkyl or polyoxyalkylene
ester of undecylenic acid, for example methyl undecylenate or polyoxyethylene
undecylenate.
Malodorous animal feeds can be deodorized by treating them with an effective
foodstuff deodorizing amount of polyoxyalkylene ester of undecylenic acid.
There are instances where malodorous liquid animal manures & sewage sludges are
deodorized by treating the sample with a polyoxyalkylene ester of undecylenic acid.

Biochemistry and Pharmacokinetics for Undecylenic Acid

Wyss et al demonstrated more than 50 years ago that the greater the number of carbon
atoms in the fatty acid chain, the greater the fungicidal activity, up to the point exceeding
eleven carbon atoms, where solubility becomes the limiting factor. Although the fungistatic
and fungicidal effects of fatty acids have been well documented, they can be somewhat
irritating to mucous membranes in certain people, and commonly used fatty acids such as
caprylic and undecylenic acids have an objectionable taste and odor. Consequently, the
calcium, magnesium, and sodium salts of these fatty acids have been offered as reasonable
alternatives. Undecylenate salts have been shown to possess as much as four times the
fungicidal effect of undecylenic acid, and may be over 30 times more effective than caprylic
acid. Unfortunately, the antifungal effects of these fatty acid salts are more sensitive to pH
than the free fatty acids. When tested over a pH range from 4.5 to 6.0, the antifungal
activities of both undecylenic acid and calcium undecylenate are quite pronounced; the
minimal inhibitory concentration of calcium undecylenate against Candida albicans is 200
ppm at pH 6.0. However, above pH 6.0, the calcium salt is less active than the free acid,
perhaps due to the suppression of ionization of the salt at higher pH levels.

Mechanism of Action

At least one of the mechanisms underlying its anti-fungal effect is its inhibition of
morphogenesis of Candida albicans. In a study on denture liners, undecylenic acid in the
liners was found to inhibit conversion of yeast to the hyphal form. Hyphae were associated
with active infection. The authors speculated on possible mechanisms including interference
with fatty acid biosynthesis, which can inhibit germ tube (hyphae) formation. Medium-chain
fatty acids have also been shown to disrupt the pH of the cell cytoplasm by being proton
carriers.

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Undecylenic Acid for Specific Clinical Applications

Vaginal/Gastrointestinal Candidiasis - Undecylenic acid has been shown to be effective in
preventing fungal overgrowth associated with vaginal and gastrointestinal candidiasis via its
fungicidal activity.

Thrush - Since undecylenic acid acts systemically, oral administration can inhibit or even
prevent oral candidiasis, or thrush.

Dermatomycoses - Undecylenic acid is the active ingredient in Desinex[R] cream and a
number of other over-the-counter antifungals. It is responsible for the antifungal effect of
these medications against such organisms as Candida albicans, Trichophyton species,
Epidermophyton inguinale, and Microsporum audouini.

Herpes Simplex Infection - Undecylenic acid has been shown to have antibacterial and
antiviral properties in vitro and is effective topically against the herpes simplex virus in both
animals and humans.

Denture Stomatitis - Candida albicans is a major cause of denture stomatitis, an
inflammation of the tissues underlying dentures. The organism exists in two cellular
morphologies -- the round yeast form found in asymptomatic carrier states and the
branching hyphal form found in active infections. Resilient liners are frequently used to treat
denture stomatitis, and it has been demonstrated that liners containing undecylenic acid
completely inhibited the conversion of the yeast form of Candida albicans to the hyphal
form, thereby inhibiting proliferation of the yeast.

Undecylenic Acid Minor Derivatives (Source: Arkema Inc)

Undecylenic Acid - Ammonium Derivatives
o Undecylenamidopropyl betaine: C11 betaine.
ƒ A very mild, active surfactant with a dual water and oil solubility.
ƒ Especially suited to use in anti-dandruff shampoos.
ƒ A good viscosity regulator.

Undecylenic Acid - Ethanolamide Derivatives
o Ethanolamide derivatives are both oil- and water-soluble and hence can
easily be formulated:
ƒ High water solubility and high surfactant properties for haircare uses.

Undecylenic Acid - Undecylenamide MEA
o Good fungicidal and bactericidal properties, that can be added to:
ƒ Shampoos and other products to provide foam stabilization, viscosity
control...
ƒ Soaps to provide emolliency, firmness and fungicidal properties
ƒ Pharmaceutical creams and oils where fungicidal properties are
important
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ƒ Bubble bath products and shampoos, especially anti-dandruff
shampoos
ƒ Shaving creams and after-shave lotions.

Undecylenic Acid - Undecylenamide DEA
o Same applications as for undecylenamide MEA, and additionally, any use in
which increased water solubility is required
ƒ Thickener and refatting agent for special formulations
ƒ Foam stabilization and viscosity control of detergent formulations
ƒ Suitable for foot and skincare preparations
ƒ Additive for anti-dandruff shampoos.

Undecylenic Acid - Sulfosuccinate Derivatives
o Disodium Undecylenamido MEA-Sulfosuccinate
ƒ Contains the powerful solubilizing sulfonate group
ƒ A very mild anionic surfactant both to skin and eyes recommended for
application in baby shampoos and cleaning creams for its good skin
compatibility
ƒ Anti-dandruff activity: 2% active disodium mono-undecylenamido
MEA-sulfosuccinate is effective in the reduction of itching, scaling and
dandruff associated with seborrhea capitis.

Methyl 12-HSA

Methyl 12-HSA is an ester that is efficient in extending the lubrication life of grease. Greases
made with the product can be formulated to higher drop points, and they experience both less
bleeding and improved oxidative stability .The development of these products was most
beneficial in the grease processing area due to avoidance of milling and homogenizing, less
shearing and overall uniform consistency.

Methyl 12-HSA is usually sold in the liquid form and is widely used in the continuous grease
process. It has a lower melt point than 12-HSA and is, therefore, easier to handle in the liquid
form.

Main Applications

Solid pigment dispersant for colour concentrates used in plastics, inks and coatings
Mold lubricant and release agent in plastic extrusion, molding and calendaring
Plasticizer - coupling agent for hot melt adhesives and textile printing compounds
Processing aid for rubber, plastics and polymers
Used in high temperature greases

Heptaldehyde

Undecylenic acid and Heptaldehyde are starting materials for a number of perfumery
compounds & for flavours and fragrances

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Uses
o Chemical intermediates for perfumes and flavours
o Used in perfumery in the form of compounds jasmine aldehyde (alpha amyl
cinnemic aldehyde) and coconut aldehyde
o Also used in the manufacture of heptyl alcohol, heptonoic acid etc., which
have subsequent usage in various industries
o Used in rubber industry in the preparation of vulcanization accelerators
o Used as solvent in rubber & plastics industries
o Also used for emulsifiers & plasticizers
o Heptaldehyde & undecylenic acid are used to make key aroma chemicals
used in perfumes. An important aroma chemical is undecylenic aldehyde,
reportedly even used in Chanel perfumes.

Heptyl Alcohol

Used as chemical intermediates for:
Perfumes and flavours (with fruit taste)
Polymer plasticizer
Used in toilet preparations and detergents.

Undecanoic Acid

Used as chemical intermediates for perfumes/flavors, for instance, macrocyclic
musks
Used to prepare ointments with dermatophilic activity.

Undecylenic Aldehyde

Undecylenic acid is an unsaturated carboxylic acid. Undecylenic aldehyde is used to
formulate perfumes. Undecylenic aldehyde is one of the commonly used ingredients in
perfumery. Its end applications include soaps, detergents, beauty care products &
household products.

Undecylenic Alcohol

Undecylenic alcohol is a common ingredient in flavours and fragrances. Odour description:
floral, ozone, waxy.

Calcium Undecylenate

Calcium undecylenate is the calcium salt of undecylenic acid. It is derived by the vacuum
distillation of castor oil.

The antifungal properties of medium chain fatty acid increase as the chain lengthens, and
peak at 11.

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An 11 carbon mono-unsaturated fatty acid, calcium undecylenate is an extremely effective,
broad-spectrum antifungal.

Both zinc & calcium undecylenate salts are used as fungicides. The fungicidal effect of
undecylenate salts have been shown to be four times higher than that of undecylenic acid.

Calcium undecylenate is an extremely effective, well-tolerated, broad-spectrum antifungal.
Topical calcium undecylenate is specifically used on the skin to treat fungus infections.

Zinc Undecylenate

Undecylenic acid and its zinc salts are used for the treatment and prevention of superficial
fungus infections of the skin, primarily tinea pedis, as well as relieves itching, burning and
irritation

For both zinc and calcium undecylenate salts

The fungicidal effect of undecylenate salts have been shown to be four times higher than
with undecylenic acid.
Excellent skin bio-affinity due to their amphiphile structure.
No side effects or adverse reactions with preparations containing undecylenic acid
and its zinc salt (formulations of foot powder with 20% ZnUDA and 2% UDA in
talcum).
(Source: Arkema Inc)

Methyl Undecylenate

Used as chemical intermediates for:
Cosmetics/pharmaceuticals
Anti-odor formulations

Ethyl Undecylenate

Used as a flavouring agent

Esterols

Esterols are used in/for:
Bitumen emulsions (Esterol 11)
Machining oils, due to their capacity to fix sulphur
Metal working fluids (lubricity for anti-wear additive when sulfurized)
Fat liquors for leather treatment
Concrete mold release agents
Grease and lubrication formulations
Anti-foam agents

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Ricinoleic Acid

Castor oil's effectiveness is probably due in part to its unusual chemical composition - a
triglyceride of fatty acids with almost 90 percent of that fatty acid content consisting of
ricinoleic acid. Ricinoleic acid is not found in any other substance, and the high
concentration of this unusual, unsaturated fatty acid is thought to be responsible for castor
oil's remarkable healing abilities.

Ricinoleic acid is shown to be synthesized in the immature castor bean seed only after 3-4
weeks from the time of fertilization. Synthesis occurs both in the isolated embryo and the
endosperm.

While known chiefly as a purgative a few decades ago, this fatty acid now affords a wide
range of reactions enabling the formation of several derivatives. These chemicals are on par
with petrochemical products for use in several industrial applications.

Primary uses include, coatings, plastics, inks and cosmetics.
Poly (anhydrides) is hydrolytically degradable polymers which have been used as
vehicles for controlled delivery of drugs. A new class of biodegradable polyanhydrides
based on ricinoleic acid has been synthesized
Ricinoleic acid is effective in preventing the growth of numerous species of viruses,
bacteria, yeasts, and molds. It's successful as a topical treatment for ringworm,
keratoses, skin inflammation, abrasions, fungal-infected finger- and toenails, acne, and
chronic pruritus (itching). Generally, for these conditions the affected area is wrapped
each night in a castor oil-soaked cloth. Ricinoleic acid is used also as a bactericide.
Hence, washing wounds with ricinoleic acid at prescribed dilution levels is sometimes
recommended.
Ricin acts as a blood coagulant
Macrolactones and polyesters can be derived from ricinoleic acid
Ricinoleic acid has been used in contraceptive jellies
Used in soaps, amine compounds, esters in cutting oils, industrial lubricants, emulsifiers,
metal working compounds.
Ricinoleate soaps have been patented as algaecides for aquaculture systems.
Used in dispersion of pigments and dyes.
Used in resins, thermosetting acrylics and non-drying plasticizing esters.
Quaternary ammonium compounds based on ricinoleates and hydroxy stearates have
been used in for cosmetics skin and hair care, personal products, germicides and textile
processing agents.

Methyl Ricinoleate

Alkyl ricinoleates and alkyl 12-hydroxy stearates such as methyl ricinoleate are
important ingredients in various cosmetics and toiletries
Some microorganisms can transform methyl ricinoleate intŽ ɶ-decalactone, a valuable
aroma compound
Methyl ricinoleate has the potential to be used as a fuel additive to enhance the
performance of environmentally friendly fuels. As part of ongoing research efforts on
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biodiesel fuels, methyl ricinoleate has been tested as a potential lubricity additive for
petroleum diesel.
Methyl ricinoleate is a low-temperature plasticizer for rubber polymers, and for epoxy
resin systems

Zinc Ricinoleate

The zinc salt of ricinoleic acid, zinc ricinoleate finds use in the deodorants industry as a
sensitizer. Like a sponge, zinc ricinoleate traps and absorbs the odour molecules produced
by skin bacteria.

Zinc ricinoleate does not inhibit normal perspiration, and will not interfere with the natural
flora of the skin. Instead, it ͚ĨŝdžĞƐ͛ ƚŚĞ ŽĚŽƵƌƐ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞĚ ďLJ ďĂĐƚĞƌŝĂů ĚĞĐŽŵƉŽƐŝƚŝŽŶ ŝŶ ƐǁĞĂƚ
so that they cannot be released into the atmosphere and cause the characteristic sweaty
smell. In other words, it chemically binds unpleasant odorous substances in such a way that
they are no longer perceptible.

The precise mechanism of this process is not known. Based on some simulation studies, the
following were observed: In the vacuum and oil phase structures, the Zn2+ ion is almost
completely shielded by the oxygen ligands. Structural transitions are caused by the
interaction of Zinc ricinoleate with water-solvent molecules, and this results in a weakening
of the electrostatic shield. While Zinc ricinoleate is in aqueous solution, it is possible for the
nucleophilic attack of odor-active compounds to the relatively unprotected Zn2+ atom. This
results in a structural change, and this structural change, it is surmised, results in an increase
of the solubility and adsorption activity of Zinc ricinoleate.

Zinc ricinoleate is also used as a fungicide, emulsifier and stabilizer

Sebacic Acid

Sebacic Acid was named from the Latin sebaceus (tallow candle) or sebum (tallow) in
reference to its use in the manufacture of candles
One of the largest uses of Sebacic Acid is in the manufacture of Nylon 6-10. Sebacic acid and
hexamethylene diisocyanate react through condensation polymerization to produce
Nylon 6-10.
Sebacic Acid and its derivatives such as Azelaic acid have a variety of industrial uses in
plasticizers, lubricants, hydraulic fluids, cosmetics, candles, etc. They are used in the
synthesis of polyamide and alkyd resins. An isomer, isosebacic acid, has other
applications in the manufacture of extrusion plastics, adhesives, polyesters,
polyurethane resins and synthetic rubber.
Sebacic Acid is also used as an intermediate for aromatics, antiseptics and painting
materials. A large number of esters can be obtained from thousands of potential starting
materials.
It is used as a corrosion inhibitor in metalworking fluids and as a complexing agent in
greases. When mixed with amines, Sebacic acid can give a very effective water soluble
corrosion inhibitor for metal working fluids.
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Lithium hydroxystearate complex greases often utilize dibasic acids such as sebacic acid for
the more unusual performance parameters. These greases require the esters of sebacic acid,
which were developed for specific performance criteria under varying conditions. Examples:
DOS (dioctyl sebacate) is very functional in low temperature formulations and DSS (disodium
sebacate) has been used to replace sodium nitrites in aluminum greases. Its fine particle size
allows it to be added to the grease during the cool down period with no additional
processing. DMS/DBS (dimethyl sebacate/dibutyl sebacate) are synthetic base stocks that
can replace the mineral oils for environmentally friendly applications. DOS or DMS in
complexed greases improve workability and low temperature properties particularity for
applications in aircraft, trucks, automobiles and equipment exposed to arctic conditions.
The esters of sebacic acid also are used as plasticizers for vinyl resins and in the
manufacture of dioctyl sebacate - a jet lubricant and lubricant in aircooled combustion
motors.
Two derivatives of sebacic acid are used in a range of applications as well.

Dibutyl Sebacate (DBS) - Di-n-bibutyl Sebacate (DBS), is a transparent oil liquid, dissolves
ethanol and ether. This product is widely used as rocket propellant. Being non-toxic, used in
food & pharma industry as packing material It is also used as cold resistant plasticizer for
synthetic resin and synthetic rubber.

Dioctyl Sebacate (DOS) - Dioctyl Sebacate (DMS) a transparent light yellow oil liquid with a
distinct smell This product with low volatility and high-resistant, lightproof, and electrical
insulation dissolve in hydracarbons, alcohol, ether, benzene and other organic solvents.

It is mainly used by PVC, chloroethylene copolymer, nitrocellulose, ethyl cellulose and
synthetic rubber industries as plasticizer and suitable for cold resistant cables, leatherette,
thin film, sheet material, etc.

Sebacic Acid ʹ Summary of Applications

Application sector Nature of application

Nylon Nylon 6,10


Plasticizer
Dimethyl sebacate
Dioctyl sebacate
Dibutyl sebacate
Diisopropyl sebacate


Lubricant
Heat resistance lubricant oil
Epoxy solidified agent
Sebacic anhydride
Synthetic lubricating grease


Derivatives
Azelaic acid
Isosebacic acid(Isomer)


Miscellaneous
Perfumery
Pharmaceuticals

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2-Octanol

2-Octanol is the main raw material for some esters. It is used as a solvent,
dehydrater and antibubbling agent
In coal industry, it is used as floatation agent; finds uses as a frother in mineral
flotation.
In farming chemical industry too, it is used as floatation agent & for producing
emulsifiers
In chemical fiber industry, it is used as fiber oil
Used in producing the plastic plasticizer and synthetic perfume. The refined
derivative can be used to produce plasticizers such as dioctanol phthalate (DCP),
dioctanol adipate (DCA).
It can be used as a possible alternate for 2-ethylhexanol or isooctyl alcohol in the
preparation of diesters, monomeric and polymeric plasticizers.
The refined 2-Octanol is used as a raw material to produce caproic acid. In some
countries the caproic acid is used to produce ethyl caproate - a kind of flavor.

N-Heptanoic acid

n-heptanoic acid is used primarily:
in the form of esters: industrial lubricants (aviation, refrigeration, etc.),
plasticizers for laminated glass, tracer for butter etc.
in the form of salts: for aqueous anticorrosion.
as raw material for perfume, medicine and lubricating grease.
as chemical intermediate in the synthesis of emollient agents:
o in personal care: propylene glycol diheptanoate & stearyl heptanoate
o in pharmaceutical gel: neopentylglycol diheptanoate.

Allyl Undecyclenate

A white, water-soluble powder that decomposes above 200°C, it is used in cosmetics
and pharmaceuticals as a bacteriostat and fungistat
Used in pet flea shampoo

Glycerine

Glycerine is used in cosmetics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and a variety of personal care and
oral care products, as well as in other applications including animal seed, antifreeze and
certain energy uses.

Uses of glycerine by industry

Food and beverages - Humectant, solvent, sweetener, and preservative.
Pharmaceuticals - Solvent, moistener, humectant, and bodying agent in tinctures,
elixirs, ointments, and syrups; plasticizer for medicine capsules; other uses include
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suppositories, ear infection remedies, anesthetics, cough remedies, lozenges,
gargles, and carrier for antibiotics and antiseptics.
Cosmetics and toiletries - Humectant, vehicle, and emollient in toothpaste, skin
creams and lotions, shaving preparations, deodorants, and makeup.
Tobacco - Keeps tobacco moist and soft to prevent breaking and crumbling during
processing; ensures freshness in packaged cigarettes and other tobacco products.
Surface coatings - Used in the manufacture of alkyd resins, which are important
components of surface coatings.
Paper and printing - Plasticizer, humectant, and lubricant in the manufacture of
paper; used with other ingredients in specialty treatments such as grease-proofing;
alkyd resins also an important constituent of many printing inks.
Lubricants - Because of its nontoxic character, used in lubricants for food and other
machinery where product purity is essential.
Textiles - Conditioning agent used widely in lubricating, sizing, and softening yarn
and fabric; lubricates many kinds of fibers in spinning, twist setting, knitting, and
weaving operations.
Rubber and plastics - Lubricant and plasticizer for plastic.
Urethane polymers - Fundamental chemical component of polyethers for urethane
foams.
Electrical and electronics - Widely employed in manufacturing electrolytes for
electrolytic condensers, which are used in radios and neon lights, and in processes
for electrodeposition and treatment of metals.
Nitration - Used to make nitroglycerine, which is the usual explosive in dynamite and
a cardiovascular agent.

6.1.2 Castor Oil & Castor Oil Derivatives Uses ʹ By Industry

Castor oil has over 1000 patented industrial applications. It is used in the following
industries: automobile, aviation, cosmetics, drug, electrical, electronics, food,
manufacturing, plastics, and telecommunications.

Details of industry used in & the castor products used in that industry.

Agriculture

Used in
a. Fertilisers ʹ Organic Fertilisers

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Castor Meal

Food

Food grade castor oil is used in additives, flavorings, candy (e.g., chocolate), as a mold
inhibitor, and in packaging. Cremophor, also known as polyoxyethylated castor oil, is also
used in the foodstuff industry.

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Used in
a. Surfactants
b. Viscosity Reducing Additives
c. Flavourings
d. Food Packaging

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Food Grade Castor Oil
b. Polyoxyethylated Castor Oil

Textile Chemicals

Used in
a. Textile Finishing Materials
b. Dyeing Aids
c. Nylon, Synthetic Fibers & Resins
d. Synthetic Detergents
e. Surfactants, Pigment Wetting Agents

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Ethoxylated Castor Oil
b. Sulfonated Castor Oil / Turkey Red Oil
c. Methyl 12-HSA

Paper

Used in
a. Flypapers
b. Defoamer
c. Water Proofing Additive
d. Paper Coatings

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Methyl 12-HSA
b. Glycerine

Plastics & Rubber

Used in
a. Polyamide 11 (Nylon 11)
b. Polyamide 6
c. Polyurethane Foam
d. Plastic Films
e. Adhesives
f. Synthetic Resins
g. Plasticizers
h. Coupling Agents
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i. Polyols

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. 12-HSA
b. Heptaldehyde
c. Ricinoleic Acid
d. Methyl Ricinoleate
e. Sebacic Acid
f. Undecylenic Acid
g. Glycerine

Cosmetics & Perfumeries

Castor oil and derivatives are used in soaps, creams (tretinoin), shampoos, perfumes, lip
gels, lipsticks, hair oil's (increases hair luster), deodorants, lubricants, sunscreens, and many
other personal hygiene and beauty products.

Castor oil has been used in skin care products for centuries, and continues to play an
important part in the production of soaps and cosmetics. Cosmetic manufacturers use
castor oil and its derivatives in formulating non-comedogenic cosmetics (cosmetics that
don't exacerbate or contribute to acne) and emollients (softens). Undecylenic acid is also
used in cosmetics and is the active ingredient in over-the-counter medications for skin
infections and relieves itching, burning, and irritation.

Used in
a. Perfumery Products
b. Lipsticks
c. Hair Tonics
d. Shampoos
e. Polishes
f. Emulsifiers
g. Deodorants

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Castor Oil
b. Castor Oil Esters
c. Undecylenic Acid
d. Castor Wax
e. Zinc Ricinoleate
f. Heptaldehyde
g. Heptanoic Acid
h. Undecylenic Acid
i. Heptyl Alcohol
j. Ethyl Heptoate
k. Heptyl Acetate

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Electronics & Telecommunications

Used in
a. Polymers for Electronics & Telecommunications
b. Polyurethanes
c. Insulation Materials

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Castor Oil Esters
b. Polyols

Pharmaceuticals

Used in
a. Antihelmintic
b. Antidandruff
c. Cathartic
d. Emollient
e. Emulsifiers
f. Encapsulants
g. Expectorant
h. Laxatives & Purgative
i. Additives & Excipients

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Glycerine
b. Undecylenic Acid
c. Zinc Undecylenate
d. Enanthic Anhydride
e. Calcium Undecylenate
f. Hydrogenated Castor Oil

Paints, Inks & Additives

Used in
a. Inks
b. Plasticizer for Coatings
c. Varnishes
d. Lacquers
e. Paint Strippers
f. Adhesive Removers
g. Wetting & Dispersing Additives

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Polyols
b. Glycerine
c. Dimer Acid
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d. Ricinoleic Acid
e. Castor Oil
f. Dehydrated Castor Oil (DCO)

Lubricants

Vegetable oils, due to their good lubricity and biodegradability are attractive alternatives to
petroleum-derived lubricants, but oxidative stability and low temperature performance limit
their widespread use. Castor oil has better low temperature viscosity properties and high
temperature lubrication than most vegetable oils, making it useful as a lubricant in jet,
diesel, and race-car engines. Castor oil is the preferred lubricant for bicycle pumps, likely
because it doesn't dissolve natural-rubber seals. Castor oil is also one of the preferred
lubricants for model aircraft. The lubricants company Castrol took its name from castor oil.
For most of the lubrication purposes, the degummed variety of castor oil is the preferred
grade.

Used in
a. Lubricating Grease
b. Aircraft Lubricants
c. Jet Engine Lubricants
d. Racing Car Lubricants
e. Hydraulic Fluids
f. Heavy Duty Automotive Greases
g. Fuel Additives
h. Corrosion Inhibitors

Castor Products & Derivatives Used
a. Dimer Acid
b. Ricinoleic Acid
c. Castor Oil Esters
d. Blown Castor Oil
e. Heptanoic Acid
f. Hydrogenated Castor Oil
g. Hydroxy Amide Waxes
h. 12 Hydroxy Stearic Acid
i. Sebacic Acid
j. Ethoxylated Castor Oil

Bio-fuels

Castor oil, owing to its chemical structure can be used as a bio-fuel in place of petrol-based
fuels.

Biotransformation of vegetable oils through the use of enzymes as catalysts has been a
matter of intense investigation nowadays. Furthermore, the possibility of using biodiesel as
an additive to mineral diesel, to result in a sulfur-free, with a higher-cetane number fuel
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from a renewable resource has motivated the biomodification of vegetable oils towards the
reduction of environmental investments and import needs.

Other End Products Where Castor Oil & Derivatives are Used

Sealants
Components for Shatterproof Safety Glass
Embalming Fluid
Metallic Salts
Since it is has a relatively high dielectric constant (4.7), highly refined and dried castor oil
is sometimes used as a dielectric fluid within high performance high voltage capacitors.
Castor based benzoate esters - Castor-based benzoate esters, including benzoate esters
of castor oil, benzoate esters of hydrogenated castor oil, benzoate esters of cetyl
ricinoleate, and benzoate esters of octyl hydroxy stearate are used in a number of
industries. These benzoate esters of ricinoleic acid and hydroxy stearic acid are double
esters having a fatty acid group at the respective --COOH group and a benzoate group at
the --OH group. These esters are useful as vehicles or carriers, emollients or solubilizers
for toiletry, cosmetic, hair and skin care formulations.
One of the key ways of using castor oil is to produce conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs).
There is growing interest in these molecules, due to their nutritional and therapeutic
properties. Of the many ways of producing synthetic CLAs, the most attractive is
chemical conversion of castor oil, which is rich in ricinoleic acid (a hydroxylated fatty
acid), by simple dehydration of the acid. This is a direct way of producing triglycerides,
the natural matrix of fats and oils. Converting crude CLA-rich castor oil should be
possible on an industrial scale, near production sites.

Medicinal Uses of Castor Oil

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has categorized castor oil as
"generally recognized as safe and effective" (GRASE) for over-the-counter use as a laxative,
with its major site of action the small intestine.

Therapeutically, modern drugs are rarely given in a pure chemical state, so most active
ingredients are combined with excipients or additives.

For instance, Cremophor EL is a registered trademark of BASF Corp. for its version of
polyethoxylated castor oil. It is prepared by reacting 35 moles of ethylene oxide with each
mole of castor oil. Cremophor EL is a synthetic, nonionic surfactant. Its utility comes from its
ability to stabilize emulsions of nonpolar materials in aqueous systems. Cremophor EL is an
excipient or additive in drugs. Therapeutically, modern drugs are rarely given in a pure
chemical state, so most active ingredients are combined with excipients or additives such as
Cremophor EL

Castor oil, or a castor oil derivative such as Cremophor EL, is added to many modern drugs,
including:

Miconazole, an anti-fungal agent
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Paclitaxel, a mitotic inhibitor used in cancer chemotherapy
Sandimmune (cyclosporine injection, USP), an immunosuppressant drug widely used
in connection with organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune
system
Nelfinavir mesylate, an HIV protease inhibitor
Saperconazole, a triazole antifungal agent (contains Emulphor EL -719P, a castor oil
derivative)
Prograf, an immunosuppressive drug (contains HCO-60, polyoxyl 60 hydrogenated
Castor oil)
Xenaderm ointment, a topical treatment for skin ulcers is a combination of Balsam
Peru, Castor oil, and trypsin
Aci-Jel, a gel used to create or maintain the acidity of the vagina (comprises acetic
acid/oxyquinoline/ricinoleic acid ʹ vaginal)
Polyethylene glycol (PEG): Peg-40 is a hydrogenated Castor oil used in pegylation.
Pegylation is now an established method for increasing the circulating half-life of
protein and lipsomal pharmaceuticals. Pegylation agents are beneficial for patients
with cancer.
Emulphor: A polyethoxylated castor oil drug vehicle.
Taxol (paclitaxel)
Sandimmune (cyclosporine injection, USP)
Diazepam injection; superseded by lipid emulsion alternative (Diazemuls)
Vitamin K injection

Anti-cancer Drugs

An obstacle to successful chemotherapy and cancer treatment is multidrug
resistance (MDR). Cremophor from castor oil is a chemomodulator and a MDR
reversing agent used in anti-cancer drugs.
Teniposide (VM-26) has been widely used in the treatment of small cell lung cancer,
malignant lymphoma, breast cancer, etc., and the main ingredient of VM-26 solvent
(vehicle) is PECO (Cremophor).
Cremophor minimizes the negative effects of radiation chemotherapy.
Cremophor EL is a Castor oil surfactant used as a vehicle for formulation of a variety
of poorly water-soluble agents, including paclitaxel. The efficacy of paclitaxel against
some tumors may be aided by its administration in a vehicle solution containing
Cremophor.
Fulvestrant is a pure antiestrogen. In in vivo and in vitro breast cancer models,
fulvestrant has anticancer activity at least as good as tamoxifen, and is superior to
tamoxifen in some models. Fulvestrant requires intramuscular administration in a
proprietary formulation of Castor oil and alcohols.

Antifungal Drugs

Undecylenic acid is the active ingredient in over-the-counter medications for skin
infections, and relieves itching, burning, and irritation. For example, it's used against
fungal skin infections (mycosis) such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candida albicans,
etc. It's also used in the treatment of Psoriasis. Undecylenic acid also has anti-
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bacterial and anti-viral properties that are effective on viral skin infections such as
the herpes simplex virus, cold sores, warts, etc.
Cutaneous alternariosis treated with miconazole and 10 ml of Cremophor EL.

Heart & Blood Pressure Drugs

Digoxin with Cremophor helps the heart and is used to treat certain heart conditions.
The diluent Cremophor contributes to the antiproliferative effects of the taxane
paclitaxel

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Protease Inhibitors

Saquinavir (SQV) with Cremophor is a HIV specific protease inhibitor.

Organ Transplant Drugs

Cyclosporin is considered to be the best immunosuppressive molecule in
transplantation (10A) and it gets help from its vehicle Cremophor.

Use of Castor Oil to Encourage Onset of Labour

Castor oil has a long history of being used by women to encourage the onset of labour
during pregnancy. It is thought to act in one of several possible ways. By creating strong and
spasmodic cramps of the intestines (which lie around and above the uterus at the end of
pregnancy) it might cause a reflexive cramping and spasms of the uterine muscle, which
might then turn into labor. It might also work by having a dehydrating effect, which causes
uterine irritability and then labour. It could also encourage the onset of labour by
stimulating the release of prostaglandins from the inflammation of the intestines. And,
lastly, it may have no real connection to the onset of labor at all, and be merely an
unpleasant placebo.

While the effectiveness of castor oil to encourage the onset of labor is scientifically
questionable, it is generally considered safe, although there are some who believe that it
increases the risk of meconium passage in the infant. This application of castor oil has not
been well studied ʹ surprising considering how long this old remedy has been in use.

6.1.3 Use of Castor Oil in High-end Derivatives

There are a few companies that use castor oil to develop a range of derivatives.

Some prominent companies and their use of castor oil derivatives are given below:

Arkema

Main Line of Business: Industrial and speciality chemical company

Corporate Headquaters: Cedex, France
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Background: Arkema is made up of three business segments; Vinyl Products, Industrial
Chemicals and Performance Products. It is present in over 80 countries with 13,800
employees and sales of around Euro 4.4 billion (2010)

The vinyl products unit includes chlorine/soda and PVC, vinyl compounds and pipes and
profiles (Alphacan). Industrial chemicals business is involved in acrylics, polymethyl
methacrylate (PMMA), thiochemicals, fluorochemicals and hydrogen peroxide. Performance
products unit is involved in technical polymers, additives, speciality chemicals (Ceca), and
organic peroxides.

Castor Oil End Use: Nylon 11

Polyamide 11 (PA 11) or Nylon 11 is a polyamide bioplastic and is produced by Arkema
under the tradename Rilsan from castor beans. Pebax
®
stands for polyether block amide.
This high durability thermoplastic elastomer, is partially made from non-edible renewable
resource, castor oil, Pebax
®
is plasticizer free and belongs to the engineering polymers
family. The pebax
®
range enables to bridge the gap between thermoplastics and rubbers.
Pebax
®
Rnew is made up of block copolymers consisting of a sequence of polyamide 11 and
polyether segments. It can be used pure, as an additive or in blends with other polymers or
rubbers. It can also be reinforced with various fillers.

Arkema also uses many alcohols, acids and other by-products of the Rilsan® and Pebax
Rnew® manufacturing processes, which can be used by the perfumes and cosmetics, food,
pharmaceutical or leather industries.

Rilsan® PA resins have earned a preferred material status in the most demanding
applications due largely to their excellent combination of thermal, physical, chemical and
mechanical properties resulting in an outstanding cost performance ratio. Processing ease is
another major benefit of Rilsan® polyamide resins. Supplied in powder or pellet form,
Rilsan® PA resins can be processed by injection molding, extrusion, blown film extrusion,
extrusion blow molding or rotomolding. These properties have led designers to select
Rilsan® polyamides for industries as diverse as electrical cables, automotive, and pneumatic
and hydraulic hose.

Here's a detailed page (PDF) on Rilsan PA 11 properties and specifications, and comparisons
with other polymers for specific applications ʹ
http://www.solarplastics.com/solarplastics/client/materials_pdf/Elf_Atofina_Nylon_11-
12_pro.PDF

Prominent users of Arkema͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ ĚĞƌŝǀĂƚŝǀĞƐ ĂƌĞ: SCARPA, Mizuno, Smith Optics.

SCA8ÞA͕ ƚŚĞ lƚĂůŝĂŶ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ďŽŽƚƐ ĂŶĚ ƐŚŽĞƐ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞƌ ŝƐ ƵƐŝŶŐ AƌŬĞŵĂ͛Ɛ Pebax Rnew®
to manufacture its sports equipment. Arkema and Scarpa Research & Development teams
have closely collaborated on the design of a ski boot more eco-aware: the Scarpa Hurricane.
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This prototype was presented at the ISPO 08 and it was the first biobased ski boots of the
market.

MIZUNO, a leader in running footwear and apparel technology, has announced the use of
the ÞĞďĂdžΠ 8ŶĞǁ ŝŶ ďŽƚŚ ŵĞŶ͛Ɛ ĂŶĚ ǁŽŵĞŶ͛Ɛ ŵŽĚĞůƐ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ MŝnjƵŶŽ WĂǀĞ 8ŝĚĞƌ ϭϮ͕ WĂǀĞ
Inspire 5, Wave Creation 10, and Wave Nirvana 5.

Smith Optics, an eyewear manufacturing company has unveiled new sunglasses collection
that uses Rilsan® Clear G830 Rnew. A total of 20 newsunglass frame models are made
entirely of Rilsan® Clear G830 Rnew, a bio-renewable sourced polymer derived from castor
oil.

Sony has leveraged its expertise in material research to make a unique soccer ball built to
ĞŶĚƵƌĞ AĨƌŝĐĂ͛Ɛ ƌƵŐŐĞĚ ƚĞƌƌains, in which Pebax® Rnew is used. This ball features a dual
layered surface, one of them being in Pebax® Rnew, which brings 1.6 times higher durability
than conventional soccer balls. These footballs will be distributed by NGOs - UNDP (United
Nations Development Programme) and JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) -
during and after the 2010 World Cup.

Website: www.arkema.com

BASF

Main Line of Business: Chemical Company

Corporate Headquarters: New Jersey, USA

Background: 8ASl ŝƐ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ĐŚĞŵŝĐĂů ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ǁŝƚŚ ĂďŽƵƚ ϭϬϱ͕ϬϬϬ ĞŵƉůŽLJĞĞƐ͕
six Verbund sites and close to 385 production sites worldwide serves customers and
partners in almost all countries of the world.
In 2009, BASF posted ƐĂůĞƐ ŽĨ ΦϱϬ.7 billion and income before special items of approximately
Φϰ͘ϵ ďŝůůŝŽŶ.
The BASF portfolio comprises:
Chemicals
Plastics
Performance Products
Functional Solutions
Agricultural Solutions
Oil & Gas

Castor Oil End Use: Ultramid
®
BALANCE, Poly etherol

BASF produces the following two products from castor oil: Ultramid
®
BALANCE, a polyamide
6.10. This is based to the extent of about 60 per cent on sebacic acid, a renewable raw
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material derived from castor oil. This established and now revitalized material combines
product properties such as good lowtemperature impact resistance with a relatively low
density for a polyamide, which in automotive construction, for example, allows savings in
weight, associated costs and emissions.

Besides Ultramid
®
, BASF and Elastogran research and development experts have succeeded
in the development of a poly etherol made of castor oil, is called Lupranol® BALANCE 50 It is
the only NOP that can be used as a 100% drop-in for any other conventional slab polyol.
Lupranol Balance 50 is based on a content of 31 % castor-oil. This means that up to 25 per
cent of the weight in the polyure thane slabstock foam can be replaced with renewable
resources. A large part of this biomass is used in the production of Mattresses by Elastogran.
Mattresses made up of almost 25% renewable raw material.

The new product is made up of 31% castor oil. A finished mattress made with Lupranol®
BALANCE contains up to 24% by weight of castor oil, without impairing the performance of
the foam. This very high percentage of renewable raw material in the finished product is a
breakthrough in the realm of polyurethane base products.

Website: www.basf.com

Rhodia

Main Line of Business: Specialty Chemical Producer

Corporate Headquarters: Boulogne-Billancourt, Paris.

Background: Rhodia develops and produces specialty chemicals. It provides added-value
products and high-performance solutions to diversified markets, including
automotive, electronics, flavors and fragrances, health, personal and home care, consumer
goods and industrial, through its six global enterprises. Rhodia currently generates thirty
one percent of its sales with products that respond to the desire of customers and
consumers for sustainable solutions.

Castor Oil End Use: Nylon 6/10, Technyl® eXten

In Nov 2009, Rhodia SA introduced a new nylon 6/10 range of materials made in part from
castor oil.

1ŚĞ ƚĞĂŵ ŽĨ LŝĨĞ CLJĐůĞ AŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ĞdžƉĞƌƚƐ ĨƌŽŵ 8ŚŽĚŝĂ͛Ɛ 8Θu ĚĞƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚ ŵĞĂƐƵƌĞĚ Ă
significant reduction in the environmental impact related to its production from raw
materials of plant origin (i.e. a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions).

8ŚŽĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ĨƌŽŵ ƉŽůLJĂŵŝĚĞ ϲ͘ϭϬ ĐŽŶƐƚŝƚƵƚĞ ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂů ŚŝŐŚ-performance
alternatives, specifically suited to the manufacture of flexible tubes for the power-assisted
control systems market and fittings and adapters for the engine fuel systems market.

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In April 2010, Rhodia announced the launch of Technyl® eXten using polyamide 6.10,
produced in part from castor oil. Technyl® eXten has has a higher level of performance than
conventional engineering plastics. It has also reduced carbon footprint: the production of a
ton of this product requires 20% less non-renewable resources than the production of a ton
of conventional polyamide with equivalent performance properties.

According to the company, Technyl®eXten, is already helping Rocket Electric Co. Ltd. ʹ one
ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ĨŝǀĞ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞƌƐ ŽĨ ďĂƚƚĞƌLJ ĐĞůůƐ ʹ increase the service life of its AA
and AAA ranges of alkaline batteries by up to 50%.

Website: www.rhodia.com

DSM

Main Line of Business: A life sciences and materials sciences company

Corporate Headquaters: Heerlen, Netherland

Background - Royal DSM N.V. creates solutions that nourish, protect and improve
performance. Its end markets include human and animal nutrition and health, personal
care, pharmaceuticals, automotive, coatings and paint, electrical and electronics, life
protection and housing. DSM has annuĂů ŶĞƚ ƐĂůĞƐ ŽĨ ĂďŽƵƚ Φϴ ďŝůůŝŽŶ ĂŶĚ ĞŵƉůŽLJƐ ƐŽŵĞ
22,700 people worldwide. The company is headquartered in the Netherlands, with locations
on five continents. DSM is listed on Euronext Amsterdam.

Castor Oil End Use: LĐŽÞĂxxΡ, an engineering plastic

In AƉƌ ϮϬϭϬ͕ uSM LŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐ ÞůĂƐƚŝĐƐ ůĂƵŶĐŚĞĚ LĐŽÞĂxxΡ͕ Ă ďŝŽ-based, high-performance
engineering plastic. The product is involved in final approvals by several customers in the
automotive industry. LĐŽÞĂxxΡ ŝƐ Ă ůŽŶŐ-chain polyamide whose properties make it suitable
for demanding applications such as those in the automotive and electrical markets.
Approximately 70% of the polymer consists of building blocks derived from castor oil as a
renewable resource. The new material, which is based on polyamide (PA) 410, has been
developed by DSM, and is now set to be commercialized.

LĐŽÞĂxxΡ ŝƐ Ă ŚŝŐŚ-performance polyamide with excellent mechanical properties. It
combines the benefits of a high melting point of ca. 250
o
C, with a high rate of crystallization
enabling high productivity. The material has low moisture absorption and excellent chemical
and hydrolysis resistance, which makes it highly suitable for various demanding applications,
for instance in the automotive and electrical markets. A good example is its very good
resistance to salts, such as calcium chloride. Because of its low moisture absorption,
LĐŽÞĂxxΡ ǁŝůů ĂůƐŽ ŬĞĞƉ ŐŽŽĚ ƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚ ĂŶĚ ƐƚŝĨĨŶĞƐƐ ĂĨƚĞƌ ĐŽŶĚŝƚŝŽŶŝŶŐ͘

The company is targeting auto industry with the new bio-based performance materials in
response to demand from auto customers for more environmentally friendly materials.

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Website: www.dsm.com

Fujitsu Limited

Main Line of Business: ICT-based business solutions provider

Corporate Headquarters: Tokyo, Japan

Background: Fujitsu is a provider of ICT-based business solutions for the global marketplace.
With approximately 170,000 employees supporting customers in 70 countries, Fujitsu
combines a worldwide corps of systems and services experts with reliable computing and
communications products and microelectronics to deliver added value to customers.
Headquartered in Tokyo, Fujitsu Limited reported consolidated revenues of 4.6 trillion yen
(US$50 billion) for the fiscal year ended March 31, 2010.

Castor Oil End Use: Polyamide-11 (PA-11)

Fujitsu Limited and Fujitsu Laboratories Limited have developed a new polymer with a high
bio-content that uses castor oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean. The new bio-
based polymer features superior flexibility that can withstand repeated bending. This new
bio-based polymer is used for small components of notebook PCs and mobile phones, such
as connector cover.

In 2002, Fujitsu started using bio-based polymers based on polylactic acid, made from
materials including corn, in the chassis of the FMV-BIBLO notebook PC. However, in order
for plant-based materials to be used more widely in Fujitsu products, what has been needed
is the development of a new bio-based polymer with a higher bio-content that features
superior flexibility and is suitable for mass-production.

To address this need, Fujitsu and Fujitsu Laboratories worked with a major French chemical
company, Arkema, and succeeded in developing a new bio-based polymer plastic that has as
its principal component polyamide-11 (PA-11), which is derived from castor oil.

By weakening the interaction of the chain molecule in PA-11 and relaxing the stereo-
regularity of their organization, the resulting new material has sufficient flexibility to
withstand repeated bending without causing the whitening that often occurs when such
materials are strained. Moreover, Fujitsu has succeeded in developing a prototype of certain
notebook PC-cover components with an exceptionally high bio-content of 60-80%. Even
after adding high-density fillers to increase strength, the polymer maintains good impact-
resistance and thus it is hoped that the material could eventually be used in PC chasses and
other larger components.

Website: www.fujitsu-general.com

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DENSO

Main Line of Business: Supplier of advanced automotive technology, systems and
components

Corporate Headquarters: Aichi prefecture, Japan

Background: DENSO, a supplier of advanced automotive technology, systems and
components for all the world's major automakers, operates in 33 countries and regions with
approximately 120,000 employees. Global consolidated sales totaled US$32.0 billion for
fiscal year ended March 31, 2010.

Castor Oil End Use: uƵÞŽŶƚΡ ZLJƚĞůΠ 8S ŶLJůŽŶ

DENSO Corporation has developed a plant-derived resin radiator tank using an organic
compound derived from castor-oil tree. DENSO started mass-producing this new product in
the spring of 2009 for vehicles sold worldwide. "In addition to increasing installations of the
new radiator tank to more vehicles, DENSO aims to incorporate the new resin into a wide
range of products in an effort to reduce the use of limited oil resources, reduce CO
2

emissions during a product's life cycle and help prevent global warming," said Akio
Shikamura, managing officer responsible for DENSO's Thermal Systems Business Group.

The eco-friendly polymer - uƵÞŽŶƚΡ ZLJƚĞůΠ 8S ŶLJůŽŶ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ uLnSC ũŽŝŶƚůLJ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ǁŝƚŚ
DuPont Kabushiki Kaisha, is produced by a chemical reaction between two organic
compounds that are derived from castor-oil tree and petroleum. An additive, such as glass
fiber, is then added to the substance to produce the resin. Plant-derived ingredient
comprises about 40 percent of the eco-friendly resin. Since engine compartment
components, such as the radiator tank need to be extremely heat resistant and durable, it
was previously difficult to develop a resin with a high percentage of plant-derived
ingredients.

Generally, the cost increases for on-board devices that need to be resistant to calcium-
chloride, which is contained in large amounts in snow-melting agents dispensed on the road
in many colder regions. The newly developed radiator tank is more than seven times more
resistant to calcium chloride and can be produced at lower cost compared to conventional
products designed for cold regions, according to the company.

The plant-derived resin radiator end tank which can be found in some 2009 Toyota Camrys
has earned the Most Innovative Use of Plastics award in the Environment Category from the
Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) Automotive Division for Toyota and partners DENSO and
DuPont Automotive.

Website: www.globaldenso.com

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Dow India

Main Line of Business: Production of specialty chemical, advanced materials, agrosciences
and plastics.

Corporate Headquarters: Michigan, USA

Background: The Dow Chemical Company is an American multinational corporation. As of
2007, it is the second largest chemical manufacturer in the world by revenue (after BASF)
and as of February 2009, the third-largest chemical company in the world by market
capitalization (after BASF and DuPont).

uŽǁ͛Ɛ ƉƌĞƐĞŶĐĞ ŝŶ lŶĚŝĂ ďĞŐĂŶ ŝŶ ϭϵϱϳ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ÞŽůLJĐŚĞŵ LŝŵŝƚĞĚ ũŽŝŶƚ ǀĞŶƚƵƌĞ͕ ƉƌŽĚƵĐŝŶŐ
polystyrene. Dow opened its first representative office in New Delhi in 1963. Dow later
extended its operations to include the automotive and agricultural sectors along with a
Polyurethane system development center and other commercial offices.

Castor Oil End Use:

In 1995, the Dow Chemical Company set important goals to improve environment, health
and safety performance. In this backdrop, the company is using more ecofriendly products
in chemical production and one of the products under research for producing chemicals is
castor oil. Dow Chemicals along with Royal Castor Products Ltd., a Gujarat-based company
have signed a commitment to conduct research in sustainable bio-based products and
solutions using castor oil. Royal Castor has has a joint venture with a Japanese company for
manufacturing high-end castor derivatives and an exclusive tie-up with an Italian company
for speciality products.

ALTANA

Main Line of Business: Specialty chemical producer

Corporate Headquarters: Germany

Background: The name ALTANA represents a global specialty chemical group. It com-prises
the holding company ALTANA AG and four operating divisions: BYK Additives & Instruments,
ECKART Effect Pigments, ELANTAS Electrical Insulation, and ACTEGA Coatings & Sealants.
They have currently 43 operational companies and 47 application and research laboratories
worldwide.
Foreign business accounts for 84% of its total turnover. Products made by companies in the
ALTANA Group are sold in over 100 countries worldwide.

ALTANA develops, produces and sells innovative products in the specialty chemicals
business. ALTANA offers matching speciality products for coating manufactures, paint and
plastic processors, the printing and cosmetic industries, and the electrical and electronic
industry. The product range includes additives, special coatings and adhesives, effect
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pigments, sealants and compounds, impregnating resins & varnishes, and testing and
measuring instruments.

Castor Oil End Uses: Polyurethane and Lipstick

1ŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ ŚŽůĚŝŶŐ ĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐ AC1LCA ĂŶĚ LCkA81 ƵƐĞ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ĚĞƌŝǀĂƚŝǀĞƐ ĂƐ ƌĂǁ
materials in some of the products they produce.

ACTEGA Rhenania (www.actega.com) has developed a novel series of solvent-free
polyurethane adhesives for laminates to be used in packaging. Raw material involved in
polyurethane is castor oil derivative.

ECKART (www.eckart.net) is a manufacturer of metallic pigments for the paints and coatings
industry, the graphic arts industry, the plastics, lightweight concrete industries and the
cosmetics industry. The company uses castor oil as one of the ingredient in its lipstick.

Website: www.altana.com

BioSolar

Main Line of Business: Solar cell manufacturer.

Corporated Headquarters: California, USA

Background: BioSolar, Inc. has developed a breakthrough technology to produce bio-based
materials from renewable plant sources that will reduce the cost per watt of solar cells.
Most of the solar industry is focused on photovoltaic efficiency to reduce cost. BioSolar is
the first company to introduce a new dimension of cost reduction by replacing petroleum-
based plastic solar cell components with durable bio-based components. Through the
advanced manipulation of bio-based polymers, BioSolar intends to produce robust bio-
based components that meet the stringent thermal and durability requirements of current
solar cell manufacturing processes.

BioSolar materials can be used directly in conventional manufacturing systems, such as
injection molding and thin-film roll-to-roll, to create superstrate layer, substrate layer,
backsheet as well as module and panel components. Whether solar cells are produced using
crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon or other solar technologies, BioSolar can help reduce
the cost per watt through the use of its lower cost bio-based materials. By removing
petroleum from solar cells, BioSolar makes solar energy a true green source of energy.

Castor Oil End Use: BioBacksheet

Backsheets, which are a protective layer on photovoltaic solar modules, are typically made
from petroleum products. 8ŝŽSŽůĂƌ͛Ɛ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚ ŝƐ ĐĂůůĞĚ 8ŝŽ8ĂĐŬƐŚĞĞƚ ĂŶĚ ƚƌƵĞ ƚŽ ŝƚƐ ŶĂŵĞ͕
these backsheets are made from a biobased polyamide resin made from castor beans and
cotton. According to the company, their backsheets will cost 25 percent less than
conventional backsheets, which cost between $0.70 and $1 per square foot. The company
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claims that in addition to being less expensive and more sustainable, its single-layer
construction avoids the delamination problem conventional petroleum-based backsheets
may have. The proces starts with used cotton rags and turns them into a film of cellulose, a
natural fiber and then the film is blended with a type of nylon made from castor beans. The
tests conducted by the company at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory shows that
flexible plastic backsheet lasts longer.

Website: www.biosolar.com

Castor Derivatives in Deodorants and Body Lotions

The castor derivative zinc ricinoleate is used as a key ingredient in the manufacturing of
deodorants and body lotions. Prominent companies that use zinc ricinoleate as a key
ingredient are: Lavera, Avene & Janson

Lavera

Main Line of Business: Organic cosmetic company

Corporate Headquarters: Washington, USA

Background: Lavera is natural cosmetics manufacturer that offers a complete system of skin
and body care specially formulated for allergy sufferers and sensitive skin (Neutral). They
use plant based products in their products. They received the "Innovation Prize of the Year"
award in Europe at the Biofach ʹ the largest natural product expo worldwide ʹ several years
in a row.

Castor Oil End Use: Zinc ricinoleate and hydrogenated castor oil

The company uses zinc ricinoleate as one of the ingredients in its deodorant and body
lotion. It uses hydrogenated castor oil in its sunscreen lotion production.

Website: www.lavera.com

Avene

Main Line of Business: Dermatology and hydrotherapy

Corporate Headquarters: New Jersy, USA

Background: Since 1743, when the first Hydrotherapy Center was built near the Sainte-Odile
spring, the vocation of Avène has never changed: The Hydrotherapy Center is entirely
dedicated to dermatology. The therapeutic properties of Avène Thermal spring water have
been used at the Hydrotherapy Center to address a variety of dermatological conditions
such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema and burns.

Castor Oil End Use: Uses zinc ricinoleate in its deodorant production
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Website: www.aveneusa.com

Jason

Main Line of Business: Natural cosmetics

Corporate Headquarters: Boulder, Colorado

Background: Since 1959, JASON Natural Products has been the leading purveyor of pure and
natural products for skin, body, hair and oral health for the whole family, giving consumers
effective, environmentally-friendly alternatives to mass-produced, synthetic chemical
products. It features over 200 products which are manufactured using pure organic
ingrediants.

Castor Oil End Use: Uses zinc riciloneate in hand and body lotion and deodorants.

Website: www.jason-natural.com

6.2 Future Possible End-uses and End user Industries for Castor Oil and
Derivatives

1. Biopolymers
2. Biofuels
3. Others

6.2.1 Biopolymers and Castor oil

The use of oleochemicals in polymers has a long tradition. One can differentiate between
the use as polymer materials, such as linseed oil and soybean oil as drying oils, polymer
additives, such as epoxidized soybean oil as plasticizer, and building blocks for polymer, such
as dicarboxylic acids for polyesters or polyamides. Considering the large market for
polymers, the share of oleochemically based products is relatively small - or, in other terms -
the potential for these products is very high.

Oleochemicals for Polymers - Selected Examples

Product/Use Source
Polymer materials
Polymerized soybean oil, castor
oil Drying oils Soybean oil, Castor oil
Polymerized linseed oil Linoleum Linseed oil
Polymer additives
Epoxides Stabilizers, Plasticizers Soybean oil
Soaps (Ba/Cd, Ca/Zn) Stabilizers Stearic acid
Fatty acid esters, - amides, Lubricants Rapeseed oil
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waxes
Building blocks for polymers
Dicarboxylic acids
Polyamides, Polyesters, Alkyd
Resins Tall oil, Soybean oil, Castor oil
Ether-/ester polyols Polyurethanes
Sunflower oil, Linseed oil, Oleic
Acid
Source: Karlheinz Hill, Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 72, No. 7, pp. 1255ʹ1264, 2000

Building Blocks for Polymers-based on Natural Oils

Karlheinz Hill, Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 72, No. 7, pp. 1255ʹ1264, 2000

Development of new bio-materials and applications continues at a strong pace despite
practical obstacles such as high prices, limited production capacity, and the lack of an
infrastructure for effective composting. New materials and modifying agents are expanding
biopolymers' reach, particularly in the case of polylactic acid (PLA). Efforts are focused on
boosting mechanical and thermal properties so biopolymers can be effective alternatives to
less costly commodity materials.

Polylactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer originating from corn sugar fermentation is one of the
most popular biopolymers. Two other biopolymers with a much longer commercial history
are latex rubber and nylon-11 (made from a by-product of castor oil). The latter two are
applied in only a small fraction of the millions of polymer products in global commerce. The
good news is that more biopolymers are approaching commercial viability for a long list of
familiar and unfamiliar objects.

Caustic
Oxidation
Ozonolysis Dimerization Oxidation/Epoxidatio
n Epoxy Ring
Opening
E
Oleochemical
Polyois
Linoleum
Radiation Curing
Acrylates
Dimer Fatty
Acid
Azelaic Acid Sebacic
Acid
Oleic Acid
Natural Fats and
Oils
Polyurethanes
Polyamides
Nylon 6.9
Nylon 6.6.9
Polyurethanes
Laminating
Adhesives

Polyamido amines
Epoxy curing agents
Non-nylon Polyamides
Hotmelt Adhesives
Printing Ink Resins
Modification of Epoxy
Resins
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Europe is the largest market for biopolymers, with 60% of total production centered there.
Average global growth is 12.6% per year, and the overall market is expected to grow from
114 million lb in 2005 to 206 million lb by 2010. Most of that usage will still be in two
applications: compost bags and loose-fill packaging.

The quest for bio-sourcing of plastics has also brought back a castor oil-sourced polyamide.
For instance, BASF produced a nylon 6.10 about 50 years ago but the product was
discontinued. Now, with growing interest in producing plastics from renewable resources,
the company has reintroduced the material. It contains about 60 per cent sebacic acid -
derived from castor oil. It has a relatively low density for a polyamide, good low
temperature impact strength and good dimensional stability because of its low water
absorption and BASF says it is suitable for typical nylon 6 applications.

6.2.1.1 Biopolymers in Durables

While biodegradable plastics such as PLA have made strong penetration so far in disposable
consumer packaging, durable applications may not be that far behind. Japanese companies
are using biopolymers in auto interior parts and cell phone and computer housings.

Mitsubishi Motors Corp. and the Aichi Industrial Technology Institute have developed a
biopolymer of polybutylene succinate (PBS) and bamboo fiber for auto interiors. PBS is
made from 1,4-butanediol (a petrochemical) and succinic acid (a product of fermenting
sugar cane or corn). The fiber-reinforced material is said to provide greater rigidity and
strength.

Meanwhile, Fujitsu Ltd. and Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd., Tokyo, have chosen Rilsan nylon 11
from Arkema for notebook PCs and cell phones. Based on castor oil, nylon 11 is typically
used in automotive tubing and air-brake hose. Formulations contain 60% to 80% nylon 11
with high-density fillers for increased strength. Previously, the Fujitsu companies developed
a notebook PC housing based on PLA and PLA/polycarbonate blends (the latter in
cooperation with Toray Industries). This was its FMV BIBLO notebook PC series, which it had
manufactured using a material called Ecodear. For its current product, Fujitsu is developing
a castor oil derived PA 11 plastic with Arkema, which is more flexible and will help expand
its use of bio-plastics in notebook computers. The material can withstand repeated bending
thanks to scientists weakening the interaction of the chain molecule in PA 11 and relaxing
the stereoregularity of their organisation. The improved durability means its prototypes of
PC cover components consist of 60-80 percent of the new bioplastic, an unprecedented
achievement to date. (Reference URL from Fujitsu -
http://www.fujitsu.com/global/news/pr/archives/month/2006/20061207-01.html & based
on a July 2007 news report)

In Dec 2008, Toyota announced plans to use plant-derived plastic in more vehicle models,
starting with hybrids next years. The company said that it will use a variety of materials
(polylactic acid, plant-derived polyester, castor oil derivatives and more) to make seat
cushions, sun visors, trunk liners, door trim, scuff plates and other interior parts. In 2009,
the company hopes for bioplastic to account for 60 percent of the interior parts of vehicles
it's used in.
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In Dec 2008, solar cells manufacturer BioSolar announced that it planned to use biomass in
solar panel components in an effort to reduce the costs of solar cells, thus replacing
petroleum-based solar panel components with durable biomass-based plastic materials.
According to BioSolar, one of its first product offerings, a BioBacksheet, is in the pre-
production phase. The product forms the bottom layer of most crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar
cellsͶa layer traditionally comprised of petroleum-based plastics. BioSolar will use primarily
recycled cotton in combination with natural polymers derived from castor bean oil in its
BioBacksheet product, according to the company.

In Jan 2009, Icynene Inc. ( www.icynene.com ), a manufacturer of opencell foam insulation
products introduced castor-based spray foam insulation. ICYNENE LD-R-ϱϬΡ ŝƐ Ă ƌĞŶĞǁĂďůĞ-
based foam insulation and air barrier material that reduces the need for petroleum-based
polyols. The product was made using castor oil and exceeds United States Department of
Agriculture (USDA) requirements for a rapidly renewable product.

In Feb 2009, Keetsa, a San Francisco retailer that calls itself "the eco-friendly mattress
store," announced it was selling mattresses made from a material it enthusiastically
promotes as "BioFoam". This contains a polyurethane foam that partially utilized castor oil
(The other 88 percent, though, is still petroleum-based)

After two years of research and development, French nylon yarn specialist SOFILA
announced in March 2010 that it had developed a new commercially available range of high
performance nylon yarns, produced using bio-polymers derived from the castor oil plant.
1ŚĞ ŶĞǁ ͚CƌĞĞŶĨŝů͛ LJĂƌŶƐ ŚĂǀĞ ďĞĞŶ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚ ďLJ SŽĨŝůĂ ŝŶ ƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƐŚŝƉ ǁŝƚŚ ĐŚĞŵŝĐĂů
ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ AƌŬĞŵĂ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŚĂƐ ƐƵƉƉůŝĞĚ ŝƚƐ ͚8ŝůƐĂŶ͛ ƉŽůLJĂŵŝĚĞ ϭϭ ƉŽůLJŵĞƌ ƚŽ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ ƚŚĞ
yarns. These yarns have been presented at Premiere Vision in Paris last year and were under
trial (as of March 2010) by major French and European textile brands, for instance in hosiery
and socks.

With the growth in the biopolymers industry, it is expected that there will be a simultaneous
demand for the suitable grades of castor oil.

6.2.1.2 Castor Oil Polyurethane

Castor oil is increasingly finding application in the manufacture of polyurethane foams. The
polyurethane is produced from polyols based on castor oil.

Polyols are compounds in which multiple hydroxyl functional groups are available for
organic reactions. A molecule with two hydroxyl groups is a diol, one with three is a triol,
and one with four is a tetrol and so on. The main use of polymeric polyols is as reactants to
make other polymers.

Polyols can be reacted with diisocyanates to make polyurethanes.

An isocyanate is a functional group of atoms ʹN=C=O (1 nitrogen, 1 carbon, 1 oxygen). Any
organic compound which contains an isocyanate group may also be referred to in brief as an
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isocyanate. An isocyanate may have more than one isocyanate group. An isocyanate that
has two isocyanate groups is known as a diisocyanate. These diisocyanates are reacted with
castor oil polyols in the production of polyurethanes.

Polyurethane is ultimately used to make elastomeric shoe soles, fibers, foam insulation for
appliances, adhesives, mattresses, automotive seats and so on.

There are a limited number of naturally occurring vegetable oils (triglycerides) which contain
the unreacted hydroxyl groups that account for both the name and important reactivity of
these polyols. Castor oil is the only commercially-available natural oil polyol that is produced
directly from a plant source: all other natural oil polyols require chemical modification of the
oils directly available from plants.

The hope is that using renewable resources feedstocks such as castor oil for polyols and
subsequently polyurethane production will reduce the demand on non-renewable fossil
fuels currently used in the chemical industry and reduce the overall production of carbon
dioxide, the most notable greenhouse gas.

Features of Castor Oil Based Polyurethane

Æ Superior to PPG (Polypropylene Glycol) or polyester in water and hydrolysis resistance
Æ Superior to PPG or polyester in insulation
Æ Lower viscosity than Polybutadiene or Polyester
Æ One of the most challenging issues of polyurethane flooring is heat and humidity. The
urethane produced from castor oil is stable under high heat and humidity.

A typical polyurethane formulation:

Composition

Polyol: 61.4 %
Extender pigment: 23.1 %
Pigment: 5.0 %
Dehydrating agent: 10.0 %
Deformer: 0.3 %
Wetting agent: 0.3 %
Crosslinker: 100.0
Formulation rate: 3/1

6.2.1.3 Nylon

Nylon 11

The world's largest single use of castor oil in one product, outside the lubricants markets, is
in the manufacture of polyamide 11 (Nylon 11). The commercially available polyamide made
from castor oil is Arkema's (earlier Atofina) Rilsan Nylon 11.

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The world's only producer of polyamide 11 using amino-undecanoic acid, Arkema controls
the entire production chain for Rilsan ® A and B thanks to the resources of TotalFinaElf, its
parent company, and Costacem, its subsidiary specialising in the production of seeds for
castor plants. With its extensive and wide-ranging properties, Rilsan ® has become a pioneer
in many diverse areas, and remains the choice polymer of high tech industries for the
manufacture of parts requiring optimum reliability.

Wide-ranging powders and application processes accommodating various types of support
have made Rilsan ® the choice material for coating. Uses of Rilsan ® include:

Polyamides 11 and 12 (Rilsan ®): automotive parts (fuel lines, pneumatic brake lines
for heavy goods vehicles, sheathing for control cable, air-conditioning ducts);
components for precision mechanical and electrical industries; flexible tubing for
compressed air, hydraulics and oil industry (offshore extraction); aviation parts
(alkaline battery trays).
Thermoplastic polyamide coating powders (Rilsan ®): protection of automotive parts
(clutch controls, bumpers, brake lines), protection of materials for construction and
public works (cladding, aluminium profiles, heating pipes and fittings, soundproofing
walls, stadium seating, etc.), printing components (press rollers), water pipes,
pipelines and various equipment (dishwasher baskets, refrigerator shelves, garden
furniture, screws, nuts and bolts, haberdashery (hooks, buckles), etc.

Nylon 11 has been produced from 11-aminoundecanoic acid.

The process to make Nylon 11 from castor oil is quite involved and includes several reaction
steps, but briefly, it is as follows:

Castor oil is converted to methyl ricinoleate by treatment with methyl alcohol. Methyl
ricinoleate is pyrolysed at high temperature yielding heptaldehyde, methyl undecylenate
and a small amount of fatty acids. Methyl undecylenate is hydrolysed to produce
undecylenic acid.

When undecylenic acid is treated with hydrogen bromide in a non-polar solvent in the
presence of peroxide, reverse Markownikoff addition occurs and the main product is x-
bromoundecanoic acid. This is then treated with ammonia to give x-aminoundecanoic acid,
which is a crystalline solid. Aminoundecanoic acid is the starting material for nylon-11.

(CH
2
=CH(CH
2
)
8
COOH) Undecylenic Acid Æ HBr Æ BrCH
2
.CH
2
(CH
2
)
8
COOH (x-
bromoundecanoic acid)

BrCH
2
.CH
2
(CH
2
)
8
COOH Æ NH
3
Æ H
2
N(CH
2
)
10
COOH (w-Aminoundecanoic Acid)

Compared to its predecessors, Nylon 6, 6-6 and 6-10, Nylon 11 has the lowest melting point,
lowest specific gravity and the lowest moisture absorption. It is also resistant to acid and
alkaline reagents or oxidizing agents. These qualities of castor oil are of particular
importance in its use in high quality engineering plastics and in durable protective coatings.

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Structure of Nylon-11 / Polyamide-11.



Arkema has now extended the technology into TPEs (thermo plastic elastomers) by
producing a grade of its Pebax polyether block amide with the nylon block using the nylon
11 chemistry. The new grade is being sold as Pebax RNew in 25 to 72D hardness.

Polyamide from BASF

The quest for bio-sourcing of plastics has brought back a castor oil-sourced polyamide from
BASF's old chemistry notebooks. Produced from Sebacic acid, this has a relatively low
density for a polyamide, with good low temperature impact strength and good dimensional
stability because of its low water absorption, and BASF says it is suitable for typical Nylon 6
applications and those where nylon 6 has shown limitations.

Nylon 6/10

At the end of 2009, the company announced that it was introducing a new nylon 6/10 range
of materials made in part from castor oil.

Research & Trends in Castor Oil Based Biopolymers

Castor oil based polyurethane adhesives for wood-to-wood bonding - Most
adhesives are polymeric adhesives, and if made from renewable sources they will
have low cost and biodegradability which are of importance. In view of these
properties research is being done on polyurethane (PU) adhesives from different
polyester polyols obtained from castor oil.
Lactic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid Based Copolyesters - Copolyesters based on purified
ricinoleic (RA) and lactic (LA) acids with different RA:LA ratios have been synthesized
by thermal polycondensation and by transesterification of high molecular weight
poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with ricinoleic acid and repolyesterification. Transesterification
of high molecular weight PLA with pure ricinoleic acid and repolymerization of those
oligomers by condensation resulted in multiblock P (PLA-RA) copolyesters of
molecular weights between 6000 and 14000.
Ricinoleic acid-based biopolymers as drug carriers - Polyanhydrides synthesized from
pure ricinoleic acid half-esters with maleic and succinic anhydrides have been shown
to possess desired physicochemical and mechanical properties for use as drug
carriers. Biocompatibility studies have demonstrated their toxicological inertness
and biodegradability.
Millable polyurethane elastomers based on difunctional castor oil and poly
(propylene glycol), 2,4-toluene diisocyanate and 1,4-butane diol were prepared and
cured using toluene diisocyanate dimer as crosslinking agent. All elastomers were
characterized by conventional methods. Physical, thermal and mechanical properties
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of elastomers were studied. Investigation of these properties showed that the
elastomers could be tailor made in order to fulfill industrial needs (based on a 2003
research paper).
Modification of the biopolymer castor oil with free isocyanate groups to be applied
as bioadhesive - June 2006 - Surgical adhesives have been used for several
applications, including haemostasis, sealing air leakages and tissue adhesion.
Recently, efforts have been made to develop a biodegradable urethane-based
bioadhesive based on castor oil containing free isocyanate groups. This material
presents the advantage of being biodegradable, biocompatible and having the
capacity of reacting with amino groups present in the biological molecules.
Polyesteramide resins from dehydrated castor oil and various dibasic acids - Attempt
has been made in this study, to utilize castor oil in the preparation of polyesteramide
resins. Castor oil was first converted into dehydrated castor oils (DCO) to improve
drying characteristics. DCO was then converted into diethanolamide {(N, N- bis
hydroxethyl) castor oil amide} of mixed fatty acids using 0.5 per cent sodium
methoxide as a catalyst and converted to polyesteramide resins after reacting with
various dibasic acids such as phthalic anhydride, sebacic, succinic and adipic acids in
presence of xylene as azeotropic solvent. The resins obtained were then analysed for
its physico-chemical, film performance properties and resistance to various
chemicals ʹ (Source: Author(s): Pradeep G. Shende, Abhijit B. Jadhav, Shrikant B.
Dabhade; Journal: Pigment & Resin Technology, Year: 2002)
Electrical characterization of castor-oil resins - Several Brazilian research works have
shown that new materials, based on polyurethane resins derived from castor oil,
have had great success in the medical field. This could in fact be expected because of
their stable physical and chemical properties. In this work, using the same fabrication
techniques, thin films and circular plates of 1-2 mm thickness, of these resins were
made and electrically characterized. Tests for a.c. electrical breakdown, permittivity,
d.c. insulation resistance and dissipation factor show that these materials are very
good insulators. Internal insulators and conductor covers are among their main
applications. Their mechanical properties are also presented and discussed ʹ
(Source: Gonzaga, D.P.; Murakami, C.R.; Chierice, G.O.; Altafim, R.A.C. Electrical
Insulation, 1998. Conference Record of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on
Volume 1, Issue , 7-10 Jun 1998 Page(s):181 - 185 vol.1)

6.2.2 Castor Oil as Feedstock for Biodiesel

Castor oil, owing to its chemical structure has the potential to be used as a bio-fuel in place
of petrol-based fuels. In the last few years, there has been a growing debate on whether
castor oil can be an effective biofuel (biodiesel) stock. This section analyses this issue in
detail.

Can castor oil become an efficient bio-fuel and bio-diesel?

This question is answered by analyzing the following:

Characteristics of oils or fats affecting their suitability for use as fuel
Characteristics of efficient bio-fuels and bio-diesels
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How does the bio-diesel derived from castor oil rate on the above aspects?
8ĂƐĞĚ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĂďŽǀĞ ƚŚƌĞĞ ĂƐƉĞĐƚƐ͕ ƉƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJ ŝŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ĨŽƌ ͞cĂŶ cĂƐƚŽƌ Oŝů MĂŬĞ Ă CŽŽĚ
8ŝŽĚŝĞƐĞů͍͟

Characteristics of Oils Affecting their Suitability for Use as Fuel

The following aspects need to be considered while evaluating a plant oil feedstock for
biofuel.

Calorific Value, Heat of Combustion ʹ Heating Value or Heat of Combustion, is the amount
of heating energy released by the combustion of a unit value of fuels.

Melt Point or Pour Point - Melt or pour point refers to the temperature at which the oil in
solid form starts to melt or pour. In cases where the temperatures fall below the melt point,
the entire fuel system including all fuel lines and fuel tank will need to be heated.

Cloud Point - The temperature at which oil starts to solidify is known as the cloud point.
While operating an engine at temperatures below Žŝů͛Ɛ cloud point, heating will be
necessary in order to avoid waxing of the fuel.

Flash Point (FP) - The flash point temperature of diesel fuel is the minimum temperature at
which the fuel will ignite (flash) on application of an ignition source. Flash point varies
ŝŶǀĞƌƐĞůLJ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĨƵĞů͛Ɛ ǀŽůĂƚŝůŝƚLJ͘ Minimum flash point temperatures are required for
proper safety and handling of diesel fuel.

Iodine Value (IV) - Iodine Value (IV) is a value of the amount of iodine, measured in grams,
absorbed by 100 grams of given oil.

Iodine value (or Iodine number) is commonly used as a measure of the chemical stability
properties of different biodiesel fuels. The Iodine value is determined by measuring the
number of double bonds in the mixture of fatty acid chains in the fuel by introducing iodine
into 100 grams of the sample under test and measuring how many grams of that iodine are
absorbed. Iodine absorption occurs at double bond positions - thus a higher IV number
indicates a higher quantity of double bonds in the sample, greater potential to polymerise
and hence lesser stability.

Iodine Numbers for some plant oils (before conversion into biodiesel)
Coconut oil: 10
Rapeseed oil: 94-120
Soybean oil: 117-143
Sardine oil: 185
Castor oil: 60-70

Iodine Numbers after conversion to biodiesel through transesterification (approximate
values):
Rapeseed Methyl Ester (Rapeseed Biodiesel): 97
Rapeseed Ethyl Ester (Another variety of Rapessed biodiesel): 100
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Soy Ethyl Ester (Soy biodiesel variety 1): 123
Soy Methyl Ester (Soy biodiesel variety 2): 133
Castor methyl ester: 60 (estimate)

One can hence see that the process of transesterification (conversion of plant oil into
biodiesel) reduces the iodine value by a small extent.

Viscosity ʹ Viscosity refers to the thickness of the oil, and is determined by measuring the
amount of time taken for a given measure of oil to pass through an orifice of a specified size.
Viscosity affects injector lubrication and fuel atomization. Fuels with low viscosity may not
provide sufficient lubrication for the precision fit of fuel injection pumps, resulting in
leakage or increased wear. Fuel atomization is also affected by fuel viscosity. Diesel fuels
with high viscosity tend to form larger droplets on injection which can cause poor
combustion, increased exhaust smoke and emissions.

Aniline Point/Cetane Number (CN) - Is a relative measure of the interval between the
beginning of injection and autoignition of the fuel. The higher the cetane number, the
shorter the delay interval and the greater its combustibility. Fuels with low Cetane Numbers
will result in difficult starting, noise and exhaust smoke. In general, diesel engines will
operate better on fuels with cetane numbers above 50.

Density ʹ Is the weight per unit volume. Oils that are denser contain more energy. For
example, petrol and diesel fuels give comparable energy by weight, but diesel is denser and
hence gives more energy per litre.
The aspects listed above are the key aspects that determine the efficiency of a fuel for diesel
engines. There are other aspects/characteristics which do not have a direct bearing on the
performance, but are important for reasons such as environmental impact etc. These are:

Ash Percentage - Ash is a measure of the amount of metals contained in the fuel. High
concentrations of these materials can cause injector tip plugging, combustion deposits and
injection system wear.

Ash content for bio-fuels is typically lower than that for most coals, and sulfur content is
much lower than that for many fossil fuels. Unlike coal ash, which may contain toxic metals
and other trace contaminants, biomass ash may be used as a soil amendment to help
replenish nutrients removed by harvest.

Sulfur Percentage - The percentage by weight, of sulfur in the fuel Sulfur content is limited
by law to very small percentages for diesel fuel used in on-road applications.

Potassium Percentage - The percentage by weight of potassium in the fuel

Characteristics of Efficient Bio-fuels and Bio-diesel

What are the most desirable values for biodiesel, for the above characteristics? This section
provides the details.

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Biodiesel is noteworthy for its similarity to petroleum-derived diesel fuel, while at the same
time having negligible sulfur and ash content. Bioethanol has only about 70% the heating
value of petroleum distillates such as gasoline, but its sulfur and ash contents are also very
low. Both of these liquid fuels have lower vapor pressure and flammability than their
petroleum-based competitors ʹ an advantage in some cases (e.g. use in confined spaces
such as mines) but a disadvantage in others (e.g. engine starting at cold temperatures).

Despite their wide range of possible sources, biomass feedstocks are remarkably uniform in
many of their fuel properties, compared with feedstocks such as coal or petroleum. For
example, there are many kinds of coals whose gross heating value ranges from 20 to 30 GJ/T
(gigajoules per metric ton). However, nearly all kinds of biomass feedstocks destined for
combustion fall in the range 15-19 GJ/T. For most agricultural residues, the heating values
are even more uniform ʹ about 15-17 GJ/T (6450-7300 Btu/lb); the values for most woody
materials are 18-19 GJ/T (7750-8200 Btu/lb).

However, in contrast to their fairly uniform physical properties, biomass fuels are rather
heterogeneous with respect to their chemical elemental composition.

Most biomass materials are more reactive than coal, with higher ignition stability. This
characteristic also makes them easier to process thermochemically into higher-value fuels
such as methanol or hydrogen.

Engine Manufactures Association (EMA) Recommended Guideline on Diesel Fuel

Property Test Method
FQP-1A EMA
#1 DF(1)
FQP-1A EMA
#2 DF(1)
Flash Point, °C min. D 93 38 52
Water, ppm max D1744 200 200
Sediment, ppm max D2276 or D5452 10 10
Distillation % Vol. Recovery, °C D 86
90%, max. 272 332
95%, max. 288 355
Kinematic Viscosity, 40 °C D 445 1.3 - 2.4 1.9 - 4.1
Ash, % max. D 482 0.01 0.01
Sulfur, % max. D 2622 0.05 0.05
Copper Corrosion, max. D 130 3b 3b
Cetane Number, min. D 613 50 50
Cetane Index, min. D 4737 45 45
Rams Carbon, 10% residue max. D 524 0.15 0.15
API Gravity, max. D 287 43 39
Lubricity, g. min. D6078(2) 3100 3100
Accelerated Stability, mg/L max. D 2274 15 15
Detergency - L10 Injector CRC Rating <10 <10
Depositing Test % Flow Loss <6 <6
Low Temperature Flow, °C D2500 or D4539 (3) (3)
Microbial Growth (4) (4)
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Biodiesel Requirements (ASTM, 2003a)

Properties Test Methods Limits Units
Flash Point (closed cup) D 93 130.0 minimum
o
C
Water & Sediments D 2709 0.050 maximum % volume
Kinematic Viscosity (40
o
C) D 445 1.9-6.0 mm
2
/s
Sulfated Ash D 874 0.020 maximum % mass
Sulphur D 5453 0.05 maximum % mass
Cetane Number D 613 47 minimum
Cloud Point D 2500
Higher than that for petro-
diesel
o
C
Carbon Residue D 4530 0.050 maximum % mass
Acid Number D 664 0.80 maximum mg KOH/g
Free Glycerine D 6584 0.020 % mass
Total Glycerine D 6584 0.240 % mass
Phosphorus Content D 4951 0.001 maximum % mass
Distillation Temperature
(atmospheric equivalent
temperature, 90%
recovered) D 1160 360 maximum
o
C

How does bio-diesel derived from castor oil rate on the above aspects?

This section looks at the values for biodiesel derived from castor oil for each of the
characteristics described in the previous sections.

Iodine Value: The transesterified castor oil has an iodine value of about 85. This is quite an
acceptable value for biodiesel. The lower the iodine value, the better the fuel will be as a
biodiesel. While most countries do not have mandatory upper limits for iodine value, in
some countries of Europe the upper limits have been stipulated at around 120. One can
hence see that castor oil biodiesel easily passes this test (while soy biodiesel, whose iodine
value is about 120, perhaps does not).

Cetane Number: The higher the cetane number, the better is the fuel as a diesel. The
Cetane Number of most biodiesel fuels are higher than petro-diesel (cetane number of
petro diesel is about 45, while for most biodiesel, the cetane number falls in the range 45-
65), and the cetane number of castor oil biodiesel is in acceptable range for diesel engines.
In fact, castor oil has one of the highest cetane numbers amongst vegetable oils (about 42),
and all the other biodiesel contenders amongst vegetable oils have cetane numbers slightly
lower than that for castor oil


Oil Cetane Number
Linseed 27.6
Bay 33.6
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Walnut 33.6
Cottonseed 33.7
Almond 34.5
Peanut 34.6
Wheat 35.2
Poppyseed 36.7
Sunflowerseed 36.7
Rapeseed 37.5
Corn 37.5
Soybean 38.1
Sesameseed 40.4
Safflowerseed 42
Castor 42.3
Olive 49.3
Hazelnut 52.9
Note: These numbers were determined using ASTM D163

Melting Point: 5ºC. This is acceptable for diesel engines.

Solidification Point ʹ Castor oil has a very low solidification point (-12ºC to -18ºC). This is a
positive characteristic for colder climates, since it implies that the biodiesel from castor oil
solidifies fewer times than those biodiesels with higher solidification points.

Density: Castor oil, before transesterification has a density of 0.956-0.963 g/ml (@ 20
degrees C. The conversion into alkyl esters decreases the density by a small extent, hence
one can expect the castor oil based biodiesel to have a density of about 0.9 g/ml.
(Comparative values are approx 0.74 g/ml for gasoline and 0.85 g/ml for diesel). While the
castor oil biodiesel has a density somewhat higher than petro-diesel, this is unlikely to be a
bottleneck as the difference is not very high.

Flash Point: 260
o
C. It compares favourably with other vegetable oils.

Cloud Point: < -7
o
C; within acceptable range.

Pour Point: At a pour point of about -32 degrees C, it compares well with other plant oils,
and is acceptable in diesel engines.

Ash content: Castor oil has an ash content of about 0.02%

Sulfur %: is less than 0.04%

Potassium: Negligible

Heating value: 39.5 GJ/T. At this number, it compares favourably with most vegetable oils.
Petro-based diesel & gasoline have heating values of approximately 45 GJ/T. Hence, one
could say that most biodiesel, including that from castor, have heating values that are about
10% lower than that for gasoline or petro diesel.
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Water, ppm max ʹ Biodiesel prepared from castor oil have a water content of about 1300
ppm. This is much higher than the maximum limit prescribed by EMA for diesel fuel (200
ppm).

Sediment ʹ Refined castor oil grades are available that have sediment at less than 10 ppm

API Gravity ʹ With a specific gravity of 0.96, castor oil has an API Gravity of about 15.9

Lubricity ʹ Numerous studies on the effects of vegetable oil methyl esters on diesel fuel
lubricity have shown an increase in lubricity associated with the addition of these esters.
Castor oil and its esters are known for their excellent lubricity, and it is above the EMA
minimum specification limit.

Carbon Residue ʹ A B100 from castor oil has a carbon residue % of 0.037%

Acid Number ʹ Castor oil has a maximum acid number of 1.5 mg KOH/g, and experiments
suggest that some specific grades of castor oil can have acid numbers less than 0.8 (around
0.6).

Phosphorus Content ʹ Castor oil has less than 0.001 % phosphorus by weight

Distillation Temperature ʹ Castor oil boiling point is 313
o
C, which is less than the maximum
distillation temperature required by ASTM (360
o
C)

Free Glycerine ʹ Based on some tests done on biodiesel from castor (both methyl and ethyl
esters), the biodiesel contains about 1% free glycerine. This is much higher than the
maximum prescribed by ASTM (0.02%)

Viscosity: Castor oil in its raw form is one of the most viscous of oils (9.5 ʹ 10.0 dPa.s @ 20
degress C ʹ about 990 cP; Viscosity, St by test method ASTM D1545 is in the range of 6.3 -
8.9). The other plant oils, in themselves, have viscosities much higher than those for
gasoline and petro-diesel. Castor oil has a viscosity of over 100 times that of petro-diesel!

Absolute or Dynamic Viscosity of Some Common Fluids

Absolute or dynamic viscosity of some common liquids at a temperature of 27
o
C is indicated
below:

Fluid Absolute Viscosity (N s/m2, Pa s)
Alcohol, ethyl (ethanol) 0.0011
Alcohol, methyl (methanol) 0.00056
Alcohol, propyl 0.0019
Benzene 0.0006
Castor Oil 0.650
Ether 0.00022
Ethylene Glycol 0.016
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Glycerine 0.950
Heptane 0.00038
Kerosene 0.0016
Linseed Oil 0.033
Octane 0.00051
Propane 0.00011
Propylene 0.00009
Toluene 0.00055
Turpentine 0.0014
Water, Fresh 0.00089

From the above analysis, one can hence see that viscosity could be a major bottleneck in
castor oil becoming a biodiesel. However, this high viscosity can be considerably reduced by
subjecting the vegetable

oils to the process of transesterification. Transesterification is the
process most commonly used for converting plant oil into biodiesel.

We have some data for the kinematic viscosity of transesterified castor oil. One study has
estimated that the B100 biodiesel from castor oil has a kinematic viscosity of 15.98 mm
2
/s.
Another study puts the kinematic viscosity of castor oil methyl esters and castor oil ethyl
esters in the same range (13.23 and 16.14 mm
2
/s respectively). The kinematic viscosity
numbers for castor biodiesel is significantly higher than what it is for other vegetable oils
that are biodiesel contenders, as well as much higher than what is specified by ASTM (1.9-6
mm
2
/s). At the same time, it has been said that if the castor oil biodiesel is blended with
petro-diesel in suitable ratios, the overall viscosity should be within acceptable range. A B10
and B20 castor oil biodiesel are estimated to have 4.54 and 4.97 mm
2
/s respectively as the
kinematic viscosity. (Reference URLs: http://www.icrepq.com/full-paper-icrep/222-
barajas.pdf ,
http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/reportsdatabase/reports/gen/20000501_gen-308.pdf )

A research done in 2006 says the following about COEE (castor oil ethyl esters) and COME
(castor oil methyl esters) ʹ ͞1ŚĞ ĚĞŶƐŝƚŝĞƐ ŽĨ CCML ĂŶĚ CCLL ĂƌĞ ŚŝŐŚĞƌ ƚŚĂŶ ƚŚĞ ůŝŵŝƚ
defined by the standard EN 14 214. The viscosities are more than twice as high as the limit
ǀĂůƵĞ͘͟ ;Ln ϭϰϮϭϰ ŝƐ ĂŶ ŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƚŝŽŶĂů ƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ƚŚĂƚ ĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞƐ ƚŚĞ ŵŝŶŝŵƵŵ ƌĞƋƵŝƌĞŵĞŶƚƐ ĨŽƌ
biodiesel that has been produced from plant oils) (Reference URL:
(http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112724331/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0 )

At the same time, from the news articles and information gathered from around the world
(and especially from Brazil), it does appear that the viscosity of biodiesel prepared from
castor oil is within acceptable limits for use in diesel engines.

Some studies (done in 2007) have also thrown up questions on the thermal and oxidative
degradation of castor oil biodiesel. The heating of vegetable oils can cause complementary
decomposition reactions, in which the results can also lead to the formation of polymeric
compounds. Research was carried out to study the degradation process of biodiesel in
different temperatures and exposure times. The degradation process of biodiesel affected
its thermogravimetric and calorimetric profiles, indicating the formation of intermediary
compounds. The spectroscopic data of degraded biodiesel suggested oxidative
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polymerization, confirming thermal data. In the degraded biodiesel at 210 C for 48 h, the
formation of gum occurred, indicating that oxidative polymerization was completed. This
was however a preliminary research and more research needs to be done in order to verify
if these results could affect the biodiesel properties overall.

Cost of Castor Oil

The final, and possibly one of the most important, aspects to be considered is the cost. If
one were to take the current prices of the various plant oils as a measure of the input cost,
the following is what emerges as data:

The following were the spot prices for the various oils in India in June, 2008 in US $ / T
(using a conversion of Indian Re / US $ = 43 Rs / US$)

Castor Oil (commercial grade) ʹ 1400
Groundnut Oil/Peanut Oil ʹ 1150
Mustard Oil ʹ 960
Palm Oil ʹ 1200
Refined Soy Oil ʹ 1400

While the above list does not provide data for all the vegetable oils that are biodiesel
ĐĂŶĚŝĚĂƚĞƐ͕ ĨƌŽŵ ƚŚĞ ůŝƐƚ ŝƚ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ƐĞĞŶ ƚŚĂƚ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ŝƐ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƐƚůŝĞƐƚ ŽŝůƐ ŝŶ ƚŽĚĂLJ͛Ɛ
market, and in addition its prices are highly volatile.

Evaluation Table for Castor Oil as Biodiesel Candidate

A comparison on various parameters is made for castor oil properties with those suggested
for suitable diesel fuel as well for biodiesel. Refer to the above section for more details of
comparison

Parameter Suitability of castor oil
Iodine Value Suitable
Cetane Number
Less than minimum
prescribed
Melting Point Suitable
Solidification Point Suitable
Density
Slightly higher than diesel, but
this is unlikely to pose
problems
Flash Point Suitable
Cloud Point Suitable
Pour Point Suitable
Ash Content Suitable
Sulfur Percetange Suitable
Potassium Suitable
Heating Value
Slightly less than diesel, but
within acceptable limits
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Water Content Higher than prescribed
Sediment Suitable
API Gravity Suitable
Lubricity Suitable
Carbon Residue Suitable
Acid Number Suitable
Phosporus Content Suitable
Free Glycerine Higher than prescribed
Distillation Temperature Suitable
Viscosity Higher than prescribed

ÞƌĞůŝŵŝŶĂƌLJ IŶĨĞƌĞŶĐĞ ĨŽƌ ͞CĂŶ CĂƐƚŽƌ Cŝů MĂŬĞ Ă GŽŽĚ 8ŝŽĚŝĞƐĞů͍͟

From the above table, it can be seen that the four parameters on which castor oil does not
have values in the prescribed limits are:

Cetane Numbers
Water Content
Glycerine
Kinematic Viscosity

Of the above, from our studies it appears that the real bottleneck would be the kinematic
viscosity, as the other three parameters could possibly be controlled during the
transesterification process or by employing other processes.

From other studies as well, it is clear that one of the major scientific impediments to castor
oil being a biodiesel feedstock is its high viscosity. As noted earlier, some experiments
suggest that the transesterified castor oil could be made to have a viscosity that is close to
acceptable limits, while there are some others which are not conclusive.

Assuming transesterified castor oil biodiesel can have an acceptable kinematic viscosity,
based on the above facts and analysis, castor oil can theoretically be a candidate for bio-
diesel.

However, its limited production (less than 1% of the total amount of vegetable oils), rising
demand in diverse non-fuel applications, and its volatile and high prices make it an
unlikely contender to be a significant contributor for the biofuel industry for the
foreseeable future.

Addendum 1: How is castor oil converted into bio-diesel?

The most common process of converting castor oil into a product that can be used as diesel
is the same as what is used in the case of converting other similar vegetable oils into diesel.
The process is called transesterification.

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Transesterification refers to a reaction between an ester of one alcohol and a second
alcohol to form an ester of the second alcohol and an alcohol from the original ester, as that
of methyl acetate and ethyl alcohol to form ethyl acetate and methyl alcohol.

Transesterification largely eliminates the tendency of the plant oils and fats to undergo
polymerisation and auto-oxidation, and also reduces the viscosity of the oil to about the
same as petroleum diesel.

Transesterification of castor oil ʹ like the transesterification process for other oils ʹ is done
by the reaction castor oil with methanol (or ethanol) in the presence of a catalyst. Several
conventional catalytic systems such as KOH, NaOH, KOCH3, NaOCH3, H2SO4, HCl, K2CO3,
and CaCO3 can be considered, though NaOH is one of the most widely used catalysts for
transesterification.

Results from some recent studies show that acid catalysis is relatively effective for the
ethanolysis of castor oil, particularly at short reaction times. In a recent experiment
involving the transesterification of castor oil, potassium and calcium carbonates were also
tested as catalysts. Although both compounds were insoluble in the reaction medium, the
former was a relatively effective catalyst whereas the latter showed no catalytic activity
even after almost ten hours of reaction.

Some useful research info on biodiesel from castor oil

The following is an excerpt from a transesterification research using alternative catalysts,
done in 2006:

͞Transesterification of castor oil in the presence of acid and alkali. Several conventional
catalytic systems were used (including KOH, NaOH, KOCH3, NaOCH3, H2SO4, HCl, K2CO3,
and CaCO3) to obtain an overview of the typical yields of FAEE obtainable from the
transesterification of castor oil. In all cases the highest conversion yields were achieved
following long (>5 h) reaction times. Among the catalytic systems studied, the use of
methoxides or acids produced the highest yields of FAEE and such reactions attained
reversibility after ca. 6ʹ8 h, as has already been reported.

Methoxide ions appeared to be more efficient catalysts than hydroxide ions although, from
a chemical standpoint, the active species in both systems were the ethoxide ions formed by
virtue of the large excess of EtOH in the medium. The significant difference between the
two catalytic systems is that with hydroxide catalysts, water molecules are produced during
the formation of the active species; as a consequence, side reactions, such as hydrolysis and
saponification, may diminish the yield of ester.

The results clearly show that acid catalysis is relatively effective for the ethanolysis of castor
oil, particularly at short reaction times.

Potassium and calcium carbonates were also tested as catalysts. Although both compounds
were insoluble in the reaction medium, the former was a relatively effective catalyst
whereas the latter showed no catalytic activity even after 10 h of reaction.
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Based on the results presented, one may conclude that the production of biodiesel by
ethanolysis of castor oil may be improved through further development and optimization of
appropriate catalytic systems and processes. Strategies involving acid catalysis might
provide a promising solution to this problem since it has recently been demonstrated that
on an industrial scale acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel can compete economically with
base-catalyzed processes. Moreover, acid-catalyzed transesterification reactions exhibit an
important advantage in that the performance of the acid catalyst is not strongly affected by
the presence of FFA in the oil. In fact, acid catalysts can simultaneously catalyze both
esterification and transesterification͟

Reference: http://www.biodiesel.gov.br/docs/JAOCSMeneghetti2006.pdf

Another research done in 2007 on the thermoanalytical characterization of castor oil
biodiesel

͞1ŚŝƐ work wishing to provide a thermoanalytical and physical-chemistry characterization of
castor oil and biodiesel was done in 2007. Biodiesel was obtained with methyl alcohol and
characterized through several techniques. Gas chromatography indicated methyl ester
content of 97.7%. The volatilization of biodiesel starts and finishes under inferior
temperatures than the beginning and final volatilization temperatures of castor oil.
Biodiesel data are very close to the volatilization temperatures of conventional diesel͟

Reference: http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18403364

Rheological behavior of castor oil biodiesel ʹ Jul 2005

Viscosity, the measurement of the internal flow resistance of a liquid, constitutes an
intrinsic property of vegetable oils. It is of remarkable influence in the mechanism of
atomization of the fuel spray, in other words, in the operation of the injection system. This
property is also reflected in the combustion process, whose efficiency depends the
maximum power developed by the engine. This work aims at assessing the rheological
behavior of castor oil, castor oil biodiesel, and undegraded and degraded biodiesel at
different exposure times and temperatures. Castor oil biodiesel presents viscosity higher
than diesel oil, but this drawback can be corrected by means of blends of both components
at different proportions. The viscosity data indicated that the heat treatment leads to a
degradation of the samples accompanied by an increase of the viscosity, probably because
of interactions with intermediary compounds. The degraded samples presented a
pseudoplastic behavior, once the flow index, m, is smaller than 1.
;SŽƵƌĐĞ͗ MĂƌƚĂ M͘ CŽŶĐĞŝĕĆŽ͕ΎΏ 8ŽďĞƌůƷĐŝĂ A͘ CĂŶĚĞŝĂ͕ΐ PĞƌŵĞƐƐŽŶ !͘ uĂŶƚĂƐ͕ΐ LƵŝnj L͘ 8͘ SŽůĞĚĂĚĞ͕ΐ vĂůƚĞƌ !͘
lĞƌŶĂŶĚĞƐ͕ !ƌ͕͘Ώ ĂŶĚ AŶƚŽŶŝŽ C͘ SŽƵnjĂΐ; Ώ - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de
Química, Laboratório de Combustíveis, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova, CEP 59072970, Brazil, and ΐ -
Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Departamento Química, João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil Energy Fuels, 2005, 19
(5), pp 2185ʹ2188; DOI: 10.1021/ef050016g; Publication Date: July 8, 2005)
Thermoanalytical characterization of castor oil biodiesel - 2007

A work wishing to provide a thermoanalytical and physical-chemistry characterization of
castor oil and biodiesel was done in 2007. Biodiesel was obtained with methyl alcohol and
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characterized through several techniques. Gas chromatography indicated methyl ester
content of 97.7%. The volatilization of biodiesel starts and finishes under inferior
temperatures than the beginning and final volatilization temperatures of castor oil.
Biodiesel data are very close to the volatilization temperatures of conventional diesel. (See
abstract here - http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18403364, A 2007 research
paper)

Addendum 2: Castor Oil as Biofuels ʹ Facts, Data, Nuggets

While castor oil is unlikely to be a significant contributor to the biodiesel industry for the
foreseeable future, as pointed out earlier, in specific cases and regions it could play a limited
role as a biodiesel feedstock. This is especially true of poor countries in Africa and South
America. Following are some of the initiatives that are being taken in order to explore the
viability of castor oil as a biodiesel feedstock.

In Aug 2008, Petrobras Biocombustível of Brazil reaffirmed that it will continue
producing Biodiesel from castor oil despite the fact that castor oil does not qualify on
2 of the 22 parameters ( the two being specific gravity and viscosity ) set for
biodiesel by the National Petroleum Agency (NPA) of Brazil. In fact, according to
reports, the Resolution 7 by the NPA prohibits the usage, in Brazil, of biodiesel
produced from castor seed oil. However, Petrobras Biocombustível clarified early
Aug 2008 that its plans were not affected by the NPA Resolution dated March 19
ϮϬϬϴ͘ 1ŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ĐůĂƌŝĨŝĞĚ ƚŚĂƚ ÞĞƚƌŽďƌĂƐ͛ ŐŽal had always been to use, initially,
blends of up to 30% castor seed oil as raw material. The usage of 30% castor seed oil
ƚŽ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞ ďŝŽĚŝĞƐĞů ŝƐ ŝŶ ĨƵůů ĐŽŵƉůŝĂŶĐĞ ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ nÞA͛Ɛ ŶĞǁ ƐƉĞĐŝĨŝĐĂƚŝŽŶ͕ ĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐ
to the company. The company further stated that a few important properties will, in
fact, even be improved by the addition of castor seed oil as a raw material. For
example, adding 30% castor seed oil to soybean oil improves the quality of the
biodiesel that is produced, making it compliant with the European standard, and,
thus, viable to be exported to cold European regions.

Alternative Energy in Castor Beans in Brazil - May 2008 - The state-run Brazilian
Enterprise for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA) is experimenting with castor oil as
biodiesel feedstock at its labs in the northeastern city of Campina Grande, in Paraíba
state. The castor-oil plant is easy to grow and is resistant to drought, which makes it
an ideal crop for the extensive semi-arid region of northeast Brazil. That area holds
some four million hectares of appropriate land that could yield up to 1.5 tons of
castor beans per hectare, compared to the global average of 750 kilos per hectare.
And castor beans could become a farming alternative, providing income for 15
million people in Brazil's poorest region. For decades, Brazil was the world leader in
producing and exporting castor oil, but has fallen to third place, behind India and
China. Brazilian output of 500,000 tons in the late 1980s fell to about 100,000 tons in
2007. A clear signal that Brazil plans to move towards biodiesel would jump-start the
recovery of the castor-oil crop.

8ƌĂnjŝů͛Ɛ ÞĞƚƌŽďƌĄƐ ŐĂƐ ĂŶĚ ĞŶĞƌŐLJ ƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ ĐĞŶƚƌĞ CLnÞLS ŝƐ ĐƵƌƌĞŶƚůLJ ĐŽŶĚƵĐƚŝŶŐ Ă
pilot program in castor oil viability as an energy alternative. (May 2008)
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Ivory Coast diversifies into biofuels production (Jul 2008) - Ivory Coast is diversifying
into the booming market for biofuels by growing the jatropha & castor plants. To
take advantage of a global trend toward alternatives to fossil fuels, several jatropha
projects are underway across the West African nation, which intends to produce
enough oil to make biofuel domestically. In Toumdi in centre of the country, the
Ivory Coast Reneweable Energies Development Agency (ADERCI), a privately-owned
firm, is producing seeds for a project to grow jatropha and castor plants on 100,000
hectares from 2009. The project involves around 70,000 farmers, and is seen
producing a total of 1.8 million tonnes of jatropha and castor seeds a year, enough
to make 705,600 tonnes of biofuel. Oil produced by pressing jatropha and castor
seeds will be sold to the Ivorian Refinery Company, and the national petrol firm,
Petroci, to make biodiesel. According to the co-ordinators, Jatropha and castor oil
plants can grow on any type of land and this is a project which will help redress the
social imbalance caused by cocoa and coffee, which only grow in some soils.
According to them, 5,000 hectares of jatropha or castor oil will be enough to
produce between 15 and 23 million litres of biodiesel per year.

Biofuel from Castor Beans in Brazil (March 2008) - Brazil recently launched a major
bio-diesel program that will start in 2008 with 2% bio-diesel added to fossil fuel-
derived diesel. Significant incentives are already in place, with emphasis on the
production of bio-diesel from castor bean oil. Part of the program focuses in the
Northeast, the poorest region in the country, where the castor bean is very well
adapted to the arid areas. Until now, little attention has been paid to the Amazonian
region, in spite of the fact that ther is a high potential for bio-diesel production from
palm oil to replace fossil diesel that power generators in hundreds of off-grid
communities (with total subsidies for the transportation of fuel diesel going up to
about US$1.2 billion in 2005). Small-scale processing of castor beans at a facility
owned by the local farmers would allow them to capture the value added from
processing. In addition, they would have the option, depending on price, to sell the
oil to either bio-diesel producers or to those who use the oil for lubrication, thereby
avoiding dependence on a single buyer. The project is supporting the creation of
access of locally owned small-scale renewable energy projects to financial markets,
promoting public and private sector investment within the renewable energy
market, and collaborating with partners to identify and secure sources of capital and
markets.
Fiorello H. LaGuardia Foundation (LGF) has initiated a castor bean oil
producers association, training small farmers in Itatira, in the State of Ceara
with local partners the AVINA Foundation, Associação Caatinga and the
Brazilian National Environment Fund. LGF has also started preliminary work
on biodiesel from a native Amazonian palm tree that is under commercial
production in the State of Maranhão.
The project is supporting the creation of access of locally- owned
small-scale renewable energy projects to financial markets, promoting
public and private sector investment within the renewable energy
market, and collaborating with partners to identify and secure sources
of capital and markets.
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The LGF approach will also increase distribution efficiencies through
decentralized production of vegetable oil and biodiesel, eliminating
long distance transportation of raw agricultural products, and
ensuring that the added value of the agricultural residues (fertilizer
and animal feed) remains with the small farmers.

Castor biofuel farming started in 2008 in Ethiopia. The initiative is run by energy
company Global Energy Ethiopia, who are also conducting a research and
development programme to create new varieties of castor with better yields. In July
2008, Global Energy announced it had successfully completed sowing 5,000 hectares
of Chinese hybrid castor seeds for its alternative energy project in Ethiopia. The
project entails planting and harvesting castor for the production of non-edible oil for
the bio-diesel industry and for other uses. The castor farming initiative is located in
southern Ethiopia, approximately 350 km south of the capital of Addis Ababa. Just six
months after launching the project, some 90% of the land has reached a germination
stage of over 96%.

Some companies in the Dominican Republic are exploring growing castor and using
castor oil as biodiesel. One of the reasons is that the natural conditions in the
country could be suitable for the growth of castor crop. (Based on a 2008 news
report)

Jamaica To Use Castor Bean as a Biofuel - August, 2007 - Castor oil has been
identified as a viable biofuel to be produced locally and used as a cost-effective way
to cut Jamaica's growing energy bill - an opportunity that has not escaped the private
sector. Karl James, the chairman of Petrojam Ethanol Limited, noted that, "There are
plans for a major commercial plant to be constructed and many persons are now
preparing their lands for the castor bean." He added, "We believe that large areas of
rural Jamaica could be quickly transformed into attractive economic zones where
independent small land owners are engaged in the production of an agricultural
good for which there is a ready market at a price that should provide satisfactory
return for their efforts." The castor bean is considered complementary to ethanol for
many reasons: (1) It is not a food product, (2) It is well known in Jamaican
agriculture, (3) It is not prone to larceny, (4) It can be produced on varied scales from
large scale farms to cottage industries, involving thousands of small farmers in the
rural areas.

African Countries in Co-operation with Brazil on Castor Biodiesel - March 2007 -
Morocco became the first Arab country in North Africa to establish a partnership
with the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) office in Accra, the
capital of Ghana. The partnership should be concentrated mainly in the production
of biodiesel, which may be obtained from castor seeds and pine seeds, plants of the
region that are resistant to lack of rain. Libya is another Arab country that may make
use of the Embrapa office in Africa. According to the researcher, the Libyan embassy
in Ghana has already shown interest in a partnership in the area of irrigated
agriculture.

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A new project has been financed by FEP Ethiopia for castor oil based biodiesel (2007)
ʹ This is for a castor plant for biofuel production in Oromia State, Ethiopia. FEP
Ethiopia PLC, Ethiopia, a fully owned subsidiary of Flora EcoPower Holding AG,
Germany, signed a land lease agreement with Oromia State and a collaboration
agreement with the peasant Associations (Community Farming), 26 associations in
total for all Fedis and Midega Region. The land lease agreement secures the
company 8,000 hectares of government land for castor cultivation for 45 years.

Castor Oil is a new source for biodiesel in the USA? (Jun, 2006) - Using grant money
from the federal government, Mississippi State has begun conducting research on a
number of alternative crops, including winter annuals like canola, camelina, hesperis,
black mustard, crambe and flax, summer annuals such as castor and sunflower and
perennials such as tung and tallow trees. Castor has attracted the attention of MSU
researchers because with its oil content at 50 percent and its relatively high crop
yield of 1,695 pounds per acre, castor beans can supply up to 141 gallons of castor
oil per acre. That compares to 50 to 60 gallons per acre for soybeans. (The yield data
provided are by the researchers from the USA, officially published figures for castor
yield in India are lesser ʹ only about 1000 pounds per hectare)

The Myanmar government plans to implement a project to grow castor bean plants
ŽŶ ϱϬ͕ϬϬϬ ĂĐƌĞƐ ŝŶ ĞĂĐŚ ŽĨ MLJĂŶŵĂƌ͛Ɛ ŶŝŶĞ ŵŝůŝƚĂƌLJ ĚŝǀŝƐŝŽŶƐ͕ ĨŽƌ ƵƐĞ ĂƐ ďŝŽĨƵĞů͘ ;!ĂŶ
2006 news)

In 2006, Japan showed significant interest in importing castor oil to produce
biodiesel.

A December 2004 Report from Brazil - lŶ ĂĚĚŝƚŝŽŶ ƚŽ ƌĞĚƵĐŝŶŐ 8ƌĂnjŝů͛Ɛ ĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶĐĞ ŽŶ
imported diesel, castor bean producers may soon be eligible to sell carbon credits. A
Brazilian industry professional estimates that 40 percent of the biodiesel produced in
the country in the coming years could come from castor beans. Embrapa is working
to develop commercial varieties of castor beans with higher levels of oil output -
around 60 percent of the weight of the beans - and is also working on varieties that
can be planted below 300 meters above sea level. The northeast state of Bahia is
8ƌĂnjŝů͛Ɛ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ ďĞĂŶ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƌ͕ ĂĐĐŽƵŶƚŝŶŐ ĨŽƌ ϵϮ ƉĞƌĐĞŶƚ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ĐŽƵŶƚƌLJ͛Ɛ
output. But other states like Paraíba stand to gain from the government bill that will
set biodiesel levels in regular petroleum diesel sold at the pump at 2 percent.

Brazil Starts Biodiesel Drive - August 2004 ʹ In Aug 2004, Brazil launched efforts to
produce a biodiesel fuel on an industrial scale using the castor-oil plant. A pilot
project has been underway for two months in Quixeramobim, state of Ceará.
Quixeramobim is a town in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast where 70
hectares are being cultivated. At the moment, the project is producing 350 liters
daily of biodiesel. When the project is completely operational it will produce 800
liters daily. So far, a total of US$ 508,000 (1.5 million reais) has been invested by the
state, local authorities and a consortium of privately-owned thermoelectric power
plants.

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Gujarat Oleo Chem Ltd (GOCL) based in Mumbai, India, bagged an order for supply of
biodiesel worth Rs 25 crore (US$ 6 million) to Indian Oil Corporation (IOC) in Aug
2004. GOCL planned to use castor oil as feedstock for production of biodiesel.

Brazil Northeast region to produce biodiesel with castor oil - March, 2004 - Brasil
EcoDiesel will transform the Brazilian Northeast region into a large biodiesel
producer. The company has already started in Canto do Buriti (Piaui), the first of a
total of six projects - four in Piaui and two in Ceara states ʹ that involve the
cultivation of the castor plant, which is a raw material for biodiesel production. Each
project demands investments of R$15mil for the cultivation of a 52,000 ha area.

Brazil, the world's second largest producer of soybean, passed a bill (in 2004) making
it compulsory to produce a 2% bio-diesel fuel blend, made from castor oil and soy
oil.

China is exploring major investments in Brazil to produce both ethanol and castor oil
or biodiesel for shipment to China

While specific gravity and viscosity could be some of the issues to be dealt with while
considering castor oil as a biofuel feedstock, the other main issue is its low
availability. The total production of castor oil is less than 500,000 T per annum and
given its use in a number of industries, the non biofuel consumers of castor oil today
are willing to paying for castor oil a price that is above what would be currently
economically viable for the fuel segment to pay.

Can castor oil be used in the production of anhydrous ethanol? Castor oil freely
dissolves in alcohol. This means that in theory castor oil can be used in ethanol
production to separate the distilled ethanol from the 5% or more of water it will
contain, producing anhydrous ethanol that can be used for production of ethyl
esters biodiesel. Ethanol needs to be anhydrous for it to be blended with gasoline for
fuel use. This method however has not been employed by anyone formally, so one
can say this is more a theoretically possibility.

According to one school of thought, castor oil is the best substance for producing
biodiesel because it is the only one that is soluble in alcohol, and does not require
heat and the consequent energy requirement of other vegetable oils in transforming
them into fuel.

Three Israeli companies - alternative energy company Ormat (www.ormat.com),
plant breeding company Evogene (www.evogene.com), and the real estate
developer the Lev Leviev Group (www.thelevievgroup.com) signed an agreement, in
2008, to produce biodiesel from castor oil. Leviev already owns mining concessions
ŝŶ nĂŵďŝĂ͕ ǁŚĞƌĞ ƚŚĞ ďŝŽĨƵĞů ǁŝůů ďĞ ŚĂƌǀĞƐƚĞĚ͕ CƌŵĂƚ͛Ɛ ƐƵďƐŝĚĂƌLJ CƌĨƵĞů ŚĂƐ
substantial experience in biofuel R&D, and Evogene is a world leader in plant
genetics and breeding. Evogene Ltd. conducted a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of
biodiesel production from castor bean varieties. In Apr 2010, the company
announced that the LCA of biodiesel produced from castor bean varieties reduced
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greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions by 90% compared to petroleum diesel in the U.S.
The results are based on Evogene's objectives for castor bean varieties, aimed at
increasing crop yields to 4-5 ton/ha on semi-arid lands -- focusing on Texas and
Brazil.

Results showed that Evogene's castor bean biodiesel
Reduces net GHG emissions by 90% in the U.S. and more than 75% in Brazil
compared with conventional diesel, if grown in non-arable or marginal land.
Exceeds the GHG savings achieved with soybean biodiesel, with reductions
for the U.S. of 43% compared to soybean.


Brasil Ecodiesel (www.brasilecodiesel.com.br) ŝƐ 8ƌĂnjŝů͛Ɛ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƌ ŽĨ ďŝŽĚŝĞƐĞů
according to the ANP, National agency of petroleum. The company maintains six
operational plants with a combined annual biodiesel production capacity of 640,000
m
3
. In order to maintain market leadership in Brazil, the Brazil Ecodiesel has projects
for the expansion of the capacity of its plants and which will happen according to the
needs of the market. The company has pioneered the production of biodiesel on a
commercial scale in Brazil, with castor, jatropha and other vegetable oil as a
feedstock. Its activities are based on cost-efficient industrial and logistics processes
and an innovative and diversified model for the sourcing of raw materials through
direct purchases in the vegetable oil market, the development of new intensive
agricultural production chains and the encouragement of family farming, with an
emphasis on the promotion of human and social development. The company
entered into an agreement with the state of Piauí for the installation of a castor
plant production center based on family farming. Brasil Ecodiesel also intends to
develop new crops of castor plant to achieve greater productivity. The extraction of
vegetable oil and the process of producing biodiesel through transesterification have
generated by-products of significant economic value. The production of vegetable oil
from oilseeds intended exclusively for industrial consumption, such as castor plant
and jatropha, have generated additional income by marketing them in the form of
organic fertilizer and to reduce operating costs by using biomass to generate heat for
its own biodiesel production process. The production of biodiesel also generates
significant amounts of glycerin that can be used to generate heat or can be sold to
third parties for use in cosmetics, petrochemicals and other products.

Fertibom (http://www.fertibom.com.br ) is an agribusiness organisation in Brazil.
1ŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƐ 8ŝŽŵĂdž ďŝŽĚŝĞƐĞů ǁŝƚŚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ ƉƌŽƉƌŝĞƚĂƌLJ
technology, resource production processes using internally designed and built
equipment. The biodiesel is produced from castor and other oilseeds using ethyl or
methyl alcohol through its innovative process called T-max.

Kaiima (www.kaiima.com) is a next generation seed and breeding company. The
ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ƵƐĞƐ ŝƚƐ CCMΡ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ŶĞǁ ŶŽŶ-GMO crops with
dramatically improved productivity and improved land and water-use efficiencies.
kĂŝŝŵĂ͛Ɛ CCMΡ ;CůĞĂŶ CĞŶŽŵŝĐ MƵůƚŝƉůŝĐĂƚŝŽŶͿ ƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ŝƐ Ă ŶŽŶ-transgenic
biotechnology platform developed in 2002 that induces clean polyploidy in plants
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(i.e., multiplying the number of chromosomes found in the plant). It includes a
proprietary set of protocols and methods that direct the active chemicals used in the
genome-multiplication process away from the sensitive DNA, which stays unharmed,
unlike past methods for inducing polyploidy, thus keeping the plant fertile and
genetically stable. The company claims that its technology provides advantages
including higher plant yield, greater biomass accumulation, enhanced
photosynthesis and other features. kĂŝŝŵĂ ŝƐ ƵƐŝŶŐ CCMΡ ĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌ ĂĚǀĂŶĐĞĚ ĂŶĚ
proprietary genomic-based breeding technologies to develop high-yielding energy
crops for the production of biodiesel, bioethanol, and biomass energy. The biodiesel
strategy involves breeding castor varieties that can yield up to 10 tons of seeds (or 5
tons of oil) per hectare per year compared to the global average of between 1-1.5
tons of seeds. The company expects that these high yields, will make fuel from castor
we economically competitive with the price of petroleum.

Rahan Meristem (www.rahan.co.il) is an Israeli company with more than 30 years
experience in plant propagation and biotechnology, and in the laboratory production
of tissue culture plants. In January 2010, the company was reported to have
announced its plans to engage in developing protocols for the mass propagation and
genetic transformation of castor beans and jatropha to produce biodiesel. The
ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ ƐĐŝĞŶƚŝĨŝĐ ĚŝƌĞĐƚŽƌ ƐĂŝĚ ƚŚĂƚ ƚŚĞ ŵĂŝŶ ŐŽĂů ǁĂƐ ƚŽ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ĂŶĚ ďƌŝŶŐ ƚŽ
market transgenic jatropha and castor bean clones that confer resistance to salinity
and drought.

6.2.3 Other Possible Future End Uses for Castor Oil & Derivatives

Castor oil based polyurethane adhesives
Lubricant for ethanol fuel - Ethanol has no lubricating characteristics. Castor oil is
one of the few lubricants that blend with alcohol. This might lead to castor oil being
a major lubricant for the ethanol fuel market.
Oil-modified alkyd type resin based on secondary esters of castor oil
Use of castor oil in preparation of oil-based binders
Use in castor oil in treating some unique gland ailments
Acetoacetylated castor oil in coatings applications - Acetoacetate esters from castor
oil are being tried to formulate thermosetting coating compositions.
Food Grade Plasticizers ʹ In July 2005, Denmark's Danisco A/S announced it has
developed a non-phthalate plasticizer based on castor oil. This food-grade plasticizer
for flexible PVC has been developed as an alternative to phthalates. Grindsted Soft-
N-Safe from is made from fully hardened castor oil and acetic acid. The product has
been approved by the EU for food-contact applications and is expected to find future
uses in toys and medical equipment.
Modification of the biopolymer castor oil with free isocyanate groups to be applied
as bioadhesive - Surgical adhesives have been used for several applications, including
haemostasis, sealing air leakages and tissue adhesion. Recent research has tried to
produce a biodegradable urethane-based bioadhesive containing free isocyanate
groups. This material presents the advantage of being biodegradable, biocompatible
and having the capacity of reacting with amino groups present in the biological
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molecules. Uurethane based on castor oil (CO) was synthesized by reaction of the
molecule with isophorone diisocyanate (IPD) for developing this product.


SUMMARY


Castor oil has over a thousand patented industrial applications. It is used in the following
industries: automobile, aviation, cosmetics, drug, electrical, electronics, food,
manufacturing, plastics, and telecommunications. Recently, castor oil is being investigated
for its use in producing bioplastics.

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7 - Castor Seeds

This chapter comprises the following topics

Castor Seeds Production & Supplies - 7.1
Castor Seeds Prices & Trends ʹ 7.2
Castor Seeds Packaging & Storing ʹ 7.3
Castor Seed Varieties ʹ 7.4
Castor Seed Factoids ʹ 7.5


HIGHLIGHTS



India is the largest producer of castor seeds in the world with China and Brazil being
the next two. It exports about 15,000 T of castor seeds per year.

The prices of castor seeds are volatile and this volatility is present intra-year as well
as inter-year.


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7.1 Introduction to Castor Seeds

Although monotypic, the castor oil plant can vary greatly in its growth habit and
appearance. It is a fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub which can reach the size of a
small tree (around 12 m), but it is not hardy. It has large leaves which are long-stalked,
alternate and palmate with coarsely toothed segments. Terminating stems are panicle-like
inflorescences of green monoecious flowers, the stalked female flowers above the male
flowers below, both without petals.

The fruit is a spiny, greenish capsule with large, oval, shiny, bean-like seeds with variable
brownish motling.

The inflorescence of the castor plant consists of an erect panicle with female flowers at the
top and male flowers at the bottom. The castor fruits are spherical capsules which become
hard and brittle. The seed capsule has thick walls, is spiny and contains 3 cocci. Each coccus
contains one seed.

7.2 Castor Seeds Production & Supplies

India is the largest producer of castor seeds in the world with China and Brazil being the
next two. India is also the largest exporter of castor seeds; it exports about 15,000 T of
castor seeds per year, on an average.

World Castor Seed Production

Country
Harvest
Season
Production ('000 T) Yield (T/ha) Harvest Area ('000/ha)
09-10(F)
2008-
09
2007-
08
09-
10(F)
2008-
09
2007-
08
09-10
(F)
2008-
09
2007-
08
Brazil Jun-Sept 92 123 94 0.58 0.76 0.6 158 163 156
China PR Sep - Jan 190 190 170 0.9 0.86 0.81 210 220 210
India
Nov -
Mar 880 975 990 1.06 1.08 1.15 830 900 860
Other
Countries 115 117 112 0.62 0.63 0.61 185 186 183
Total 1277 1405 1366 0.92 0.96 0.97 1383 1469 1409
Note: F- Forecast
Source: ISTA Mielke, Oil World, Germany.

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7.3 Castor Seeds Prices & Trends

The prices of castor seeds are volatile and this volatility is present intra-year as well as inter-
year.

Average Prices for Castor Seeds

The average spot prices provided for specific months over a 3 year period to demonstrate
the increase and volatility in prices

Year Average Price ($ / T)
2005 May 400
2005 Nov 330
2006 Mar 340
2006 Jul 340
2006 Nov 400
2007 Mar 460
2007 Jul 480
2007 Nov 500
2008 Mar 600
2008 Jul 700
2008 Nov 650
2009 Mar 490
2009 Jul 540
2009 Nov 640
2010 Mar 640

The above prices also have factored in the volatility of the Indian Re / US $ which saw a
change of over 20% during this period (45 Rs per US $ in 2004 to 39.5 Rs per US$ by end of
2007, back to about 50 Rs per US$ by end of 2008, and hovering about 45 Rs per $ by Mar
2010!)

7.4 Castor Seeds Packaging & Storing

Castor seeds are large and occupy considerable space in the storehouse.

The normal packing is either 50 Kgs or 70 Kgs, and the products are usually packed in
gunny bags.

It is recommended that castor seeds be dried to 5-6% moisture content before
storing.

7.5 Castor Seeds Varieties & Hybrids

Please see section 5.5 in chapter 5.

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7.6 Castor Seed Factoids

o Some areas in the state of Gujarat in India claim to produce a yield of 6 T of seeds
per hectare (about 2500 Kg per acre), while according to published figures, the
average yield in India is only about 1 T per hectare
o It is possible to store castor seeds for about 5 years, as long as the seeds are kept
in a cool and dry place
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8 - Castor Meal

This chapter comprises inputs on the following topics

Castor Meal Uses ʹ 8.1
Castor Meal Composition ʹ 8.2
Castor Meal Supply & Demand ʹ 8.3
Toxicity in Castor Meal ʹ 8.4
Energy Content in Castor Meal ʹ 8.5
Castor Meal ʹ Other Points ʹ 8.6


HIGHLIGHTS


Castor meal is one of the most useful natural manures.

The two primary uses of castor meal today are as fertilizer and as fuel.

India exported about 330,000 MT of castor meal for the period 2007-2008. About
1,00,000 tons are consumed within the country, in the form of fertilizers and as fuel.

When compared to other oilseed meals such as rapeseed mean and soymeal, castor
meal is much cheaper.


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8.1 Castor Meal Uses

Castor meal - the residue obtained from castor cake - is one of the most versatile natural
manures.

It is organic manure that enhances the fertility of the soil without causing any damage or
decay. It is enriched with the three big elements vital and conducive to the proper growth of
crops - Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. It also has traces of nutrients like Manganese,
Zinc and Copper, thus making it a balanced fertiliser.

Advantages

1. Provides all the major & minor nutrients necessary for better plant growth

2. Helps in increasing the nutrient uptake by plants

3. Improves soil fertility and productivity; improves yield & quality of the farm produce

4. Protects plants from nematodes and termites

Main Uses of Castor Meal

The two primary uses of castor meal today are as fertilizer and as fuel

8.2 Castor Meal Composition

Nutrient Content of Deoiled Castor Cake / Meal

A typical composition of castor residue/meal is as follows:

Organic Matter
80-85% (The organic matter consists of proteins about 32-33%,
fibers about 25-30%, ash content ʹ about 6%)
Nitrogen 5 %
Phosphourous (as P
2
0
5
) 2 %
Potassium 1.25 % - 1.5 %
Moisture 10% max. approx.
Oil Content 0.7% max. approx.

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It also contains some micro nutrients viz., Calcium, Magnesium, Sulphur, Iron, Zinc,
Manganese, Copper etc.

(One published manural value for castor cake is: 6.6% N, 2.6% P2O5, and 1.2% K2O - C.S.I.R.,
1948ʹ1976).

Castor meal is an excellent fertilizer because of high content of N (6.4%), Phosphoric Acid
(2.55%), Potash (1%) and moisture retention.

The protein content of castor seed meal varies between 21-48% depending upon the extent
of decortications. It has an ideal amino acid profile with moderately high Cystine,
mithionine, and isoleucine.

While it is rich in proteins, castor cake cannot be used as cattle fodder because of its
toxicity.

8.3 Castor Meal Supply & Demand

India exported approximately 2, 00,000 tons of castor meal in 2006-2007. About 1,00,000
tons are consumed within the country, in the form of fertilizers and as fuel.

While the castor meal exports also fluctuate in tune with the castor oil trading market, India
has seen a dramatic increase in the exports of castor meal in the period 2003-2008.
According to estimates by the industry, the increase has over 400%. Between 2006-2007
and 2007-2008 alone, the increase has been over 60%! India exported about 330,000 MT of
castor meal for the period 2007-2008.

South Korea and Taiwan are the leading importers of castor seed meal. Vietnam, China,
Brazil and Europe are the other major consumers. Most of these consumers, with the
exception of Brazil, import almost all their consumption, primarily from India.

Indian Castor Meal Exports

Year Exports (in MT)
2003-04 65
2004-05 70
2005-06 200
2006-07 205
2007-08 330
2008-09 204
2009-10 240
Source: http://www.seaofindia.com/oilmeal_data/oilmealdata_march_2010.pdf

The price of castor meal ranges between $70-$80 per T (FOB), depending on the season and
the supply-demand scenario.

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8.4 Toxicity in Castor Meal

The castor cake is mainly used as a fertilizer. It is unsuitable as an animal feed because of
the presence of toxic protein called ricin and toxic allergen often referred to as CBA (castor
bean allergen). However, it is noteworthy that none of the toxic components is carried into
the oil.

Some methods for the detoxification of the cake have been attempted. These include

Treatment with ammonia, caustic soda, lime and heat.

When the cake is steamed, the ricin is detoxified and the allergen is inactivated.

Another method of detoxifying castor seed meal involved the wet mixing with sal
seed meal so that the toxic constituents of castor seed were neutralized by tannins.

In addition, some people in parts of South-Eastern Nigeria have long developed a
method for treating and detoxifying the unextracted seed. In this case, the method
used to detoxify castor seed involves fermentation. The seeds are first dehulled and
boiled in water for about 18 hours. The boiled seeds are cooled and wrapped
together with leaves and allowed to ferment in the fire place for about five days. The
fermented seeds are then mashed by pounding using a mortar and pestle. This is
followed by addition of ash from burnt palm kernel husk which gives it a dark colour.
The dark, mashed product is allowed to mature for a further period of five days after
which it is packaged for sale. It is believed that most of the detoxification takes place
during fermentation and it leads to the elimination of the toxic factors.
Microbiological studies have shown that the bacteria involved are spore-forming
bacteria, especially members of the genus Bacillus

Detoxified and deallergenized castor meal (DDCM) is a by-product of an extraction
process of the castor bean in Thailand, introduced in the 1990s. It has been claimed
that DDCM can be safely used as animal feed. It is claimed that the extraction
process is done in such as way that due to the action of heat, together with some
base solubles, the castor meal is rendered non-toxic.

Although the use of detoxified cake as cattle feed has been reported in a few cases using
one or more of the methods explained above, extreme caution and experimentation are
desirable before the cake is fed to farm animals.

About the ricin

The castor seed coat contains ricin, a poison, which is also present in lower concentrations
throughout the plant. The toxicity of raw castor beans is well-known, though reports of
actual poisoning are relatively rare. While children could die from the intake of as few as
three beans; adults may require eight or more. When injected, even a small dose of ricin
may cause toxic symptoms.

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Ricin is classified as a Type 2 ribosome inactivating protein (RIP). Whereas Type 1 RIPs
consist of a single enzymatic protein chain, Type 2 RIPs, also known as holotoxins, are
heterodimeric glycoproteins. Type 2 RIPs consist of a Ricin A chain that is functionally
equivalent to a Type 1 RIP, covalently connected by a single disulfide bond to a Ricin B chain
that is catalytically inactive, but serves to mediate entry of the A-B protein complex into the
cytosol. Both Type 1 and Type 2 RIPs are functionally active against ribosomes in vitro,
however only Type 2 RIPs display cytoxicity due to the lectin properties of the B chain.

The Ricin A Chain is an N-glycoside hydrolase composed of 267 amino acids. It has three
structural domains with approximately 50% of the polypeptide arranged into alpha-helices
and beta-sheets. The three domains form a pronounced cleft that is the active site of RTA.

The Ricin B Chain is a lectin composed of 262 amino acids that is able to bind terminal
galactose residues on cell surfaces. RTB form a bilobal, barbell-like structure lacking alpha-
helices or beta-sheets where individual lobes contain three subdomains. At least one of
these three subdomains in each homologous lobe possesses a sugar-binding pocket that
gives RTB its functional character.

Many plants such as barley have the Ricin A chain but not the B chain. People do not fall ill
from eating large amounts of such products, as Ricin A is of extremely low toxicity as long as
the B chain is not present.

Potential medicinal use of ricin

Ricins may have therapeutic use in the treatment of cancer, to specifically target and
destroy cancer cells: Ricin could be linked to a monoclonal antibody to target malignant cells
recognized by the antibody.

Modification of ricin is believed to be possible to lessen its toxicity to humans, but not to the
cancer cells. Another promising approach is to use the non-toxic subunit of ricin as a vehicle
for delivering antigens into cells, thus greatly increasing their immunogenicity. Use of ricin
as an adjuvant has potential implications for developing mucosal vaccines.

8.5 Energy Content in Castor Meal

The calorific value of deoiled castor cake is about 4200 Kcal per kg. Given the fact that the
cost of castor meal /cake is lower than those of other equivalents such as soy meal,
rapeseed meal etc., and given its reasonably good energy content, castor meal is today used
in some cases as a cost effective fuel. However, the limited quantities in which castor meal
is available, and the significant demand that emanates for its use as organic fertilizer implies
that the impact of castor meal on the biomass/biofuels industry is insignificant.

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8.6 Castor Meal ʹ Other Points

For the time being, castor bean presscake is not widely used as it contains toxic
proteins and allergens. However, the lipase it also contains could be used for various
applications: stereoisomer separation, emulsifier production or edible fat and
triglyceride biomanufacturing, which improves the nutritional, rheological and
functional properties of fatty acids.

In the last three years (2005-2008), according to suppliers in India, castor meal saw a
price variation in the range $40-$150 per T

The countries to which castor meal is mostly exported from India are Korea and
Taiwan.

When compared to other oilseed meals, castor meal is much cheaper than rapeseed
meal and soymeal.


SUMMARY


Castor meal is an excellent fertilizer because of the high content of nitrogen, phosphoric
acid, potash and moisture retention. It is used as fuel as well. India is the largest exporter of
castor seed meal, and South Korea and Taiwan are the leading importers. Vietnam, China,
Brazil and Europe are the other major consumers. Most of these consumers, with the
exception of Brazil, import almost all their consumption, primarily from India.



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9 - Castor Oil Distribution & Logistics

This chapter comprises inputs on the following topics

Castor Oil Storing & Packaging ʹ 9.1
o Castor Oil Storage ʹ 9.1.1
o Castor Oil Packaging ʹ 9.1.2
o Castor Oil Shelf Life ʹ 9.1.3

Castor Oil Transportation & Logistics ʹ 9.2
o Distribution from Farms to Refinery ʹ 9.2.1
o Transport ʹ 9.2.2
o Cargo Handling ʹ 9.2.3
o Density & Volume Expansion ʹ 9.2.4
o Cargo Securing ʹ 9.2.5
o Risk Factors & Loss Prevention ʹ 9.2.6
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9.1 Castor Oil Storing & Packaging

9.1.1 Castor Oil Storage

Because the castor oil contains double bonds in its lipid structure, it is prone to an
undesirable reaction called lipid oxidation. Lipid oxidation occurs when the double bonds in
the fatty acid react with oxygen to form peroxides - this changes the chemical nature of the
oil. There are many factors which influence the rate of oxidation in foods: fatty acid
composition, free fatty acids versus the corresponding acylglycerols, oxygen concentration,
temperature, pro-oxidants, radiant energy (visible and ultraviolet light), and the presence of
antioxidants.

Owing to the above reasons, castor oil is stored in a controlled environment. That includes
removing oxygen, storing the oil in a cool place, placing the oil in an opaque container,
removal of pro-oxidants (e.g., cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, and nickel), and possibly
adding antioxidants.

9.1.2 Packaging

Packaging Options

In retail, castor oil is usually sold in small packs.

Sea Transport - Castor oil is usually packed in steel drums (200/225 Kg) while transported by
sea in containers. Many suppliers have started using flexibags for packaging as these are
significantly less costly than drums.

Bulk Shipping - usually for lots of 500 Metric Tons minimum

9.1.3 Shelf Life

Under normal temperatures and conditions, castor oil has a shelf life of about 12 months.
Used in retail form, refrigeration after opening is recommended

9.2 Castor Oil Transportation & Logistics

9.2.1 Distribution from Farms to Refinery

The process mentioned below is representative of a typical distribution of castor seeds in
India.

o Castor seeds are bought to the auction place from the farms
o At the auction place, traders buy the castor seeds through an auction process.
There are many traders who do this in each city.
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o Then, there are a few large brokers (far fewer than the number of traders) who
interact with the traders and who in turn are contacted by the crushers &
refiners for purchase
o The supply chain thus looks as follows: Farmer -> Auction Place -> Trader ->
Broker -> Crusher
o Pricewise, if X (Rs) is the price per Kg when it is auctioned, the price at which the
crusher receives it is about 1.05 X (a 5% increase). This increase results by way of
commissions to traders and brokers and for transport costs to the crushing unit.

9.2.1 Transport

Castor oil can be transported by ship, truck, or railroad, depending on the factors. A large
part of international transportation of castor oil happens by sea.

9.2.2 Cargo Handling

Normally, castor oil does not need to be heated, since its solidification point is relatively
low. However, should temperatures during voyage happen to be in the solidification range,
the following must be noted: to be able to pump the oil out of the tanks, it must be at the
required pumping temperature. This is only possible, however, if the oil has been kept liquid
during the voyage (above a minimum temperature). If the oil solidifies in the tanks, it cannot
be liquefied again even by forced heating. In the vicinity of the heating coils, the oil melts,
scorches, discolours and becomes rancid.

The oil may also cool too rapidly in the long lines and solid deposits form on the outer walls,
which cannot be pumped out and prevent the still liquid cargo from reaching the suction
valve. This problem can be solved by appropriate heating or insulation of the lines.

Because of the above reasons, loading, travel and pumping temperatures must be precisely
complied with, since any change in consistency which occurs during transport may prove
irreversible.

Where the oil is packaged in barrels, the latter have to be handled with appropriate care.
Damaged barrels quickly lead to oil leakage and thus to loss of volume or to damage to
other parts of the cargo.

9.2.3 Density & Volume Expansion

The density of castor oil is approximately 0.960 cm
3

With a rise in temperature, however, density diminishes, thereby leading at the same time
to an increase in volume. This behavior is described by the coefficient of cubic expansion
and is known as thermal dilatation.

The coefficient of cubic expansion amounts to: g = approx. 0.0007°C
-1
As a rule of thumb, castor oil may be expected to increase in volume by 1% of their total
volume for each 14°C temperature increase. So, when filling the barrels or tanks, attention
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must however be paid to the expansion behavior of the cargo in the event of a rise in
temperature (risk of bursting of barrels).

9.2.4 Cargo Securing

In the case of castor oil (as with most other liquid cargoes), it is important for the space
above the cargo to be small, so that only slight movement of the cargo is possible.
Movement in liquid cargoes may have a negative effect on the stability of the means of
transport (e.g. during cornering in the case of trucks and trains or when ships roll and pitch).

Barrels have to be secured in such a way that they cannot slip in the hold or on the loading
area and suffer damage.

9.2.5 Risk Factors and Loss Prevention

Temperature

Castor oil has no particular requirements as to storage climate conditions.

The solidification temperature is of considerable significance in the transport of fatty oils
and fats. They must remain liquid during loading, during the voyage and during unloading.
Chill haze (separation) begins if cooling causes the temperature of the oil to approach
solidification point, the oil becoming ointment-like and finally solid, and it can no longer be
pumped.

Separation and the associated change in consistency from liquid to solid occurs more readily
upon cooling, the higher is the solidification point.

The oil must be heated only by a few °C per day, else the risk of rancidity and other negative
changes arises.

The following table constitutes a rough estimate of appropriate temperature ranges.
Temperatures may deviate from these values, depending on the particular transport
conditions.

Designation Temperature range
Travel temperature (favorable temperature
range) 15°C (12 - 25°C)
Solidification temperature -10 to -18°C
Pumping temperature 30 - 35°C


The travel temperature must be complied with as far as possible during transport, to
minimize oxidation processes.

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Humidity/Moisture

Castor oil is insoluble in water. However, contact with water may give rise to soluble lower
fatty acids and glycerol, which cause rancidity together with changes in colour (yellow to
brown), odour and taste as well as gelling and thickening. Castor oil spoils on contact with
water. For this reason, the tanks must be absolutely dry after cleaning.

Ventilation

Ventilation must not be carried out under any circumstances, as it would supply fresh
oxygen to the oil, which would promote oxidation processes and premature rancidity.

Although castor oil thickens when exposed to atmospheric oxygen, it does not form a skin at
the surface.

Biotic Activity

Castor oil displays 3rd order biotic activity. It belongs to the class of goods in which
respiration processes are suspended, but in which biochemical, microbial and other
decomposition processes proceed. Care of the oil during the voyage must be aimed at
keeping decomposition processes to a low level.

Self-heating / Spontaneous Combustion

The oil may ignite spontaneously in conjunction with sawdust or material residues.

Odour

Active
ehavior
Castor oil releases an unpleasant odour. Contaminated oil smells
like stale water.
Passive
behavior
Tanks and barrels must always be odour-free, since there is a risk
that quality will be diminished in particular where the previous
cargo had a strong odour.

Contamination

Active
behavior
Leaking oil leads to massive contamination and may make whole
cargoes unusable.

Of considerable significance with regard to tank cleaning is the
iodine value, which is a measure of how strong a tendency the oil
has to oxidation and thus to drying. Drying is particularly
detrimental to tank cleaning, as the oil/fat sticks to the walls and
can be removed only with difficulty. On the basis of drying
capacity, oils are divided into nondrying, semidrying and drying
oils.

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With an iodine value of 81 - 100, castor oil is a non-drying oil,
which means that it does not dry significantly on contact with
atmospheric oxygen and so the tanks are easily cleaned.

Passive
behavior
Castor oil is sensitive to contamination by ferrous and rust particles
and water (especially seawater).

The tanks or barrels must be clean and in a thoroughly hygienic
condition before filling.

Mechanical Influences

In the case of transport in barrels, extreme mechanical stresses, such as dropping, tipping
over or bumping, may lead to breakage of the barrels and thus to leakage.

Toxicity / Hazards to Health

Before anyone enters a tank, it must be ventilated and a gas measurement carried out.
Oxidation processes may lead to a life-threatening shortage of O
2
.

Shrinkage / Shortage

In cases where castor oil is packaged in barrels, weight loss from leakage is always to be
expected.

Losses of up to 0.3% due to adhesion of the cargo to the tank walls may be deemed normal.

Insect Infestation / Diseases

No risk.

Castor Oil Storage during Transportation

Maximum duration of storage:

Temperature Max. Duration of storage
12 - 25°C 6 months

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10 - Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers

This chapter comprises inputs on the following topics

Producers in India ʹ 10.1
Producers in China ʹ 10.2
Producers in Brazil ʹ 10.3
Other Suppliers ʹ 10.4


































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10.1 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in India

Following is the list of prominent castor oil and castor derivatives manufacturers in India.
The list is based on a number of parameters, the key among which are the size of the
ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ Žŝů ďƵƐŝŶĞƐƐ͕ ŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ ĂŶĚ ƚƌĂĐŬ ƌĞĐŽƌĚ͘

1. Jayant Agro Organics
2. Biotor Industries
3. Ambuja Global
4. Adani Group
5. NK Proteins
6. RPK Agrotech

1. Jayant Agro Organics

Main Line of Business: Castor Oil & Derivatives Production

Background:

Jayant Agro-Organics Limited is a public listed company, traded on Bombay Stock Exchange
and the National Stock Exchange. It is a 100% Export Oriented Unit, and is one of the leading
the Castor based companies in India. The company has a history of almost five decades. It is
one of the largest castor oil and derivatives companies in the world.

The company has acquired 100 percent subsidiary of Ihsedu Agrochem Pvt Ltd, a crushing
unit from Gujarat Agro Industries Corporation Limited. This plant has a crushing capacity of
350 MT oil / day and also has solvent extraction plant. The plant is located in Banaskantha ʹ
which is one of the largest castor growing districts in Gujarat ʹ which alone accounts for
75% of IŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ CĂƐƚŽƌ SĞĞĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚŝŽŶ͘

Products manufactured are Castor Oil Commercial Grade, Castor Oil First Special
Grade,Castor Oil Pale Pressed Grade, Castor Oil Extra Pale Grade, Castor Oil Neutralised
Grade, Castor Oil Pharma Grade. Notable is the fact that this unit also manufactures all high
grade Castor Oils including Castor Oil Cold Pressed.

Products:

The company had been focusing more on castor grades until a decade back. In the last few
years, the company has started climbing the value chain and has a high focus on specialty
chemicals. It currently supplies a range of generation I and generation II castor oil
derivatives, besides the basic grades. Our estimate is that it will be supplying about 1,00,000
T of castor oil / derivatives, and about 75-100,000 T of castor meal per year.

For a complete list of their products, please see the following URL ʹ
http://www.jayantagro.com/products.htm

Financials: Revenues of about 125 million US$ ʹ 2007-2008.
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Location: Headquartered in Mumbai

Address:
Akhandanand, 38, Marol Co-Operative Industrial Estate,
Off. M. V. Road, Sakinaka, Andheri (E)
Mumbai - 400059, India
Tel: +91-22-66970470
www.jayantagro.com

2. Biotor Industries

Main Line of Business: Castor Oil & Derivatives Production

Background:

Previously called Jayant Oil Mills, Biotor is one of the largest integrated castor companies in
the world. It operates across the entire value chain, from contract farming of castor seeds to
wholly owned retailing operations in Europe and the United States. The company has its
manufacturing unit and seed crushing plant at Makarpura in Baroda, Gujarat, for castor oil
of various grades and its derivatives. They have also put up an 8000 TPA Sebacic Acid Plant
which is located in Ekalbara, Baroda.

Products:

The company produces all grades of castor oil and is moving up the value chain to focus on
much higher value added derivatives such as Zinc Undecylenate, Calcium Undecyclenate,
methyl ricinoleate, polyamides, polyols and more. See this URL for the complete list of
products: http://www.biotorindustries.com/castor-oil-products.html

The company also announced its intention to invest significantly over next three years to
produce high value castor derivatives such as nylon 11, 12 used in automobile and telecom
and nylon 6, 10 used in toothbrush, zip fasteners and fishing nets.

Biotor has also, over the last three years, launched major initiatives to promote castor
cultivation under the framework of contract farming in India. Biotor has already contracted
about 100,000 acres in 2008-09.

It has a 2,20,000 T per annum crushing capacity, and supplies about 1,00,000 T of castor oil
and derivatives per year. It has about 25% castor oil and derivatives market share in the
world. Castor meal is marketed by Biotor's fertilizer division. Our estimate is that it will be
producing about 75-100,000 T of castor meal per year.

In Dec 2008, Morgan Stanley invested in Biotor. Morgan Stanley Private Equity Asia, the
ďĂŶŬ͛Ɛ AƐŝĂŶ ƉƌŝǀĂƚĞ ĞƋƵŝƚLJ ǁŝŶŐ͕ ŝŶǀĞƐƚĞĚ Ψϯϳ͘ϰ ŵŝůůŝŽŶ͕ ŝŶ ƌĞƚƵƌŶ ĨŽƌ Ă ͞ƐŝŐŶŝĨŝĐĂŶƚ͟ ŵŝŶŽƌŝƚLJ
stake. The partnership is expected to provide Biotor wŝƚŚ ĂĐĐĞƐƐ ƚŽ MŽƌŐĂŶ SƚĂŶůĞLJ͛Ɛ ŐůŽďĂů
franchise and relationships, which we believe will prove invaluable as we aim to increase
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our international presence. Biotor is planning to invest part of this Morgan Stanley
investment in its upcoming project at the Bharuch SEZ in Gujarat. The SEZ project will be
completed in the first quarter of 2010-ϭϭ͕ ĂĨƚĞƌ ǁŚŝĐŚ ƚŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ͛Ɛ ĐĂƐƚŽƌ ƐĞĞĚ ĐƌƵƐŚŝŶŐ
capacity will account for 45% of the total market in India.

Financials: Revenues of about US$ 125 million ʹ 2007-08

Location: Headquartered in Mumbai

Address
13, Sitafalwadi, Dr. Mascarenhas Road,
Mazgaon, Mumbai 400 010, India
www.biotorindustries.com

3. Gujarat Ambuja Exports

Main Line of Business: Agro Processing & Trading

Background:

Gujarat Ambuja Exports Limited is principally involved in agro-processing & trading and has
focused on exports, competing in the global market.

With a small beginning in 1983, the company has grown with the addition of numerous
plants in the agro-processing sector, After establishing its first edible oil refinery in 1986, the
company set up its wheat flour mill and cattle feed mill in 1987. The company also set up
huge capacities in the Solvent Extraction industry backed by vertically integrated projects of
edible oil refinery and vanaspati ghee.

The company with its focus on international trade has setup a wholly-owned subsidiary at
Singapore and has recently promoted a vanaspati and oil refinery project in Sri Lanka.

Products:

One of the products it deals in is castor oil and castor meal. Others are soy, maize,
cottonseed, palm, rapeseed, wheat, coconut, sesame and safflower.

The total amount of castor oil is estimated to be around 10,000 T per year.

Financials: Total group revenues are about US$ 400 million ʹ 2007-2008

Location: Headquarters - Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Address:
"Ambuja Tower", Opp. Memnagar Fire Station,
Post Navjivan, Ahmedabad 380014, Gujarat)
Phone: +91-79-26423316, 26405535
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Fax: +91-79-26423079
URL: www.ambujaglobal.com
URL of the castor division: http://www.ambujaglobal.com/castor_meal.php

4. Adani Group

Main Line of Business: Trading & Diversified

Background:

Adani Group is a large conglomerate of about 4 billion $ in revenues, with a focus on trading
activities.

Products:

Today, the Adani business portfolio is a diverse group with interests in edible oil, logistics,
power generation, coal, oil and gas exploration, gas distribution, real estate, ports and
more.

The group also trades in castor oil and castor meal and is one of the largest exporters of
castor products from India. The company exports over 50,000 T of castor oil and castor meal
annually.

Financials: Adani Group turnover is about 4 billion $ in revenues. (2007-08)

Location: Headquareters - Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Address:
͞AĚĂŶŝ PŽƵƐĞ͕͟
Near Mithakhali Six Roads,
Navrangpura, Ahmedabad ʹ 380 009
URL: www.adanigroup.com

5. NK Proteins

Main Line of Business: Producer of vegetable oils

Background:

N. K. Proteins was started in 1993 and is today a prominent refiner of vegetable oils in the
state of Gujarat. It has a large manufacturing plant for castor oil, derivatives and organic
fertilizers from castor meal. The manufacturing plant at situated at Kadi, in the north of the
Gujarat state.
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Products:

In addition to the basic grades of castor oil, the company also produces ricinoleic acid,
hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) and 12-HSA.

It has the capacity to crush 1000 MT of castor seeds per day, and refining capacity of 400 T
of castor oil per day. It also has a solvent extraction plant with a capacity to process 600 T of
de-oiled castor cake per day

For a complete list of their products, please see the following URL ʹ
http://www.nkproteins.com/index.php?file=caster-product

Financials: Revenues are about $200 million (2007-08).

Location: Headquarters: Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Address:
2nd / 7th Floor, Popular House,
Ashram Road, Ahmedabad - 380009
Gujarat, India

www.nkproteins.com

6. RPK Agrotech

Main Line of Business: Castor oil and derivatives producer and trader

Background:

RPK Agrotech was established in 2004 and focusses on castor oil exports.

Products:

The company focused on producing the basic castor oil grades. The company has also
started trading of castor oil derivatives mainly HCO and 12 HSA, which the company gets
made on job work basis.

The company has a capacity to crush over 9000 MT of castor seed per month. It is currently
(Dec 2008) setting up new plant with crushing capacity of castor seed with 250 MT per day.

For a complete list of products, please see the following URL ʹ
http://rpkagrotech.com/products.php

Financials: Approximately $25 million

Location: The Company operates a manufacturing facility at KSEZ Kandla in the state of
Gujarat. The other unit is at Bhachau, also in Gujarat.
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Address:
Plot No 351,
2nd Floor, Sector 1/A,
Gandhidham, Gujarat - 370201

www.rpkagrotech.com

Other Companies

7. Gokul Overseas

Main Line of Business: Gokul Overseas (GO) is producer of castor oil and castor base
derivative products in the world

Background:

Gokul Overseas, a constituent of the Gokul Group is a partnership firm. It is the Flagship
Company of US $400 Million Gokul Overseas Group, a conglomerate of diversified activities
with major interests in castor oil (FSG, BP, USP, CP, PP, EP, & Comml), edible oils besides
castor derivatives. It is an IOCA Members and has been supplying the castor derivatives to
international markets since April'2007 covering worldwide customers.

The company has firmed up plans to set up a castor seed crushing plant at Gandhidham in
Kutch. The new plant will have a capacity of 600 tonnes per day (tpd) and the investment
will be in the range of Rs 30 crore to Rs 35 crore, The plant is expected to be operational by
November 2009.The company earlier used to outsource crushing of castor seed from other
plants.

Products:

Its castor products include:

Castor Oil (FSG / BSS, CP, BP, USP, EP, PP, Grades)
Hydrogenated Castor Oil (Flakes-Super & Spl.)
12 Hydroxy stearic acid (Flakes-Super & Spl)
Ricinoleic Acid (Liquid-Colour 2 max) of HCO, 12 HSA and Ricinoleic Acid

Financials: The company is a 100% Export Oriented Company. It achieved a top line of US$
73 millions (31.03.2009).

Location: 1ŚĞ ĐŽŵƉĂŶLJ ŝƐ ďĞĂƌŝŶŐ ĂŶ ͞SLZ͟ ƐƚĂƚƵƐ ĂŶĚ ƐŝƚƵĂƚĞĚ Ăƚ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ ƉƌĞŵŝĞƌ ƐƉĞĐŝĂů
economic zone (SEZ) KANDLA in the state of Gujarat.

Address:
State Highway No. 41,
Near Sujanpur Patia,
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Sidhpur, Gujarat- 384151
Phone: +91 2767 222075/ 220 975
Fax: +91 2767 223475
eMail: csgrsl@gokulgroup.com

http://www.gokulgroup.com/

8. Adya Oil & Chemicals Ltd

Main Line of Business: A company manufacturing castor oil and it's derivatives.

Background:

AOCL founded in 1997, has set up world class manufacturing facilities to process commercial
castor oil and various down stream products.

Products:

Its castor products include:

Commercial castor oil
Castor Oil FSG
Castor oil ʹ first pressed degummed
Castor oil - pale pressed
Hydrogenated castor oil
12-hydroxy stearic acid

For the product specification and application, see the link
http://www.adyaoils.com/product.htm

Location: The company operates a modern manufacturing facility at Karjan near Baroda in
Gujarat

Address

K-20, Ground Floor
M.R.Society, Opp. Raheja College
Relief Road, Santacruz (West)
Mumbai 400 054. INDIA.
Tel. 26616172, 26616173
Fax. :( 91-22) 26616126
E-Mail. : info@adyaoils.com

www.adyaoils.com

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9. Kanak Castor Products Pvt Ltd

Main Line of Business: Manufacturing and exporting of castor oil and its derivatives.

Background: Apart form castor oil and its derivatives, Kanak Castor Products Pvt. Ltd., is
involved in manufacturing and exporting of natural organic fertilizers, neem-based
pesticides, food additives and emulsifier.

Products:

For the complete list of products, please see the following link,
http://www.kanak.in/products.html

Location: The manufacturing unit situated at Mehsana, North Gujarat, India covers more
than 80,000 sq. mtrs. land having modern manufacturing facilities

Address
National Highway No.8,
At. Umanagar,
Nandasan,
Ta. Kadi,
Mehsana-382 706.
(Gujarat - India).
Ph: +91 - 2764 - 267611-13/15/18-20
E Mail: mkt@kanak.in

http://www.kanak.in/

10. Royal Castor Products

Main Line of Business: Manufacturer, exporter and supplier of a varied range of Castor
products and derivatives.

Background: Royal Castor Products Limited, promoted by the Standard Greases Group, the
largest Grease manufacturer in the private sector In India & Patel Group, conglomerate with
a strong base in the construction and manufacturing industries promoted in 1995 has now
become a name that is identified with quality in the castor oil derivatives world over.

The Indian arm of Dow Chemical International (Dow India) and Gujarat-based Royal Castor
Products Ltd have signed a commitment to conduct research in sustainable bio-based
products and solutions using castor oil (Mar 2009)

Products:

For a complete list of products, see the link http://www.royalcastor.in/html/product.html

Location: The facility is located in At. Khali, Sidhpur, Patan,
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Address:
101, Ketan Apartments,
233, R.B. Mehta Marg, Ghatkopar (East),
Mumbai ʹ 400 077, INDIA.
Tel. No. : +91 ʹ 22 ʹ 2509 3641 to 46
Fax No. : +91 ʹ 22 ʹ 2510 0384
Email : royalcastor@vsnl.com

www.royalcastor.in

11. Taj Agro Products

Main Line of Business: Manufacture various grades of castor oil & castor seed extraction.

Background: Taj agro Products limited, incorporated in the year 1986, is a flagship company
of the Taj Group. It established with an objective to manufacture and market various grades
of Castor Seed & Castor Oil. The unit is having expelling capacity of 115 MT/day, refining
capacity of 50 MT/day and a solvent extraction plant for castor seed extraction meal with a
capacity of 100 MT/day.

Taj Group has also added one more Solvent Extraction Plant in the year 2005 under the
name of Taj Proteins Pvt. Ltd. to produce Rapeseed Extraction Meal with the production
capacity of 250 MT/day. In the future, Taj Proteins will also have the Rapeseed Expelling
Facility supported by Refinery to back up the captive requirements of its Solvent Extraction
Plant and to cater to the ever deficit Indian Edible Oil Market by offering Refined Grade
Rapeseed Oil.

Products:

Taj Group is a manufacturer and exporter of the following grades:

Commercial Castor Oil
Refined Castor Oil (FSG/BSS)
Refined Castor Oil (Pale Pressed Grade)
Refined Castor Oil (Extra Pale Grade)
Neutralized Castor Oil (N.C.O.)
Pharmaceutical Castor Oil (I.P. Grade)
Pharmaceutical Castor Oil (B.P. Grade)
Pharmaceutical Castor Oil (U.S.P. Grade)
Refined Castor Oil (DAB 10)
Hydrogenated Castor Oil (HCO)
12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid (12-H.S.A.)
Eco-Friendly Fertilizers
Castor Seed Extraction Meal (D.O.C.)
Bio Organic Fertilizer from Compost Agro Waste Mix
Rapeseed Extraction Meal.
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Address:
434, Laxmi Plaza, Laxmi
Industrial Estate, New
Link Road, Andheri (W), Mumbai- 400 053.
India.
Mob: 009930407744
E-mail : tajpharma@rediffmail.com

www.tajagroproducts.com
10.2 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in China

1. Tongliao TongHua Castor Chemical Co., Ltd.

The company was founded in 1985 and put into operation in 1988. It processes 80,000MT
castor seeds annually.

Products: Castor oil basic grades, dehydrated castor oil, hydrogenated castor oil, 12-HSA,
sebacic acid, castor oil fatty acid, dehydrated castor oil fatty acid, pharmaceutical castor oil,
blown castor oil, sulphonated castor oil, lithium 12-HSA, Magnesium 12-HSA, Alumium 12-
HSA and other stearate products and Dioctyl Stearate (DOS), Dibutyl Sebacate (DBS), Dioctyl
Fumarate (DOF), Dibutyl Fumarate (DBF), Dodecanedioic Acid, secondary octyl alcohol,
commercial stearic acid, castor meal.

http://www.castoroil.cn/MainWeb_EN.htm

2. Zouping County Tianxing Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.

This company is located in the Handian Industrial Zone, Zouping, Shandong China. It can
produce castor oil basic grades, Sebacic Acid and 12-hydroxy stearate. It also is a member of
the China Castor Association.

It can press the castor seed of 80,000T to the castor oil of 35,000T, Sebacic Acid of 4,000T,
12-hydroxy stearate of 10,000T every year

Products: Castor oil basic grades, Sebacic acid, Dimethyl sebacate, Dibutyl Sebacate (DBS),
2-Octanol, 12-Hydroxy Stearic Acid, Castor Cake

http://www.tianxingchem.com

3. Liaoyang Huaxing Chemical Co., Ltd.

Liaoyang Huaxing Chemical Co., Ltd is equipped with total production capacity of 60,000
tons of nonionic surfactants every year. The company mainly produces three series and
more than 100 kinds of nonionic surfactants such as fatty alcohol-polyoxyethyleneether,
nonylphenol-polyoxyethyleneether and polyethylene glycol (PEG), etc. Now, the company
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has established long-term and close cooperation relation with more than 300 enterprises
such as Nanfeng Group, Hangao Company, Guangzhou Libai, Liaoning Whitecat, Zhejiang
Nice, etc.

Products: It mainly produces three series and more than 100 kinds of nonionic surfactants
such as fatty alcohol-polyoxyethyleneether, nonylphenol-polyoxyethyleneether and
polyethylene glycol (PEG), etc.

4. Xingtai Lantian Fine Chemical Co., Ltd.

The former Xingtai Industrial Detergent Factory, established in May 1992, is manufacturer of
surfactants and other practical products. Their products are: surfactants, pesticide auxiliarg,
detergent auxiliary, and textile, printing and dyeing chemicals, altogether about 100 types.

It has an annual output of 5,000 tons of external cycle gas-liquid contact ethoxylation or
propoxylation production lines and advanced PI techniques. The main products are
inspected with ISO series standard. In 1999, we came up with innovative production
methods for DBS-Ca. Its pesticide emulsifier production capacity reaches 4,500 tons.

Products:

For a complete list of products, please click on the following link ʹ
http://www.ltchem.com/cgi/search-
en.cgi?f=contact_en+product_en+company_en_1_&t=product_en&w=product_en&terms=
Castor+oil-polyoxyethylene+ether+series+&Submit.x=30&Submit.y=4

www.ltchem.com

10.3 Prominent Castor Oil & Derivatives Producers in Brazil

Company Location
Production (est.) ʹ MT,
2007
Bom Brasil Salvador, BA 25
A.Azevedo Itupeva, SP 6
Enovel Bariri, SP 3


A consolidated list of companies using castor as a biodiesel feedstock and their production
quantities has been provided

Producer Location Feedstock
Production
Capacity
(litres/m³)
Ambra Varginha/MG
sunflower, nabo forrageiro and castor
bean 2400L
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Araguassu
Porto Alegre do
Norte/MT
soybean, cotton, sunflower and castor
bean 100m³
Biocamp Campo Verde/MT castor bean, tallow and jatropha 154m³
Biocapital Charqueada/SP
soybean, cotton, peanut, sunflower,
palm, jatropha and castor bean 824m³
Brasil
Ecodiesel Teresina/PI
castor bean, soybean, cotton and
sunflower 2000L
Brasil
Ecodiesel Floriano/PI
castor bean, soybean, cotton and
sunflower 96000L
Brasil
Ecodiesel Crateús/CE
castor bean, soybean, cotton and
sunflower 360m³
Brasil
Ecodiesel Iraquara/BA
castor bean, soybean, cotton and
sunflower 252000L
Brasil
Ecodiesel Rosário do Sul/RS
castor bean, soybean, cotton, sunflower
and jatropha 252m³
Brasil
Ecodiesel São Luis/MA
castor bean, soybean, cotton and
sunflower 360000L
Comanche
(ex-IBR) Simões Filho/BA
Soybean, cotton, tallow, dendê and
castor bean 65000L
Dhaymers
Taboão da
Serra/SP
soybean, babassu, castor bean and
tallow 26m³
Nutec
(Fundação
Núcleo de
Tecnologia
Industrial
do Ceará) Fortaleza/CE castor bean 2400L
Soyminas Cássia/MG
castor bean, colza, nabo forrageiro and
sunflower 40m³
Source: http://www.iucnael.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=99&lang=en

10.4 Other Prominent Suppliers

Fuerst Day Lawson - International Trading Company in Castor Oil

Fuerst Day Lawson is one of the leading Castor Oil suppliers in Europe with over 40 years
experience buying directly from the producers in India, China and Brazil. The company
supplies castor oil into Europe and China, selling approximately 40,000 MT per year via
storage tanks in Rotterdam and Marseille, and via direct deliveries in flexitanks and drums.

Since the emergence of India as the dominant region of supply more than 15 years ago,
Fuerst Day Lawson has gained a significant presence with a regional head office based in
Delhi, from where it maintains regular contact with major market players.

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Appendix 1

In recent times, we @ CastorOil.in have had a number of enquiries for details and data
about sebacic acid. Owing to this, we are including a special section in this report for sebacic
acid.

This section comprises the following details on sebacic acid:
1. Demand - Supply Estimates for Sebacic Acid
2. Price of Sebacic Acid
3. Sebacic Acid Companies and Suppliers

1. Demand - Supply Estimates for Sebacic Acid

Introduction

According to the industry nomenclature, generation I derivatives include hydrogenated
castor oil, 12-hydroxy stearic acid, dehydrated castor oil acid, and ethoxylated castor oil
among others. Generation II castor oil derivatives include sebacic acid, undecyclenic acid,
heptaldehyde, polyols and dimer acid. Generation III derivatives include the esters and salts
of generation II derivatives as well as derivatives such as methyl-12-hydroxystearate.

The global market for generation II castor oil derivatives is estimated at $300 million (based
on 2007 data). For generation III derivatives, where half of the generation II derivatives are
converted, the estimated market worth is close to $350 million (based on 2007 data).

Overall, the castor oil and derivatives industry have shown an average demand growth of
about 4% per annum for the period 2000-2007.

Current Demand-Supply Estimates for Sebacic Acid

Global Demand

Global demand level: Approximately 140,000 metric tonnes per annum

Global supply

Global installed capacity: Approximately 150,000 metric tonnes per annum

China is currently the primary producer of SBA. The United States and India are also producers.

PĞŶŐƐŚƵŝ uŽŶŐĨĞŶŐ ĂŶĚ PĞŶŐƐŚƵŝ !ŝŶŐŚƵĂ CŚĞŵŝĐĂů ÞůĂŶƚ͕ CŚŝŶĂ͛Ɛ ůĂƌŐĞƐƚ SĞďĂĐŝĐ ĂĐŝĚ ƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƌƐ
ŵĂŶƵĨĂĐƚƵƌĞ ϮϯϬϬϬ ƚŽŶƐ ĂŶĚ ϯϬϬϬϬ ƚŽŶƐ ƉĞƌ LJĞĂƌ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚŝǀĞůLJ͘ SĞďĂĐŝĐ AĐŝĚ lŶĚŝĂ͕ lŶĚŝĂ͛Ɛ
largest supplier produces 10000 T/yr.
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2. Price of Sebacic Acid

FOB Price (Tianjin, China)

$3,584.00/MT - $3,602.00/MT

CIF Mumbai (Origin port: Tianjin, China)
$3,648.00/MT - $3,666.00/MT
Palletized CIF price: $3,686.00/MT - $3,704.00/MT
Note: All data for Sep 2009

3. Sebacic Acid Companies and Suppliers

Main Countries Producing Sebacic Acid

China
Japan
Brazil
India
United Kingdom

Top Suppliers of Sebacic Acid Worldwide

Name of the Manufacturer Location
Fulida Industry co Hebei China
Green International Germany
Hengshui Dongfeng Chemical Co China
Hengshui Jinghua Chemical Plant China
Hengshui OK Enterprises Hebei Inner
Mongolia Tianrun
China
Castor Development Co., Ltd China
Jiheng Chemical China
Mitsu Toatsu Chemicals Japan
Persulphate Ltd China
Qingdao Great Chemical Inc China
Ronas Chemicals Ind. Co., Ltd. Taiwan
Shandong Haihua Tianhe Organic Chemical
Co., Ltd
China
Shandong Ocean Chemical Group China
Shenzhen Pharmaceutical Factory Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
Shijiazhuang Jihua, Chemical Textile Co China
Sinochem Tianjin, Tianjin, China.
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Suny Chem International Co., Ltd Yantai Shandong, China
Taizhou Donghai Chemical Co.Ltd., Zhejiang Province, China
Tianjin No.1 Chemical Reagent Factory Tianjin, China
Tianjin Zhonghe Chemical Plant Tianjin, China
Tonliao Xinghe Chemical Co., Ltd Inner Mongolia, China
Unitchem Co Ltd China
Weifang Tianhe Organic Chemical Co., China
Zouping County Tianxing Chemical Industry
Co., Ltd
China
Source: Derived from various sources



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Appendix 2 ʹ India Export Details on Castor Derivatives

Indian Export of 12 HSA and HCO (Unit: KGS)

S.No. Country
Values in Rs.
Lacs
Values in Rs.
Lacs Quntity in thousands
2008-2009 2009-2010 %Growth 2008-2009 2009-2010 %Growth
1 ARGENTINA 55.01 18.03 -67.23 50.21 24 -52.2
2 AUSTRALIA 395.82 465.55 17.62 473.43 593.34 25.33
3 BAHARAIN IS 11.52 12
4
BANGLADESH
PR 1.8 2.91 61.45 2 3 50
5 BELGIUM 2,441.09 2,341.41 -4.08 3,150.31 3,213.89 2.02
6 BRAZIL 11.41 413.8 3,525.55 22 567.34 2,478.84
7 BULGARIA 14.97 11.52 -23.04 17 16.12 -5.19
8 BELARUS 12.25 16.23
9 CANADA 323 337.71 4.55 333.3 426.43 27.94
10 CHILE 16.1 24
11 TAIWAN 120.35 127.61 6.04 188.2 171.15 -9.06
12 CHINA P RP 224.21 47.28 -78.91 299 70 -76.59
13 COLOMBIA 220.36 73.53 -66.63 245.39 70 -71.47
14 CUBA 72.01 97
15 DENMARK 17.51 24
16 EGYPT A RP 314.9 34.4 -89.08 343 51 -85.13
17 FRANCE 34.72 131.34 278.29 32 181.47 467.1
18 GERMANY 103.44 146.64 41.76 113.74 213.78 87.96
19 GREECE 36.11 56.58 56.69 53.01 79 49.03
20 HONG KONG 0.77 1
21 INDONESIA 95.56 60.52 -36.66 144.63 82.32 -43.08
22 IRAN 157.89 2.02 -98.72 199.79 2.5 -98.75
23 ISRAEL 37.28 50.09 34.35 49.11 68.58 39.66
24 ITALY 617.49 664.71 7.65 801.44 984.5 22.84
25 JAPAN 4,168.66 3,161.24 -24.17 4,890.10 4,105.17 -16.05
26 JORDAN 42.65 60
27 KENYA 2.04 2.94
28 KOREA RP 1,295.07 791.98 -38.85 1,688.71 1,050.95 -37.77
29 KUWAIT 10.96 16
30 LITHUANIA 11.9 11.55 -2.95 17 17 0
31 MALAYSIA 45.79 62.81
32 MEXICO 83.45 178.34 113.72 89 231.85 160.51
33 NEPAL 45.2 9.44 -79.11 102 31.05 -69.56
34 NETHERLAND 4,100.16 2,821.66 -31.18 4,900.20 3,672.31 -25.06
35 NEW ZEALAND 2.02 1.03 -49.14 2 0.5 -75
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36 PAKISTAN IR 7.68 18.81
37 PERU 13.01 16.23
38 PHILIPPINES 227.1 179.55 -20.94 310.58 242 -22.08
39 POLAND 361.97 318.35 -12.05 460 435.74 -5.27
40 RUSSIA 1,073.46 1,016.32 -5.32 1,412.63 1,397.75 -1.05
41 SAUDI ARAB 491.19 127.96 -73.95 610.43 165.86 -72.83
42 SINGAPORE 57.58 114.84 99.44 70.88 134 89.05
43 SLOVENIA 12.31 22.7 84.4 16.66 33.32 100
44 SOUTH AFRICA 122.75 221.02 80.06 154 268.93 74.63
45 SPAIN 261.16 215.23 -17.58 358.71 292.21 -18.54
46 SUDAN 14.12 10.76 -23.77 17 15 -11.76
47 SWEDEN 98.6 75.27 -23.66 108 73 -32.41
48 SWITZERLAND 30.29 42
49 SYRIA 17.7 25.48
50 TANZANIA REP 2.88 4
51 THAILAND 300.69 350.17 16.46 364.34 455.38 24.99
52 TUNISIA 59.04 80
53 TURKEY 744.69 441.45 -40.72 889.63 590.42 -33.63
54 U ARAB EMTS 371.57 502.95 35.36 487.57 698.12 43.18
55 U K 529.72 491.5 -7.21 634.11 683.56 7.8
56 UKRAINE 390.19 202.67 -48.06 479.54 266.68 -44.39
57 U S A 3,951.80 4,264.11 7.9 5,370.45 5,884.61 9.57
58 VENEZUELA 68.78 96
59
VIETNAM SOC
REP 57.64 77.54
60 UNSPECIFIED 87.93 184.02 109.29 95 221.99 133.67
Total 24,430.01 20,767.04 -14.99
Source: Ministry of Commerce, India
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Export of Azelaic Aci, Sebacic Acid their Salts & Esters from India

S.No. Country Values in Rs. Lacs Quntity in thousands

2008-2009 2009-2010 %Growth
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
1 AUSTRALIA 21.2 12
2 BELGIUM 248.77 168
3 TAIWAN 43.24 0.09 -99.78 32 0.03 -99.92
4 CHINA P RP 309.77 129.39 -58.23 255 64.7 -74.63
5 GERMANY 157.09 272.54 73.49 110 216.02 96.38
6 ITALY 88.44 100.02 13.1 80 50 -37.5
7 JAPAN 71.71 48
8 KOREA RP 23.22 15
9 NETHERLAND 1,353.46 305.9 -77.4 1,031.00 232 -77.5
10 SINGAPORE 3.32 3
11 U S A 548.47 377.74 -31.13 417.71 279.58 -33.07
Total 2,847.49 1,206.88 -57.62
Source: Ministry of Commerce, India

Export Data forDehyrdated Castor Oil

CASTOR OIL DEHYDRTD OF EDBILE GRADE Unit: KGS
S.No. Country Values in Rs. Lacs Quntity in thousands

2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
1 AUSTRALIA 6.3 7.9
2 BRAZIL 24.63 15
3 CHINA P RP 7.3 8
4 GREECE 2.85 40.02
5 MALAYSIA 0.83 1.02
6 SOUTH
AFRICA
10.5 10
Total 44.28 8.13 -81.63


Export Data for Hydrogenated Castor Oil

HYDROGNTD CASTOR OIL (OPL WAX) OF EDBLE GRADE Unit: KGS
S.No. Country Values in Rs. Lacs Quntity in thousands

2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
1 BELGIUM 239.75 96
2 IRAN 11.8 16
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3 ITALY 8.39 8
4 MOROCCO 13.05 16
5 NEPAL 4.9 7.7
6 NIGERIA 26.04 34
7 PAKISTAN IR 0.12 0.2
8 SAUDI ARAB 11.54 16
9 SINGAPORE 0.01 0.03
10 SOUTH
AFRICA
13.07 16
11 SRI LANKA
DSR
32.03 115
12 U ARAB
EMTS
12.92 16
13 U K 0.31 0.13
14 U S A 75.88 15.38 -79.73 100 20 -80

Total 418.56 46.65 -88.86


Export Data for Sulphonated or Sulphated or Oxidized or Castor Oils

SULPHONATED OR SULPHATED OR OXIDIZED OR CASTOR ,FISH ,SPARM ,NEATS FOOT
OILS Unit: KGS
S.No. Country Values in Rs. Lacs Quntity in thousands

2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
2008-
2009
2009-
2010
%Growth
1 ALGERIA 38.87 82.66
2 AUSTRALIA 15.67 3.58 -77.18 22.21 4.94 -77.75
3 BANGLADESH
PR
62.7 56.06 -10.59 85.65 74.53 -12.98
4 TAIWAN 14.62 25.2
5 COLOMBIA 2.26 4.12
6 EGYPT A RP 10.24 21.58
7 ERITREA 16.41 50.68
8 FRANCE 2.97 1.4
9 GHANA 10.59 50.2
10 GUYANA 8.94 22.6
11 HONG KONG 0.44 0.4
12 INDONESIA 0.24 12.13 4,867.49 0.8 17.25 2,056.00
13 IRAN 8.89 16.62
14 ISRAEL 9.85 13.96
15 KENYA 14.45 15.51 7.31 18.34 16.46 -10.26
16 KOREA RP 14.1 14.32
17 KUWAIT 98.69 154.69 56.74 199.92 321.64 60.88
18 MADAGASCAR 3.55 7.16 101.31 20 39.8 99
19 MALDIVES 0.94 0.8
20 MOROCCO 6.73 16.2
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21 NEPAL 0.1 0.06 -43.8 0.2 0.09 -55
22 NIGERIA 56.1 13.76 -75.47 60.48 15.12 -75
23 OMAN 0.31 0.2
24 PAKISTAN IR 1.23 1.51
25 PERU 0.66 1.2
26 PHILIPPINES 7.83 10.55 34.79 10.45 15.77 50.82
27 PORTUGAL 69.65 74.15
28 ROMANIA 0.27 0.6 117.99 0.86 0.08 -91.32
29 SAUDI ARAB 17.65 18.83 6.73 16.98 53.28 213.78
30 SINGAPORE 2.07 4.48 116.33 1.52 3.55 133.75
31 SOUTH AFRICA 4.93 25
32 SRI LANKA DSR 266.3 81.91 -69.24 705.89 287 -59.34
33 SYRIA 0.09 0.1
34 THAILAND 0.48 42.73 8,793.78 1 59.92 5,892.00
35 TURKEY 13.16 25
36 U ARAB EMTS 18.64 3.67 -80.31 45.08 13.68 -69.65
37 U K 4.09 16.33
38 U S A 17.19 21.58
39 VIETNAM SOC
REP
13.95 3.39 -75.71 31.62 7.98 -74.76
40 YEMEN
REPUBLC
90.74 184.23 103.03 195.02 392.04 101.03
41 ZAMBIA 0.29 0.5
42 UNSPECIFIED 17.3 14.19 -17.95 8.14 16.17 98.71
Total 848.93 722.75 -14.86

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Table  of  Contents  
  1-­‐  Castor  Oil  Manufacturing  ..................................................................................................  5   1.1  Key  Manufacturing  Processes  for  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  ...........................................  6   1.1.1  Castor  Oil  Manufacturing  Processes  -­‐  Summary  ....................................................  6   1.1.2  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  Manufacturing  Processes  -­‐  Details  ................................  10   1.1.2.1  Castor  Oil  Extraction  -­‐  Details  .......................................................................  10   1.1.2.2  Castor  Oil  Filtration    Details  ........................................................................  18   1.1.2.3  Castor  Oil  Refining  -­‐  Details  ..........................................................................  21   1.1.2.4  Typical  Processes  &  Equipments  of  Castor  Oil  Refinery  Plants  ......................  24   1.1.2.5  Castor  Oil  Grades  &  Derivatives  Production  .................................................  25   1.2  Indicative  Costs  for  Setting  up  Small  and  Medium  Scale  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives   Manufacturing  Plants  ......................................................................................................  34     2  -­‐  Castor  Oil  Market  ...........................................................................................................  36   2.1  Value  Chain  for  the  Castor  Industry  ...........................................................................  37   2.2  The  Castor  Oil  Market  ................................................................................................  37   2.3  Supply  &  Demand  of  Castor  Oil  ..................................................................................  39   2.4  Indian  Castor  Oil  Industry  ..........................................................................................  44   2.4.1  Castor  Oil  Exports  -­‐  Historical  Scenario  ...............................................................  44   2.4.2  Castor  Oil  Exports    Current  Scenario  .................................................................  47   2.4.3  Castor  Seed  Production  and  Acreage  in  India  ......................................................  48   2.4.4  India-­‐wide  Data  from  Castor  Crop  Survey  2009-­‐10..............................................  50   2.4.5  Cropping  Season  in  India   ....................................................................................  53   . 2.4.6  Castor  Cultivation  &  Yields  in  India  -­‐  Points  .........................................................  53     ...................................................  53   . 2.5  Demand  -­‐  Supply  Estimates  for  Castor  Oil  Derivatives  ...............................................  55   2.5.1  Current  Demand-­‐Supply  Estimates  for  the  Various  Grades  of  Castor  Oil  and   Derivatives  ..................................................................................................................  56   2.5.2  Future  Demand-­‐Supply  Estimates  for  the  Various  Grades  of  Castor  Oil  and   Derivatives  ..................................................................................................................  57     3  -­‐  Castor  Oil  Chemicals  &  Derivatives  .................................................................................  61   3.1  Introduction  ..............................................................................................................  62   3.2  Properties  &  Chemical  Composition  of  Castor  Oil  ......................................................  62   3.3  Chemical,  Physical  Properties  &  Specifications  of  Castor  Oil  Grades  &  Derivatives  ....  65     4    Castor  Oil  Prices.............................................................................................................  77   4.1  Historical  &  Current  Price  Data  for  Various  Grades  of  Castor  Oil,  Castor  Seeds  ..........  78   4.2  Castor  Oil  &  Castor  Seed  Price  Volatility  ....................................................................  81   4.3  Factors  that  Affect  Prices  ...........................................................................................  83   4.4  Castor  Oil  Futures  Market   .........................................................................................  84   .   5  -­‐  Castor  Cultivation  ...........................................................................................................  87   5.1  Introduction  to  Castor  Crop  .......................................................................................  88   5.2  Castor  Crop  Sowing  ...................................................................................................  88   5.3  Castor  Crop  Growth  ...................................................................................................  90  

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Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report

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5.4  Castor  Crop  Harvest   ..................................................................................................  93   . 5.5  Castor  Cultivation  Seasons   ........................................................................................  93   . 5.6  Hybrid  Castor  Seeds  &  Genetic  Engineering  of  Castor  Plant  .......................................  94   5.7  Yields  for  Castor  Seeds  and  Castor  Oil  from  Seed  .....................................................  102   5.8  Castor  Cultivation  FAQ   ............................................................................................  103   .   6  -­‐  Castor  Oil  End-­‐uses  .......................................................................................................  107   6.1  Current  End  Uses  for  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives..........................................................  108   6.1.1  End  Uses    by  Castor  Oil  Grade  /  Derivative  ......................................................  108   6.1.2  Castor  Oil  &  Castor  Oil  Derivatives  Uses    By  Industry  ......................................  122   6.1.3  Use  of  Castor  Oil  in  High-­‐end  Derivatives  ..........................................................  129   6.2  Future  Possible  End-­‐uses  and  End  user  Industries  for  Castor  Oil  and  Derivatives  .....  139   6.2.1  Biopolymers  and  Castor  oil  ...............................................................................  139   6.2.2  Castor  Oil  as  Feedstock  for  Biodiesel   ................................................................  146   . 6.2.3  Other  Possible  Future  End  Uses  for  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  .............................  164     7  -­‐  Castor  Seeds  .................................................................................................................  166   7.1  Introduction  to  Castor  Seeds  ...................................................................................  167   7.2  Castor  Seeds  Production  &  Supplies  ........................................................................  167   7.3  Castor  Seeds  Prices  &  Trends  ...................................................................................  168   7.4  Castor  Seeds  Packaging  &  Storing  ............................................................................  168   7.5  Castor  Seeds  Varieties  &  Hybrids  .............................................................................  168   7.6  Castor  Seed  Factoids................................................................................................  169     8  -­‐  Castor  Meal  ..................................................................................................................  170   8.1  Castor  Meal  Uses  .....................................................................................................  171   8.2  Castor  Meal  Composition  ........................................................................................  171   8.3  Castor  Meal  Supply  &  Demand  ................................................................................  172   8.4  Toxicity  in  Castor  Meal  ............................................................................................  173   8.5  Energy  Content  in  Castor  Meal  ................................................................................  174   8.6  Castor  Meal    Other  Points  ......................................................................................  175     9  -­‐  Castor  Oil  Distribution  &  Logistics  ................................................................................  176   9.1  Castor  Oil  Storing  &  Packaging  .................................................................................  177   9.1.1  Castor  Oil  Storage  .............................................................................................  177   9.1.2  Packaging..........................................................................................................  177   9.1.3  Shelf  Life  ...........................................................................................................  177   9.2  Castor  Oil  Transportation  &  Logistics  .......................................................................  177   9.2.1  Distribution  from  Farms  to  Refinery   .................................................................  177   . 9.2.1  Transport  ..........................................................................................................  178   9.2.2  Cargo  Handling  .................................................................................................  178   9.2.3  Density  &  Volume  Expansion  ............................................................................  178   9.2.4  Cargo  Securing  ..................................................................................................  179   9.2.5  Risk  Factors  and  Loss  Prevention  ......................................................................  179    

CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil    

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report

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10  -­‐  Prominent  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  Producers............................................................  182   10.1  Prominent  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  Producers  in  India...........................................  183   10.2  Prominent  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  Producers  in  China  .........................................  192   10.3  Prominent  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  Producers  in  Brazil  ..........................................  193   10.4  Other  Prominent  Suppliers  ....................................................................................  194     Appendix  1  ........................................................................................................................  195   1.  Demand  -­‐  Supply  Estimates  for  Sebacic  Acid   .............................................................  195   . 2.  Price  of  Sebacic  Acid  ..................................................................................................  196   3.  Sebacic  Acid  Companies  and  Suppliers  ......................................................................  196  

 
Appendix  2  India  Export  Details  on  Castor  Derivatives   .198  

CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil    

1.1.1.  the  estimated  market  worth  is  close  to  $350  million.2   Castor  Oil  Refining    Details  -­‐  1.2.1   Castor  Oil  Filtration    Details  -­‐  1.     The  overall  castor  oil  &  derivatives  manufacturing  process  is:  Sowing  -­‐>  Cultivation  -­‐>   Harvest  -­‐>  Seed  Dehulling  &  Cleaning  -­‐>  Oil  Extraction  -­‐>  Oil  Filtration  &  Purification  -­‐ >  Oil  Refining  -­‐>  Production  of  Castor  Oil  Grades  &  Derivatives.1.2.5     Indicative   Costs   for   Setting   Up   Small   and   Medium   Scale   Castor   Oil   &   Derivatives   Manufacturing  Plants  -­‐  1.3   Typical  Sections  &  Sub-­‐sections  of  Castor  Oil  Refinery  Plants  -­‐  1.       While  castor  oil  by  itself  is  used  in  diverse  applications.1   o Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  Manufacturing  Processes    Details  -­‐  1.2.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 5   1  -­‐  Castor  Oil  Manufacturing     This  chapter  comprises  the  following  topics     Key  Manufacturing  Processes  for  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  -­‐  1.  For  generation  III  derivatives.2.1   o Castor  Oil  Manufacturing  Processes    Summary  -­‐  1.1.2.     The  global  market  for  generation  II  castor  oil  derivatives  is  estimated  at  about  $300   million.2         HIGHLIGHTS       Castor  seeds  contain  about  48-­‐50  percent  oil  by  weight.2   Castor  Oil  Extraction    Details  -­‐  1.4   Castor  Oil  Grades  &  Derivatives  Production  -­‐  1.1.1.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  where  half  of  the  generation  II  derivatives  are   converted.  chemical  derivatives  of  castor   oil  find  further  uses  in  industrial  applications  and  their  domains  of  use  are  increasing   rapidly.       CastorOil.

  by   machine.     1.1  Key  Manufacturing  Processes  for  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives     Castor  Oil  Production    Overall  Concept       Castor  plant  grows  wild  in  many  tropical  countries  wher  it  is  considered  native.     The  ripe  seeds  are  allowed  to  dry.   cooked   and   dried   prior   to   oil   extraction..   The   dehulled   seeds   are   cleaned.   Cooking   is   done   to   coagulate  protein  (necessary  to  permit  efficient  extraction).     To  extract  the  oil  they  must  be  crushed  and  pressed.   Filtration/Purification.     The  oil  thus  extracted  is  purified.  The  following  section   provides  extensive  details  on  each  of  the  four.1  Castor  Oil  Manufacturing  Processes  -­‐  Summary     This   section   provides   a   summary   of   each   of   the   four   processes.   and   the   material   removed   from   CastorOil. Performing   chemical   reactions   on   the   refined   oil   to   produce   various   grades   and   derivatives       This  chapter  dwells  into  each  of  the  above  four  in  depth.       Modification   of   the   refined   oil   to   produce   various   grades   and   derivatives   is   achieved   by   a   variety  of  chemical  processes  including  oxidation.  and  for  efficient  pressing.   Extraction.   normally   using   a   high   pressure   continuous   screw   press     called   the   expeller.   China   and   Brazil.     Dehulling   can   be   done   by   hand   (laborious)   or.   more   commonly. Refining  the  purified  oil   d.   in   countries   like   India.  Refining.       The   first   stage   of   oil   extraction   is   pre-­‐pressing.  hydrogenation  and  thermal  treatments  to   produce  derivatives  for  specific  applications.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 6   1.     Castor  Oil  Extraction  -­‐  Summary       Extraction   of   oil   from   castor   seeds   is   done   in   a   manner   similar   to   that   for   most   other   oil   seeds.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   viz.  It  is  grown   commercially   in   plantations   for   oil.   Extracted   oil   is   filtered.   The   seeds   contain  about  48-­‐50  percent  oil  by  weight.  Small-­‐scale   hand-­‐operated   dehullers   are   also   available.1.     The  four  main  stages  thus  in  the  production  of  castor  oil. Purification  of  the  extracted  oil   c. Extraction  of  oil   b.  castor  oil  grades  and  derivatives   are:     a.  and  the  purified  oil  is  further  refined.  when  they  split  open  and  discharge  the  seeds.  and  Grades  &  Derivatives  Production.     The   seeds   are   dehulled   after   harvesting.

 Oxidation.   Bleaching   -­‐   Bleaching   results   in   the   removal   of   coloring   materials.  it  is  necessary  to  remove  impurities  present   in  the  oil.  Material  finally  discharged  from   the   press.     Examples  of  the  chemical  reactions  used:  Hydrolysis.  The  equipment  that  is  normally  used  for  filtration  is  a  filter  press.   Dehydration.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 7   the  oil  is  fed  back  into  the  stream  along  with  fresh  material.     Castor  Oil  Filtration  &  Purification  -­‐  Summary     Once  the  oil  has  been  extracted  from  the  seed.   Bleaching.  water.     Examples   of   processes   used:   Degumming.   Evaporation  etc.  Hydrogenation.  dissolved  gases.     So.   and   subjected  to  solvent  extraction  with  heptane  to  extract  further  oil.     Saponification.   Neutralization  -­‐   The  neutralization  step  is  necessary  to  remove  free  fatty  acids  from  the   oil.   called   castor   cake.  Halogenation.  Alcoholysis.  Polymerization.  The  filtration  systems  are  designed  to  remove  particulates.   phospholipids   and   oxidation  products.   Deodorization  of  the  oil  -­‐  Deodorization  results  in  the  removal  of  odour  from  the  oil     Production  of  Castor  Oil  Grades  &  Derivative  Chemicals  -­‐  Summary     Using  a  variety  of  chemical  reactions  and/or  processes.     Castor  Oil  Refining  -­‐  Summary     The   filtered   oil   (called   the   crude   or   unrefined   oil)   is   sent   to   the   oil   refinery.  Esterification.   and  acids.   It   is   crushed   into   a   coarse   meal.     The  chemical  reactions  and  processes  used  to  prepare  various  grades  and  derivatives  will  be   discussed  in  detail  later  in  this  chapter.  Epoxidation.  the  refined  castor  oil  is  transformed   into  its  various  grades  and  a  plethora  of  useful  chemical  derivatives.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   The   steps   to   refine  the  crude  oil  include:     Settling  and  Degumming  of  the  Oil  -­‐   Done  to  remove  the  aqueous  phase  from  the  lipids.   contains   8-­‐10%   oil.   and  to  remove  phospholipids  from  the  oil.  etc.   Splitting   &   Distillation.  the  overall  castor  oil  &  derivatives  manufacturing  process  is:     Sowing  -­‐>  Cultivation  -­‐>  Harvest  -­‐>  Seed  Dehulling  &  Cleaning  -­‐>  Oil  Extraction  -­‐>  Oil   Filtration  &  Purification  -­‐>  Oil  Refining  -­‐>  Production  of  Castor  Oil  Grades  &  Derivatives     CastorOil.

in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Representative  Diagram  for  Jatropha  Oil  Extraction  &  Filtration       Intake   8   Seed  cleaner   Dehuller   Seed   pretreatmen t     Screw  or  hydraulic   press   Press  cake   First  grade  crude  oil   Breaker  crusher   Oil  filter  press   Solvent  extraction   plant   Oil  filter   press   Meter   Meter   Hammer  or   attrition  mill   Meter   scale   To  storage  tanks  and  refinery     Meal  for  fertilizer     CastorOil.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Process  Flow  for  a  Typical  Oil  Refining  Plant   CRUDE  OILS  AND  FATS   9   Storage   crude  oils   tank   Neutralisation  section   Other  services   Soap  stock   BLEACHING   Sterin  separation   section   DEODORISER              Deoderiser   Steam  Distillation   Refined  Oil   Distilled  Fatty  Acid   Sterin   Sterin  Storage   tank   Pretreatment   Refined  Oil  Final  Packing   Byproduct     processing       CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .

 The   beans  are  further  dried  in  the  oven  at  60°C  for  seven  hours  to  a  constant  weight  in  order  to   reduce  their  moisture  content.     Drying.2  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  Manufacturing  Processes  -­‐  Details     1.   The   seed   cleaner   pictured   below   is   a   basic   type   of   seed   cleaner   for   efficient   cleaning   of   seeds.  exposed  to  the  heat  of  the   sun.  In  other  cases  stoves  or  pans  are  used  for  pre-­‐heating.     There   is   a   likelihood   that   the   seed  will   burn   while   using   a   pan.  Water  is  placed  at  the  bottom  of  the  larger   pan   and   is   heated   to   produce   steam   that   heats   the   seed   in   a   more   controlled   manner.1  Castor  Oil  Extraction  -­‐  Details     Castor  oil  extraction  can  be  divided  into  two  main  stages:     1.         More  sophisticated  and  mechanised  seed  cleaners  are  available  in  the  market.   which   will   not   happen   if   a   double-­‐boiler  is  used. Pre-­‐extraction   2.  drying  is  achieved  by  spreading  the  seeds  outside.  Pre-­‐extraction    Seed  Cleaning  &  Preparation     Seed  Cleaning     The  castor  beans  have  some  foreign  materials  and  dirt  that  get  separated  by  hand  picking.  and  some  of   these  seed  cleaners  have  capacities  of  over  10  T  /  hour.  which  initially  would  have  been  about  5  to  7%.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 10   1.     CastorOil.1.  Pre-­‐heating   or  drying  the  seeds  prior  to  expelling  also  improves  the  release  of  the  oil  by  breaking  the  cell   walls  and  by  thinning  the  oil.  until  the  casing  splits  and  sheds  the  seeds.  A  double-­‐boiler  is  an  arrangement  in  which  one  pan  is  placed  inside  a   larger  pan  without  touching  the  bottom  or  sides.1. Extraction     1.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .2.  Heating  &  Conditioning     The  cleaned  beans  are  sun  dried  in  the  open.     In  some  cases.   preventing  it  from  burning.

 Oil  Extraction     Oil  Yield  from  Different  Oil  Seeds     Typical  oil  yields  from  100  kg.     Grinding:    Mortar  and  pestle  are  normally  used  to  crush/grind  the  beans  into  paste  (cake).in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     A  wide  range  of  manual  and  mechanical  decorticators  are  available.  Oil  extraction  is  done  usually   in  two  stages.     In  general  some  10%  of  husk  is  added  back  prior  to  expelling  as  the  fibre  allows  the  machine   to  grip  or  bite  on  the  material.   dehulling   or   decorticating.  At  larger  scales  mechanical  winnowers  are  available.   CastorOil.  This  process  is   referred   to   as   shelling.   At   small   scale   this   can   be   done   by   throwing   the   material   into   the   air   and   allowing  the  air  to  blow  away  the  husk.     2.     After   dehulling.   the   shell   may   have   to   be   collected   separately   from   the   kernels   by   winnowing.   This  process  weakens  or  ruptures  the  cell  walls  for  oil  extraction.     Milling  &  Grinding     Milling:  Milling  is  carried  out  to  reduce  the  size  of  particles  and  improve  the  efficiencies  of   extracting  oil.  of  oil  seeds     Oilseed   Yield   Castorseed   43  kg   Sunflower   32  kg   Copra   62  kg   Cottonseed   13  kg   Linseed   42  kg   Mustard   35  kg   Soybean   14  kg   Groundnut  Kernel   42  kg   Rapeseed   37  kg   Palmfruit   20  kg   Palm  Kernel   36  kg   Sesame   50  kg     The  cleaned  and  prepared  castor  seeds  are  sent  for  extraction.   Shelling   increases   the   oil   extraction   efficiency  and  reduces  wear  in  the  expeller  as  the  husks  are  abrasive.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 11   Shelling  /  Dehulling  &  Winnowing     Most  oil-­‐bearing  seeds  need  to  be  separated  from  their  outer  husk  or  shell.

 Its  capacity  is  approximately  50  kg  a  day  although  this  will  vary  depending  on  the   size.  and  their  inter-­‐spacings  (gaps)  are  adjustable. The  second  stage  uses  a  solvent  extraction  method  to  extract  the  remaining  oil. The  first  stage  employs  pressing  the  seeds  for  oil    this  stage  is  also  called  expelling   2.  The  old  methods  are  rarely  used  these  days  except  by  small  processors.  Strainer  presses  exist  in  a  wide  capacity  range  from  approximately   15  to  2000  kg/h  of  seed.       Pressing  /  Expelling     Expellers  -­‐  Old  Method     The   old   and   traditional   expellers   comprise   a   pestle   and   mortar   that   is   traditionally   animal   powered.  The  diameter  of  the  screw  increases  over  the  length  to  get  a  rising   compression   of   the   seed.  In  addition  the  choke  size  and  the  rotation  speed  should  be  adjusted  when  pressing   different  kinds  of  seed.   The   choke   size   can   be   adjusted   to   press   the   seed   harder.   by   one   or   several   operators.  the  expellers  /  presses  used  currently  can  be  classified  into  two  types:     Manual  Presses   Motor  Driven  Expellers     Manual  Presses     Small-­‐scale   manual   presses   have   been   promoted   by   a   number   of   organisations.     Larger  capacity  presses.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report   12   1.   Sections   with   changing   diameter   can   be   found   several   times   on   the  screw.  The  strainers  are  built  up  in   the  form  of  bars.  Capacity  is  then  typically  1-­‐10  kg/h  of  seeds.  The  press  cake  comes  out  of  the  choke  formed  as  flat  plates.   which   surrounds   the   pressing   space.  are  powered  by  engines.  Animals  need  to  be  replaced  after  3  or  4  hours   work  as  they  tire.     Expellers  -­‐  New  Methods     New  methods  of  oil  expelling  use  presses  to  extract  the  oil  from  the  seed.     The  strainer  type  press  has  its  oil  output  in  the  form  of  strainers.  The  whole  press  tube  mostly   consists  of  the  strainer.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   Other   manufacturers   offer   extra   screws.  With  some  types  of  strainer  presses  it  is  possible  to  change  segments  at  the  worm   screw   in   order   to   change   the   compression   of   the   seed.  strength  and  number  of  animals  used.  the  oil  is  drained  via  the  strainer.     Small   presses   like   the   Bielenberg   ram   press   can   be   powered   by   hand.   As   these   machines  do  not  require  any  power  source  their  running  costs  are  minimal.     Broadly.  especially  the  screw  presses.       Types  of  manual  presses  include:     Spindle  press   CastorOil.  During  the  flow  of  the  seed  through  the  press.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Bridge  press,  also  known  as  a  screw  press   Ram  press   Hydraulic  press    

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  Manually  powered  spindle  presses  are  usually  small  table  mounted  devices  with  a  capacity   of  around  2  to  5  kg  per  hour.     The   bridge   press   comprises   a   cylinder   that   contains   the   seed.   The   seed   is   compressed   by   rotating  a  screw  down  onto  it.  The  screw  is  held  in  place  by  a  frame  that  bridges  over  the   seed  container.  As  the  seed  is  compressed  the  oil  drains  through  holes  in  the  cylinder  onto  a   collection  tray.  The  process  is  relatively  slow  as  the  cylinder  needs  to  be  filled,  compressed   and  then  the  remaining  cake  needs  to  be  removed     Ram  presses  use  a  lever  mechanism  to  produce  high  pressures  on  a  piston  that  forces  the  oil   out  of  the  seed.  Manual  ram  presses  can  be  tend  to  be  hard  work     Hydraulic  presses  use  a  hydraulic  pump  to  exert  a  high  pressure  on  the  seed.  The  process  is   similar  to  a  screw  press,  in  that  the  seed  has  to  be  loaded  into  a  cylinder  and  then  pressed   to   extract   the   oil,   which   runs   onto   a   collection   tray.   Once   the   seed   has   been   pressed   the   remaining  cake  needs  to  be  removed.     Motor  Driven  Expellers     Motorised  expellers,  usually  screw-­‐type  expellers,  are  now  common  in  the  oilseeds  industry   worldwide.     Motor  driven  expellers  are  now  very  common  in  the  Indian  castor  oil  industry  as  well.  The   running   costs   of   the   equipment   are   reasonable.   The   oil   yield   is   relatively   high   at   around   60%,  although  production  is  slow.     In  India  in  particular  a  number  of  efficient  small  or  "baby"  motorised  expellers  are  available   with   a   capacity   of   up   to   100   kg/hr.   A  typical   machine   has   a   central   cylinder   or   cage   fitted   with  eight  separate  sections  or  "worms".  This  flexible  system  allows  single  or  double-­‐reverse   use   and   spreads   wear   more   evenly   along   the   screw.   When   the   screw   becomes   worn   only   individual   sections   require   repair,   thus   reducing   maintenance   costs.   As   the   seed   passes   through   the   expeller   the   oil   is   squeezed   out,   exits   through   the   perforated   cage   and   is   collected   in  a  trough  under  the  machine.  The  solid  residue,  oil  cake,  exits  from  the  end  of   the  expeller  shaft  where  it  is  bagged.     Screw  type  expellers  have  capacities  ranging  from  1  T  /  day  to  10  T  per  day.    

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Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Picture  of  a  Typical  Oil  Expeller  with  Cooking  Kettle    

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Large  Scale  Oil  Expellers  
  Single  Chamber  &  Double  Chamber  Oil  Expellers     Medium  and  large-­‐scale  castor  oil  processors  use  motor  driven  oil  expellers  that  are  of  the   single  or  double  chamber  model.     Single  Chamber  Design  Oil  Expeller    

    Capacity  range     Capacity   of   single   chamber   machine   varies   between   1   ton   to   25   tons   a   day.   Some   giant  single  chamber  oil  expellers  can  reach  a  maximum  capacity  of  over  400  T  per   day.   Single   chamber   machine   has   the   capability   to   crush   all   kinds   of   seeds   including   castor.  Other  seeds  that  can  be  crushed  are:  palm  kernel,  nut  cotton  seeds,  copra,   rape  seeds,  sunflower,  canola,  ground  nuts.    

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Components  of  Single  Chamber  Design     Cooker   Cooker  includes  steam  kettle,  mounted  on  the  expeller  for  pre-­‐heating  of  seeds.     Gear  Box   Double  reduction,  heavy  duty  gear  box  is  used  to  stand  radial  casting  gear  which  increases   durability  and  efficiency  of  machinery.       Main  Shaft   Steel  shaft  with  water  cooling  arrangements  is  used  to  control  the  temperature  of  chamber.     Worm  Assembly   For   ensuring   long   life   of   machinery   high   grade   carbon   steel   that   is   especially   hardened   is   normally  used.       Electrical  Components   Electric  motors  are  used  to  make  single  chamber  design,  including   reversible  switch  panel   board  to  give  an  easy  restart.       Double  Chamber  Design  Oil  Expeller    

      Capacity  Range     1. Capacity  of  double  chamber  design  machine  ranges  between  5  tons  to  100  tons  per   day.  Some  giant  double  chamber  oil  expellers  can  reach  a  maximum  capacity  of  over   700  T  per  day.     2. Double   chamber   machine   is   suitable   for   pre-­‐pressing   and   complete   full   pressing   in   one   expeller.   It   also   includes   a   benefit   of   better   oil   recovery   by   providing   double   crushing    

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Components     Worm  Assembly   High  grade  and  hard  facing  carbon  steel  is  used  in  this  expeller.  This  increases  durability  and   life  of  machinery.     Gear  Box   Heavy   duty   gear   box   is   used   for   double   reduction;   this   also   increases   the   efficiency   of   machinery.     Cooker   Cooker  installed  in  machinery  includes  steam  kettle  which  preheats  seeds.  The  cooker  is  also   used  for  recovery  &  bottle  pressing  of  seeds.     Electrical  Components   Reversible  switch  panel  board  is  used  to  restart  machine  after  power  failure  or  overloading.     Main  Shaft   Special  steel  main  shaft  with  water  cooling  arrangements  is  used  to  control  the  pungency  of   chamber.       Typical  Features  of  Presses  /  Oil  Expellers     Cast  iron  bodies  &  base   Foundation  frame   Single  reduction  gear  box  with  spur  gears   Fabricated  chambers  with  multiple  sections   Case  hardened  worm  assembly   Oil  expeller  chamber  cage   Thickness  of  cake  can  be  changed  while  running  the  oil  expeller   Oil  pump   Tapper  roller  bearings.     Special  Facilities  in  New  Expellers     Thickness  of  cake  can  be  changed  to  find  and  adjust  cone  at  the  point  of  optimum   Traditional  oil  pump  is  replaced  by  a  vacuum  one.   Due   to   ready   foundation   frame,   no   foundation   of   any   machine   required   in   the   ground.   In   addition,   you   can   shift   the   machine   from   one   place   to   another   as   and   when  required.   Tapper  roller  bearings  make  expeller  very  sturdy  and  durable.  No  ball  bearing  fitted   anywhere.   As   some   of   the   expellers   are   very   compact,   it   is   today   possible   and   economical   to   import  them  by  air.  

 

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  In   this   process.  Solvents  used  for  extraction  include  heptane.  The  oil   and   solvent   are   separated   by   means   of   fractional   distillation.     The   crushed   castor   seeds   that   come   from   the   expeller   are   mixed   with   a   solvent   in   a   commercial  extractor.   the   material   in   which   the   component   of   interest   is   present   is   contacted   with   a   solvent   that   will   dissolve   the   solutes   of   interest.   the   solvent   extraction   stage   comes   after   the   expeller   stage.  The  cake  that  leaves  the  expeller  has  about  10%  of  oil  remainig  in  it.  and  the  pulp  is  filtered  out  from  the  solution.     The  castor  oil  dissolves  in  the  solvent..  where  the  remaining  oil  is  recovered.  This  is  taken  to   the  hexane  solvent  extraction  stage.     Hexane  Solvent  Extraction    Schematic  Diagram  (Haas  et  al.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  2002)     CastorOil.   Fractional   distillation   is   the   separation  of  a  mixture  into  its  component  parts  by  heating  them  to  a  temperature  at  which   several  fractions  of  the  compound  will  evaporate.   Solvent   extraction   is   of   major  commercial  importance  to  the  chemical  and  biochemical  industries.  as  it  is  often  the   most   efficient   method   of   separation   of   valuable   products   from   complex   feedstock   or   reaction  products.  hexane  and  petroleum   ethers.     Hexane  is  the  most  commonly  used  solvent  from  the  above.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 17   Solvent  Extraction     Solvent  extraction  is  a  process  that  is  used  to  recover  a  component  from  either  a  solid  or   liquid.     In   the   case   of   castor   oil   extraction.

2.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   The   main   task   is   to   develop   a   new   processing   technique:   single   acetone   extraction   of   oil   from   crushed   beans.  As  the  filtering   processes  are  not  pressurized.  or  by  a  combination  of  these  processes.  These  solids  need  to  be  separated  from  oil.  (Reference:  Revitalizing  the   castor   bean   sector   in   Brazil   -­‐   Jan   2006   -­‐   http://www.  For  home  users   and  small  factories  (up  to  some  liters  per  hour)  this  can  be  an  attractive  low-­‐cost  option  as   the  process  can  run  unattended  without  purchasing  special  hardware.     The   solids   can   be   separated   from   the   oil   by   means   of   sedimentation.  due   to   the   allergens   found   in   the   oil   extracted   from   them.   The  filtration  stage  of  castor  oil  achieves  this  objective.   A   better   but   more   expensive   method   is   pumping   the   crude   oil   through  a  filter  press   The  basic  principle  of  filtration  is  blocking  any  particle  in  the  oil  against  a  membrane.  purification  is  very  good  though  speed  is  low.     Castor  oil  filtration  process  could  comprise  one  or  more  of  the  following  steps:     Filtration     Clarification     Sedimentation     Centrifugation     Filtration     Filtration   can   be   achieved   by   allowing   the   oil   to   stand   and   then   filtering   the   clear   oil   by   gravity   through   fine   cloth.   filtration   or   centrifugation.   This   technique   should   reduce   or   even   eliminate   allergy   problems   and   produce   better   quality  oils  and  presscake  at  a  lower  cost.1.  It  has  already  been  tested  successfully  in   the  laboratory.   CastorOil.  It  is  recommended  to   sediment  the  oil  for  some  days  before  filtering  to  avoid  short  changing  interval  of  the  filter   cloth.  castor  oil  contains  1-­‐13%  solids  by  weight.cirad.  and  it  would  be  worth  backing  up  its  validation  on  an  industrial  scale   with  varietal  research  to  develop  an  allergen-­‐free  clone.php?id=356  )     1.2  Castor  Oil  Filtration    Details     seed.       The  easiest  way  of  filtering  is  using  a  cloth.     Using  filter  cloth  in  home  made  devices  can  give  very  good  filtering  results.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 18   Castor  Oil  Extraction    Other  Points     Over  the  past  three  decades.   a   new   processing   technique   could   overcome   this   problem.  the  markets  have  shunned  Brazilian  castor  beans.fr/en/actualite/communique.   However.

    The   filter   presses   also   use   filter   cloth   for   the   filtering   process.  The  pressure  applied  to  the  joint  face  of  each  filtering   plate  must  withstand  the  chamber  internal  pressure  developed  by  the  oil  pumping  system.   Filter   clothes   finely   or   tightly   meshed   are   applied   to   the   two   grooved  surfaces  in  these  plates.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 19     While  filtering  using  a  filter  cloth  is  a  fairly  simple  and  cost-­‐effective  method.  These  work  on  feed   pressure  or  squeeze  pressure  to  filter  solid  content  in  a  product.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   but   they   are   far   more   mechanized  than  manual  filtering  using  filter  cloth  alone.  it  might  not  be   suitable  for  large-­‐scale  producers.   Picture  of  a  filter  press         Plate  Filter  Presses       Plate   filter   presses   are   the   most   widespread   types   of   filter   presses   used   despite   their   relatively  high  investment  cost.  They  are   usually   placed   in   the   center   of   the   plates   allowing   a   proper   distribution   of   flow.  presses  against  each  other  by   hydraulic  jacks  at  one  end  of  the  set.  Solids  gradually  accumulate  in  the   CastorOil.  juxtaposed  recessed  plates.   right   pressure  and  better  drainage  of  oil  within  the  chamber.     The   professional   and   large-­‐scale   oil   processors   use   more   efficient   methods   -­‐   filter   presses   using  plate  or  leaf  filters.  These  are  called  filter  presses.     This  vertical  plate  layout  forms  watertight  filtration  chambers  allowing  easy  mechanisation   for   the   discharge   of   solids.     Filter  Press     Filter  presses  are  separation  devices  used  for  solid  or  liquid  separation.       A  filter  comprises  a  set  of  vertical.     The   professional   and   organized   sector   in   the   castor   oil   industry   today   uses   filters   that   are   more  automated.     Orifices  feed  the  crude  oil  to  be  filtered  under  pressure  in  the  filtration  chamber.

  the   solids   settle   at   the   bottom   of   the   tank.     The   oil   is   boiled   to   drive   off   water   and   to   destroy   naturally   occurring   enzymes   and   contaminating   bacteria.     Plates   Adjustable  plates  are  used  so  that  filter  cloth  can  be  cleaned  easily.  The  filtrate  is  collected  at  the  back  of  the  filtration  support  and  carried   away  by  internal  ducts.   only   a   storage   tank   large   enough  to  keep  the  oil  about  a  week  with  little  or  no  flow.   The   oil   is   filtered   through   a   cloth   and   is   reheated   to   ensure   that   all   the   moisture  has  been  removed     Sedimentation     of   the   sedimentation   process.     Clarification     Filtering   will   remove   insoluble   contaminants   such   as   fibre   but   the   remaining   oil   will   also   contain   moisture.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     This  process  is  however  only  recommended  for  small  processing  capacities  of  about  one  ton   of  seed  per  day.   Clarification   is   a   relatively   simple   method   of   removing   these   unwanted   elements   and   can   be   done   by   letting   the   oil   stand   undisturbed   for   a   few   days   and   then   separating   the   upper   layer.   or   by   using   a   clarifier   in   which  the  oil  is  held  in  a  tank  with  a  heat  source.   Filtered  cake  discharging  can  be  manual  or  automatic.   It   is   a   cheap   cleaning   method   because   no   hardware   has   to   be   purchased.     Features  of  Filter  Presses     Capacity     The  widely  used  filter  press  has  a  capacity  of  filtering  oil  from  1  ton  to  50  tons  a  day.     Filter  Cloth     Filter  cloth  includes  special  polyester  filter  cloth  which  does  a  fine  filtration  of  oil.     Pump   Special  plunger  pump  is  used  for  transfer  of  oil  from  storage  tank  to  filter  press.     CastorOil.   After   heating   the   oil   is   allowed   to   stand   and   the   contaminants   separate   out.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 20   filtration  chamber.     Plate  filters  are  flexible  and  can  be  extended  by  adding  more  frames  for  bigger  capacities.   resins   and   colorants   from   the   seed.

 It  must   be   noted   however   that   centrifugation   hardware   is   relatively   expensive   for   small   scale   processors.   More-­‐dense   components   of   the   mixture   migrate   away   from   the   axis   of   the   centrifuge.     The  main  processes  involved  in  castor  oil  refining  are:     Degumming.   The   general   method   of   refining   used   for   edible   oils   is   applicable  to  castor  oil.   colouring   and   other   undesirable   constituents.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   Neutralization.     Centrifugation  is  a  much  faster  method  for  particle  separation  than  sedimentation.     CastorOil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 21   Centrifugation     Centrifugation  is  a  process  that  involves  the  use  of  the  centrifugal  force  for  the  separation  of   mixtures.   International   markets   in   many   developed  countries  tend  to  prefer  oil  that  has  been  refined  further.   thus   making   the   oil   more   resistant   to   deterioration   during   storage.     The   main   aim   of   refining   is   to   remove   impurities   such   as   colloidal   matter.  The  removal  of  phospholipids  (referred   first  step  in  the  process  of  refining  castor  oil.     The  process  usually  involves  a  single-­‐stage  phosphoric  acid  treatment  and  a  single-­‐stage  hot   water   treatment.   free   fatty   acid.   Bleaching  &  Deodorizing     Degumming     Gums   in   edible   vegetable   oil   must   be   removed   to   avoid   color   and   taste   reversion   during   subsequent  refining  steps.   followed   by   continuous   removal   of   the   hydrated   gums   in   a   de-­‐gumming   centrifuge.  the  castor  oil  is  ready  for  refining.     At  the  end  of  the  above  steps  in  the  filtration  process.   Dewaxing.1.2.     1.  while  less-­‐dense  components  of  the  mixture  migrate  towards  the  axis.3  Castor  Oil  Refining  -­‐  Details     The  Refining  Process     Filtered   Castor   Oil     De-­‐gumming     Neutralization     Dewaxing     Bleaching   &   Deodorizing     In  some  markets  further  refining  of  castor  oil  beyond  the  filtration  stage  is  not  required  as   the   complex   flavours   of   unrefined   oils   are   preferred.

    Effective   neutralization   results   in   enhanced   effectiveness   of   subsequent   steps.  which  is  an  important  byproduct.     All   crude   vegetable   oils   prepared   for   human   consumption   are   neutralized   to   remove   free   fatty  acids  and  latex-­‐like  matter  and  then  washed  to  reduce  the  soap  content  of  neutral  oil.   Neutralization  produces  a  more  stable  product.   deodorizing   and   furthermore.     Neutralization  can  be  done  in  one  of  two  ways:     (a)  Alkali  (Chemical)   (b)  Steam  Stripping  (Physical).  preserving  its  chemical  structure  by  not  subjecting   it  to  temperatures  in  which  undesirable  dehydration  reactions  can  occur.   such   as   bleaching.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   Some  plants  use  sodium  carbonate  or  potassium  hydroxide  for  alkali.     In   the   Alkali/Chemical   method.   Neutralization  also  aides  in  the  removal  of  phosphatides.  Processors  remove  the   traces   of   soap   and   moisture   through   water   washing   and   vacuum   drying.  removal  of  free  fatty  acids.   leaving   the   neutral   oil   behind.   to   remove   moisture.   centrifuges  separate  neutral  oil  from  soap-­‐stock  and  wash  water.     Steam   stripping   is   done   under   vacuum.   odour   elements.     De-­‐waxing     De-­‐waxing   refers   to   the   removal   of   high   melting   point   waxes   extracted   from   castor   oil.   In   some   cases.   While  the  wax  does  not  negatively  affect  the  functionality  of  products  the  presence  of  wax   CastorOil.   results   in   high   yields   of   a   quality   product.  The  alkali  reacts  with   the  free  fatty  acids  to  form  soap.   the  oil  can  be  kept  at  a  low  temperature.   free   fatty   acids.   caustic   soda   (alkali)   is   mixed   in   the   proper   amounts   with   castor   oil   at   66-­‐77oC   and   the   aqueous   solution   is   removed.   and   other   impurities   from   the   oil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Neutralization   22   Neutralizer       Neutralization  is  a  reaction  between  acids  and  bases  to  produce  salts.  mineral   and  color  bodies.   As   it   is   performed   under   vacuum   conditions.

 occurs  when  1%  bleaching  clay  is  added  to  oil   under   vacuum   at   approximately   107-­‐110oCelsius.   olefinic   and   polyolefinic   materials.   The   oil   then   flows   to   a   flash   chamber  and  thereafter  to  an  oil  distributor  inside  falling  film  deodorizer.     Deodorization  represents  the  last  major  processing  step  in  refining  of  castor  oil.  The  process  condenses  cools  and  stores  the  distilled  fatty  acids.  The  oil  is  cold-­‐mixed  with  metered  quantities  of  bleaching   earth  and/or  other  bleaching  agents.     2.   and   gummy   constituents.  The  oil/earth  slurry  is  further  pumped  through  hermetic  leaf   filters  operating  in  sequence  to  enable  continuous  bleached  oil  (filtrate)  discharge.   The   de-­‐waxing   process   that   has   proved   most   effective   &   efficient   is   to   reduce   the   temperature   down   to   23-­‐24oCelsius   within   cooling   tanks  known  as  crystallizers.  Some  systems  also  use  activated  carbon  in  the  place  of  clay.  and       3.  Deodorization  further   heats   the   oil   to   the   stripping   temperature   in   a   pre-­‐heater.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 23   does   affect   the   appearance   of   product.   Saponifiable   compounds:   free   fatty   acids.  triterpenic  alcohols.   The   bleached   oil   pumps   through   a   de-­‐aerator   where  the  pretreated  oil  is  de-­‐gassed.   The   oil   is   later   agitated   and   filtered   to   remove   the   clay.  and  then  filtering  out  the  wax  crystals  either  in  a  rotary  drum   vacuum  filter  or  in  filter  presses  made  out  of  polypropylene  plate  &  frame  filters.   sterols.  The  oil  descends   counter-­‐current   to   the   stripping   steam   in   the   form   of   a   very   thin   film   and   becomes   completely  deodorized.     Deodorization     Volatile  compounds  present  in  the  oil  that  produce  bad  odours  can  be  eliminated  through   the  process  of  deodorization.  Bleaching.  This  de-­‐aerated  oil  passes  through  a  heat  exchanger   where  the  oil  is  heated  by  exchanging  the  heat  of  the  deodorized  oil.   partial   glycerides.     CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  It  separates   out  the  impurities  and  creates  three  groups  of  compounds:       1.     A  high-­‐tech  bleaching  plant  may  be  equipped  with  hermetic  leaf  filters  and  operates  under   vacuum  to  prevent  oil  oxidation.  Oxidative  reaction  products:  aldehydes.   The   high   temperature   drives   moisture   from   the   clay   to   absorb   the   pigments.  ketones  &  peroxides.     Bleaching  &  Deodourizing     Bleaching     The  appearance  of  dark  colour  oil  can  be  lightened  by  bleaching.  heated  to  the  correct  temperature  and  pumped  to  a   bleaching  chamber  operating  under  vacuum  where  an  adequate  retention  time  is  provided   to  ensure  effective  bleaching.   esters.   Unsaponifiable   compounds:   parafinic   hydrocarbons.     This   highly   specialized   process   uses   a   type   of   steam   distillation   under   high   vacuum   to   remove   objectionable   volatile   components.  the  process  for   removing  these  pigments  from  fats  and  oils.

1.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .4  Typical  Processes  &  Equipments  of  Castor  Oil  Refinery  Plants     Process   Methods    Involved   Single  stage  Phosphoric  acid   treatment   Single  stage  hot  water  treatment   Equipments  Used   Degumming     Neutralization   Alkali/  Chemical  method   Steam  Stripping   Gums  tank     Neutralizer   Soap/gums  tank   Water/oil/gravity  separator   Lye/brine/hot  water  tank   Neutralized  oil  tank   Oil  pump   Soap  stock  pump   Hot  water  pump   Crystallizers   Rotary  drum  vacuum  filter   Filter  presses  made  out  of   polypropylene  plate   Frame  filters   Bleacher   Barometric  condenser   Earth  dozer   Bleached  oil  tank   Filter  press   Filter  pump   Vacuum  pump   Falling  film  deodorizer   Storage  tank   Cooler   Polish  filter   Pump   Vacuum  system   Dewaxing   Removal  of  high  melting  point   waxes   Bleaching   Removal  of  pigments  from  fats  and   oils   Deodorization     Steam  distillation  under  high   vacuum   Other  Equipments  in  a  Castor  Oil  Refinery  Plant     Reactor   Centrifuge   Tray  drier   Crystallizer   Pressure  filter   Distillation  assembly   Air  compressor   CastorOil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 24   The   deodorized   oil   pumps   through   a   heat   exchanger   to   the   polishing   filter   and   thereafter   passes  through  a  cooler.2.     1.

S.   undecyclenic  acid.     Key  Derivatives  of  Castor  Oil.)   Refined  Castor  Oil  (Extra  Pale   Grade)   Refined  Castor  Oil  (Pale   Pressed  Grade)   Neutralized    Castor  Oil   Refined  Castor  Oil  (DAB-­‐10)   Castor  Oil  Pharmaceutical   (I.  polyols  and  dimer  acid.   For  generation  III  derivatives./U.  and  ethoxylated   castor  oil  among  others.  fittings   Instruments/gauges   Insulation   Cooling  tower   25     1.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Elevators   Conveyors   Pressing  worm  and  gears   Worm  wheel   Plunger  pumps   Electrical/cables   Pipe.  dehydrated  castor  oil  acid.  where  half  of  the  generation  II  derivatives  are  converted.P.S.  valves.G.5  Castor  Oil  Grades  &  Derivatives  Production     While  castor  oil  by  itself  is  used  in  diverse  applications.  the   estimated  market  worth  is  close  to  $350  million.P.2./B.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .S.  heptaldehyde.     The   global   market   for   generation   II   castor   oil   derivatives.     Generation  III  derivatives  include  the  esters  and  salts  of  generation  II  derivatives  as  well  as   derivatives   such   as   methyl-­‐12-­‐hydroxystearate   while   generation   I   derivatives   include   hydrogenated  castor  oil.  12-­‐hydroxy  stearic  acid.P/B.  The  generation  I  derivatives  such  as  HCO  and  12-­‐ HSA  respectively  cost  about  20%  and  50%  more  than  the  basic  castor  oil  grades.     Quite   naturally.   which   include   sebacic   acid.1.S.   the   prices   and   profit   margins   of   higher   generation   castor   derivatives   are   significantly  higher  than  the  basic  grades.  Starting  Products  &  Methods  of  Production     Product  Name   Commercial  Castor  Oil   First  pressed  Degummed   Grade  Castor  Oil   Refined  Castor  Oil   (F.  is  estimated  at  about  $300  million.  chemical  derivatives  of  castor  oil  find   numerous  uses  in  industrial  applications  and  their  domains  of  use  are  increasing  rapidly.)   Starting  Product   Castor  Seed   Commercial  Castor  Oil   Commercial  Castor  Oil   Commercial  Castor  Oil   Commercial  Castor  Oil   Commercial  Castor  Oil   Commercial  Castor  Oil   Commercial  Castor  Oil   Method  of  Production   Crushing  &  Expelling   Degumming   Bleaching   Bleaching   Neutralization  and  Bleaching   Neutralization  and  Bleaching   Neutralization  and  Bleaching   Neutralization   CastorOil.

S.  oxygen.S.  glycols.S.  alkalies   plus  metallic  salts   Na  reduction   Alkyl  amines.S./B.)   Commercial  Castor  Oil   Spent  Glycerin  Lye   Dehydration   Treatment.   Soluble  soaps.S.G./B.   monoglycols.  Evaporation  and   Distillation     Generic  Chemical  Reactions  of  Castor  Oil  for  Manufacture  of  Various  Grades  &  Derivatives     Reaction  Type   Nature  of  Reaction   Added  Reactants   Acid.)   Refined  Castor  Oil   (F.S.G.S.  enzyme  or   Twitchell  reagent   catalyst   Monohydric   alcohols   Glycerol.S.)   (Flakes/Powder/Granules)   Methyl-­‐12-­‐Hydroxy  Stearate   (Flakes)   Urethane  Modified  Castor  Oil   (UMCO)   Glyceryl-­‐Tri-­‐(12-­‐Acetyl   Ricinoleate)   Dehydrated  Castor  Oil   (Commercial)   Glycerin   Commercial  Castor  Oil   Refined  Castor   Oil  (F.S.   crosslink  agent   Hydrogen   (moderate   pressure)   Type  of  Products   Ester  Linkage     Hydrolysis   Esterification   Fatty  acids.   polymerization   Amine  salts.)   Refined  Castor  Oil   (F.S.A.S.   alkanolamines.  amides   Polymerized  oils     Hydrogenation   Hydroxystearates   CastorOil./B.S.S.S.  and   other  compounds   Heat.  and   other  compounds   Alkalies.S.)   Refined  Castor  Oil   (F.   pentaerythritol./B.G.S.S.G.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     ./B.G.S.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Sulphonation  and     Neutralization   Oxidation   Saponification  and   Acidification   Esterification   Hydrogenation   Saponification  and   Acidification   Hydrogenation   Urethane  Reaction   Acetylation   26   Turkey  Red  Oil   Blown  Castor  Oil  (10  to  250   Poise)   Ricinoleic  Acid   Methyl  Ricinoleate   Hydrogenated  Castor  Oil   (Flakes/Powder/Granules)   12-­‐Hydroxy  Stearic  Acid  (12-­‐ H.  glycerol   Esters   Mono-­‐  and   diglycerides./B.G.)   Hydrogenated  Castor  Oil   Liquid   Methyl  Ricinoleate   Refined  Castor  Oil   (F.)   Refined  Castor  Oil   (F.   insoluble  soaps   Alcohols         Alcoholysis   Saponification   Reduction     Double  Bond   Amidation   Oxidation.S.  etc.

    Pale  Pressed  Castor  Oil     The  Pale  Pressed  Grade  of  Castor  Oil  is  obtained  from  the  first  pressing  of  the  castor  bean   CastorOil.     Cold  Pressed  Castor  Oil     Cold  pressed  castor  oil  is  a  virgin  form  of  castor  oil  extracted  in  its  natural  form  by  pressing   healing  properties.  octadecadienoic   acid   Sebacic  acid.   heptaldehyde   Halogenated  castor   oils   Alkoxylated  castor   oils   Alkyl  and  alkylaryl   esters.   factice   Sulphonated  oils   Dehydrated  castor   oil.  I2   S.  phosphate   esters   Urethane  polymers   Sulphated  castor  oil   (Turkey  red  oil)   Details  of  Manufacture  for  Specific  Castor  Oil  Grades  &  Derivatives     Industrial  /  Commercial  Castor  Oil     Industrial  castor  oil  is  obtained  from  a  mixture  of  the  first  pressing  and  the  second  phase  of   production  -­‐  solvent  extraction     First  Special  Grade  Castor  Oil     Castor   oil   FSG   is   produced   by   refining   commercial   grade   castor   oil   using   bleaching   and   filtering  processes.  phthalic   anhydrides   Isocyanates   H2SO4           Esterification   Urethane  reactions   Sulphation   Epoxidized  oils   Halogenated  oils   Polymerized  oils.  The  cold  pressed  grade  is  considered  a  valuable  laxative  in  the  pharma   industry.   distillation   Caustic  fusion   Pyrolysis   Halogenation   Alkoxylation   Hydrogen  peroxide   Cl2.  POCl3   Ethylene  and/or   propylene  oxide   Acetic-­‐.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  maleic-­‐.   hydrolysis.  phosphoric-­‐ .  maleic  acid   H2SO4   27   Hydroxyl  Group           Catalyst  (plus  heat)   NaOH   High  heat   PCl5.  capryl   alcohol   Undecylenic  acid.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report         Epoxidation   Halogenation   Addition  reactions   Sulphonation   Dehydration.  Br2.

        Being   a   polyhydroxy   compound.       DCO  Fatty  Acid     DCO   can   be   converted   to   dehydrated   castor   fatty   acid   by   hydrolysis   and   distillation.   its   hydroxyl   functionality   can   be   reduced   through   dehydration  or  increased  by  inter-­‐estirification  with  a  polyhydric  alcohol.     The  object  of  the  hydrogenation  is  not  only  to  raise  the  melting  point  but  also  to  improve   the  keeping  qualities.   brittle   wax.     Dehydrated  Castor  Oil     Castor  oil  has  only  one  double  bond  in  each  fatty  acid  chain  and  so  is  classified  as  non-­‐drying   oil.  it  can  be  dehydrated  to  give  semi-­‐drying  or  drying  oil  which  is  used  extensively   in  paints  and  varnishes.  they   are  conjugated.   JP.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   IP.  Thus.         The   dehydration   process   is   carried   out   at   about   250 oC   in   the   presence   of   catalysts   (e.     Hydrogenated  Castor  Oil     Hydrogenated   castor   oil   or   castor   wax   is   a   hard.   EP.   activated   earth)   and   under   an   inert   atmosphere   or   vacuum.  can  be  treated  and   converted  into  a  semi-­‐drying  or  drying  oil  known  as  dehydrated  castor  oil.   BP.   concentrated   sulphuric   acid.   DAB   pharmacopoeia.  As  the  reaction  itself  is  exothermic.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report   28   Pharma  Grade  Castor  Oil     Pharmaceutical  grade  castor  oil  is  produced  from  the  first  pressing  of  castor  seed  in  which   the   oil   does   not   lose   any   medicinal   qualities.  This   is   done  by  bubbling  hydrogen  gas  into  the  castor  oil.  castor  oil.  However.  it  is  used  as  emollient  for  pharmaceutical  creams  and  lotions.  pumping  and  filtering.  during  which  the  ricinoleic  acid  becomes   fully  saturated  to  give  a  viscous  waxy  like  substance  with  a  melting  point  of  61-­‐69oC.  warming  of  the  oil.  taste  and  odor.g.  the  chief  energy   requirements  are  in  the  production  of  hydrogen.   This  yields  a  mixture  of  two  acids.     The   presence   of   an   acid   containing   conjugated   double   bonds   results   in   an   oil   resembling   tung  oil  in  some  of  its  properties.   vegetable  oil  would  break  down  the  triglycerides  into  their  constituent  fatty  acids.     High   catalyst   concentration   is   required   for   the   good   results..  each  containing  two  double  bonds  but  in  one  case.   Under  this  condition  of  dehydration.   Produced   as   per   USP.   A   temperature   range   of   125-­‐ 135oC  and  pressure  range  of  2-­‐2.  The  fatty   acids  are  then  distilled  from  the  mixture.   CastorOil.  the  hydroxyl  group  and  adjacent  hydrogen  atom  from   the  C-­‐11  or  C-­‐13  position  of  the  ricinoleic  acid  portion  of  the  molecule  is  removed  as  water.5  kg/cm  is  required  for  the  saturation  of  double  bond.   It   is   produced   by   addition   of   hydrogen  to   castor  oil  (hydrogenation  process)  in  the  presence  of  a  nickel  catalyst.  which  is  non-­‐drying.

 The  source  for  the  production  of  12-­‐ hydroxy   stearic   acid   is   castor   oil   which   contains   up   to   85%   ricinoleic   acid   in   the   form   of   triglycerides.     The  traditional  method  of  preparing  turkey-­‐red  oil  is  to  add  concentrated  sulfuric  acid  at  a   controlled   rate   to   castor   oil   over   a   period   of   several   hours   with   constant   cooling   and   agitation  of  the  reaction  mass  to  maintain  a  temperature  of  25-­‐30oC.   The   organically   combined   SO 3   is   low   compared  to  the  amount  of  SO3  introduced  to  the  reation:  the  final  product  contains  only   CastorOil.     In   the   hydrogenation   process.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 29   12-­‐Hydroxy  Stearic  Acid     12-­‐Hydroxy  Stearic  Acid  is  a  waxy  hydroxyl  fatty  acid.  the  ricinoleic  acid  gets  saturated  at  the  place  of  the  double  bond  and  transforms  into  12-­‐   hydroxyl  stearic  acid.   saponification   of   hydrogenated   castor   oil.   hydrogenated   castor  oil  (HCO).   conditions   of   its   hydrogenation.   the   other   reactions   can   also   take   place.  The  sulfate  group  acts  as  a  hydrophile  imparting  excellent  wetting.  the  double  bond  can  be  attacked  to  produce  an  ester  or  the  hydroxysulfonic  acid.       Sulfonated  Castor  Oil     Sulfated   castor   oil.  stearic  with  traces  of  palmitic  (10-­‐15%).       Sulfonation   of   castor   oil   using   anhydrous   SO3   yields   a   product   having   better   hydrolytic   stability   than   that   from   the   sulfuric   acid   reaction.  castor  oil  is  subjected  to  hydrogenation.   followed  by  decomposing  the  soaps  obtained  with  hydrochloric  acid.5  wt  %  combined  SO3.   washing.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  and  oleic  with  traces  of  linoleic  (1-­‐4%)  acids.  ricinoleic   (2-­‐4%).   drying   and   storage   of   commercial  12  HSA.   For   example.   also   known   as   turkey-­‐red   oil.0-­‐8.  and  as  a  result  of   it.  This  process  is  carried  out  at  room  temperature  under  a  pressure  of  40   psi  with  alcohol  as  a  solvent.     Commercially  sulfated  castor  oil  contains  ca  8.  clear  colors.  and  dispersing  characteristics  to  the  oil.  To  produce  12-­‐HSA.   the   castor   oil   transforms   into   a   solid   mass.   decomposition   of   soaps   by   hydrochloric   acid.     12   HSA   is   isolated   from   HCO   by   saponifying   the   latter   with   a   20-­‐25%   NaOH   solution.   The  anion-­‐active  product  is  used  in   the  textile  industry  for  fiber  wetting  ability  and  as  dye  agent  to  obtain  bright.   represents   one   of   the   earliest   chemical   derivatives  of  castor  oil.  indicating  that  the   surfactant   properties   result   from   the   sulfation   of   only   one   of   the   reactive   points   in   the   unmodified  triglyceride.  The  HCO  consists  of  saturated  glycerides  of  12  HSA  (upto  80%).   Hydrolysis  of  the  sulfuric  acid  esters  occurs  during  the  reaction  and  subsequent  treatment   forming  hydroxy  acids  and  sulfuric  acid.    These  hydroxyl  acids  can  be  further  sulfated.   emulsification.     Properties  of  hydrogenated  castor  oil  and  of  12  HSA  isolated  from  it  depend  substantially  on   the   quality   of   castor   oil.  the  reaction  mass  is  washed  then  neutralized  using  an  alkali  solution  or  an  amine.  After  acid  addition  is   complete.       Castor   oil   sulfation   results   largely   in   sulfuric   acid   esters   in   which   the   hydroxyl   group   of   ricinoleic   acid   has   been   esterified.   However.

 A  mineral  acid  catalyst  is  usually  needed  to  make  the  reaction  occur  at   a  useful  rate.   usually  carried  out   under  basic  conditions.  Ricinoleic  acid  is   obtained   from  castor   oil  through  hydrolysis.     Ricinoleic  Acid     Ricinoleic   acid   (12-­‐   hydroxy-­‐9-­‐cis-­‐octadecenoic   acid)   is   an   unsaturated   omega-­‐9   fatty   acid   that   naturally   occurs   in   mature   castor   plant   (Ricinus   communis   L.     Sebacic  Acid     Sebacic   acid.   and   an   important   drying   oil   used   in   surface   coating.5   wt   %   combined   SO3   although   17   wt%   SO3   is   added..  which  are  compounds  of  the  chemical   structure  R-­‐COOR'.  where  R  and  R'  are  either  alkyl  or  aryl  groups.   adhesive   for   inks   and   lacquers.  This  treatment  results  in  saponification  of  the  castor  oil  to  ricinoleic  acid  that  is  then   CastorOil.0-­‐8.  45-­‐55  poise.The  process  is  called   oxidative  polymerization.  with  or  without  catalyst  to  obtain  oils  of  varying  viscosity  .   a   10-­‐carbon   dicarboxylic   acid.   About   90%  of  content  in  castor  oil  is  the  triglyceride  formed  from  ricinoleic  acid.       Blown  Castor  Oil     Blown  or  oxidized  castor  oil  is  prepared  by  blowing  air  or  oxygen  into  it  at  temperatures  of   80    1300C.  with  an  alcohol.  it   breaks   down  to  give  undecylenic  acid  and  n-­‐heptaldehyde.   Euphorbiaceae).       Methyl  12-­‐HSA     Methyl  12  HSA  is  formed  by  direct  esterification  of  12  HSA  with  methanol.   The   product   contains   less   inorganic  salts  and  free  fatty  acids  than  the  sulfuric  acid  product.     Blown   castor   oil   is   the   potential   replacement   for   phthalates.     Esterification  is  the  chemical  process  for  making  esters.  R'-­‐OH.  by   treating  it  with  NaOH.  R-­‐CO-­‐OH.  30-­‐35  poise.   ricinoleic   acid   is   manufactured   by   saponification   or   fractional   distillation   of   hydrolyzed  castor  oil.  90-­‐110   poise.   can   be   synthesized   from   phenols   and   cresols.       Sebacic  acid  is  manufactured  by  heating  castor  oil  to  high  temperatures  (about  250 oC)  with   alkali.     Castor  oil  +  NaOH                                                                        Ricinoleic  Acid  +  Glycerol                                              (hydrolysis)     Industrially.   When  this  acid   is  pyrolyzed  (heated   in  the  absence  of  air).  The  most  common  method  for   preparing  esters  is  to  heat  a  carboxylic  acid.  20-­‐25  poise.  while  removing   the  water  that  is  formed.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  This  increases  the  viscosity  and  specific  gravity  of  the  oil.   lubricants.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 30   8.   Blown   castor   oil   is   available  in  the  standard  viscosity  5-­‐10  poise.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 31   cleaved  to  give  capryl  alcohol  (2-­‐octanol)  and  sebacic  acid.   an   increase   to   two   moles   of   alkali/mole   ricinoleate   and   at   temperatures  of  250  to  275oC  produces  capryl  alcohol  (also  called  2-­‐Octanol  -­‐  C8H18O)  and   sebacic  acid.     With   10-­‐hydroxydecanoic   acid.  which  also   claims  higher  yields.  Alkali  fusion  of  this   mixture  results  in  10-­‐hydroxydecanoic  acid.  uses  castor  oil  and  molten  caustic.     Pyrolysis  of  ricinoleic  acid  results  in  heptaldehyde  and  undecenoic  acid.  this  route  has  been  found  to  be  cost  competitive.  Although  the  sebacic  acid  yields   are  low.  The  type  of  reaction  used  affects  the   purity   of   the   sebacic   acid.     In  the  actual  reaction.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   CastorOil.  the  castor  oil  and  caustic  are  fed  to  a  reactor  at  a  temperature  of  180   to   270   oC   where   the   ricinoleic   acid   undergoes   a   series   of   reactions   with   evolution   of   hydrogen  to  give  disodium  sebacate  and  capryl  alcohol.  The  modern  method.   and   the   modern   conversion   technology   is   reported   to   yield   sebacic  acid  with  a  higher  purity.     Ricinoleic   Acid   -­‐-­‐>   Alkali   Fusion   @   250   deg   C   -­‐-­‐>   2-­‐Octanol   CH3(CH2)5CH(OH)CH3+   Sebacic   Acid  COOH(CH2)8COOH+  H2     The  complete  reaction  is  as  follows:       CH3(CH2)5CH(OH)CH2CH:CH(CH2)7COOH   Ricinoleic Acid         Pyrolysis   CH3(CH2)5CHO + CH2=CH(CH2)8COOH   Heptaldehyde Undecenoic Acid         Alkali Fusion @ 200 deg C   CH3(CH2)5COCH3 + CH2(OH)(CH2)8COOH   2 Octanone 10-Hydroxydecanoic Acid           Alkali Fusion @ 250 degrees C   CH3(CH2)5CH(OH)CH3 ) + COOH(CH2)8COOH + H2   2-Octanol Sebacic Acid         The  process  is  based  on  the  caustic  oxidation  of  castor  oil.

Adipic  acid  is  partially  esterfied    to    the    monomethyl    adipate   2.     Another   method   is   via   the   hydrolysis   of   Methyl   Undecylenate.   thus   improving   mixing. Electrolysis   of   the   potassium  salt   of   monomethyl   adipate   in   a   mixture   of   methanol   and  water  gives  dimethyl  sebacate   3.   The   reaction   takes   place   at   80 oC   in   an   agitated   CastorOil.  At  this  pH.     Undecylenic  Acid     The   pyrolysis   of   castor   oil   at   700oC   under   reduced   pressure   has   been   used   to   obtain   heptaldeyde   and   undecylenic   acid.  and  finaly  dried.   causing   the   resulting   sebacic   acid   to   precipitate   from   the   solution.     Production  of  Sebacic  Acid  from  Adipic  Acid     An   electro   oxidation   process   was   developed   by   Asahi   Chemical   Industry   in   Japan   and   was   also  piloted  by  BASF  in  Germany.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 32     When   the   reaction   is   complete.   which   include   the   use   of   white   mineral  oil  having  a  boiling  range  of  300  to  400   oC  or  the  use  of  a  mixture  of  cresols.   The   oil   and   aqueous   layers   are   separated.    It  produces  high  purity  sebacic  acid  from  adipic  acid.   The   aqueous   layer   containing   the   half   salt   is   acidulated   to   a   pH   of   about   2. The  last  step  is  the  hydrolysis  of  dimethyl  sebacate  to  sebacic  acid     Overall  yields  are  reported  to  be  about  85%  for  this  process.  water  washed.     (CH2=CH   (CH2)8COOCH3)   Methyl   Undecylenate     H2O     Undecylenic   Acid   (CH2=CH   (CH2)8COOH)     Methyl  Ricinoleate     The   crude   castor   oil   is   transesterified.  and  salts.   (Pyrolysis   is   the   chemical   decomposition   of   organic   materials  by  heating  in  the  absence  of  oxygen  or  any  other  reagents.   Higher   sebacic  acid  yields  are  claimed  by  the  use  of  catalysts  such  as  barium  salts.  cadmium  salts.  except  possibly  steam.       It  is  then  filtered.   lead  oxide.  the  soaps  are  converted  to  free  acids  that  are  insoluble   in  water.     The  process  consists  of  three  steps:     1.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  The   disodium  sebacate  is  then  partialy  neutralized  to  the  half  acid  salt  which   is  water  soluble.   Methyl   Undecylenate   is   hydrolysed  to  give  Undecylenic  Acid.)   Heptaldehyde  can  be  further  hydrogenated  to  produce  alcohol  for  use  as  a  plasticizer.  These   materials   act   to   reduce   the   reaction   mixture's   viscosity.   the   soaps   are   dissolved   in   water   and   acidified   to   a   pH   of   about  6.     A   number   of   process   improvements   have   been   described.   in   the   presence   of   excess   methanol   and   traces   of   sodium   methylate   acting   as   a   catalyst.

    Hydrogenation  of  heptaldehyde  with  nickel  catalysts  will  yield  heptyl  alcohol.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 33   jacketed  reactor.     Methyl  Undecylenate     Methyl   ricinoleate   is   pyrolyzed   at   high   temperature.     Ricinoleic   Acid   -­‐-­‐>   (pyrolysis)   -­‐-­‐>   Heptaldehyde   CH3   (CH2)5CHO+   Undecylenic   acid   CH2=CH   (CH2)8COOH     Heptaldehyde   is   oxidized   to   form   heptanoic   acid   in   liquidphase.  Heptanoic  Acid  &  Heptyl  Alcohol     Heptaldehyde  &  Heptanoic  acid  are  produced  by  the  pyrolysis  of  castor  oil.5%  benzoyl  peroxide.   The   glycerol.   yielding   heptaldehyde.   employing   oxygen   as   oxidizing  agent.         Castor  Oil      Methanolysis    Methyl  Ricinoleate.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   is   recovered.   The   methyl   ester   is  washed   with   water  to  remove  the  last  traces  of  glycerin.   methyl   ricinoleate   and   glycerol   are   formed   and   the   methyl   ricinoleate   is   separated   from   glycerol   phase   by   settling.   Pure   heptaldehyde   and   methyl   undecylenate  are  isolated  by  fractional  distillation.     CH3-­‐(CH2)5-­‐CH   (OH)-­‐CH2-­‐CH=CH-­‐(CH2)7-­‐COOCH3   (Methyl   Ricinoleate)     Heat     n-­‐ Heptaldehyde  (CH3  (CH2)5CHO)  +  Methyl  Undecylenate  (CH2=CH  (CH2)8COOCH3)     2-­‐Octanol     Caustic   fusion   of   castor   oil   in   the   presence   of   NaOH   results   in   sebacic   acid   and   2-­‐Octanol   (also  called  Capryl  alcohol)     CH3-­‐(CH2)5-­‐CH(OH)-­‐CH2-­‐CH=CH-­‐(CH2)7-­‐COOH  (Ricinoleic  Acid)  +  NaOH   133oC  air    HOOC-­‐ (CH2)8-­‐COOH  (Sebacic  Acid)  +  CH3-­‐(CH2)5-­‐CH(OH)-­‐CH3  (2-­‐Octanol)     Heptaldehyde.   hydrogen  pressure  -­‐145  psig  and  reaction  time  of  about  1  hour.   methyl   undecylenate   and   a   small   amount   of   fatty   acids.  The  optimum   conditions   found   for   quantitative   conversion   of   heptaldehyde   to   heptyl   alcohol   are   temperature   -­‐   100°C.     Details  for  the  Production  of  10-­‐Undecenoic  Acid  (Undecylenic  Acid)  and  Heptaldehyde  by   Pyrolysis     CastorOil.   At   the   end   of   the   reaction.  The  reactor  is  fed  continuously  to  maintain  the  methanol/ester  molar  ratio   at   3/1.   which   represents   9%   of   weight   of   the   oil   treated.   nickel   catalyst   concentration   -­‐   2%   based   on   heptaldehyde   (w/w).  The  operating  parameters   are  optimized  to  obtain  high  yields  of  heptaldehyde  and  undecylenic  acid.     Castor  Oil  is  pyrolyzed  in  the  presence  of  0.

  and   silica.   have   been   used.     Many  workers  have  carried  out  the  reaction  at  reduced  pressure  (40  to  100  mmHg)  which   polymerization  of  the  residual  mass.   The   starting   material   could   be   either   castor   oil.  will  clog  the  reactor.  giving  off  acrolein.   If   castor   oil   is   used  as  the  starting  material.  acrolein  formed  by  the  decomposition  of  glycerol  part  of  the   triglyceride   is   evolved   along   with   the   other   products.     CastorOil.   It   is   expected  that  these  materials  will  catalyze  the  decomposition  of  the  triglyceride.  All  costs  are  based  on  inputs   provided  in  the  year  2009.  Most  of  the  decomposition  occurs  in  the  temperature  range  of  400  to  500 o   C   from  their  experiment  it  is  deducted  that  the  glyceryl  portion  of  the  molecule  is  broken  off   around  425o  C.   These   are   only   indicative   numbers   provided   solely   for   completeness.     Some  information  is  available  regarding  the  effect  of  temperature  and  the  reactor  material   of  construction/packing  on  the  yields  of  10-­‐Undecenoic  Acid  and  Heptaldehyde.   Cu.  at  450  to  600 o   C   and   1   atm   with   the   residence   time   of   less   than   1   min.   porcelain.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   We   provide   brief   inputs   here   on   the   cost   of   setting  up  a  castor  oil  and  castor  oil  derivatives  plant.   A   detailed   costing   of   castor   oil   plant   details   is   beyond  the  scope  of  this  report.  Vernon  and   Ross   investigated   the   properties   of   the   Pyrolysis   products   of   castor   oil   as   a   function   of   temperature.   gaseous   reaction   products   containing   primarily   10-­‐Undecenoic   acid   and   Heptaldehyde   are   condensed.  the  reaction  is  carried  out  in  a  tubular  reactor.   it   is   probably  desirable  to  use  acids  rather  than  the   oil  as  the  starting  material.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 34   For  the  production  of  10-­‐Undecenoic  Acid  and  Heptaldehyde  by  pyrolysis  of  castor  oil.     Devaux   and   Sornet   claimed   higher   yields   of   10-­‐Undecenoic   Acid   and   Heptaldehyde   by   heating  castor  oil  at  300  to  320 o  C  by  means  of  dry  or  superheated  steam  or  hot  inert  gas.  Please  note  that  these  are  indicative   costs  based  on  experiences  of  setting  up  similar  plants  in  India.     1.2   Indicative   Costs   for   Setting   up   Small   and   Medium   Scale   Castor   Oil   &   Derivatives  Manufacturing  Plants     The   earlier   section   provided   detailed   inputs   on   equipments   and   processes   required   in   the   manufacture   of   castor   oil   and   derivatives.  if  formed.     Reactors   of   different   material   such   as   Fe.     Typical   cost   structures   for   castor   oil   plants   are   provided   below.   riciloneic  acid  or  its  methyl  ester.  batch   process   is   seldom   used   for   the   reaction.     In  general.  If  this   is  done.   glycerin  can  also  be  removed.  empty  or  packed.  This  spongy  mass.   Depending   upon   the   recovery   of   acrolein.   Acrolein   is   highly   poisonous   and   should   be   handled   with   the   utmost   care.

10   1.7   0.5  TPD   1  TPD   0.   TCI   is   Total   Capital   Investment   =   Plant.   The  reason  behind  TCI  increasing  disproportionately  between  1  TPD  and  10  TPD  is  owing   to  the  fact  that  a  large  part  of  work  for  a  1  TPD  plant  is  done  manually.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report                                 Name   Castor  Oil   Castor  Oil   Castor  Oil   Commercial   Castor  Oil   Commercial   Hydrogenated   Castor  Oil   Sebacic  Acid  from   Castor  Oil   Dehydrated  Castor   Oil   Castor  Oil   Emulsifier   Capacity   1  TPD   2  TPD   10  TPD   30  TPD   10  TPD   0.75   0.  currently  used  in  numerous   industrial  applications.  which  requires   less  capital  expenses.0   2.2  TPD   TCI  Cost  -­‐  US  $  Mill   0.05-­‐0.  and  the  extracted  castor  oil  can   be  further  processed  to  derive  a  number  of  derivatives.06   0.  The  castor   seeds  contain  about  48  to  50  percent  oil  by  weight.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  For  higher   production  volumes.  there  are  increased  expenses  on   machinery  and  automation  that  leads  to  a  disproportionate  increase  in  capital  expenses   and  hence  TCI.03   35     Notes:   TPD   =   Tons   per   Day.08   0.1   0.   Machinery   &   Factory   Infrastructure   +   Working  Capital     Sources  for  data:     Internal  databases  of  eSource  India  comprising  past  quotations  and  commercial  data   Government  of  India  and  State  Government  of  Gujarat  Investment  data     Assumptions  &  observations  for  the  above  cost  table:     Starting   products   will   be   procured   from   the   best   prices   from   outside   and   need   not   be   prepared  internally.         CastorOil.     Capital  Investment  Costs  include  factory  costs  and  cost  of  real  estate         SUMMARY     Castor  oil  manufacturing  is  similar  to  that  of  other  oil  seeds  and  hence  the  oil  can  be   manufactured  utilizing  the  existing  equipments  that  are  locally  available.

4.2   o Castor  Seed  Production  &  Acreage  in  India    2.3.     European  Union  imports  over  1.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .3   o Castor  Oil  Supply  Data    2.2   Indian  Castor  Oil  Industry    2.1   o Future   Demand-­‐supply   Estimates   for   the   Various   Grades   of   Castor   Oil   and   Derivatives    2.2       HIGHLIGHTS     Castor  oil  has  a  worldwide  demand  that  is  rising  3  to  5  %  per  annum.1   o Demand  &  Consumption  of  Castor  Oil    2.  there  are  only  a  few  large  exporters  of  castor  oil  fulfilling  a  significant  portion   of  world  demand.000  tons  of  castor  oil  annually.5   o Castor  Cultivation  &  Yields  in  India    Points    2.2   Supply  &  Demand  of  Castor  Oil    2.1   o Castor  Oil  Exports  -­‐  Current  Scenario    2.4   million   tons   per   annum.00.4.3   o Indiawide  Data  from  Castor  Crop  Survey  2007-­‐08    2.3.4.4   o Castor  Oil  Exports  -­‐  Historical  Scenario  -­‐  2.  followed  by  China  and  Brazil  with  about  20%   and  10  %  respectively.4.   CastorOil.5   o Current   Demand-­‐supply   Estimates   for   the   Various   Grades   of   Castor   Oil   and   Derivatives    2.1   The  Castor  Oil  Market  -­‐  2.5.     The   world   production   of   castor   oil   crop   is   concentrated   in   a   few   countries.     The   world   castor   seed   production   is   about   1.4.6   Demand-­‐Supply  Estimates  for  Castor  Oil  Derivatives  2.4.4   o Cropping  Season  in  India    2.   India   is   a   major  producer  with  about  70%  share.  and  almost  all  its   imports  are  from  India.   As   a   result.     The   total   amount   of   castor   oil   production   worldwide   is   relatively   very   low   when   compared  to  other  oilseeds.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 36   2  -­‐  Castor  Oil  Market     This  chapter  comprises  the  following  topics     Value  Chain  for  the  Castor  Industry    2.5.

in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 37   2.2  The  Castor  Oil  Market       The  world  production   of  castor   oil  crop  is  concentrated  in  the  hands  of  few  countries  and   that  is  why  there  are  just  a  few  exporters  of  castor  oil  fulfilling  a  large  level  of  demand  of  the   world.     Value  Chain  for  Castor  Industry   Producer     Commission  Agent     Commission  Agent   Government   Agency   Private   Agency     Stockist   Processor   Oil   Wholesaler     Exporters   Other   Consumers   Industrial   Users       2.  The  other  two   countries   have   experienced   an   increase   in   their   domestic   demand   and   hence   are   not   capable   of   exporting   a   high   quantity   of   oil.     The   major   exporters   of   castor   oil   are   the   leading   producing   countries   of   it   namely   India.   These   intermediaries   prevent   efficient   price   discovery   and   price   dissemination.   The   chart   clearly   indicates   that   the   value   chain   involves   many   intermediaries.   In   Nov   2009.  The  country  holds  a  share  of  70%  in  the  total  exports.1  Value  Chain  for  the  Castor  Industry     The  following  figure  shows  the  value  chain  of  the  castor  industry  with  different  layers  in  the   market   structure.   China   and   Brazil   of   which   only   India   has   been   successfully   meeting   the   domestic   and   the   world  requirements.   the   Nigerian   government   CastorOil.

  Nigeria   has   a   lot   of   castor   seed   which   has   great   market   potential  but  the  challenge  is  need  of  a  factory  to  produce  castor  oil 1.   It   must   be   noted   however   that   this   species   is   still   in   the   preliminary  stage  of  use.   Hoarding   &   Long   Storing   Period   -­‐   It   is   a   common   practice   for   the   castor   seed   growers  and  crushers  to  hoard  the  commodity  before  selling  in  expectation   for   better  prices   Spot  Market    There  is  a  well-­‐developed  and  organized  spot  market  in  India   Volatile  Prices  in  the  Indian  Castor  Oil  Market    Castor  seed  and  castor  oil  prices   are   highly   volatile   with   wide   price   fluctuations.   according   to   some   experts.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 38   announced  that  it  was  paying  special  attention  to  castor  cultivation.   Indonesia.  There  is  excessive  speculation  rampant  in   the   futures   market   which   finds   a   ready   reflection   in   the   spot   market.   Sudan.   Mexico.   Substitutes   -­‐   Recent   developments   of   artificial   substitutes   of   castor   oil   in   the   world   market   has   subjected   the   demand   to   large   fluctuations.   and   the   uncertain   market   conditions  discourage  buyers  from  making  long-­‐term  commitments.  Indian  prices   are  not  only  unsteady.8  and  1.   Lesquerella  species  were  proposed  as  a  valuable  source  in  the  USA  (up  to  70%  in   the   oil)   of   ricinoleic   acid   and   also   of   lesquerolic   acid.   Uncertain  Supply  -­‐   The  world  castor  seed  production  has  fluctuated  between  1.   Since   then   domestic   production   decreased  and  was  abandoned  in  1972).   It  announced  that  the   Raw   Materials   Research   and   Development   Council   of   Nigeria   would   collaborate   with   farmers   to   boost   castor   production.  approximately  85.  India  is  major  producer  with  about  70%  share.   Pakistan.  Thailand  &  Russia   Increasing  Demand  -­‐   Castor  oil  has  a  demand  worldwide  that  is  constantly  rising   at  3  to  5  %  per  annum.csp CastorOil.   Castor   plants  have  not  been  farmed  on  a  commercial  scale  in  the  United  States  since  the   early  1970s.   India's   production   ranged   between  0.5   million   tons   in   the   period   of   2001   to   2007.   Philippines.   Paraguay.000  acres  of  castor   were   grown   annually   in   the   United   States.   American   Imports   -­‐   America   imports   over   90%   of   their   consumption.  followed  by  China  and   Brazil  with  about  20%  and  10  %  respectively.   As   castor   seed   production   presents   some   problems   (toxicity   of   the   seed.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   1 http://234next.   the   C20   homologue   of   ricinoleic   acid.  (During  the  1950s  and  1960s.  the  dependence  on  India  as   a   source   of   castor   oil   supply   could   be   diluted   over   time.   Minor  Players  -­‐   Some  of  the  other  countries  that  are  minor  players  in  the  castor   oil   market   are:   Ecuador.com/csp/cms/sites/Next/Money/Business/5481131-147/story.     Characteristics  of  Castor  Seed  and  Oil  Market         Castor  Seed  Production  -­‐   The  world  castor  seed  production  is  over  1  million  tons   per  annum.   while   urging   government   to   establish   castor   seed   plantation   in   the   different   states.1  million  tons  during  the  same  period.2   and   1.  but  there  is  also  no  way  overseas  buyers  can  take  a  view   of  the  market  beyond  the  short-­‐term.   Unless   buyers  are  assured  of  steady  and  foreseeable  prices.   allergic   reactions).

3   42.0   1.  Brazil  &  China    that  are  the  top  producers  of  castor  seeds  and   oil.5   Jan-­‐Dec   2006   1.0   43.   prices   for   castor   oil   vary   considerably.4   52.  Vietnam.   there   are   a   few   countries   that   could   become   significant   players   in   future.3   81.   These  include  Ethiopia.1   Jan-­‐Dec   2007   1.   This   affects   cash   flow.  Sri  Lanka  and  Tanzania.   Because   of   widely   fluctuating   world   supplies   and   the   structure   of   the   world   market.3   83.5   48.   Planting   of   Mamona   (castor   bean   plant)   is   being   promoted   especially   in   the   northeast   and   the   country   has   launched   a   biodiesel   blending   obligation   program   which   proposes   2%   by   2007   (800  M  l/y).   European  Market  Consumers  -­‐   Servicing  the  fastidious  European  market  -­‐   mainly   coating   industry   -­‐   is   not   easy.   Most   buyers   were   highly   demanding   in   terms   of   very   specific.   Major   Castor   Growing   Countries   in   the   Future     While   it   is   currently   just   three   countries    India.  and  goal  of  20%  by  2020  (12  B  l/y).  For  instance.  5%  by  2013  (2  B  l/y).PR   Jan-­‐Dec   2009   1.4   Jan-­‐Dec   2008   1.7   90.5   70.0   2.     Market  Influencing  Factors  in  Castor  Trade   Variations  in  castor  seed  domestic  acreage.   These   factors   have   encouraged   many   companies   to   start   finding  substitutes  for  castor  oil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 39   Brazil  and  China  -­‐   traditional  producers  of  castor  seed  and  the  only  competitors   to   India   -­‐   the   two   countries   have   started   to   show   signs   of   expanding   their   production  base.  Philippines.3  Supply  &  Demand  of  Castor  Oil     Castor  Oil  Production  (   000  T)   Countries     Russia   Ethiopia     Brazil     China.   Experts   feel   that   much   of   research   and   development   work   for   newer   application   of   castor   oil   is   mainly   taking   place   in   Europe  and  elsewhere.2   101.  based  on  yield  and  price  realization   Indian.  commercial  production   of  transgenic  canola  containing  15%  ricinoleic  acid  has  been  explored.2   Jan-­‐Dec   2005   1.   This   is   not   easy  for  Indian  castor  oil  suppliers.  Thailand.   makes   corporate   planning   difficult.  A  total  of  23   companies   were   chosen   by   auction   as   biodiesel   suppliers.   Analyzing   the   raw   materials  used  by  the  companies.    -­‐   There  is  a  distinct  lack  of  investment  in  research   and   development   of   castor   oil   in   India.   tailor-­‐made   quality   and   delivery   schedule   including   the   time   at   which   the   lorry   must   enter   the   factory   premises   and   unload   goods.0   2.0   2.  in  the  USA.   and   discourages   investment   in   new   products   for   many   companies.0   1.  castor  oil  is  used  by  8  companies.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .5   81.  Chinese  and  Brazilian  crop  sizes   Crop  development  based  on  monsoon  progress  in  key  growing  regions   Domestic  demand  for  castor  oil  from  Indian  companies   Comparative  prices  with  other  vegetable  oils  in  the  domestic  market     2.  Brazil   has  a  National  Biodiesel  Strategy  which  proposes  castor   as   one   of   the   feedstocks   for   biodiesel   production.7   CastorOil.

8   Jan-­‐Dec   2009   0.1   5.4   23.   EU-­‐27   Norway   Switzerland   Croatia   Serbia/Monten   Other  Europe   Russia       0.1   2.9   27.4   0.6   0.1   4   0.3   22.2   5.in  and  derived  from  data  obtained  from  sources  such  as  Oilworld  -­‐  www.5   24.   3.3   0.3     0.2   .8   580.3   522.1   0.2   0.   3.2   .6   0.5   143.8   0.2   6.1   Jan-­‐Dec   2008   0.1   0.8   0.2   6   2.1   5.6     1   24.0   367.4   0.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .1   0.4   0.6   120.7   5.4   0.1   0.   There  is  a  significant  difference  in  castor  oil  production  among  countries:  India  is  by  far   the  largest  producer  of  castor  oil.2   531.3   1.3   19.2   0.  China.oilworld.8   22.2   335.2   2.2   Jan-­‐Dec   2006   0.8   413.5   534.1   0.1   .9   21.4   85.5   0.2   0.3   .3   0.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report India       Thailand       Oth  countries     Total       375.3   0.4     3.3   0.2   0.5   .1   .1   4.6   5   4.6     1.2   0.5   100.7   5.3   0.3   34.6   0.1   4.   .6   518.7   17.4   0.6   43.4   Jan-­‐Dec   2007   0.8   33.2   0.1   5.biz       Observations  from  the  Above  Table       Major  countries  producing  castor  oil  are  India.2   Jan-­‐Dec   2005   0.  and  Brazil.6   351.3   0.1   0.3   0.5   15.3   40   Source    CastorOil.9   2.   3.8   0.9   0.5   .3   0.6   15.2   0.1   6.   2.3   0.1   0.K.1   0.   .5   0.   China   and   Brazil   together   contribute   23%   of   the   total   world   production   in   castor   oil   during  2009.       Castor  Oil  Imports  ( 000  T)     Countries   Belgium-­‐Lux   Bulgaria   Czech  Republ   Denmark   Finland   France   Germany   Ireland   Italy   Netherlands   Poland   Portugal   Slovenia   Spain   Sweden   U.5   21.2   87.   4.6   14.   .   66.4   5.5   3   CastorOil.3   5   113.5   0.1   4.3   0.5   48.9   0.   3   -­‐   5.  contributing  over  70%  of  the  total  production  in  2009.9   32.1   5.

1   8.1   2.5   Source    CastorOil.8   1   3.   53.1   5.3   .4   0.9   0.8   1.S.8    280   315.6   3.4   19   4.7   3.3   45.8   1.8   8.7   9.3   0.7   6.S   S.1   0.7   288.6   3.9   22.PR   Japan   Korea.9   44.5   32.2   0.8   73.6   2.8   288.oilworld.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 41   Ukraine   C.2   0.4   4.2   0.7   2.9   1.4   19.2   0.9   298.I.2   4.S.2   0.8   .in  and  derived  from  data  obtained  from  sources  such  as  Oilworld  -­‐  www.1   12   2.1   8.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .8   298.1   0.6   48.2   1.7   4.8   3.3   348.5   288.1   2.1   0.5   17.3   0.2   41.3   0.9   4   2.biz   CastorOil.   EU-­‐27   U.2   11.8   0.4   0.1   0.oilworld.8   1.Rep   Canada   U.2   2.4   0.A   Brazil   India   Oth  countries   Total     Source    CastorOil.5   Countries   Belgium-­‐Lux   France   Germany   Netherlands   Spain   U.4   2.biz     Observations  from  the  Above  Table       Of  the  countries  listed  above.2   3.9   1.1   0.3   1.2   0.2   1.1   0.1   0.6   26   4.5   0.8   288.8   16.9   2.9   0.9   6.  China  was  found  to  be  the  largest  importer  of  castor  oil.   79.9   11.4   5.4   2.9   2.1   0.6   0.3   0.9   15   1.5   270   255   245    20.8   2.   China  imports  about  40%  of  the  total  imports.8   124.K.1   0.5   0.2   312.  followed  by  Europe  (28%)       Castor  Oil  Exports  ( 000  T)     Jan-­‐ Jan-­‐ Jan-­‐ Jan-­‐ Jan-­‐ Dec   Dec   Dec   Dec   Dec   2009   2008   2007   2006   2005   0.South   Taiwan   Thailand   Turkey   Oth  countries   Total   0.5   2.1   0.8   0.8   3.7   20.Africa.A   Mexico   Brazil   China.7   70.1   1.1   0.in  and  derived  from  data  obtained  from  sources  such  as  Oilworld  -­‐  www.8   1.2   26.8   2.3   0.9   2.9   8.8   4.8   1.7   10.4   2.2   13   4.1   0.6   6.5   0.6   2.7   348.7   23.1   10   312.

92   0.8   China   81.5   Country   Exports   India   280   USA   6.7   EU  (27)   1.58   0.61   0.76   0.1   Japan   13   Thailand   12   Total   268.5   Total   499.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 42   Observations  from  the  Above  Table       India  is  by  far  the  largest  castor  oil  exporter  worldwide  and  it  exports  70-­‐75  percent   of  its  total  production.in  and  derived  from  data  obtained  from  sources  such  as  Oilworld  -­‐  www.7   Country   Imports   China   124.2   Europe  (27)   87.08   0.9   Total     289.  Imports  and  Exports  from  Prominent  Countries/Regions   000  Tons)     Country   Production       India   375.06   0.  Production  and  Productivity     Production  ('000  T)   Yield  (T/ha)   Harvest  Area  ('000/ha)   09-­‐ 2008-­‐ 09-­‐ 2008-­‐ 2007-­‐ 09-­‐10   2008-­‐ 2007-­‐ 10(F)   09   2007-­‐08     10(F)   09   08   (F)   09     08   92   190   880   123   190   975   94   170   990   0.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .4   Brazil   42.biz     Countr y     Brazil     China   PR   India     Other   Countri es   Total   Harvest   Season   Jun-­‐ Sept   Sep     Jan   Nov     Mar   Castor  seed  -­‐  World  Area.  exports  from  India  decreased  by  more  than  10  percent  in  2009.6   0.oilworld.5   Source    CastorOil.86   1.96   0.15   158   210   830   163   220   900   156   210   860           115   1277   117   1405   112   1366   0.     Summary  of  Production.2   USA   32.  Germany.9   Brazil     0.  Oil  World.62   0.81   1.  F-­‐  Forecast   CastorOil.   Compared  to  2008.9   1.97   185   1383   186   1469   183   1409   Source:  ISTA  Mielke.63   0.

  Both   the   companies   opted   to   leave   the   market   under   pressure   from   low-­‐priced   sebacic   acid   imports   from   China   and   high   production   costs.     Undaunted   by  the  competitive  pressures  of  Chinese  imports  and  the  currently  flat  market   situation.  Arizona's  castor  derivative   product   lines   included   methyl-­‐12-­‐hydroxystearate.     The  US  sebacic  acid  industry  changed  significantly  with  the  exit  of  the  two  players  (in  2003)   and   the   entrance   of   a   newcomer.  Caschem  produced  almost  all  castor   oil  derivatives  except  for  undecyclenic  acid   where   Arkema   (earlier   Atofina)   is   the   lone   producer.   Source:  USDA.     Meanwhile.  Undecyclenic   acid  is  also  used  in  the  manufacture  of  fuel.000  acres  of  castor  were  grown  annually  in   the  United  States.  Like  Arizona   Chemical.   Arkema   produces   undecyclenic   acids   and  heptaldehyde  mostly  for  pharmaceutical  and  cosmetic  niche  applications.   has  entered  the  US  sebacic  acid  market.  even  though  there  are  only  few  major  producers  of  castor  oil  derivatives  in  the   US.   Cas-­‐Chem   will   continue   to   produce   sebacate   esters.     CastorOil.  air  and  brake  tubing.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   Ohio.  sebacic  acid  and  capryl  alcohol.  Genesis  Chemi-­‐cals'  Chinese  venture   also  grows  its  own  castor  crops  in  Northern  China  for  captive  use.  specialty  dimer  acids.   12-­‐hydroxy   stearic   acid.   N.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 43   The  US  Supply  Scenario     Caschem  and  Arizona  Chemical  Company  were  the  major  producers  of  castor  oil  derivatives   in  the  US.     Detoxification  and  deallergenation  of  castor  meal  to  allow  use  in  livestock  feeds.   also   emptied   its   sebacic   acid   inventories   and   mothballed   its   highly   automated   sebacic   acid   plant   in   Bayonne.     To   restart   domestic   production.  A  privately  held   company..  Genesis  started  full-­‐scale  production  of  sebacic  acid  at  the  end  of  2002  at  its  new   plant   in   Loveland.  Since  then  domestic  production  decreased  and  was  abandoned  in  1972.   hydrogenated   castor  oil.  Genesis  Chemicals  Inc.  approximately  85.   The   company   has   a   full-­‐scale   manufacturing   facility   for   castor   oil   derivative  production  through  a  joint  venture  in  China.   Contractual  agreements  by  the  processor  to  market  castor  oil  over  a  period  of  years.       CasChem.  supply  is  adequately  maintained  as  there  are  quite  a  few  brokers  who  outsource  from   several  offshore  suppliers.J.   The   manufacturing  of  hydrogenated  castor  oil  derivatives  for  the  lubricating  grease  and  coatings   industries  were  not  affected.  Cas-­‐Chem  considers  the  domestic  market  unprofitable  because  of  pressure  from   cheaper   Chinese   imports.   sebacic   acid   facility.   Arizona   Chemical   permanently   shuttered   its   Dover.       Castor  crop  has  not  been  grown  on  a  large-­‐scale  in  the  United  States  since  the  early  1970s.   During  the  1950s  and  1960s.   The   company   began   producing  sebacic  acid  in  early  2000  using  proprietary  processing  technology.   However.  specialty  ricinoleate  esters.   a   subsidiary   of   Cambrex   Corp.   which  is  said  to  be  more  profitable  and  where  the  market  tends  to  focus  more  on.   it   is   felt   that   industries   in   the   United   States   and   administration  need  to  focus  on  the  following:     Sufficient  number  of  special  built  harvesters  to  harvest  the  seed  from  plants  after  a   killing  frost.   Ohio.

oilworld.  and  shatter  resistance.8   3.2   0.in  and  data  derived  from  sources  such  as  Oilworld  -­‐  www.     Acquisition  and  preservation  of  germplasm  useful  to  a  breeding  program.0   0.1  Castor  Oil  Exports  -­‐  Historical  Scenario     Castor  crop  plays  an  important  role  in  the  agricultural  economy  of  the  earning  substantial   foreign  exchange  through  export  of  castor  bean oil   production   (over   70   per   cent)   is   exported.4   4.   About   85%   of   total   castor   oil   consumed  in  India  is  sold  in  bulk.  the  paint  and  allied  industries  35.   In   terms   of   %   split   between   castor   oil   and   derivatives.00.6   3.  the  toxic  seed  protein.4  Indian  Castor  Oil  Industry     India   is   the   largest   producer   of   castor   seed   and   oil.     Region-­‐wise  Export  Statistics  of  Castor  Oil  (including  derivatives.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 44   Development   of   improved   hybrids   to   increase   yield   and   oil   percentage   of   castor   seed.  the  rest  (about  15%)  in  retail.9   Africa   2.  USA.  Japan  and  now  China  and  Thailand.6   2.000  tons.8   4.000   tons   of   castor   oil   to   the   world   total   production.  drought   tolerance.biz     2.  US$  Millions)     Region     2000-­‐01   2001-­‐02     2002-­‐03   2004-­‐05   2005-­‐06   2006-­‐07   East  Asia   53.       Castor  Oil  Production  from  Minor  Producing  Countries     The  following  data  for  2009  provides  an  idea  of  the  quantum  of  supplies  from  countries  that   are  only  minor  suppliers  of  castor  oil:     Country   Production  in  Jan    Dec  2009     %  of  world  supply   (1000T)   Ethiopia   2.  the  soap  industry  consumes  about  25.01   Others   24.0   0.7   1.4   1.   India  is  the  first  country  in  the  world  to  exploit  hybrid  varieties  on  a  commercial  scale  in  this   crop.     2.000   tons   and   the   lubricant   and   derivatives   industry   20.8   85.     Development  of  breeding  lines  with  improved  disease  and  insect  resistance.000   tons.  Major  markets  include  Europe.3   0.8   90.0   2.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .3   4.  Of   this.1   28.7   41.9   West  Asia   1.000  tons.1   2.   about   40%   of   castor   oil   consumption   in   India   is   in   the   form   of   derivatives   and   60%   for   the   various   castor   oil   grades.8   70.43   Russia   1.18   Thailand   5.   The   country   annually   exports   about   300   thousand  tons  of  castor  oil  thereby  earning  foreign  exchange  worth  US$  170    200  million.   It   contributes   about   1   million   tons   of   castor   seed   with   and   over   4.3   1.   The   annual  domestic  consumption  of  castor  oil  in  India  is  only  about  80.6   2.7   2.5   1.6   South  Asia   1.4   CastorOil.4.58   Source    CastorOil.     Mutagenesis  and  genetic  research  to  eliminate  ricin.000-­‐1.4   0.  00.

31   -­‐23.37   436.64   78.67   -­‐91.06         457   76.9   248.97   93.75   80.23         -­‐54.04   79.6   168.95   -­‐54.8   208.66   1.55         0.27   125.4   0.76   288.57   39.641.47   3.8   240.27   1.93   8.31   12.370.83   17.19   202.13   169.45   119.02   46.42   6   3   808.08   550.987.16   0.14   35   82.6     145.53   -­‐52.04   22.1   39.02   928.6   110.16   79.16         1   476   41.67   7.31   -­‐93.188.1   18.6   13.   Country       AFGHANISTAN   TIS     ARGENTINA     AUSTRALIA     BAHARAIN  IS     BANGLADESH   PR     BELGIUM     BRAZIL     BULGARIA     CANADA     CHILE     CHINA  P  RP     COLOMBIA     CONGO  P  REP     COTE  D'  IVOIRE     DENMARK     EGYPT  A  RP     EQUTL  GUINEA     FIJI  IS     FINLAND     FRANCE     GERMANY     GHANA     GREECE     GUATEMALA     GUYANA     HONG  KONG     INDONESIA     IRAN     IRAQ     ISRAEL     2008-­‐2009   36.896.5   30.16   -­‐45.1   102.00   4.62   637.31   1.04   533.48   349.59   9.5   3.4               4.26   7.22   2.63   71.22   15.69               -­‐7.43   34.04   15.037.64   261.02   -­‐92.28         -­‐28.71   73.6   120.24         108.9   45   Source:  Pharmexcil  India   Note:  Values  derived  based  on  US$/Re  exchange  rates  at  respective  years.9   36.13   152.33   0.10   2.75   9.865.95   20   493.57   Quntity  in  thousands   2008-­‐2009   54   65   1.23   -­‐2.4   33.69   15.68   %Growth         244.3   155.20   4.05   122   3.61   -­‐88.65   2.52   45.23   509.6   0.430.19   64   7.087.659.1   0.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .85   251.01   216.33   721.  Lacs   2009-­‐2010           137.4   0.9   3.95   24.6   232.70   2.39   54   3.4   88.07   79.7   65.66   224.18         2.12   10   131.241.83   0.12   0.1   7.08   -­‐40.17   83.47.31   -­‐93.98   8.17   -­‐14.2         3.67   248.31   1.44   8.868.033.21   174.27   9.38   -­‐19.276.0   57.8   67.51   1   125.88   3.14   1.86   26.4   348.524.82   -­‐4.12   5.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report East  Europe   West  Europe   North  America   Latin  America   Total   13.19   297.13   10   15.23   0.813.53   132.908.3   -­‐25.4   0.651.5   0.28   177.8         167.97         -­‐25.6   0.9   3.97   -­‐50.3   221.27   38   24.627.4   0.97   22.18   59.5   239.No.01   124.32   412.29   45.85   -­‐45.196.     Castor  Oil  and  its  Fractions  Exports     S.02   Values  in  Rs.89   643.00   36.01   2.7   14.3   249   255   0.8   229   197   2009-­‐2010     %Growth               216   982.04         270.45   0.41     1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   CastorOil.3   113.991.25   0   -­‐88.97   858.08         -­‐35.04   24.

77   54.29   24.72   -­‐34.38         26.82   -­‐20.23   212.65   1.66   65.25   17.63   -­‐31.766.04   -­‐29.85   -­‐55.97   -­‐47.7   192.38               -­‐72.13   177.82   764         520.69   0.12         1.44   189.77   1.14   3.62   -­‐20.28   33.88   61.59   -­‐10.53         112.86   -­‐54.27   -­‐68.5   1.18         310.273.38   1.65   338.99         131.59   30.098.02   30.61         1.89   65   964.94   0.87   -­‐14.14   1.31   34.88   1.55   649.99   146.75   61.44   2.90   5.1   11.24   -­‐4.83         410   66   2.56   378.85         9.89   289.535.36   377.58         2.88   -­‐86.26   0.859.068.320.67   0.53   36.30   989.65   -­‐46.77   -­‐83.85         -­‐11.19   136.1   57   225.72   895.43   1.82   1.13   5.92   36.73         -­‐37.34   -­‐38.17   4.39   -­‐70.08   278176.65   CastorOil.36   78.34   22.23   13.58   -­‐58.004.543.27   -­‐6.6   38.80   15.37   78.17         -­‐1.29         1.99   23.42   1.15               48.296.58   -­‐65.22   1.265.12   27.44   1.347.04   15.9   18   18   66.018.79               65.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .22   19.09   79.83   -­‐16.18   0.21   1.74   -­‐23.48   16.34   86.621.334.61   23.73   90.17         -­‐83.49   694.583.87   27.714.32   18.777.61   1.802.2   15.952.659.038.67   1   578.66   1.58   -­‐61.35   -­‐64.35   27.95   0.592.463.00   19.80   16.00   3   2   2.689.41         297.07   -­‐14.693.65   64.59   3.33   56.64   215.51   187.94   169   34   3.24   8.31   66.48   37.96   -­‐0.73   29.65   -­‐39.00   121.15         41.09         2.69   2.09   1.34   2.62   44.89   -­‐37.5   -­‐56.79   931.1   13.18   13.14   31.40   0.75   113.10   46   -­‐18.05   58.26   591.182.92   48   36.6   16   0.76   83.67   6.19   -­‐14.62   99.29         1.03   139.35         -­‐25.679.11   53.7   449.2   198   64   2.08         23.57   42.05   13.84   -­‐46.47   763899.01   9.15   128.435.67   -­‐16.67   425.787.33   278.283.395.881.08         -­‐20.16   1.05         -­‐33.53   42.03   8.59   182.48               -­‐71.09   144   129   17   2.29   1.07   94.763.145.29   349.35   31.4   85   677.36   224.94   139.98   53.38   -­‐61.72   15.772.00   495.51         -­‐86.29   -­‐86.99   -­‐23.52   1.03   0.6   8.2   18   51   50.130.68   13.81   105   277.97   -­‐28.31   10.3   -­‐8.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46   47   48   49   50   51   52   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   60   61   62   63   64   65   66   67   68   69   70   71   72   73   74   ITALY     JAPAN     JORDAN     KENYA     KOREA  RP     KUWAIT     LATVIA     LEBANON     LIBERIA     LITHUANIA     MALAYSIA     MALDIVES     MAURITIUS     MEXICO     MOROCCO     MOZAMBIQUE     NEPAL     NETHERLAND     NEW  ZEALAND     NIGERIA     NORWAY     PANAMA   REPUBLIC     PERU     PHILIPPINES     POLAND     QATAR     REUNION     RUSSIA     SAUDI  ARAB     SENEGAL     SINGAPORE     SLOVENIA     SOUTH  AFRICA     SPAIN     SRI  LANKA  DSR     SWEDEN     SWITZERLAND     SYRIA     TAIWAN     TANZANIA  REP     THAILAND     TRINIDAD     TUNISIA     TURKEY     811.74   -­‐67.73   12.

03   1.020.05   -­‐1.43   653.74   65.55   0.89       47   -­‐35.94.98   897.06         771   84.913   234.29   1821.01             1.610   176.824   227.22   520.2   9.14   36.215.89   3.85   603.177   308.471.89             953.19   7.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 75   76   77   78   79   80   81   82   83   84   85       U  ARAB  EMTS     U  K     U  S  A     UGANDA     UKRAINE     UNSPECIFIED     UZBEKISTAN     VENEZUELA     VIETNAM   SOC   REP     YEMEN   REPUBLC     ZAMBIA     Total   1.862   161.224.28         -­‐46.176   182.165.121.98   16.56   806.59         515   53.60   21.32   12.11   75.30   2   18   128.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .159.34   22.177.65   -­‐24.473.56         2.61   2.27   788.619   208.58   45.  *  -­‐  including  bulk  and  container   (2) Please  note  that  all  the  above  data  are  for  exports  that  do  not  include  the  castor  oil  derivatives.57   30734   38223   35505   27149   31786   37327   37879   34444   34995   42985   59022   Value  per  T  (Rs  /  T)   Notes:   (1) 1  $US=  Rs  45  approx.41   0.54   1.10   5.631.330.  refer  Appendix  2   2.98.49   5.94         581.03   2.79   3.92   1.77         -­‐42.  There  have  been  significant  fluctuations  in  the  US$/INR  rate  during   this  period.34   1.56   627.2  Castor  Oil  Exports    Current  Scenario     Indian  Export  of  Castor  Oil  (Excluding  Derivatives)     Year   1998-­‐99   99-­‐00   00-­‐01   01-­‐02   02-­‐03   03-­‐04   04-­‐05   05-­‐06   06-­‐07   07-­‐08   08-­‐09*   Volume  (MT)   193.159   195.07   556.01   442.93   46.181.06         12.  in  Mar  2010.41   42.05   757.877   163.38   4.5   85.1   2.  India     Note:  For  India  Export  of  Castor  Derivatives.54   3.6   277.     Castor  Oil  Current  Data  -­‐  Countries  Exported  to  by  India     Countries  that  currently  import  castor  oil  from  India  are     European  Union   USA   Japan   CastorOil.4.16         -­‐3.5   2.136.033   204.35   1.37   3.97         12.625   Value  (Rs  Crore  )     595.03   Source:  Ministry  of  Commerce.186.672.732.54   -­‐43.  but   only  the  main  grades  of  castor  oil.04         16   69   2.

 Ahmedabad  and  Kutch.  This  %  has  been   ts  over  the  last  5   years.   Gandhinagar.  Mehboobnagar.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   Castor   cultivation  comprise  6  districts  of  North  Gujarat.  Banaskantha..  India.  Sabarkantha.4.   Castor  oil  grades:  80%   Castor  oil  derivatives:  20%     2.  with  the  first  two  being  the  two  most  important.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Thailand   China     Castor  Oil  Export  Percentages  to  Various  Regions  from  India  (2006-­‐2007)  (excluding   derivatives)     Region   %  Exports   Volume  of  Exports  (MT)   W  Europe   45   87750   E  Asia   25   48750   N  America   20   39000   E  Europe   5   9750   Africa   3   5850   Latin  America   2   3900     48   Break-­‐     An   approximate   estimate   is   provided   below   for   the   break-­‐up   of   castor   oil   &   castor   oil   derivatives  exports.  has  recorded  the  largest   produce  of  castor  seed  in  the  last  few  decades.  Prakasam.  gifted  with  an  ideal  climatic  condition.     Andhra  Pradesh  relies  on  the  districts  of  Nalgonda.  Guntur  and   Ranga  Reddy  for  the  production  of  castor  seeds.  It  needs  heat  and  humidity  and  does  best  in  regions   where  both  are  ample.3  Castor  Seed  Production  and  Acreage  in  India     Castor  Growing  Areas  in  India  &  its  Production     Castor  grows  under  tropical  conditions.   In   Gujarat.   CastorOil.  viz.  Mehsana.     The  states  in  India  that  are  the  major  producers  of  castor  are       Gujarat   Andhra  Pradesh   Rajasthan   Karnataka   Orissa   Tamil  Nadu   Maharashtra     The  Indian  state  of  Gujarat  produces  over  65%  of  the  total  castor  seeds  in  India  followed  by   Andhra   Pradesh   and   Rajasthan   which   contribute   about   equal   share.

6   49     Major  Trading  Centers  of  Castor  in  India     The  major  trading  centers  of  castor  and  its  derivatives  in  India  are:   Rajkot  (Gujarat)     Ahmedabad  (Gujarat)     Gondal  (Gujarat)     Gadwal  (Gujarat)     Bhabar  (Gujarat)     Disa  (Gujarat)     Kadi  (Gujarat)     Jedcherla  (Andhra  Pradesh)     Yemignoor  (Andhra  Pradesh)     Castor  Seed  Acreage  and  Production  in  India       Year   1985-­‐86   1990-­‐91   1995-­‐96   1996-­‐97   1997-­‐98   1998-­‐99   1999-­‐00   2000-­‐01   2001-­‐02   2002-­‐03   2003-­‐04   2004-­‐05   2005-­‐06   2006-­‐07   2007-­‐08   2008-­‐09     Area  ('000  ha)   Production  ('000  tonnes)   637   308   810   716   880   930   776   770   810   800   835   840   782   765   1080   883   716   652   583   428   712   796   743   793   864   990   628   762   786   1053   840   1114   Source:  Ministry  of  Agriculture.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report   State  %  Share  of  Production  of  Castor  Oil  in  India  (2006    07.  GOI   Yield  (kg/ha)   480   880   1060   990   990   1070   979   818   911   733   1111   1068   1146   1213   1339   1326   CastorOil.  estimate)     State   Gujarat   Rajasthan   Andhra  Pradesh   Karnataka   Tamilnadu   Maharashtra   %  Share  of  Production     66   14   12.4   1.5   3.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .2   1.

59   19%   1546   1552   -­‐-­‐   Sabarkantha   54.37  lakh  hectares.36   17.95   -­‐17%   3.   Ahmedabad   (24%).34  lakh   tonnes.09   -­‐2%   93.19   -­‐16%   1078   1172   9%   Kheda   13.80   4.       Estimated  total  production  of  Castor  Seeds  in  Gujarat  for  the  year  2009-­‐10  is  7.81   -­‐-­‐   1597   1679   5%   Total   451.   it   has   increased   by   merely   1%   as   compared   to   previous   year.20   6.       Average  yield  for  the  year  2009-­‐10  is  1679  kg/hectare  as  against  1608  kg/hectare  during   the  year  2008-­‐09.   CastorOil.seaofindia.11   34.21   -­‐23%   73.89   24.00   14.81   -­‐5%   11.51   2.  Yield  and  Production  of  Castor  Seeds  in  Gujarat  (2009-­‐10)       Estimated  Area  Under         Crop  *  ('000  ha.69   20.35   1.36   10.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .92   72.4  India-­‐wide  Data  from  Castor  Crop  Survey  2009-­‐10         Gujarat     Total  area  under  Castor  crop  in  Gujarat  for  the  year  2009-­‐10  is  4.87   20%   46.pdf       Rainfall  -­‐   This  year.4.98   102.37   52.  Castor  producing  districts  of  Gujarat  state  have  received  478  mm.  Patan  (16%)  districts  and  Sabarkantha  (8%).60   17.40   29.00   11.81   15.24   -­‐4%   53.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 50   2.  About  56%  farmers  perceived  that  the   rainfall  during  sowing  period  was  favourable  this  year.76   -­‐21%   1494   1414   -­‐5%   Patan   37.       District wise  Area.  which   is  31%  lower  than  average  rainfall  in  these  districts.29   98.93   -­‐4%   180.33   -­‐1%   94.)   *   tonnes)   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   %  Change   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   %  Change   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   %  Change   District   09   10   09   10   09   10   Ahmedabad   12.18   61.02   28%   1426   1754   23%   Others   4.72   178.88   52.60   24%   1657   1725   4%   Banaskantha   102.24   -­‐1%   1765   1820   3%   Bharuch   7.10   437.  Area  under  Castor  crop  has  increased  in   all  the  major  castor  growing  districts  except  Ahmedabad.  Surendranagar   and  Vadodara.83   -­‐17%   20.77   16%   1678   1765   5%   Rajkot   12.22   10%   62.80   23.60   -­‐14%   1547   1409   -­‐9%   Gandhinagar   30.16   734.84   7.07   -­‐8%   1602   1235   -­‐23%   Vadodara   11.14   9.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-­‐10.  It  has   decreased  by  3%  as  compared  to  previous  year.50   41.)   Estimated  Production    (  '000   Estimated  Yield  *  (Kg/ha.   However   this   growth   is   mainly   in   the   districts   such   as   Vadodara   (28%).28   1%   1608   1679   4%   *  Nielsen  India  estimates     Source:  http://www.36   -­‐16%   21.35   8%   1733   1884   9%   Surendranagar   29.25   3%   1764   1890   7%   Jamnagar   12.   Rajkot   (19%).62   55.26   19%   19.77   -­‐18%   1748   1716   -­‐2%   Kachchh   67.81   54.04   -­‐16%   1554   1574   1%   Mahesana   53.22   5%   1748   1886   8%   Panchmahal   2.41   97.62   43.  Patan.20   19%   19.10   10.37   -­‐3%   725.42   4%   15.65   -­‐3%   7.  Rajkot.

94   1%   16.     It   has   decreased   by   8%   as   compared   to   previous   year.   Castor   Seeds   producing   districts   of   Rajasthan   state   have   received   214   mm   average   rainfall.pdf       Rainfall   -­‐   This   year.16   -­‐8%   1076   1065   -­‐1%   *  Nielsen  India  estimates   Source:  http://www.  As  against  this.   Almost   all   farmers  opined  that  rainfall  during  sowing  and  post  sowing  was  inadequate  this  year.93   10.84   15.)   *   tonnes)   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   %  Change   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   %  Change   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   %  Change   District   09   10   09   10   09   10   Barmer   6.08   -­‐9%   1076   1065   -­‐1%   Total   127.07   -­‐66%   758   597   -­‐21%   Jalore   49.    Since  last  2-­‐3  years.13   2%   1157   1190   3%   Jodhpur   15.92   10%   3.94   -­‐4%   32.41   126.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .85   -­‐1%   56.   which   is   1%   lower   than   previous  year.     Andhra  Pradesh     Total   area   under   Castor   crop   in   Andhra   Pradesh   for   the   year   2009-­‐10   is   1.  Jodhpur.)   Estimated  Production    (  '000   Estimated  Yield  *  (Kg/ha.    This  year.33   6.      Yield  has  mainly  decreased  in  Hanumangarh  and  Sirohi  districts.01   5.   It  has  decreased  by  7%  as  compared  to  previous  year.48   -­‐18%   1160   983   -­‐15%   Others   7.  the  production  in  Pali.  Where  as  the  area  under  crop  is  increased  in  Pali  district  by  10%.  Last   year  also  yield  was  lower  than  the  average  yield  of  Rajasthan     District wise  Area.60   6.  area  under  Castor   crop  in  Andhra  Pradesh  is  continuously  decreasing.  Barmer   and  Jalore  districts  has  increased  this  year.11   48.40   26.83   17.12   13%   1021   1052   3%   Sirohi   27.98   -­‐1%   6.  Yield  and  Production  of  Castor  Seeds  in  Rajasthan  (2009-­‐10)       Estimated  Area  Under         Crop  *  ('000  ha.60   4%   1053   1104   5%   Hanumangarh   17.58   3.35   lakh   hectares.67   118.81   58.   which   is   43%   less   than   average   rainfall   in   these   districts.26   lakh   tonnes.  Area  under  Castor   crop  has  decreased  in  all  other  districts  of  Andhra  Pradesh  this  year  except  Kurnool.  It  has  decreased  by  30%  as  compared  to  previous  year.  area  under  Castor   crop  has  mainly  decreased  in  Hanumangarh  (43%)    and    other    major  district  is  Sirohi   (4%).   Similar  trend  has  observed  in  last  year  also.66   4.46   -­‐7%   137.65   -­‐7%   7.93   26.27   6.     CastorOil.80   7.18   -­‐43%   13.     Estimated  total  production  of  Castor  Seeds  in  Rajasthan  for  the  year  2009-­‐10  is  1.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-­‐10.     Average   yield   for   the   year   2009-­‐10   is   1065   kg/hectare.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 51     Rajasthan   Total  area  under  Castor  crop  in    Rajasthan  for  the  year  2009-­‐10  is  1.   Production   in   Hanumangarh   and   Sirohi   district   has   decreased   by   66%   and   18%   respectively   as   compared  to  previous  year.seaofindia.67   5%   1062   1108   4%   Pali   3.18  lakh  hectares.

 all   other   districts  have  received  Normal  rainfall  this  year.     District wise  Area.     Average  yield  for  the  year  2009-­‐10   is  325  kg/hectare.25   -­‐33%   41.     Estimated  total  production  of  Castor  Seeds  in  India  for  the  year  2009-­‐10  is  9.53   6.59   6.61   -­‐38%   369   326   -­‐12%   Total   191.94   1.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-­‐10.    It  has  decreased  by  4%  as  compared  to  previous  year.   mainly  in  Kurnool  and  Mahboobnagar  districts.17   -­‐6%   444   333   -­‐25%   Mahbubnagar   118.)   *   Estimated  Yield  *  (Kg/ha.   all   the   Castor   Seeds   producing   districts   of   Andhra   Pradesh   state   have   received  460  mm  average  rainfall.36   -­‐44%   13.20   24.seaofindia.05   18.53   -­‐30%   70.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 52   Estimated  total  production  of  Castor  Seeds  in  Andhra  Pradesh  for  the  year  2009-­‐10  is   0.72   -­‐38%   369   325   -­‐12%   *  Nielsen  India  estimates   Source:  http://www.70   43.pdf       Rainfall   -­‐   This   year.34  lakh   tonnes.85   18.   It   has   decreased   by   38%   as   compared   to   previous   year   due   to   decrease  in  area  and  yield.24   -­‐21%   1.  which   is  12%  lower  than  the   previous  year.     All  India       Total  area  under  Castor  crop  in  India  for  the  year  2009-­‐10   is  7.  Yield  and  Production  of  Castor  Seeds  in  Andhra  Pradesh  (2009-­‐10)       Estimated  Area  Under   Estimated  Production       Crop  *  ('000  ha.     Except  Nalgonda  district.       CastorOil.  It   has  decreased  by  10%  as  compared  to  previous  year.     Average   yield   for   the   year   2009-­‐10   is   1261   kg/hectare   as   against   1180   kg/hectare   during  the  year  2008-­‐09.56   -­‐20%   363   367   1%   Other                     Districts   20.16   14.83   -­‐49%   409   372   -­‐9%   Rangareddy   5.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .    It  has  increased  by  7%  as  compared  to  previous  year.29   79.44   4.15   -­‐30%   7.55   -­‐40%   348   310   -­‐11%   Nalgonda   33.  which  is  10%  lower  than  average  rainfall  in  these  districts.53   25%   6.    Heavy   rainfall  during  last  week  of  Sept  and  1st  week  of  October  washed  out  crop  at  many  places.44   lakh   tonnes.40   lakh  hectares.)     (  '000  tonnes)   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   %  Change   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   %  Change   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   %  Change   District   09   10   09   10   09   10   Kurnool   14.70   134.34   4.

 India  supplies   over  70%  of  the  total  production  of  castor  oil  in  the  world.     CastorOil.     -­‐08  were  about  $  170  million.  Yield  and  Production  of  Castor  Seeds  in  India  (2009-­‐10)         Estimated  Area  Under   Estimated  Production       Estimated  Yield  *   Crop  *  ('000   *     (Kg/ha.6  Castor  Cultivation  &  Yields  in  India  -­‐  Points     Despite  phenomenal  increase  witnessed  in  the  production  and  productivity  of  castor   over   the   last   ten   years.)   (  '000  tonnes)   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   2008-­‐   2009-­‐   %   %   %   Change   Change   Change   09   10   09   10   09   10   Gujarat   Rajasthan   Andhra   Pradesh   Other   States  #   Total     451   127     192     56   826       437   118     135     50   740   -­‐3%   -­‐7%     -­‐30%     -­‐11%   -­‐10%   725   137     71     43   976   734   126     44     30   934   1%   -­‐8%     -­‐38%     -­‐30%   -­‐4%   1608   1076     369     760   1180   1679   1065     325     600   1261   4%   -­‐1%   -­‐12%   -­‐21%   7%   *  Nielsen  India  estimates.     With   the   exception   of   Gujarat.pdf     2.  de-­‐podded  and  brought  to  the  market  yards  during  January  for  trading.     2.  India  is  the  undisputed  leader  in  castor  oil  production.4.  A  multitude  of  factors  such  as  its  cultivation  in   sub-­‐marginal  and  marginal  lands  under  rainfed  conditions  with  practically  little  or  no   inputs.  use  of  poor  quality  seed  and  inefficient  crop  management  are  responsible  for   such  dismal  yield.       2.  which  is  not  a  very   large  value  given  the  potential  for  this  industry.   The   seedpods  are  dried.5  Cropping  Season  in  India     Castor   is   planted   during   July   or   August   and   harvested   around   December   or   January.   Sowbhagya.com/castoroil_data/Castor%20Crop%20Survey_2009-­‐10.   Ruling   varieties   and   hybrids   of   castor   in   India   include   Aruna.seaofindia.4 Global  Castor  Oil  Industry     As  mentioned  earlier.)   District   ha.     The   area   under   castor   in   Andhra   Pradesh   has   gradually   declined   in   the   last   five   decades.  #  Secondary  source   Source:  http://www.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report   53   State wise  Area.   Kranti  and  GCH-­‐4.   there  still   exist   wide   regional   disparities   in   the   per   hectare   yields  of  castor.   where   the   per   hectare   yields   (1630   kg/ha)   have   registered  three  fold  increase  since  1970.4.   Bhagya.  the  general  productivity  levels  of  castor  in   all  other  parts  are  around  500  kg/ha.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .

 among  which   oils  from  oilseeds  would  be  about  120  MT  (CastorOil.     Low  Volumes  of  Castor  Oil  Production     The  worldwide   production  of  castor  oil   is  about   500.     Low  Value  Addition  by  the  Indian  Castor  Oil  Industry     The  basic  grades  of  castor  are  the  commercial  grade.5   Castor  Oil   0.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     Worldwide  Production  of  Fixed  Oils     Oilseed     Approximate  Annual   Production     (in  million  T)   Soybean  Oil   34   Palm  Oil   35   Rapeseed  Oil   17   Sunflower  Oil   10   Cottonseed  Oil   4   Groundnut  Oil   4   Palm  Kernel  Oil   3.000  T  per  annum.     Admittedly.5                                                                                  Note:  Figures  for  2005-­‐06     The  total  volume  of  oils  and  fats  produced  was  about  145  million  T  in  2007-­‐08.7   Linseed  Oil   0.in  estimate).   is   relatively   very  low  when  compared  to  production  of  other  seed-­‐oils.5%  of  total  world  market  for  oils  from  oilseeds.  However.  the  fact  that  an  oil  with  use  as  versatile  as  that  of   castor  oil  has  a  share  of  less  than  0.   little  value  addition.5%  shows  what  tremendous  potential  it  has  for  future   growth.5   Coconut  Oil   3   Corn  Oil   2   Sesame  Oil   0.     CastorOil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 54   There  are  two  reasons  for  this  low  quantum  of  export  revenues:     The   total   amount   of   castor   oil   production   worldwide   (and   thus   by   India).  first  special  grade  etc.     One  can  see  that  castor  oil  has  less  than  0.  A   look  at  the  table   below  will  show  how  small  this  quantity  is  when  looked  at  from  a  larger  perspective.  one  cannot  compare  castor  oil  volumes  with  the  volumes  of  oils  such  as  palm  oil   or   soybean   oil   because   these   are   edible   oils   and   hence   they   have   much   larger   usage   and   demand  in  the  food  market.

    2.  while  India  could  gain  a  lot  more  from  both  higher  production  of  castor  oil  as  well  as   higher  value  addition.   the  demand  is  quite  relatively  low  in  quantities  for  reliable  data  availability.  India  is  able  to  capture  only  about  25%  of  the  total  value  from   the  market.     The   combined   revenue   potential   from   the   generation   II   &   III   derivatives   is   about   $650   million.5  Demand  -­‐  Supply  Estimates  for  Castor  Oil  Derivatives     According   to   the   industry   nomenclature.  except  for  some  of  the  derivatives  such  as  HCO.  and  provide  thin  margins  (in  the  range  of  5%).  12-­‐HSA.   undecyclenic   acid.   the   numbers   CastorOil.   Generation   II   castor   oil   derivatives   include   sebacic   acid.     Thus.  where  half  of  the  generation  II  derivatives  are   converted.  For  generation  III  derivatives.  owing  to  a  number  of  structural  and   market  related  factors.     What   is   the   Existing   &   Current   Potential   that   the   Indian   Castor   Industry   Should   Capitalize   On?     Compare  $650  million  to  $175-­‐200  million  -­‐   -­‐   and  the   value  is  India  is  losing  out  becomes  clear.   generation   I   derivatives   include   hydrogenated   castor   oil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 55   The   basic   and   generation   I   derivatives   are   essentially   considered   commodities   and   incorporate  small  value  additions.   the   castor   oil   and   derivatives   industry   have   shown   an   average   demand   growth   of   about  4%  per  annum  for  the  period  2000-­‐2007.   While   we   have   made   an   attempt   at   quantifying   the   qualitative   benchmarks   at   the   end   of   the   table.     Data  based  on  2007-­‐08  exports  show  that  generation  II  &  III  derivatives  accounted  for  less   derivatives   alone   will   be   almost   an   insignificant   percentage   of   the   total   Indian   castor   oil   exports.  Generation  III  derivatives  include  the  esters  and  salts   of  generation  II  derivatives  as  well  as  derivatives  such  as  methyl-­‐12-­‐hydroxystearate.   12-­‐hydroxy   stearic   acid.  the  estimated  market  worth  is  close  to  $350  million  (based  on  2007  data).  Data  availability   for  demand  and  supplies  for  many  of  these  derivative  chemicals  is  sparse  as  well.  The  value   additions   and   profit   margins   for   generation   II   &   III   derivatives   are   significantly   higher   and   these  are  very  attractive.   and   ethoxylated   castor   oil   among   others.  While  the  demand  for  castor  oil  and  castor   oil  derivatives  is  on  the  increase.     Overall.   dehydrated   castor   oil   acid.   heptaldehyde.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  In  spite  of  being  the  largest  castor  oil  exporter  by   far  (75%  of  global  exports).     The  global  market  for  generation  II  castor  oil  derivatives  is  estimated  at  $300  million  (based   on  2007  data).  it  is  most  likely  that  a  higher  focus  on  value  added  products  will  be  the   most  optimal  method  for  the  short  and  medium  term.  polyols  and  dimer  acid.     The   following   table   provides   qualitative   estimates   of   worldwide   demand   and   demand-­‐ supply   gaps   for   the   various   grades   and   derivatives   of   castor   oil.

 Turkey  Red  Oil   COLM  (Urethane  Grade)   Commercial  Grade  Castor  Oil   BP  Grade  Castor  Oil   Deodorized/Deodourised  Castor  Oil   European  Pharmacoepia  Grade  Castor  Oil   Extra  Pale  Grade  Caster  Oil   Pale  Pressed  Grade  (PPG)  Grade  Caster  Oil   First  Pressed  Degummed  Castor  Oil   First  Special  Grade  (FSG)  Castor  Oil     United  States  Pharmacopia  (USP)  Castor  Oil       Dehydrated  Castor  Oil  (DCO)       Ethoxylated  Castor  Oil     C  3  Derivatives  of  Castor  Oil       Glycerine       C-­‐7  Derivatives  of  Castor  Oil   Heptanoic  Acid   Heptaldehyde   Heptyl  Alcohol  (Heptanol)   C  11  Derivatives  of  Castor  Oil   Undecylenic  Acid   Undecanoic  Acid   Undecylenic  Aldehyde   Undecylenic  Alcohol   Calcium  Undecylenate   Zinc  Undecylenate   Allyl  Undecylenate   Sodium  Undecylenate   Demand   High   High   Medium   Medium   Low-­‐Medium   Low-­‐Medium   Medium   Medium-­‐High   Very  High   Medium   Medium   Medium   Low   Medium   Medium-­‐High   Very  High   High   Medium-­‐High   Medium     Very  High     Low   Low   Low     Very  High1   Low   Low   Low   Low   Low   Low   Low   Current  Demand   Supply  Gap   Medium   High   Medium   Medium   Medium   Medium   Medium   Medium-­‐High   Medium   Medium   Medium   Medium   Medium   Medium   Medium   Medium   Medium   Medium   High     Low     Medium   Medium   Medium     Very  High1   NA   NA   NA   NA   NA   NA   NA   CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .5.  and   transactions  done  by  CastorOil.  These  have  been  computed  based  on  secondary  data.1   Current   Demand-­‐Supply   Estimates   for   the   Various   Grades   of   Castor   Oil   and   Derivatives     Product   Castor  Seed   Castor  Meal  /  Castor  Residue   Hydrogenated  Castor  Oil  (HCO)   12  Hydroxy  Stearic  Acid  (12  HSA)   Methyl  12  HSA  (Hydroxy  Stearate  Acid)   Blown  Castor  Oil   Sulfated/Sulfonated  Castor  Oil.  industry  interactions.     It  is  requested  that  the  following  data  hence  be  considered  as  approximate  and  qualitative   estimates.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 56   should  be  taken  more  as  intelligent  estimates  rather  than  as  official  data.in  in  the  past  4  years.     2.  because  there  are   no  official  data  available  for  specific  grades  and  derivatives  of  castor  oil.

000-­‐30.000  T  per  year   Medium:  5.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Methyl  Undecylenate   Ethyl  Undecylenate   C  18  Derivatives  of  Castor  Oil       Esterols   Ricinoleic  Acid   Methyl  Ricinoleate   Sebacic  Acid   2-­‐Octanol   1   2 57   Low   Low     Not  known   Medium   Low-­‐Medium   Very  High2   Low   NA   NA     NA   Medium   Medium   Medium-­‐High   Medium   A  very  large  percentage  of  Undecylenic  Acid  is  used  by  Arkema  to  manufacture  Nylon  11    Large  percentage  of  Sebacic  acid  is  used  for  the  manufacture  of  Nylon  6     Notations  for  Demand   Very  High:  50.000  -­‐  50.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .000  T  and  above  per  year   High:  30.5.000  T  per  year   Low-­‐Medium:  1.   but   there   has   not   been   a   significant  amount  of  demand  that  has  gone  unmet     Medium-­‐High:  There  have  been  some  instances  where  a  significant  demand  has  gone  unmet     High:  There  have  been  many  instances  where  a  significant  demand  in  the  market  has  gone   unmet     Low:  There  have  been  very  few  instances  when  a  significant  demand  has  gone  unmet   NA:  denotes  that  info  on  demand  supply  gap  is  not  available  owing  to  the  negligible  demand   volumes     2.2   Future   Demand-­‐Supply   Estimates   for   the   Various   Grades   of   Castor   Oil   and   Derivatives     Growth  of  Key  End-­‐User  Segments     The  major  end-­‐use  industries  for  castor  oil  derivatives  castor  oil  are:     Lubricants  &  Greases   Coatings   Personal  Care  &  Detergent   Surfactants   Oleochemicals     CastorOil.000-­‐5.000-­‐15.000  T  per  year   Medium-­‐High:  15.000  T  per  year   Low:  Less  than  1.000  T  per  year     Notations  for  Demand-­‐Supply  Gap     Medium:   There   exists   some   demand   over   and   above   supply.

  in   high   growth   segments   such   as   pharma   ingredients.   biopolymers  and  food  ingredients  castor  oil  could  have  a  considerable  role  to  play.   However.5  million  T  by  2012   58     Over   the   past   one   decade.  based   Potential   on  2005  data   Lubricants  &  Greases   2   44  million  T  by  2012   Coatings   4.   one   must   remember   than   a   very   large   percentage   of   the   high   value   added   derivatives   are   produced   by   companies   outside   India.1%   Enzymes   4   100   15%     An  analysis  of  the  above  table  shows  that  there  are  some  market  segments  that  have  much   higher  growth  potential  and  in  which  castor  oil  could  play  a  significant  role.   However.  while  the  demand  in   quantity  for  Indian  castor  oil  has  been  growing  at  4-­‐5%.   the   growth   in   demand   for   castor   oil   and   derivatives   has   been   about  4-­‐5%  per  annum  (CAGR).  2006  survey  provides  the   following  data  for  the  potential   for  bio-­‐based   materials  in  2010     Market  size  in  2010   Growth  %   Market  segment   CAGR  2005-­‐10   ($billion)   2005-­‐10   Biofuels   42   100   15%   Plant  extracts   23   20   3.   it   is   doubtful   whether   castor   oil   can   have   a   small  quantities  of  castor  oil  produced  when  compared  to  the  massive  volumes  required  for   transportation   fuel.  there  are  other  emerging  segments  that  could  hold  even  more  significant   potential  for  castor  oil  derivatives.     Apart  from  this.  While  in   CastorOil.  and  India  simply  supplies  the  commodity   oils  to  them.65  billion  by  2012   Oleochemicals   4%   8.1%   Oleochemicals   8   6   1.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Growth  of  Key  End-­‐user  Industry  Segments  for  Castor  Oil  Derivatives     Industry   %  Growth  (CAGR).         Growth  Prospects  for  Bio-­‐based  Products     A  McKinsey  &  Co.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .7%   Pharma  ingredients   20   100   15%   Bulk   chemicals   and   polymers   15   50   8.9%  (about  11%  in  Asia!)   -­‐   Personal  Care  &  Detergent   6%   $375  billion  by  2012   Surfactants   4%   $16.  India  gets  a  small  share  of  the  actual   profits  that  result  from  high  value  add.  That  is.  this  %  growth  seems  to  be  in   line   with   the   CAGR   for   the   various   industries.5%   Food  ingredients   11   35   6.     Among   the   segments   in   the   table   above.  If  one  looks  at  the  table  above.

in   makes   following   estimations   for   future   demand   of   various  products.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     Demand-­‐Supply  Estimates     Based   on   its   research.   castor   oil   already   is   a   contributor.   it   is   expected  that  there  will  be  many  more  segments  within  pharma  as  well  as  the  other  two  in   which  castor  oil  can  significantly  increase  its  presence.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 59   some   of   these   segments   (pharma   for   instance).   CastorOil.  Please  note  that  most  of  these  are  based  on  qualitative  inputs  as  scarce   official  inputs  are  available  for  some  of  the  derivatives  mentioned     Product   Future  Demand   Current  Demand   Castor  Seed   Very  High   High   Castor  Meal  /  Castor  Residue   Very  High   High   Hydrogenated  Castor  Oil  (HCO)   Very  High   Medium   12  Hydroxy  Stearic  Acid  (12  HSA)   Very  High   Medium   Methyl  12  HSA  (Hydroxy  Stearate  Acid)   Medium-­‐High   Low-­‐Medium   Blown  Castor  Oil   Medium   Low-­‐Medium   Sulfated/Sulfonated   Castor   Oil.   Turkey   Medium-­‐High   Medium   Red  Oil   COLM  (Urethane  Grade)   Very  High   Medium-­‐High   Commercial  /  Industrial  Grade  Castor  Oil   Very  High   Very  High   BP  Grade  Castor  Oil   Medium-­‐High   Medium   Deodorized  Castor  Oil   Medium-­‐High   Medium   European   Pharmacoepia   Grade   Castor   High   Medium   Oil   Extra  Pale  Grade  Castor  Oil   Low   Low   Pale   Pressed   Grade   (PPG)   Grade   Castor   Medium-­‐High   Medium   Oil   First  Pressed  Degummed  Castor  Oil   Medium-­‐High   Medium-­‐High   First  Special  Grade  (FSG)  Castor  Oil     Very  High   Very  High   United  States  Pharmacopia  (USP)  Castor   High   High   Oil   Dehydrated  Castor  Oil  (DCO)   Very  High   Medium-­‐High   Ethoxylated  Castor  Oil   High   Medium   C  3  Derivatives  of  Castor  Oil           Glycerine   Very  High   Very  High   C-­‐7  Derivatives  of  Castoroil       Heptanoic  Acid   Low   Low   Heptaldehyde   Low   Low   Heptyl  Alcohol  (Heptanol)   Low   Low   C  11  Derivatives  of  Castor  Oil           Undecylenic  Acid   Very  High   Very  High   Undecanoic  Acid   Low   Low   Undecylenic  Aldehyde   Low   Low   Undecylenic  Alcohol   Low   Low   Calcium  Undecylenate   Low   Low   CastorOil.

 but  only  three   countries.   In   addition.000  T  per  year   Low-­‐Medium:  1.  In   the   context   of   castor   oil   derivatives.   relatively   few   companies   are   involved   in   production.000-­‐10.000  T  per  year   Medium-­‐High:  5.   China   and   Brazil   are   currently   supplying   to   the   world   market.5  percent  of  the  total  world  market  for  oils  from  seeds.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Zinc  Undecylenate   Low   Allyl  Undecylenate   Low   Sodium  Undecylenate   Low   Methyl  Undecylenate   Low   Ethyl  Undecylenate   Low   C  18  Derivatives  of  Castor  Oil     Ricinoleic  Acid   High   Methyl  Ricinoleate   Low-­‐Medium   Sebacic  Acid   Very  High   2-­‐Octanol   Low     Notations  for  Demand     Very  High:  25.000  T  per  year   Medium:  2.   This  shows  the  significant  potential  for  new  entrepreneurs  in  this  sector.   namely   India.     CastorOil.000  T  and  above  per  year   High:  10.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  The   demand  for  castor  oil  is  increasing  at  the  rate  of  3  to  5  percent  per  annum.000-­‐2.500-­‐5.000    25.500  T  per  year   Low:  Less  than  1.000  T  per  year     Low   Low   Low   Low   Low     Medium   Low-­‐Medium   High   Low   60   SUMMARY       There  is  a  significant  demand  supply  gap  for  castor  oil  and  its  derivatives  in  the  market.  castor  oil  has  less  than  0.

 castor  oil  is  not  only  compatible  with  but   will   also   plasticize   a   wide   variety   of   natural   and   synthetic   resins.1   Properties  &  Chemical  Composition  of  Castor  Oil    3.   waxes.     The  high  viscosity  makes  the  oil  useful  as  a  component  in  blending  lubricants.2   Chemical.   polymers   and  elastomers.     CastorOil.     Castor  oil  has  excellent  emollient  properties  as  well  as  a  marked  ability  to  wet  and   dispe application  versatility  is  further  enhanced.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 61   3  -­‐  Castor  Oil  Chemicals  &  Derivatives     This  chapter  comprises  the  following  topics     Introduction    3.3       HIGHLIGHTS       Castor  oil  and  derivatives  find  applications  in  diverse  industries.   Physical   Properties   &   Specifications   of   Castor   Oil   Grades   &   Derivatives     3.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     Because  of  its  higher  polar  hydroxyl  groups.

670  mg  Ca.  peroxidase  and  reductase.S.   12.   glycolic   acid.  12.8   g   protein.S.  No  other  vegetable  oil  contains  such  a   diverse  and  high  proportion  of  fatty  hydroxyacids.  2.P.P.   and   amylase.   invertase.   and   a   fat-­‐soluble   zymogen.4  g  ash.S.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .0%   protein.  10.   endotrypsin.   the   leaves   are   reported   to   contain   on   a   zero-­‐moisture   basis.0 50%   oil.   oxidase.0   NFE.)   Methyl  Ricinoleate   Dehydrated  Castor  Oil  (DCO)   Urethane  Grade   Sebacic  Acid   2-­‐Heptanol   Methyl  Undecylenate   Undecanoic  Acid   Calcium  Undecylenate   Zinc  Ricinoleate   First  Pressed  Degummed  Grade  Castor  Oil   Refined  Castor  Oil  -­‐  Extra  Pale  Grade   Castor  Oil  Pharmaceutical  (I.  The  seeds   also  contain  a   powerful   lipase.)   Blown  Castor  Oil   Hydrogenated  Castor  Oil   Methyl-­‐12-­‐Hydroxy  Stearate   Urethane  Modified  Castor  Oil   Glycerine   Ethoxylated  Castor  Oil   Heptaldehyde   Undecylenic  Aldehyde   2-­‐Octanol   Undecylenic  Acid   Zinc  Undecylenate   Heptanoic  Acid     3.  and  2.4  g  total  carbohydrate.S.   3.     Castor  Plant  Chemistry     Leaves:   Per   100   g.0 7.   Also  present  in  the  seed   are  60  mg/kg  uric  acid   and  7  ppm  HCN.   ribonuclease.3  g  fiber.A.0 16.   and  is  hence  also  known  as  Dodecahydroxyoleic  Acid.4  g  fat.   45.  90%  in  the  phytic  form.   its  various   derivatives  and  their  unique  properties  and   consequent   applications   make   castor   oil   even   more   important   in   the   plant   and   vegetable   oils  hierarchy.  23 27%  CF.   employed   for   commercial   hydrolysis   of   fats.G.  57./U.S.     Seeds:   The   seed   contains   about   5%   moisture.   24.0 2.2%  ash.  and  460   mg  P./B.     CastorOil.   maltase.  a  double  bond  between  the  ninth  and  tenth  carbons.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 62   3.   Refined  Castor  Oil  -­‐  Pale  Pressed  Grade   Sulfonated  Castor  Oil  -­‐  Turkey  Red  Oil   Ricinoleic  Acid   12-­‐Hydroxy  Stearic  Acid  (12-­‐H.     Summary  List  of  Key  Derivatives  of  Castor  Oil     Commercial  Castor  Oil   Refined  Castor  Oil  -­‐  F.1  Introduction     While  castor   oil   is  popular  in  itself.  5.P/B.2  Properties  &  Chemical  Composition  of  Castor  Oil     Castor  oil's  chemical  formula  is:  CH3-­‐(CH2)5-­‐CH(OH)-­‐CH2-­‐CH=CH-­‐(CH2)7-­‐COOH     It  is  a  fatty  acid  with  18  carbon  atoms.   Sprouting  seeds  contain  catalase.  Seeds  are  high  in  phosphorus.

 It  is  a  monounsaturated  fatty  acid.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  a  low  melting  point  (5°C)  and  a  low  solidification   point  (12°C  to  -­‐18°C).     Castor  Oil  Chemistry  and  Composition     Castor  oil  is  unique  among  all  fats  and  oils  in  that:     It  is  the  only  source  of  an  18-­‐carbon  hydroxylated  fatty  acid  with  one  double  bond     Ricinoleic  acid  (12-­‐Hydroxyoleic  Acid)  comprises  approximately  87%  of  the  fatty  acid   composition     Product   uniformity   and   consistency   are   relatively   high   for   a   naturally   occurring   material     It  is  a  toxic.  biodegradable.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 63   Unique   to   castor   oil   is   that   regardless   of   where   the   beans   are   grown.  It  is  this  consistency  that  has  allowed  castor  oil  to  be  used  as   the  absolute  standard  for  viscosity  by  the  Bureau  of  Standards.     Castor  oil  has  a  molecular  weight  of  298.  renewable  resource         CastorOil.  insoluble  in   water   and   has   some   miscibility   in   petroleum   aliphatic   solvents.  soluble  in  pure  alcohol.   It   resists   heat   and   leaves   virtually  no  residue.   the   chemical   composition  remains  constant.

    The   chemistry   of   castor   oil   is   centered   on   its   high   content   of   ricinoleic   acid   and   the   three   points  of  functionality  existing  in  the  molecule.7%).S     CastorOil.3%).   the   other   fatty   acids   present   are   linoleic   (4.   (2)  The  single  point  of  unsaturation  which  can  be  altered  by  hydrogenation  or  epoxidation   or  vulcanization.   may   be   removed   by   dehydration  to  increase  the  unsaturation  of  the  compound  to  give  semi-­‐drying  oil.2%).3%).  Oil   Oleic   Linoleic   Crop   Content   Acid   Acid   Castor   45%   3%   4.   The  presence  of  hydroxyl  group  on  castor  oil  adds  extra  stability  to  the  oil  and  its  derivatives   by  preventing  the  formation  of  hydroperoxides.2%   Rape  Seed   42%   32%   19%   Linseed   38%   20%   16%   Sunflower   48%   26%   62%   Soybean   18%   27%   53%   Palm   52%   40%   8%   64   Linolenic                       Ricinoleic   Acid   Acid   0.   castor   oil   is   a   triglyceride.     The   hydroxyl   position   is   so   reactive   that   the   molecule   can   be   split   at   that   point   by   high-­‐ temperature  pyrolysis  and  by  caustic  fusion  to  yield  useful  products  of  shorter  chain  length.   palmitic   (1%).   oleic   (3.   and   eicosanoic  acid  (0.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Castor  Oil  Composition  vs.  Composition  of  Other  Vegetable  Oils     %  A  vg.  These  are:     (1)  The  carboxyl  group  which  can  provide  a  wide  range  of  esterifications.   stearic   (1%).0%).5%   Hydroxyl  Number   160mm   Viscosity  @  20°C   9.   linolenic   acid   (0.0  dPa.   di-­‐hydroxystearic   acid   (0.963g/ml   Refractive  Index   1.  and     (3)   The   hydroxyl   group   which   can   be   acetylated   or   alkoxylated.477  -­‐1.     Apart   from   ricinoleic   acid.   which   chemically   is   a   glycerol   molecule   with   each   of   its   three   hydroxyl   group   esterified   with   a   long   chain   fatty   acid.3-­‐0.5-­‐10.3%   90%   7%   -­‐0-­‐   50%   -­‐0-­‐   -­‐0-­‐   -­‐0-­‐   7%   -­‐0-­‐   -­‐0-­‐   -­‐0-­‐     Like   other   vegetable   oils   and   animal   fats.     Properties     Density  @  20°C   0.479   Saponification  Number   177-­‐187   Iodine  Value   82-­‐88   Unsaponifiable  Matter   0.956-­‐0.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .

 unusual  for  a  natural  vegetable  oil.  castor  oil  is  not  only  compatible  with  but  will  plasticize  a  wide  variety  of  natural  and   synthetic  resins.  and  it  is  lighter  in   colour.  The  high  viscosity  makes  the  oil   useful  as  a  component  in  blending  lubricants.     Like   all   other   vegetable   oils.  Castor  oil  also  has  excellent  emollient  and   lubricating   properties   as   well   as   a   marked   ability   to   wet   and   disperse   dyes.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .3   Chemical.   2.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 65   Crude  castor  oil  is  pale  straw  in  colour  but  turns  colourless  or  slightly  yellowish  after  refining   and  bleaching.     The  oil  is  characterized  by  high  viscosity.   82    90   177    187   160  min.954    0.  The  hydroxyl  groups  in  castor  oil  account  for  a   unique  combination  of  physical  properties:     Relatively  high  viscosity  and  specific  gravity   Solubility  in  alcohols  in  any  proportion   Limited  solubility  in  aliphatic  petroleum  solvents     The  uniformity  and  reliability  of  its  physical  properties  are  demonstrated  by  the  long-­‐term   use  of  castor  oil  as  an  absolute  standard  for  viscosity.     3.   pigments   and   enhanced.0  max.   Physical   Properties   &   Specifications   of   Castor   Oil   Grades   &   Derivatives     Commercial  Grade  Castor  Oil       Appearance   ond   Iodine  Value   Saponification  Value   Hydroxyl  Value   Acid  Value   Moisture  &  Volatiles   Specific  Gravity  @  20o  C   Pale  Dark  Yellow   30  units  max.  waxes.   0.   castor   oil   has   different   physical   and   chemical   properties   that   vary  with  the  method  of  extraction.  Because  of  its  higher  polar  hydroxyl   groups.967     CastorOil.  polymers  and  elastomers.  The  reduction  of  these  values  is  due   to  the  reaction  between  hydroxyl  and  carboxyl  groups  in  the  oil  molecule  to  form  estolides.   both   values   may  change  by  about  10%  if  stored  for  about  90  days.     Although   castor   oil   is   a   unique   naturally-­‐occurring   polyhydroxy   compound.  low  iodine   value  and  a  slightly  higher  saponification  value  than  solvent-­‐extracted  oil.  Cold-­‐pressed  castor  oil   has  low  acid  value.   0.50%  max.  This  behaviour   is  due  largely  to  hydrogen  bonding  of  its  hydroxyl  groups.   a   limitation   of   the   oil   is   the   slight   reduction   of   its   hydroxyl   value   and   acid   value   on   storage.

0º   150  min.1%)   0.  >227oC   V6   >450oF.9   Castor  Oil  U.25  Max   160-­‐168   83-­‐88   175-­‐185   6.   5.963  @  15.   82-­‐90   176-­‐187   2.0  max   Pale  Pressed  Castor  Oil     CAS  Number   Flash  Point   HCC   Boiling  Point   Vapour  Density   Colour  Gardner   Acid  Value   %  Moisture  &  Volatile   Hydroxyl  Value   Iodine  Value   Saponification  Value   Viscosity  @  25oC       8001-­‐79-­‐4   >440oF.0  max.5   0.961-­‐0.   0.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 66   BP  Grade  Castor  Oil     CAS  Number   EINECS   Colour   Relative  Density  at  20ºC   Moisture   Iodine  Value   Saponification  Value   Acid  Value   Unsaponfiables  w/w   Optical  Rotation   Hydroxyl  Value   Peroxide  Value   Light  Absorption     8001-­‐79-­‐4   292-­‐293-­‐8   Nearly  Colourless  or  Faintly  Yellow   0.P     CAS  Number   Flash  Point   Autoignition  Temperature   Appearance   Odor   Solubility   Specific  Gravity   %  Volatiles  by  volume  @  21oC  (70oF)   Boiling  Point   Melting  Point     8001-­‐79-­‐4   229oC  (444oF)  CC   449oC  (840oF)   Light  yellow  viscous  liquid   Slight  characteristic  odor   Negligible  (<  0.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .3-­‐8.5oC   100   313oC  (595oF)   -­‐10oC  (14oF)   CastorOil.3%  max.952-­‐0.8%  max.   between  +3.965   0.5º  and  6.S.0  max   1.>232oC   >Air   2  Max   1.

I  .0  Max.   81-­‐90   158  Min.  Clear  liquid   M  .0  Min.   0.   2.0  Max.6  to  2.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 67   Dehydrated  Castor  Oil       CAS  Number   Appearance   Colour  Gardner   Acid  Value   Iodine  Value   Hydroxyl  Value   Saponification  Value   Viscocity  at  30  ºC   Viscocity  Gardner         61789-­‐45-­‐5   Viscous  liquid     6  Max   5  Max   123  Min   25  Max   185    194   1.  (as  oleic)   1.F.2   Y-­‐  20.     Castor  Oil  BSS  Grade  (British  Standard  Specifications)     Specific  Gravity  at  25°  C   Acid  Value   Saponification  Value   Iodine  Value   Hydroxyl  Value   Colour  Gardner     0.   Blown  Castor  Oil     Colour   Gardner   6  Max   12  Max   16  Max   Hydroxyl   Value   151-­‐158   130-­‐140   125-­‐135   Iodine   Value   69-­‐73   56-­‐65   58-­‐66   Viscosity   Saponification     Gardner-­‐   Value   Holdt/Strokes   200-­‐220   Z-­‐1/25-­‐35   210-­‐230   Z-­‐5.5  (poise  61  sec  B4  cup)   G    J   Refined  Castor  Oil    FSG  (First  Special  Grade)     Appearance   Pale  Yellow.00  %  max.6/100-­‐150   220-­‐245   Z-­‐8/450-­‐600     Z-­‐1   Z-­‐6   Z-­‐8     Acid  Value   12-­‐16   10-­‐17   11-­‐16   CastorOil.A.   F.960   2.   175.954-­‐0.    R  -­‐  2.V.   Acid    Value   2.25  %  max.  Viscous.00  %  max.0  Max.0  Max.   Iodine  Value  (Wijs)   82    90   Saponification  Value   177    185   Hydroxyl  Value   158    163   Colour  on  lovibond  in  5.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .

  Colour  Gardner  (G)   5G  Max.5  Max.     CAS  Number   106-­‐14-­‐9   Formula   C18H36O3   Appearance   White  Colour  Flakes   Acid  Value   175  Min.  °C   Hydroxyl  Value.3-­‐8.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 68   Urethane  Grade     Color   Acid   Gardner   Value   2  Plus   Max   2.5   12  HSA     12  HSA  (12  Hydroxy  Stearic  Acid)  is  a  wax-­‐like.98   <  0°C   >  150°C   CastorOil.   Iodine  Value   3.   Melting  Point   75°C  Min.  Percent     61791-­‐12-­‐6   Clear  or  light  yellow  liquid   1.0  Max   0.  The  basic   form  of  12  HSA  is  a  flake.  odourless  and  tasteless  compound.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  mg  KOH/g   Moisture.Gravity   Melting  Point   Boiling  Point   8002-­‐33-­‐3   Brownish  yellow  oil   0.5  %  Max.9     Ethoxylated  Castor  Oil     Synonyms  -­‐  Castor  oil  polyoxyethylene  ether     Typical  properties  of  Ethoxylated  Castor  Oil  (the  properties  given  are  for  EO-­‐36)     CAS  Number   Appearance   Density  (  g  /  cm-­‐3)  @  25oC   pH  (5%  in  water)   Cloud  point.   Moisture   0.05   5 7   68 75   37 45   Max  0.02  Max   %   Moisture   Equivalent   Hydroxyl   Iodine   &  Volatile   Weight   Value   Value   342   160-­‐168   Sapon   Viscosity   Value   @  25º  C     COLM   83-­‐88   175-­‐185   6.   Saponification  Value   180-­‐190   Hydroxyl  Value   155  Min.     Turkey  Red  Oil     CAS  Number   Appearance   Sp.

in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .5oC   245oC   CastorOil.   The   hydroxylation   reaction   is   catalysed  by  a  single.  coatings.   oleic   acid   (18:1).  highly  efficient  enzyme.02     White  to  pale  yellowish   Solid  (mobile  liquid  @  30°C)   Almost  none   242  C  DIN  ISO  2592   100G/L   6    7     Ricinoleic  Acid     Ricinoleic  Acid  (12-­‐hydroxy-­‐9-­‐octadecenoic  acid)  is  obtained  by  the  hydrolysis  of  Castor  Oil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Chemical  Character   pH   Sulfonation  Degree   Solubility     Anionic   7  ~  8   Minimum  4.46   Viscous  yellow  liquid   5.   Physical  State   Melting  Point   Boiling  Point   5323-­‐95-­‐5   C18H34O3   298.  the  fatty  acid  hydroxylase.   It   is   a   light   coloured   liquid   with   a   ricinoleic   content   of   approximately   90%.   Primary   uses   include.         IUPAC  Name  -­‐  (E)-­‐12-­‐hydroxyoctadec-­‐9-­‐enoic  acid     Synonyms  -­‐  12-­‐hydroxy-­‐(cis)-­‐9-­‐octadecenoic  acid       CAS  Number   Chemical  Formula   Mol  Wt.  plastics.  inks  and  cosmetics     Biochemical   studies   have   revealed   that   ricinoleic   acid   is   produced   in   castor   by   the   direct   hydroxylation   of   the   common   fatty   acid.0   69   Miscible  in  water  giving  milky  emulsion   HCO  -­‐  Hydrogenated  Castor  Oil     CAS  Number   Hydroxyl  Value   Iodine  Value   Saponification  Value   Acid  Value   Melting  Point  °C   Specific  Gravity  25°C   Color   Appearance  @  20°C:   Odor   Flash  Point  °C   Solubility  in  Water  @  20°C   pH  @  100G/L  H2O   61788-­‐85-­‐0   158   3     180     2     86     1.

24  g/mole   Colorless  to  light  yellow   Mild  odor  of  fatty  acid.  Physical  Properties  &  Specifications  of  Sebacic  Acid     Decanedioic  acid   1.   Decomposes   Chemical  Names   Chemical  Formula   CAS  Number   Physical  State  and  Appearance   Molecular  Weight   Color   Odour   Boiling  Point   CastorOil.  Gardner   0.8-­‐Octanedicarboxylic  Acid   Dicarboxylic  acid  C10   C10H18O4   111-­‐20-­‐6   White  flake  or  powdered  crystal  in  its  pure   state   202.3   224oC   Stable  under  ordinary  conditions   Viscous  yellow  liquid   175  min   150  min   80-­‐91   180  min   8  max   70     Methyl  12  HSA  -­‐Methyl  12  Hydroxy  Stearate     Hydroxyl  Value     Iodine  Value     Saponification  Value     Acid  Value     Melting  Point  °C     Specific  Gravity  25  °C     160+     3     175+     1.2     52     1.94   Insoluble   10.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     Chemical.02       Sebacic  Acid     Sebacic  acid  is  a  dicarboxylic  acid.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Specific  Gravity   Solubility  in  Water   Vapour  Density   Flash  Point   Stability   Appearance   Acid  Value   Hydroxyl  Value     Iodine  Value   Saponification  Value   Colour.

 heptanal.5  min   0.  oC   Granularity  (%)   High-­‐grade  II   99.5     Form:  Grain   Parameter   Sebacic  Acid  Content  (%)   Ash  Content  (%)   Moisture  Content  (%)   Alkali  Fusion  Chromaticity  (Platinum-­‐Cobalt  Color  No.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Melting  Point   Specific  Gravity   Density  at  25oC   Dispersion  Properties   132°C  (269.5  min   99.05  max   0.  acetone   71     A  Sample  Producer  Specification  for  Sebacic  Acid  -­‐  Form:  Powder     Values   Parameter   Special  High-­‐grade   High-­‐grade  I   Sebacic  Acid  Content  (%)   99.1  max   25  max   131  to  134.   enanthic   aldehyde.03  max   0.   enanthaldehyde.5   131  to  134.02  max   0.1  -­‐  5.   enanthole.6°F)   1.207  (Water  =  1)   1.3  max   25  max   131  to  134.5  min   Ash  Content  (%)   0.3  max   Alkaifusion  Specific  Color   (Platinum-­‐Cobalt  Color   5  max   15  max   No.   n-­‐ heptaldehyde.  methanol.03  max   Moisture  Content  (%)   0.3  max   0.5  min   0.)   Melting  Point  Range  oC   131  to  134.)   Melting  Point  Range.2%   Slight   CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .818   35oC   1.   heptyl   aldehyde.  diethyl   ether.5   Value   99.  n-­‐heptanal       CAS  Number   Molecular  Formula   Appearance   Melting  Point   Boiling  Point   Density  (g  cm-­‐3)   Flash  Point   Explosion  Limits   Water  Solubility   111-­‐71-­‐7   C7H14O   Colourless  Liquid   -­‐43oC   40    42oC   0.209  g  per  cubic  centimeter   See  solubility  in  water.5   95  and  higher     Heptaldehyde     Synonyms:   Enanthal.

0  cm3   1.  colorless  to  pale  yellow   Odor   Rose-­‐like   Vapour  Density   5.47  ±  0.06  g/cm3   23.5  ±  4.5  10-­‐24cm3   198.80oF)   Physical  State   Liquid   Appearance   Clear.   Flash  Point   76oC  (  168.0  dyne/cm   0.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   Undecylenaldehyde.28   Appearance   Clear.3018800   Earthy   Medium   Earthy  Fungal  Rose  Fatty  Floral   24    Hour(s)   CastorOil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 72   2-­‐Heptanol     Synonyms:   Amyl   methyl   carbinol.444  ±  0.   heptan-­‐2-­‐ol.3  cm3   521.   methyl   amyl   carbinol.02   29.   undecylenic.817   Flash  Point   64oC     Undecylenic  Aldehyde     Synonyms:   10-­‐Undecenal.  Undecylenaldehyde     CAS  Number   112-­‐45-­‐8   Molecular  Formula   C11H20O   Molecular  Weight   168.8   Boiling  Point   235oC   Freezing/Melting  Point   7oC   Solubility   Insoluble   Specific  Gravity/Density   845  g/ml     10-­‐ Methyl  Undecylenate     CAS  Number   Formula   Molar  Refractivity   Parachor   Index  of  Refraction   Surface  Tension   Density     Polarizability   Molecular  Weight   Odor  Type   Odor  Strength   Odor  Description  at  100.00%   Substantivity   5760-­‐50-­‐9   C12H22O2     59.   1-­‐Undecen-­‐10-­‐al.5  ±  3.886  ±  0.57  ±  0.   C-­‐11   Aldehyde.   5-­‐heptyl   alcohol.   1-­‐ methylhexanol     CAS  Number   543-­‐49-­‐7   Molecular  Formula   C7H16O   Appearance   Colourless  Liquid   Boiling  Point   160    162oC   Density  (g/cm3)   0.  colorless  to  pale  yellow  liquid.

00  deg  F)   Flash  Point   193oC  (  379.17  (H2O=1)   Boiling  Point   290oC   Freezing/Melting  Point   20oF   Autoignition  Temperature   400oC  (  752.00  -­‐  -­‐27.  ethylpentylcarbinol     CAS  Number   123-­‐96-­‐6   Molecular  Formula   C8H18O  [  Structural  CH3(CH2)5COHCH3  ]   Appearance   Colourless  liquid  with  a  pungent  odour   Melting  Point   -­‐38oC   Boiling  Point   174    181oC   Vapour  Pressure   0.40  deg  F)   Decomposition  Temperature   290oC   Solubility   Miscible  in  water.33  °C.2.  caprylic  alcohol.    KOH/g   24.    TCC  (>  93.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .00  mm  Hg   1.00  -­‐  160.00  -­‐  100.00  mm  Hg   159.  @  760.00  °F.00  °C   -­‐2.15  mm  Hg  at  25oC   Specific  Gravity   0.2.00  °C.  @  760.00  -­‐  248.)   73     2-­‐Octanol     Synonyms:  capryl  alcohol.3-­‐Propanetriol.3-­‐Propanetriol       CAS  Number   56-­‐81-­‐5   Molecular  Formula   C3H8O3   Molecular  Weight   92.  1.00  °C.3-­‐Trihydroxypropane.00  month(s)  or  longer  if  stored  properly   >  200.  Glycic  Alcohol.4746     CastorOil.  )   Colorless  to  pale  yellow  clear  liquid   98.  @  50.0025  mm  Hg  @  5   Vapour  Density   3.00  max.00  to  +2.00  mm  Hg   247.2.   1.819   Flash  Point   71oC  (closed  cup)     Glycerine     Synonyms:  Glycerol.  1.00   -­‐28.  Insoluble  in  chloroform   Specific  Gravity/Density   1.0542   Physical  State   Liquid   Appearance   Clear   Odor   Faint  odour   Vapour  Pressure   .00  %   0.88900  @  25.  Glyceritol.00  °C.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Appearance     Assay   Specific  Gravity   Optical  Rotation   Melting  Point   Boiling  Point   Boiling  Point   Acid  Value   Shelf  Life   Flash  Point  (  oF.87900  -­‐  0.

  N-­‐ undecoic  acid.  creamy.  Rosy   184.4°F).   undecylic   acid.  1-­‐decane  carboxylic  acid.  coconut  odour   Solid.3°F)   Appearance   Colourless  crystals     Undecylenic  Acid       CAS  Number   Chemical  Formula   Auto-­‐Ignition  Temperature   Flash  Points   Physical  state  and  appearance   Odour   Molecular  Weight   Colour   Boiling  Point   Melting  Point   Specific  Gravity   Decomposition  Temperature       Synonyms:   10-­‐Hendecenoic.   N-­‐undecylic  acid.  230    235oC.  (Low  Melting  Point  Solid.  Open  Cup:   160°C  (320°F)   Solid  (low  melting  point  solid)   Fruity.5°C  (76.@   130  mm  Hg.62  g/mole   Decomposes   CastorOil.333°C  (200°F)   Molecular  Weight   186.   undecoic   acid.5°C  (83.   10-­‐Undecylenic   acid.)   232  -­‐235oC.   10-­‐Henedecenoic   acid.  hendecanoic  acid.28  g/mole   Yellow.   24.  N-­‐undecanoic   acid     CAS  Number   112-­‐37-­‐8   Chemical  Formula   C11-­‐H22-­‐O2   Appearance   Colourless  to  light  yellow  liquid  or  solid   Odour   Waxy.  (Light.4°F)   Melting  Point   28.  Above   28.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   hendecanoic   acid.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 74   Undecanoic  Acid     Synonyms:   1-­‐decanecarboxylic   acid.@  182  mm  Hg.3  g/mole   Boiling  Point   228°C  (442.   Undecyl-­‐10-­‐enic   acid   112-­‐38-­‐9   C11-­‐H20-­‐O2   275°C  (527°F)   Closed  Cup:  148°C  (298.9072  (Water  =  1)   275°C  (527°F)  @  760  mm  Hg   Calcium  Undecylenate     CAS  Number   Chemical  Formula   Physical  state  and  appearance   Molecular  Weight   Melting  Point   1322-­‐14-­‐1   C22H38O4Ca   Solid   406.1°F)   0.5oC  it  is  a  colorless  to  slightly  yellow   Physical  State  and  Appearance   liquid)   Flash  Points   Closed  Cup:  >93.

4       CastorOil.1%  Upper:  10%   Products  of  Combustion   Carbon  oxides  (CO.  Oenanthic  acid.  600  kg/m3   Insoluble   Beige  pellets  with  characteristic  odor   >482oF   Approx.  Faint  Tallow-­‐like   Molecular  Weight   130.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report   75   Zinc  Undecylenate     Synonyms  -­‐  Zinc  diundec-­‐10-­‐enoate.  Oenanthylic  acid     CAS  Number   111-­‐14-­‐8   Chemical  Formula   CH3-­‐(CH2)5-­‐COOH   Flammability  of  the  Product   May  be  combustible  at  high  temperature   Auto-­‐Ignition  Temperature   289°C  (552.   log(oil/water)  =  2.  824.  Enanthylic  acid.  Heptylic  acid.  n-­‐   Heptoic   acid.  Undecylenic  acid  zinc  salt     CAS  Number   Chemical  Formula   Physical  state  and  appearance   Molecular  Weight     557-­‐08-­‐4   C22H38O4Zn   Solid   431.19  g/mole   Colour   Clear   pH  (1%  soln/water)   Acidic   Boiling  Point   222.6   Approx.6°F)   Flammable  Limits   Lower:  1.5°C  (18.2°F)   Flash  Points   Closed  Cup:  >112°C  (233.92  (Water  =  1)   Vapour  Density   4.   Water/Oil  Dist.  Coeff.00oF   Heptanoic  Acid     Synonym:  1-­‐Hexanecarboxylic  acid.5°F)   Specific  Gravity   0.  n-­‐Heptylic  acid.  Rancid.  Enanthic  acid.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .2°C  (432°F)   Melting  Point   -­‐7.92  g/mole   Zinc  Ricinoleate     Zinc  Ricinoleate   Melting  Point   pH   Specific  Gravity   Solubility  in  Water   Appearance  &  Odour   Flash  Point   Auto  Ignition  Temperature     13040-­‐19-­‐2   160oF   6.  CO2)   Physical  State  and  Appearance   Liquid  (Oily  liquid)   Odour   Disagreeable.49  (Air  =  1)   The  product  is  more  soluble  in  oil.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 76   SUMMARY       Unique  properties  of  castor  oil  make  it  versatile  industrial  oil  with  varied  applications.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     CastorOil.

  The   price   in   US$   is   made   even  more  volatile  due  to  the  volatility  of  the  Indian  Re.4       HIGHLIGHTS       Castor  oil  prices  are  highly  volatile.3   Castor  Oil  Futures  Market    4.       There   is   a   wide   intra   and   inter   seasonal   price   variation.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  against  the  US  $.         CastorOil.1   Castor  Oil  and  Castor  Seed  Price  Volatility    4.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 77   4    Castor  Oil  Prices     This  chapter  comprises  the  following  topics     Historical  &  Current  Price  Data  for  Castor  Oil.     There  is  a  price  variation  of  about  30%  between  planting  and  harvesting  seasons.  Castor  Seeds    4.2   Factors  that  Affect  Prices    4.

 against  the  US  $.   It   increased  by  over  30%  between  June  2007  and  June  2008.  There  is  invariably  a  minimum  quantity  of  this   commodity  that  is  consumed  annually  by  advanced  countries  irrespective  of  price.     Usually.     Castor  Seed     Average  Prices  for  Castor  Seeds                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (all  prices  in  US$.   Castor   Seeds     Castor  oil  prices  are  highly  volatile.1   Historical   &   Current   Price   Data   for   Various   Grades   of   Castor   Oil.  the  prices  of  castor  seeds  firm  up  during  the  planting  period  that  is  Jul    Aug  due  to   lesser   availability.  An  example  of  volatility  is  seen  in  seed  prices     There  is  a  wide  intra  and  inter  seasonal  price  variation.   demand  for  castor  oil  is  price  inelastic.     Factors  to  watch  out  for  regarding  castor  oil  prices:     Production  constant  since  2-­‐3  years   World  demand  for  castor  oil  is  increasing  @  3-­‐5  %  per  annum   Export  demand  expected  to  increase  significantly  in  future     Some  other  points  to  note  about  castor  oil  prices:     It   is   generally   believed   that   being   a   versatile   industrial   oil   with   varied   applications.   prices   have   fluctuated   in   a   wide   range   between   a   low   of   $650  a  ton  and  the  present  high  of  $  1.  The  price  in  US$  is  made  even  more   volatile  due  to  the  volatility  of  the  Indian  Re.500  a  ton.  There  is  a  price  variation  of  about  30%  between  planting  and  harvesting   seasons.   It   eases   down   during   the   harvesting   period   (Jan     Feb)   as   a   result   of   increase  in  supply.   Between   2006   and   2009.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 78   4.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  FOB  Mumbai)   Year   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008  (Jan  -­‐  June)   2008  (Jun    Dec)                                2009  (Jan  -­‐  Jun)   2009  (June    Dec)     Prices  -­‐  $  /  MT   400   410   350   475   575   675   515   589   CastorOil.     The   price   increase   of   castor   seeds   has   been   quite   dramatic   since   the   middle   of   2007.

in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .5   695   731   804.5   819   889   812   Castor  Seed  Price  (Average)       Castor  Oil     Castor  Oil  Prices  (average  price  for  commercial  grade)    US$/T.  NCDEX)     79       Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec   Note:  1  US$=  45  Rs.     2006   318   325   336   325   316   317   342   344   368   391   404   398   2007   434   449   462   486   473   470   481   479   477   478   497   513   2008   511   546   594   580   580   612   699   707   698   662   651   637   2009   524   487   489   519   539   532   543   574   592   592   639       648       2010   629   627   640   663.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Monthwise  Castor  Seed  Price  (Average)                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (US$/T.  FOB  Mumbai     Year   Price   2002   675   2003   925   2004   850   2005   925   CastorOil.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 2006   2007   2008  (Feb)   2008  (June)   2009  (Jan)   2009  (June)   2010  (Jan)     Monthwise  Castor  Oil  Price  (Average)                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (US$/T.  MCX)   Month   2006   2007   2008   2009   Jan   692   950   1077   1050   Feb   695   975   1161   1055   Mar   723   1005   1282   1038   Apr   711   1045   1288   1091   May   695   1011   1299   1115   Jun   697   991   1355   1104   Jul   737   1015   1471   1123   Aug   761   1021   1527   1195   Sep   804   1022   1501   1253   Oct   867   1025   1421   1250   Nov   909   1071   1413   1344   Dec   896   1092   1378   1390                                        Note:  1  US$=  Rs  45     80   775   1025   1160   1350   1050   1104   1330   2010   1330   1314   1367                       Castor  Oil  Price  (Average)         CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .

 suppliers  say  there  is  much  less  demand.2   3   Weekly   7.   In  spite  of  these  low  prices.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  FOB  India   Product   Castor  seed   Castor  oil   Castor  cake   500   1050   65   Price     It  can  be  observed  that  there  is  a  dramatic  reduction  in  prices  across  all  the  castor  products.  In  spite  of   such  a  sharp  increase.     Jan  2009     The  data  for  average  prices  in  Jan  2009  tell  an  entirely  different  story.  A  look  at  the  average  prices  below  will   tell  the  story.                                                                                                                                                                                              All  prices  in  US  $  /  Metric  Ton.  castor  seed  prices  were  quoting  at  US  $   575-­‐600  per  MT).  industry  professionals  and  traders  have  said  that  the  demand  had  not   decreased  considerably.  FOB  India   Product   Castor  seed   Castor  oil   Castor  cake   Price   700   1500   110     These   prices   were   20%   higher   than   the   already   high   prices   existing   in   May   2008   (in   the   middle  of  May  2008.2  Castor  Oil  &  Castor  Seed  Price  Volatility     Monthly  Price  Volatility  of  Castor  Seed  and  Oil  in  Mumbai  Market  (based  on  data  between   2000  and  2006)     Monthly  Var  %   0-­‐2  months   2-­‐5  months   5  &  above  months   Castor  seed   24  %   43  %   35  %   Castor  Oil   25  %   40  %   35  %     Maximum  Variation  in  Mumbai  Markets  in  %  Terms     Period   Castor  Seed   Castor  Oil   Daily   3.  Castor  Oil  &  Castor  Cake  Prices  in  Jul/Aug  2008  and  Jan  2009     do  later       Jul/Aug  2008     All  castor  products  hit  a  record  high  in  Jul/Aug  2008.     4.8   7.                                                                                                                                                                    All  prices  in  US  $  /  Metric  Ton.2   Monthly   16   15   CastorOil.  primarily  because  of   the  global  economic  downturn.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 81   A  Snapshot  of  Castor  Seed.

  exporters   and   industries   which   produce   value   added   derivatives   face   an   eternal   price   risk   due   to   fluctuating   production.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .           Rationale  for  the  Castor  Seed  Contract     Some  of  the  main  reasons  for  introducing  the  futures  contract  in  castor  seed  are:     Fluctuating   production   of   castor   seed   in   India:   There   is   significant   fluctuation   in   the   production   of   castor   seeds   in   India.  production  in  India  and  Rotterdam  prices  in  Europe.   Hence   it   is   imperative   to   introduce   a   hedging   mechanism  for  efficient  price  discovery  and  price  dessimation.  An  analysis  of  spot  prices  for  the   past  few  years  clearly  indicates  that  the  commodity  price  is  volatile.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 82   Pricing  Pattern     The  price  of  castor  seed  is  influenced  by  climatic  conditions.         Volatile   commodity:   Market   research   done   by   NCDEX   shows   that   the   Annualized   Price   Volatility  is  15%.   CastorOil.   The   market   participants   like   the   farmers.   oil   millers.  prices  of  castor  oil  in  the  world   trade.   traders.

2   and   1.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 83     Wide  usage  of   castor  products:   Castor  oil  and  its  derivatives  are  used  as   raw  materials   in   many  industries  like  Paint.     Importance  of  Castor  Seed  and  Castor  Oil  Futures     The  following  points  underscore  the  importance  of  futures  trading  in  castor  seed  and  castor   oil     Uncontrolled  and  uncertain  supply   Fluctuating  and  uncertain  demand   Wide  and  unforeseen  price  variation   Wide  intra  and  inter  seasonal  price  variation   Homogenous  nature  and  well-­‐defined  grades   Long  storing  period   Well-­‐developed  and  organized  spot  market     4.  Hence  a  genuine  hedging  tool  needs  to   be  put  forth  for  the  castor  industry.  Hence.  Hence  the  need  for  an  effective  market  intelligence  platform.  Hence.   there  is  counter  party  risk.  Any  negative  fluctuations  in  the   price  of  the  raw  material  may  erode  their  profits.  there  is  a  need   for  futures  contract  to  hedge  their  price  risk.  Pharmaceutical  etc.  Lubricant.     More  than  80%  of  production  is  exported:  India  exports  nearly  80%  of  its  production  and  is   highly  vulnerable  to  the  world  prices  set  by  other  trading  countries.1  million  tons  during  the  same  period.   India's   production   ranged   between  0.     Recent  developments  of  artificial  substitutes    development  of  substitutes  for   castor   oil   has   subjected   the   demand   to   fluctuate   in   the   world   market   (especially  Lesquerella  fendleri)   Long  storing  period  &  hoarding  -­‐   It  is  a  common  practice  for  the  castor  seed   growers  and  crushers  to  hoard  the  commodity  before  selling  in  expectation   for  better  prices.   so  that  farmers  take  informed  decisions.3  Factors  that  Affect  Prices     Characteristics  of  Castor  Seed  and  Oil  Market         Uncertain  supply  -­‐   The  world  castor  seed  production  has  fluctuated  between   1.   These   intermediaries   prevent   efficient   price   discovery   and   price   dissemination  for  the  farmer.  default  and  quality  issues.8   million   tons   since   1997   to   2001.  Textile.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  They  form  a  large  part  of   the  variable  cost  for  the  production  of  the  above  products.  an  efficient  hedging  mechanism  is   essential  to  combat  the  price  risk.     Large   number   of   market   participants:   There   are   many   intermediaries   in   the   castor   distribution   chain.   Well-­‐developed  and  organized  spot  market  in  India     CastorOil.8  and  1.     Limited  hedging  options:  Due  to  lack  of  transparency  in  the  unorganized  forward  markets.

    Castor  Oil  Futures  Contract  Specifications  on  the  MCX  (Multi  Commodity  Exchange.   Floods   and   drought   in   major   castor   growing   states   such   as   Gujarat   and   Andhra  Pradesh  had  also  adversely  affected  the  crop  in  some  years  (eg:  2006)     4.  Chinese  and  Brazilian  crop  sizes   Comparative  prices  of  other  vegetable  oils  in  the  Indian  and  global  markets   The  castor  seed  price  tends  to  firm  up  during  the  planting  period  and  eases   down   during   the   harvesting   period.  the  Government  of  India  has  removed  all  restriction  on  futures  trading  in   almost   all   commodities   under   the   Forward   Contracts   Regulation   Act   (FCRA).Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report   Market  Influencing  Factors  in  Castor  Trade     84       The   following   factors   influence   castor   oil   prices.   Prices   tend   to   show   significant   inter-­‐ seasonal  variations   Castor   seed   growers   and   crushers   hoard   the   commodity   before   selling   in   expectation  of  better  prices.  there   has   been  a  vibrant  futures  trading  in  castor  seed  and  oil.   export   volumes   and   overall   castor   trading:     Crop  development  based  on  monsoon  progress  in  key  growing  regions   Domestic   demand   for   castor   oil   from   the   major   Indian   cities   &   export   demand  of  castor  oil     Variations   in   castor   seed   domestic   acreage   worldwide   and   specifically   in   India.  based  on  yield  and  price  realization   Indian.  Since  then.   farmers   had   shifted   from   castor   thus   reducing   the   total   area  under  castor.   and   this   includes  agricultural  commodities  such  as  castor  seed  and  castor  oil.  due  to  better  price  realization  in   cotton   and   pulses.  India)     Trading  Unit   1  MT   Quotation  /  Base  Value   Rs  /  10  Kg   Maximum  Order  Size   50  MT   Tick  Size  (Min  Price  Movement)   10  paise  per  10  Kg   Daily  Price  Limits   3%   Price  Quotes   Ex  Kandla   For  a  client  20000  MT   For  a  member  collectively  for  all  clients    25%  of   the  open  position  of  the  market  @  any  point  of   Max  Allowable  Open  Position   time   Delivery     Delivery  Unit   10  MT  (with  tolerance  limit  of  250  Kg)   Delivery  Centers   Kandla   Quality  Specifications     CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   During  some  years  (as  it  happened  in  2006).4  Castor  Oil  Futures  Market     A  few  years  back.

in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report Appearance  @  25%  C   Odour   Lovibond  Tintometer  /  AOCS  CC  13B-­‐45   Free  Fatty  Acid  (AOCS  CA  5A-­‐40)   Hydroxyl  Value  (AOCS  CD  13  -­‐6)   Moisture  and  Volatile  Values  (AOCS  CA  2C   -­‐25)   Insoluble  Impurities  (AOCS  CA  3  -­‐46)   Ricinoleic  Acid  Content  (ISO  5508  &  5509)   Density  @  30  C  (ISO  6883  1995  CORR.  Visnagar   Quality  Specifications     Gujarat  small  castorseeds  packed  in  75  Kg   bags.   1/1996)   Clear  and  free  from  suspended  matters   Slight   20  yellow  maximum  /  2  red  maximum   1%  max   160-­‐168   0.  Palanpur.  straw  or  chaff  including  castor  husk   /  pod  maximum  %  by  weight  is  specified  and   Foreign  matter  and  impurities   checked       CastorOil.  Pathan.47    1.02%  max   85%  minimum   0.  Acceptable  (45-­‐47%)   Stones.  Disa.954-­‐0.474   0.  India)     Trading  Unit   10  T   Quotation  /  Base  Value   20  kg   Maximum  Order  Size   500  MT   Tick  Size  (Min  Price  Movement)   10  paise   Daily  Price  Limits   3%   For  a  client  20000  MT   For  a  member  collectively  for  all  clients    25%  of   the  open  position  of  the  market  @  any  point  of   Price  Quotes   time   Max  Allowable  Open  Position     Delivery     Delivery  Unit   10  MT  (+/-­‐  1%)   Delivery  Period  Margin   25%   Delivery  Centers   Babhar.952  minimum   Completely  without  turbidity  in  2  volumes  of   specially  denatured  alcohol  formula  3A  (95%)   280oC  minimum   82-­‐90   1.25%  max   0.  earth.96   Negative   85   Solubility  in  alcohol  @  20oC   Flash  Point   Iodine  Value   RI  @  40oC   Specific  Gravity  @  30  C   Test  for  presence  of  other  oils     Castor  Seed  Futures  Contract  Specifications  on  the  MCX  (Multi  Commodity  Exchange.  Delivery  samples  will  have  to  certified   by  the  Exchange  designated  quality  surveyor     Oil  content  (on  clean  seed  basis)   Min  47%.

    However.   long  storing  periods  &  hoarding  are  the  main   reasons  for  the   price  fluctuations.         CastorOil.  there  is  invariably  a  minimum  quantity  of  this   commodity  that  is  consumed  annually  by  advanced  countries.   in   castor   seed   &   castor   oil   the   flows   of   demand   and   production   are   not   synchronized.   storing   it   and   delivering   it   in   future.    In  spite  of  these  factors.  one  would  ordinarily  expect  to  see  an  upward  trend  in  prices  as  contract  months  go   further  out.   As   a   result.   Stored   inventories   absorb   demand   fluctuations   in   periods   between   production  times.  Backwardation  is  a  condition  in  which  spot  price  is  higher  than  futures  or   the  futures  price  is  lower  in  the  distant  delivery  months  than  in  the  near  delivery  months.  futures  markets  compensate  an  individual   for   the   cost   of   purchasing   a   commodity   today.  Such  a  condition  is  known  as  Contango  and  is  typical  of  many  futures  markets.  India     Cash  v/s  Futures  Prices  Relationship:  In  general.         SUMMARY       The   castor   oil   market   price   experiences   significant   volatility.  There  is  a  likelihood  of  shortage  in  the  physical  market  and  peak  arrival   months  in  the  future.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 86   Notes  from  MCX.   recent   development  of  substitutes.   Uncertain   oil   supply.  This  may  cause  the  spot  price  to  rise  above  the  futures  price  between   production  times.

6   Yields  for  Castor  Seeds  and  Castor  Oil  from  Seed    5.1   Castor  Crop  Sowing  -­‐  5.2   Castor  Crop  Growth    5.   with   slightly   acidic   conditions.5   Hybrid  Castor  Seeds  &  Genetic  Engineering  of  Castor  Plant    5.3   Castor  Crop  Harvest    5.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .4   Castor  Cultivation  Seasons    5.  GAUCH-­‐4.     The  minimum  rainfall  needed  by  the  castor  crop  is  38-­‐50  cm  (15-­‐20  in.7   Castor  Cultivation  FAQ    5.   and  TMVCH.8       HIGHLIGHTS       The   most   suitable   soils   for   castor   are   deep.       CastorOil.)     Some  of  the  high  yielding  castor  varieties  used  in  India  are  NPH-­‐1  (Aruna).Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 87   5  -­‐  Castor  Cultivation     This  chapter  comprises  the  following  topics     Introduction    5.     The  fertilizer  dose  recommended  for  castor  is  40  N-­‐40  P-­‐20  K  kg/ha.  well  drained.  sandy  loams.   moderately   fertile.

5 1.  green  that  turns  to  brown  on  ripening.  or  black.  In  general  castor  genotypes  cannot  tolerate   CastorOil.  it  is  equally  successful  in  light  and  heavy  loams  of  other  states.2  Castor  Crop  Sowing     Soil     Castor  does  well  in  the  soil  which  is  not  fit  for  valuable  commercial  and  food  crops.  is  3-­‐celled  with  a  short  style  and  3  stigmas.     spiny.5   cm   long.   Its   ovary  is  superior.   beetle-­‐ shaped  seeds  contain  powerful  allergens.   and   in   shape   the   outer   patterns  vary  from  veined  or  finely  dotted  to  large  splotches.  Its  flowers  are  numerous  in   long  inflorescences.   carunculate.  People  who  work  with  the  off-­‐white  meal  ground   from  castor  beans  may  develop  allergic  reactions.     5.  the  crop  is  not  planted  on  a  large  scale.5 15   cm  in  diameter.  gray.  such  as  hives  or  asthma.   Its   leaves   are   alternate.   vari-­‐color   with   base   color  white.  about  10  ft  tall  in  the  tropics.   The   shiny.  there's  another   compelling   reason   why   this   crop   has   fallen   out   of   favor   with   growers.  it  usually  behaves  as  an  annual  in  the  temperate   regions.  well  drained.  Though  it  is  a  perennial.1  to  6.  Petals  are   absent   in   both   sexes.       The   most   suitable   soils   for   castor   are   deep.  While  castor  prefers  deep  sandy  loam  soil  with  a  pH   of  around  6.  provided  they  are  fairly  deep  and  well  drained.  a  toxin  present  in  the  seed  coat.  The  main  reason   for  this  is  the  ricin.1  Introduction  to  Castor  Crop     The  castor  plant  is  a  coarse  perennial.  brownish.   Its   stamens   are   numerous.  with  male  flowers  at  the  base  and  female  flowers  at  the  tips.   sepals   number   3 5.5  (neutral)     In  India.  The  red  sandy  loams   and   shallow   light   textured   black   soils   of   Andhra   Pradesh   state.   and   the   plant   is   herbaceous.  with  the  stem  7.   Its   stems   are   succulent.   tick-­‐like   and   shiny.  sandy  loams.     The  recommended  soil  pH  requirements  are:   6.  as  they  favour  excessive   vegetative  growth  at  the  expense  of  seed  yield.     Heavy  clays.  with  6 11  toothed  lobes.  including  the  US.  and  palmately  compound.  The  seeds   are   ovoid.  with  poor  drainage.  It  can  be   grown  on  a  wide  range  of  soils.   They   are   0.  brown.   in   many   parts   of   the   western  world.5  (mildly  acidic)   6.  The  fruit  usually  contains  3  seeds.   5 10   mm   long.   the   pattern   varying   from   fine   to   coarse.  The  outer  patterns  on  the  fruit  are   gray   or   brown   to   black.   orbicular.   moderately   fertile.  and  marshy  soils  are  unsuitable.   with   slightly   acidic   conditions.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 88   5.  red.   Karnataka   state   and   deep/medium  sandly  loams  of  North  Gujarat  state  and  Rajasthan  state  are  the  principal  soil   types  on  which  castor  is  currently  grown.     While   castor   is   an   important   crop   known   for   its   versatility   of   uses.6  to  7.  yellow.  Besides  the  ricin  toxin.  it  can  be  cultivated  on  soils  with  pH  range  of  5  -­‐  8.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .

  Sow  in  such  dates  /  periods  as  to  avoid  wet  weather  in  2nd  half  of  the  crops  life.     For  an  increased  production  of  seeds.     For  good  growth.     For   unmechanized   societies   that   prefer   larger   varieties.   hence.       Land  Preparation     The  land   is  repeatedly  ploughed  in  summer.     It  does  not  require  fine  tilth.   avoid   such   problematic   soils.     In  clay  loams  only  harrowing  is  done  by  blade  harrows  two  to  three  times  to  bring  the  soil  to   proper   tilth.     CastorOil.  but  for  germination  it  requires  adequate  moisture  for  a  longer   period  in  seed  bed.  In  India  it  is  rotated  with  groundnuts.  as  and  when  the  rains  are  received.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 89   alkalinity   or   salinity.  preferably  to  a  depth  of  15-­‐20  cm.  tobacco  or  horsegram.  It  is  also  a  common  practice  on  light  soil   areas  to  plough  the  land  once  in  summer  months.   dryland  chillies.  and  then  thinned  to  one  plant.  and  should   not  follow  small  grains  or  another  castor  crop.  both  pre-­‐  and  post-­‐emergence.   For   annual   varieties   the   seedbed   must   be   weed   free   as   young   plants   are   delicate.  or  at  the  end  of  the  rainy  season  in  the  late  September  and  early  October.   It   is   highly   intolerant   of   water-­‐ logging  and  requires  free  draining  soils.  and  with   the  onset  of  monsoon  rains  the  clods  are  crushed  by  working  a  country  plough  or  harrow  to   bring  the  soil  into  proper  tilth.     After  the  seedbed  has  been  deeply  cultivated.   deep   ploughing   is   especially   advantageous   to   break   the   compact  layers  in  sub  soil.     Castor   bean   seeds   for   planting   must   be   healthy.  2 4  seeds  per  hole.   In   laterite   soils.     Deep  ploughing  is  found  to  be  advantageous  in  many  regions  of  India  as  this  practice  helps   in  absorption  and  conservation  of  more  rain  water.   vigorous.  cotton.  with  a  seed-­‐drill  or  by  hand-­‐dibbling.  castor  requires  a  well  pulverised  seed  bed  with  loose  subsoil  upto  45  cm   depth.  and  about  50  cm  apart  within  rows  (some  varieties  can  be   planted  just  25  cm  apart).     The  seed  is  sown  either  in  the  plough  furrow.   Good  weed  control  is  essential.     Sowing     Castor  bean  is  usually  planted  at  the  start  of  the  rainy  season  during  the  latter  part  of  May   and  early  June.   seeds   are   planted   60   by   90   cm   apart.  followed  by  harrowing  once  or  twice  with   the  receipt  of  pre-­‐monsoon  rains.5  cm  deep  in  rows  1  m  apart.   hardy   and   come   from   prolific   mother  plants.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  castor  should  be  planted  on  fallow  land.  seeds  in  mechanized  countries  are  planted  4 7.

).   especially   extreme   changes   in   rainfall   distribution.  apply  16-­‐20-­‐0  at  the  rate  of  250  grams  per  hill.  40 50  kg/ha  of   P2O5  is  recommended.  In  India   89  kg/ha  of  nitrogen  gives  the  highest  yields.  Leaves.     Nitrogen  Recommendations  for  Castor  Beans     Soil  Organic  Matter      %   Nitrogen  Application  Rate  lb/acre   <  2   100   2 4.     Rainfall     The   castor   plant   is   a   tropical/sub-­‐tropical   species   and   grows   in   areas   of   low   rainfall.  being  a  deep  rooted  crop.  a  rainfall  of  50-­‐60  cm  is  considered  optimum  for  producing  good  yields  on   red  loams.     Water     Castor.     Please  note  however  that  unbalanced  nitrogen  application  encourages  growth  of  foliage  at   the  expense  of  flower  and  seed  formation.  Thirty  days  after  the  plant  emerges.   Continuous   rains   prior   to   CastorOil.  Where  phosphorus  is  deficient.  Just  before  flowering.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 90   5.     In   India   satisfactory   yields   have   been   obtained   on   sandy   soils   receiving   a   rainfall   of   30-­‐50   cm.   It   is   sensitive   to   extreme   climatic   changes.     Castor  bean  needs  plenty  of  nitrogen  especially  during  its  early  development.     Castor  can  withstand  long  dry  spells  as  well  as  heavy  rains  but  is  highly  susceptible  to  water   logged   conditions.  There   should   not   be   heavy   and   continuous   rains   during   flowering.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  apply  125  grams  of  nitrogenous  fertilizer  (45-­‐0-­‐ 0)  per  hill.600   hills   requires   complete   fertilizer   (14-­‐14-­‐14)   at   planting   time   at   the   rate   of   30   grams   per  hill.  So  45 135  kg/ha  of  nitrogen  is  added  in  split  applications  in   some  areas.  using  the  varieties  with  capacity  for  extremely  quick  root  growth.   The  minimum  rainfall  needed  by  the  castor  crop  is  38-­‐50  cm  (15-­‐20  in.   The   ideal   pattern   of   rainfall   distribution   for   optimum   growth   will   be   approximately  10  cm  in  each  month  evenly  distributed  during  the  crop  growth  period.  stalks  and  seed  hulls  are  disked  into  the  field  following  harvest.  In  the  Indian  state  of   Andhra  Pradesh.  is  fairly  resistant  to  drought.  A  hectare  with   1.3  Castor  Crop  Growth     Fertilizers     The  fertilizer  dose  recommended  for  castor  is  40  N-­‐40  P-­‐20  K  kg/ha.9   80   5 10   60   >  10   40     Castor  exhausts  the  soil  quickly.

    Crop  Protection     Diseases   seldom   do   much   damage     though   leaf   spot   (Cercospora   reicinella).  final  irrigation  should  be  3 4  weeks  before  harvest.     Normally.  results  in  the  blasting  of  flowers  and  poor  seed  set.   The   plant   also   grows   in   temperatures   of   26.24  feet)  above  the  sea  level.   Defoliation  due  to  hail  prior  to  flowering  will  have  little  effect  on  final  yield.  only  the  southern  part  is  potentially  suitable  for  castor  production.   and  makes  the  seed  more  liable  to  attack  by  fungal  diseases  and  insects.     Climate     Castor  is  essentially  a  warm  season  crop.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .400   cu   m   of   water  is  applied  during  the  3  months  between  flowering  and  harvest.     A   low   temperature   (less  than   15oC)   in   the   seed  bed   prolongs   the   emergence   of   seedlings.   Temperatures   above   41oC.     Hail   storms   do   considerable   damage   to   the   crop   especially   during   the   seedling   stage.5   -­‐   6   months)   and   low   atmospheric   humidity   to   achieve   good   yields.   but   adoption   of   sub-­‐ irrigation  has  been  found  to  reduce  weed  problems.  irrigation  commences  after  plants  have  6 8  leaves.  In  Europe.  Over-­‐irrigation  on  heavy  soils   should  be  avoided.  subtropical  and  temperate   regions.   Its   cultivation   is   largely   confined   to   countries   lying   between   400N   and   400S   latitudes.  its  cultivation  is  restricted  to  altitudes  of  500  m.     Irrigation     The   crop   must   have   sufficient   moisture   during   its   growing   period.   Rust   (Melampsora  oricini)  and  Alternaria  Leaf  spot  may  occur.   over   4.   The   regions   in   which   castor   may   be   grown   as   a   commercial   crop  are  restricted  by  this  lack  of   frost  tolerant  types  and  the  need  for   high  temperatures   (optimum   20   -­‐   25C.     The  crop  grows  best  at  an  elevation  of  460  meters  (140.   The  effect  is  more  marked  if  it  coincides  with  moisture  stress.  In  India   it  is  being  cultivated  up  to  an  attitude  of  2500m.  It  grows  in  tropical  and  subtropical  regions  as  a  perennial  plant  and  in  temperate   climate  as  an  annual  plant.   In   Brazil   2.     A   frost   free   growing   period   of   140-­‐190   days   depending   on   variety   is   highly   essential   for   obtaining   satisfactory   yields.  with  about  400  cu  m   being   applied   at   15   day   intervals.6oC.     A   moderate   temperature   of   20-­‐26oC   is   highly   favourable   during   crop   period   for   obtaining   higher   yields.  but  in  regions  where  frosts  are  common   during  the  crop  season.   Furrow   irrigation   is   preferred.   cultivated  in  tropical.7-­‐40.  even  for  a  relatively  short  period.   CastorOil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 91   planting  are  also  not  desirable  as  it  will  lower  the  soil  temperature  effecting  the  germination   and  increase  the  fungal  diseases.  but  hail  storm   during  flowering  and  capsule  formation  will  cause  considerable  damage  to  the  final  yield.

  Green   stinkbugs.  lygus  bugs.     Pests  that  are  Harmful  to  Castor  Plant     Several   insects   are   pests   for   castor   crop.   This   is   one   reason  why   winter   is   the  most  ideal  season  for  taking  up  hybrid  certified  seed  production.     Harrowing   is   generally   carried   out   when   plants   have   between   2   and   5   leaves   in   order   to   improve  chemical  weed  control.  green  stink   bugs.   leaf-­‐hoppers.   and   the   Castor   semilooper   (Achoea   janata)  is  a  pest  too.  various  larvae.  Sucking  pests  cause  damage  by  puncturing.     Most  of  these  insects  may  be  controlled  by  insecticides.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  and  low  temperatures  are   most   conducive   for   production   of   female   flowers.  and  the  more  serious  pests:  capsid  bugs.   Due   to   lack   of   selectivity.  Pruning  castor  plants  is   necessary   for   them   to   grow   more   productive   branches.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 92   The  seedling  blight  and  Alternaria  blight  cause  serious  losses  to  this  crop.   both   products   are   usually   applied  by  farmers  before  sowing.     Castor  Growth    Other  Points     Defoliation  speeds  up  maturity  and  makes  the  harvest  easier.  The  sowing  of  the   crop   in  low-­‐lying  and  water-­‐logged  areas  should  be  avoided  to  prevent  the  seedling  blight   from  appearing.   including  grasshoppers.  Helopeltis.  In  Tanganyika.1%  Carbaryl  on  the  crop  will  give  an  effective  control  on  these  pests.   The   most   troublesome  fungus  for  castor  in  Europe  is  thought  to  be  Alternaria  ricini.     In   Africa   there   is   a   great   variety   of   pests.   In   India   the   Capsule   borer   (Dichocrocis   punctiferalis)   bores   into   young   and   ripening   capsules.   Up   to   50   species   of   insect   can   damage   castor.     Some  pre-­‐emergence  herbicides  may  be  suitable  for  weed  control  but  subsequent  measures   will  also  be  likely  required.   Start   pruning   2-­‐3   months   after  the  plants  sprout  or  when  it  is  already  one  foot  high.     Weed  Control     Weed  control  for  castor  crop  is  based  on  a  pre-­‐sowing  application  of  trifluraline  and  a  pre-­‐ emergence   application   of   linuron.  Dusting  BHC  10%  in  early  stages  or   spraying  0.     CastorOil.   High   temperatures   coupled   with   humidity   provide  an  ideal  climate  for  producing  more  male  flowers.  rather  than  actual   sucking.   leaf-­‐miners   and   grasshoppers  are  pests  that  feed  on  the  leaves.   Whether   these   would   also   be   a   problem   in   Europe   is   unknown.   climatic   conditions   prevailing   in   a   season   has   profound   influence   on   sex   expression.  the  damage  by  capsid  and  myrid  bugs  is  a  limiting  factor   causing   immature   fruits   to   drop.     In   case   of   seed   production   of   castor.

    In   the   tropics   most   harvesting   is   by   hand.   When   one   or   two   capsules   in   a   bunch   show   signs   of   drying.       When  the  whole  crop  is  gathered.       Harvesting  may  be  done  by  hand  methods  or  be  completely  mechanized.   Unless   the   capsules  are  dry.  as  and  when  they  ripen.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 93   5.  they  must  be  spread  out  to  dry  quickly.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  About   90%   of   the   husks   are   removed   by   the   combine   harvester.  Growth  &  Harvest  Stages  for  the  Castor  Crop  -­‐  India     State   Guj   AP     Jun   Sow     Jul   Sow   Sow   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec   Harv   Jan   Harv   Harv   Feb   Harv   Harv   Mar     Harv   Grow   Grow   Grow   Grow   Sow   Grow   Grow   Grow   Grow   World  Castor  Seed  Harvest  Seasons     Country   India   China   Brazil   Paraguay   Main  Harvest  Season   Dec  -­‐  Mar   Sep  -­‐  Jan   May    Sep   May      Sep   CastorOil.  Winnowing  is  done  in  the  usual  manner.   or   into   containers   strapped   on   the   workers.   the   capsules   stripped   off   into   a   wagon   or   sled.   Although   such   a   system   avoids   an   additional   cost.  Improvement  of  the  harvester  is  currently  going  on   but  an  increase  of  the  crop  area  should  be  necessary  to  reduce  costs.   the   spikes   are   cut   or   broken   off.   the   whole   cluster   is   generally   removed   and   stacked.4  Castor  Crop  Harvest     The  first  harvest  is  on  the  6th  month  and  every  other  month  thereon.  It   is  preferable  to  collect  the  fruits.     The   improved   varieties   mature   in   about   150   to   180   days.   covered   and   weighed   in   a   corner   of   the   field   or   in   a   pit.  it  is  dried  in  the  sun  for  a  few  days  and  the  threshing  is   done  either  by  beating  the  dried  capsules  with  a  stick  or  by  treading  them  under  the  feet  of   bullocks.5  Castor  Cultivation  Seasons     Sowing.     5.   the   cost   of   the   harvester   modification   remains   too   high   and  harvesting  capacity  too  low.     Harvesting  -­‐  Additional  Points     A  new  system  for  dehusking  the  seeds  during  harvesting  has  been  designed.   The   harvesting   of   unripe   capsules   in   this   manner  has  an  adverse  effect  on  the  oil  content  of  the  seed  and  hence  should  be  avoided.

 red  hairy  caterpillar.   R.  desirable  branching  type.       New   sources   of   disease   and   pest   resistance   and   tolerance   to   stress   environments   are   in   constant   demand   by   the   breeders.   However.  with  the  expectation  of   Cassara   and   Herea   brasiliensis.   GAUCH-­‐1.   the   first   hybrid   castor.   GCH-­‐3   was   developed.   has   made  them  vulnerable  to  a  number  of  biotic  and  abiotic  stresses.  non-­‐shattering  capsules  and  seeds  with  higher  oil  content.6  Hybrid  Castor  Seeds  &  Genetic  Engineering  of  Castor  Plant     Genetic   improvement   of   castor   has   mostly   been   confined   to   the   exploitation   of   naturally   occurring  genetic  variability  available  in  the  base  population  and  limited  to  selection  for  high   yield.   Breeders   have   to   resort   to   alternative   approaches   like   mutations.   techniques   for   tissue   culture   and   gene   transfer  in  castor  as  well  as  other   Euphorbiaceous  plants.  jassids.  duplications  etc.   communis   is   the   lone   species   encompassing   the   many   polymorphic   types   known   in   the   world   (Weiss   1983).  Diseases.   wide   (intergeneric)   hybridization  and  biotechnology  for  the  creation  of  genetic  variability   and  incorporation  of   desired  traits  into  castor.   are   less   advanced.  All  the  castor  varities  that  have  been  investigated   cytologically  are  diploids  with  a  2n  number  of  20  and  is  reported  to  be  a  secondary  balanced   polyploidy  with  a  basic  number  of  x  =  5  (singh  1976).   VP-­‐1   which   is   based   on   TSP-­‐10R.   mutation   technique   using   radiations   could   not   be   exploited  for  the  development  of  genotypes  resistant/tolerant  to  biotic  stresses.  The  importance  of  induced  mutatuions   in  castor  is  well  demonstrated  in  the  development  of  productive  semi-­‐dwarfs  with  high  yield   potential   an   early   maturity   and   identification   of   variants   for   sex   expression   (Kulkarni   and   Ankineedu   1966   et   al.   gave   new   impetus   to   hybrid   castor   development   programmes   and   resulted   in   the   release   of   three   hybrids.   without   proper   scientific   management   and   crop   rotation.   1968).  root   rot.   and   insects   such   as   semilooper..   Ricinus   is   considered   to   be   a   monotypic   genus   and   R.   inversions.   extensive   cultivation   of   the   varities   and   hybrids   under   high   inputs.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 94     5.   capsule  borer.  The  great  variability  within  the  single   species   of   this   genus   has   not   been   correlated   with   any   observable   cytological   differences.   However.   aimed   at   producing   mutatnts   with   specifically   required   characters.  cause   considerable   damage  to  castor.   Subsequently   the   development   of   andigenous   pistillate   line.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   R.   In   most   of   the   studies   various   neutron-­‐induced   morphological   abnormalities   have  been  described  (Shivraj  and  Ramanarao  1963).     Success   in   breeding   of   castor   with   yield   stability   is   thus   limited   by   a   lack   of   exploitable   genetic   variability   for   productivity   traits   and   sources   for   resistance   to   diseases   and   pests.   The   introduction   of   foreign   genes   by   genetic   CastorOil.  such  as  wilt.   Several   of   these   types   were   designated   as   species   (R.  rather  than  to  change  in  the  whole  chromosome  complement   (Perry  1943).  spodoptera  litura.   seedling   blight.   GCH-­‐2   and   GCH-­‐4.  Based  on  the  exotic  pistillate  line  TSP-­‐10R  (Classen  and   Hoffman   1950).   macrocarpus.  The  effect  of  irradiation  on  castor  seed  and  seedlings  has  been  the   subject   of   a   number   of   studies.   microcarpus)   but   they   are   intercrossable   and   fertile   and   are   not   true   species  as  usually  defined  in  other  plants.  white  fly.   botrytis   grey   rot.communis.   However.   Mass   selection   and   pedigree   methods   have   been   largely   employed   for   developing   genotypes  with  desirable  attributes.   bacterial   blight.     Intensive   studies   on   plant   regeneration   and   transformation   have   led   to   the   production   of   transgenic   plants   in   many   crop   plants.

 RHC-­‐1     CH-­‐1       DCH-­‐32  (Deepti)     DCH-­‐177  (Deepak)     GCH-­‐4.  TMV-­‐ 5.  DCH  519     M  574  x  DCS  78   *   Castor   hybrid   recommended   for   cultivation   in   Tamil   Nadu   is   TMVCH   by   Oilseeds   Research   Station   of   the   Tamil  Nadu  Agricultural  University  (TNAU)  Tindivanam.   reliable   and   applicable   to   a   broad   range   of   genetypes...  Jwala.  Bhagya.   Source:  Indian  Agricultural  Research  Institute.  TMV-­‐2.  1986.  2008.  GCH-­‐7  and  (SKP  84  x   Gujarat     GCH  7   SKI  215   TMV-­‐1.   1987).  Reddy  et  al.  TMV-­‐4.  GCH-­‐2.  Girija         Pb.  It  is  moderately  susceptible  to  semilooper  pest  and  moderately  resistant  to  wilt  and  grey  mould.   regeneration   of   plants   from   callus   cultures   of   castor   has   been   problematic.   As  a  result  of  intensive  hybridization   and  selection  programme   research  center.  TMV-­‐3.  the  following  castor  hybrids  /  varieties  have  been  developed  and  released   for  commercial  cultivation  in  Gujarat  State.   CastorOil.   and  the  plantlets  had  poor  survival  in  the  soil  (Athma  and  Reddy  1983.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 95   engineering   techniques   requires   an   efficient   in   vitro   regeneration   system   for   the   desired   plant   species.  Its  seeds  contain   51.  Jyothi.  Sujatha   et  al.  SA-­‐1.  VI-­‐9.  This  hybrid  matures  in  160-­‐170  days.   Kranti  (PCS-­‐4).   Genyu   1988.  T-­‐3.       Castor  Varities  in  India       The  varities  of  castor  recommended  for  different  states  of  India  are:     State   Variety   Hybrid   Aruna.  No.       Uttar  Pradesh     Kalpi-­‐6.   Such   a   system   must   be   rapid.  kiran  (PCS-­‐136).  GCH-­‐3.   CO-­‐1     Jwala  (48-­‐1).   However.       Gujarat  is  the  largest  castor  seed  production  in  India..  S-­‐20.  2005)  but  lack  of  a  reliable  system  of  regeneration  in  castor  is  a  major  bottleneck  for   parasexual   hybridization   between   the   two   economically   important   genera.  GCH-­‐5.  GCH-­‐6.   GAUC-­‐1.  sowbhagya.7%  oil.  J-­‐1and   SHB-­‐145.  Jyothi     AKC-­‐1.  There  are  only  a  few  reports  of  plantlet  differentiation  in  castor  and  in  most  of   the   cases   regenerated   plantlets   were   obtaine   from   apical   meristems   and   shoot   tip   callus.  SA-­‐2.  Sujatha  and  Mukta  1996.  DCS-­‐9   (Jyothi).  T-­‐4       CH-­‐1.   This   review   presets   the   progress   and   future   prospects   of   tissue   culture   and   genetic   transformation   in   castor.   Efficient   protocols   of   plant   regeneration   have   been   developed  for  jatropha  species  (Sujatha  and  Dhingra  1993.   Sangduen   et   al.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  RC-­‐8.   Andhra  Pradesh   Haritha  (PCS-­‐124).1     Tamil  Nadu     Karnataka     Maharashtra     Rajasthan     Haryana     Punjab     For  all  states     For  entire  country     Gujarat  castor-­‐2     DCH  519   TNAUCH-­‐1  and  TMVCG*     GCH-­‐6     GCH-­‐6.

    II.     IV.  S-­‐20.  VP-­‐1  x  J1-­‐35  in  Gujarat  state.  GCH  -­‐  3     After   the   introduction   of   female   line   TSP-­‐10-­‐R   from   USA.  It  has  green  stem  with  reddish  tinch.  GAUC-­‐1     It   was   developed   by   selection   from   S-­‐20.   double   bloom.30%  higher   yields  over  GAUCH-­‐1  and  GCH-­‐2.  It  possesses  green  stem.   a   number   of   inbred   lines   were   isolated   from   local   materials   from   which  a  promising  inbred  line.   triple   bloom   and   flat   leaf   and   it   is   highly   suitable  for  irrigated  condition.  had  the  shattering  characteristic.     VII.     VI.  triple  bloom.   VBH-­‐44   (VP-­‐1   x   VI-­‐9)   was   found   superior   to   GCH-­‐3.4%   higher   yield.   it   was   utilized   extensively   in   hybridization  programme.  It  was  released  as  first  castor  hybrid  in  the   state  for  general  cultivation  in  1968.  It  was  tested  as  SHB  18  and  released  as   GCH-­‐4  for  general  cultivation  in  1985.  respectively.  GC-­‐2     The   variety   was   developed   from   the   cross   "1-­‐21   x   VI-­‐9"   following   selection.  It.  however.  with  16%  higher  yield   over  GCH-­‐3  and  non-­‐shattering  habit.  J-­‐1     By   intensive   selection.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   it   was   utilized   extensively   in   hybridization   programme  for  developing  superior  hybrids.  It  is  resistant  to  wilt  and  gives  13.   a   local   variety.   This   variety   possesses   Jassids   and   wilt   tolerance   and   early   maturity.  It  was  released  for  general  cultivation  in  Gujarat  in  1973.   flat   leaves  and  early  maturity.  Among  a  number   of  single  crosses  made  and   tested.   It   possesses   mahogany   stem.  As  a  result  first  castor  hybrid  GCH-­‐3  (TSP-­‐10-­‐R  x  JI-­‐15)  was  found   to  give  88  per  cent  higher  yield  than  local  variety.   It   has   green   stem.     III.       V.   It   was   released   for   general   cultivation  as  GAUCH-­‐1  in  1973.  GCH-­‐4     It  involves  VP-­‐1  as  female  and  48-­‐1  as  male  parent.  It  has  shown  superiority  over   GAUCH-­‐1  by  way  of  giving  13%  more  seed  yield  and  was  released  for  general  cultivation  in   1984.  GAUCH-­‐1     After   development   of   female   line   VP-­‐1.  This  hybrid  was  released  as  a  national  hybrid   in   the   year   1987.  GCH-­‐2     It  was  developed  from  a  cross.   which   showed   superiority   over   improved   variety   J-­‐1   by   yielding   23.  JI-­‐44  was  released  as  J-­‐1  in  1968  which  gave  11%  higher  yield   than  local  variety.   On   the   basis   of   results   of   CastorOil.25  and  9.  possesses  triple  bloom  and  tolerance  to  root  rot.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 96     I.

  the   variety   was   released   at   national   level   in   1994.  SHB  765.   16.     Development  of  Promising  Inbred  Lines  and  Hybrids3       With  a  view  to  develop  new  inbred  lines.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 97   coordinated   trials.  It  is  resistant  to  root  rot  and   tolerant  to  wilt.   2 http://www.58%  and  14.  225.  intensive  and  extensive  hybridization  programme   was  undertaken.291.  227.     X.   108.  SHB  754.  237.   19.  218.283.  215.  and  JHB  665.   VP-­‐1.  263.   A  new  pistillate  line  Geeta  has  been  developed  from  the  male  parent  of  castor  hybrid  GCH-­‐ 4.  double  and   three  way  crosses.  294.   Out   of   these.  JHB  887.  244.   13.113   and   114   appear   to   be   promising  in  respect  of  resistance  to  wilt  disease  as  well  as  these  lines  possess  sex  stability.72.edu.   Another   pistillate   line   JP-­‐65   having   NES   mechanism   has   been   developed  at  Junagadh.   258.   which   is   resistant   to   wilt.   It   has   showed   15%   yield  superiority  over  check  variety.   84.   SKP-­‐4.  Gujarat.  273.  303.  202  269   232.sdau.314.   used   as   female   in   most   of   the   presently   cultivated   hybrids   and   it   is   being   used   in   all   castor   growing   states   of   India   for   developing   hybrids   and   also   for   the   development   of   pistillate  lines.  160.  As  a  result.  SHB   725  .  256.  SHB  758.   42.  while  the  most  promising  hybrids  are  SHB  706.  It  gives  11.   VIII.  through  single.  and  JI-­‐122.   106.  GCH-­‐5     In   involves   Geeta   as   a   female   and   SH-­‐72   as   a   male   parent.  217.  JHB  905   and   JHB   921.13%  higher  yield   than  GCH-­‐4  under  irrigated  and  rainfed  situation.  280.   The  most  promising  inbred  lines  are  SKI-­‐80.  As  a  part  of  development  of  new  pistillate  lines.  India.  314.  SHB  795.  220.  GCH-­‐7     A  high  yielding  wilt  complex  resistant  hybrid  has  recently  been  identified.   Many   of   these   lines   are   resistance   to   wilt.  GAUC-­‐1.  267.   It   is   resistant   to   wilt   and   it   showed   13%   yield   superiority   over   GCH-­‐4.in/ CastorOil.  JHB  888.   23.   6.  319  and  320.in/ 3 http://www.  This  is  one  of  the  most  versatile  pistillate   line.   root-­‐rot.     Development  of  Pistillate  Lines 2     The   research   center   has   developed   a   versatile   pistillate   line   of   castor.  90.  266.112.  321  inbred  lines  have  been  isolated  from  segregating  materials.  GCH-­‐6     It  involves  JP  65  as  female  and  JI  96  as  pollinator.  106.  306.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .edu.  JHB  882.sdau.  147.   reniform   nematode   and   nematode-­‐wilt  complex.     IX.   The   hybrid   has   been   released  for  irrigated  and  medium  condition  at  national  level  in  1995  and  for  Gujarat  state   in  1997.285.  respectively.   It   was   tested   as   SHB-­‐145.  a  number  of  new  pistillate  lines  are  developed  such  as  SKP-­‐1  to  SKP-­‐117.  271.   which   is   derivative  of  (TSP-­‐10-­‐R  x  J-­‐1)  F2  x  (JP-­‐5  x  26006)  F2.  102.

    Major  Germplasm  Collections  of  Castor  (Ricinus  communis  L.   Additional   castor   germplasm   can   be   obtained   from   public   breeders   in   South   America   including   Brazil   and   Columbia.  National  Bureau  of  Plant  Genetic   Resources  (NBPGR)   National  Dryland  Farming  Research  Station.  KARl   Accessions   Reported   360   199   528   200   1.C.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 98     International  Germplasm  Center     A  search  of  International   Germplasm  collections   on  the  Bioversity  web  site  combined  with   the   USDA-­‐ARS   castor   germplasm   at   Griffin.   Kenya   and   the   former   USSR.   China.  2008)     Country   Brazil   Brazil   Brazil   Brazil   China   China   Ethiopia   India   Kenya   Kenya   Collection  Agency   CENERGEN/EMBRAPA   Centro  Nacional  de  Pesquisa  de  Algodao  (CNPA)   Ernpresa  Baiana  de  Desenvolvimento  Agricola  S.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .)   Institute  of  Crop  Science  (CAAS)   Institute  of  Oil  Crops  Research  (CAAS)   Biodiversity  Conservation  and  Research  Institute   Region  Station  Akola.  Kenya   National  Genehank  of  Kenya.)  as  Listed  by  the  Bioversity   International  Directory  (October  14.652   232   290    -­‐   43    -­‐   423   69   43   255   364       Romania   Agricultural  Research  Station  Teleorman   Russia   Serbia   Serbia   Ukraine   United   States   World     N.  Crop  Plant  Genetic   Resources  Centre.689   1.   Extensive   germplasm   collections   are   held   in   Brazil.I.   but   availability   of   these   germplasm   resources   is   not   known.   India.   The   feral   castor   can   be   a   valuable   source   of   germplasm   especially   for   adaptation   to   localized   diseases.  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture   CastorOil.  Vavilov  All-­‐Russian  Scientific  Research  Institute  of   Plant  Industry   Maize  Research  Institute   Institute  of  Field  and  Vegetable  Crops   institute  for  Oil  Crops   USDA-­‐ARS-­‐PGRCU   39  Institutes   Source:  National  Agriculture  Library.   Ethiopia.A.   GA   (USA)   identified   12   major   sources   of   germplasm   and   a   total   of   6.   Instituto  Agronomico  de  Campinas  (l.A.588   accessions.   pests   and   environmental  conditions.

  This   hybrid   matures   in   160-­‐170   days.7%   oil.   One   of   the   aspects   usually   considered   while   discussing   grades   and   varieties   is   the   location  where  the  castor  seed  was  grown  and  harvested.  on  the  other  hand.  Baker  No.   The  Brazilian  is  another  common  variety.   Bangkok   brown  spotted  type  is  generally  adapted  to  the  Philippine  conditions.  II23  and  UC53   India   Tamil  Nadu  Research  Centre  for  TMV  5  &  TMV  6   Andhra  Pradesh  for  Kranti  Kiran  and  Jyothi   Brazil  -­‐  EMBRAPA     CastorOil.   Its   seeds   contain   51.83-­‐2.   Other  castor  bean  varieties  include  Cimaron.  has  few  small  chestnut   white  spots  scatted  on  its  bask  side.   Whereas   the   castor-­‐oil   plant   traditionally   reaches   three   meters   in   height.   the   plant   has   also   been   bred   to   mature   at   a  shorter   height.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  colour  of  the  stem  and   branches  (red  and  green).44  meters  (6-­‐8  feet)   high  depending  on  the  soil  type.5  centimeters   (1   inch)   in   diameter.  The  stalks  are  dark  brown.   Some  of  the  high  yielding  castor  varieties  used  in  India  are  NPH-­‐1  (Aruna).   A   castor   hybrid   specifically   recommended   for   cultivation   in   Tamil   Nadu   is   TMVCH.   there   are   now   varieties   that   grow   to   just   1.   This  variety  has  an  oil  content  of  49.   An   early   maturing   variety   with   49   per   cent   oil   content   is   Ethiopian.   Bangkok   variety   has   two   types   -­‐   Bangkok   brown  &   Bangkok   white.83-­‐2.   The   Lamao   Red   variety   grows   1.   It   is   moderately   susceptible  to  semilooper  pest  and  moderately  resistant  to  wilt  and  grey  mould.54  cm  (1-­‐4  inches).   making   mechanised   harvest   difficult.  The  allowable  moisture  content  is  6   per  cent.   Its   red   seed  is  big  with  small  white  dots  on  both  sides.  the  nature  of  capsules  (smooth  or  shiny).1.  It  grows  1.  GAUCH-­‐4.   More   information   is   available   with   the   state-­‐run   Brazilian   Enterprise   for   Agricultural   Research  (EMBRAPA)  (May  2008)   A  list  of  hybrid  seed  developments  from  across  the  world:   South  Africa  -­‐  Varieties  Baker  44.  2.  Its  seed   has  few  small  chestnut  light  on  its  back  side  and  large  spots  on  the  abdominal   side.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 99   Castor  Seed  Varieties  &  Hybrids  -­‐  Salient  Points     Castor   beans   are   graded   based   on   moisture   content.   while   internodes   measure   10-­‐20   cm   (4-­‐8   inches)   long.  reddish  brown  from  the   base  to  the  tip.  Baker  195  and  the   Iranian  variety.   The  varieties  of  castor  differ  in  the  branching  habits  of  plant.  and  amount  of  foreign  material.   The   stalks   is   more  than  an  inch  in  diameter  at  the  middle  portion.   and  TMVCH.   In   Brazil.  with  internodes  measuring  2.  Bangkok  white  spotted  type.  Baker  22.  Connex.  duration  (early   or  late)  and  the  size  of  seed.3  per  cent.7   meters.44   meters   (6-­‐8   feet)   tall.   percentage   of   cracked   and   broken  seeds.     The   most   commonly   traded   varieties   in   India   are   Gujarat   small   seed   and   Andhra  Pradesh  big  seed   The   Gujarat   seed   has   oil   content   up   to   48-­‐50%   which   is   more   than   that   for   the  Andhra  variety.

  scientists   and   researchers   are   confident   that   with   the   availability  of  molecular-­‐breeding  tools.     Disadvantages  of  annual  varieties:  Pest  susceptibility     Castor  Genetic  Engineering    Salient  Points     While  experiments  with  producing  genetically  modified  castor  plants  and  seeds  are   in   their   early   stages.   scientists  are  trying  to  determine  which  steps  in  the  pathway  lead  to  accumulation  of   ricinoleate   in   the   oil.  there  is  a  possibility  for  developing  castor  as   a   reasonably   safe   crop.   To   aid   in   development   of   transgenic   substitutes   for   castor.   which   transfers   oleate   from   oleoyl-­‐CoA   into   the   sn-­‐2   position   of   phosphatidylcholine   (PC)   for   hydroxylation.  antisense  gene  technology  has  been  successful  in   reducing  expression  of  specific  proteins  by  greater  than  99%.   some   scientists   have   developed   methods   to   genetically   transform   castor.   which   preferentially   removes   ricinoleate   from   the   sn-­‐2   position   and   releases   lyso-­‐PC   for   re-­‐incorporation   of   oleate   by   LPCAT.  which  are  genes  that  make  nonsense  copies   of  the  authentic  ricin  or  allergen  genes.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   seeds   seldom   shatter   and   have   uniform  hull  strength  and  thickness.   (ii)   oleoyl-­‐12-­‐hydroxylase.org/bst/028/0972/0280972.   (iv)   diacylglycerolacyltransferase  (DAGAT)  preferentially  incorporates  ricinoleate  to  form   diricinoleins   and   triricinolein.   CastorOil.   Transgenic  plants  expressing  the  gene  for  the  enzyme  Oleoyl-­‐12-­‐hydroxylase  -­‐   which   is   directly   responsible   for   synthesis   of   ricinoleate   -­‐   produce   limited   amounts   of   hydroxy   fatty   acid.   which   hydroxylates   the   sn-­‐2   oleate   to   form   sn-­‐2   ricinoleoyl-­‐PC   for   hydrolysis.pdf  )   Scientists  are  also  aiming  to  build  and  insert  slightly  different  versions  of  genes  into   the   castor   plant.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 100   Some  Short  Term  (annual)  Varieties  Tested  in  East  Africa     Variety   II23   UC53   Baker  44   Baker  22   Lynn   Time  To  Maturity   7-­‐10  Months   7-­‐10  Months   5-­‐7  Months   5-­‐7  Months   5-­‐7  Months     Advantages   of   annual   varieties:   Higher   yield   potential.   For   example.biochemsoctrans.  For  example.   (iii)   phospholipase   A#.   This   and   other   techniques   have   allowed   scientists   to   identify   other   enzyme   activities   from   castor   that   lead   to   the   high   level   of   ricinoleate   in   its   seed   oil.   to   block   the   action   of   the   ricin   and   allergen   genes.   According   to   one   research   study.   and   the   implementation   of   some   of   the   molecular-­‐ breeding   approaches   could   provide   significant   reduction   of   harmful   components   present  in  the  crop.   they  want  to  construct  antisense  genes.   scientists   are   making   efforts   to   find   suitable   substitutes   for   the   castor   plant   that   do   not   have     (Reference:   http://www.   To   this   end.   the   steps   leading   to   high   production   of   ricinoleate  and  incorporation  into  triacylglycerol  include:  (i)  lyso-­‐phosphatidylcholine   acyltransferase   (LPCAT).   Using   process   insights   such   as   these.

 McKeon  did  the  work  at  the  ARS  Western  Regional   Research   Center   in   Albany   along   with   research   chemist   Jiann-­‐Tsyh   Lin   and   ARS   research  associate  and  molecular  biologist  Xiaohua  He.   are   being   engineered   to   contain   the   gene   required   to   produce   hydroxyleic   acid.  its  ricinoleate.  and  should  prove  to  be  a  useful  tool  in  following  the  movement   of  labelled  fatty  acids  through  lipid  pools.   McKeon   and   Chen   used   marker   genes   to   determine  whether  their  tactics  for  shuttling  new  genes  into  plants  actually  worked.   Calif.  resulting  in  a  fatty  acid  with  numerous  chemical  uses.   both   in   the   Crop   Improvement   and   Utilization   Research   Unit.  Over  the  near   term  the  acreage  of  traditional  crops  will  continue  to  dwarf  that  of  new  crops.  The  glycol  lipid  oleoyloxyethyl  phosphocholine  is  an  effective  inhibitor  of   hydroxylase  activity.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  administrators  and  researchers  are  considering  the  large-­‐scale   reintroduction  of  castor    this  is  largely  driven  by  a  desire  to  replace  the   significant   annual   importation   of   castor   oil   with   a   reliable.  California   and   colleague   Grace   Q.   such   as   sunflower   or   rape-­‐seed.  for  example.   ARS  research  chemist  Thomas  A.   which   can   be   an   environmental   hazard.   cost-­‐effective.   Chen.   The   researchers'   probing   has   revealed.  The  hydroxylase  introduces  the  mid-­‐chain   hydroxyl  group.  compared  to  genetically  engineer  a  corn  plant  or  a   soybean  plant  to  make  epoxy  oil.  known   as  epoxy.   (a   2001   report.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 101   Epoxy   Oil   from   Castor?   -­‐   Genetic   engineering   might   someday   be   used   to   tweak    oil-­‐producing  mechanism  so  that  it  could  yield  another  valuable  oil.gov/is/AR/archive/jan01/plant0101.   are   some   of   the   first   in   the   world   to   genetically   engineer   castor   plants.   Scientists   with   the   Agricultural   Research   Service   (ARS)   in   Albany.   Other   aspects   that   have   been   identified   while   researching   genetic   modification   for   castor   seeds   -­‐   Oleoyl-­‐12-­‐hydroxylase   is   the   enzyme   responsible   for   ricinoleate   biosynthesis  in  castor  (Ricinus  communis).htm  )   Castor   plants   are   gradually   revealing   the   secrets   of   how   they   make   this   prized   substance.  for  the  first  time.   Now   the   scientists   want   to   give   the   plants   other   genes   -­‐   ones   that   could.  The  modification  that's  needed  to  cue  the  castor  plant  to  make  epoxy   oil  instead  of  castor  oil  is  minor.   In   preliminary   experiments.  An  epoxy-­‐based  paint.  because  the  chemical  structure  of  epoxy  oil  is  very  similar  to  that   of  castor  oil.  Failing  reintroduction  of  castor.   yet   does   not   give   off   certain   volatile   chemicals   that   pollute   the   atmosphere.  efforts  are  afoot  to  so  that  crops  that   produce   high   levels   of   oleic   acid.   are   delving   into   the   mostly-­‐mysterious   mechanisms.ars.  URL:  http://www.   Thomas  A.   That's   unlike   the   solvents   in   oil-­‐based   paints.   (based  on  a  Dec  2005  report)   In  the  United  States.  In  the   CastorOil.  the  starring  role  that  a  gene  called  RcDGAT  may  play  in   directing  the  castor  plant  to  put  the  oil's  most  important  component.  McKeon  of  ARS'  Western  Regional  Research  Center  in  Albany.  Other  factors   involved  in  the  high  level  of  ricinoleate  production  by  castor  are  the  steady  increase   in   hydroxylase   activity   throughout   development   and   the   decline   in   oleoyl   desaturase.  The  scientists  right  now  are   continuing   to   slip   the   newly   identified   gene   into   yeasts   in   laboratory   experiments   that   will   determine   more   about   how   to   harness   RcDGAT's   oil-­‐making   prowess.   thereby   yielding  the  desired   ricinoleic  acid  in  an  established  agronomic  crop..   domestic   supply   of   ricinoleic  acid.  offers  all  the  advantages  of  a  premium.   Some   scientists   think   that   production   of   epoxy   oil   by   castor   plants  is  possible.usda.   among   other   things.  because  the  oils  that  those  plants  make  are  very   unlike  epoxy  oil.   oil-­‐based   paint.   block   production   of   ricin   poison   and   the   powerful   allergens.

 2002)   -­‐   The   French   chemicals   group   Atofina.   seed   yields   of   6000   Kg   /   hectare  have  been  recorded.   CastorOil.  FDL  has  supplied  castor  oil   to  Atofina  for  many  years  predominantly  from  India  but  also  from  Brazil  and  China.     Under   exceptional   circumstances   in   the   state   of   Gujarat   in   India.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     FAO  Data  for  castor  seed  yields  (2006)     India:  973  Kg  /  hectare   China:  960  Kg  /  hectare     Brazil:  671  Kg  /  hectare     Castor  Oil  Yield     The  Indian  variety  of  castor  has  48%  oil  content   of  which  42%  can  be  extracted.  (Fuerst  Day  Lawson  (FDL)   press  release.  date  not  published)   Commercial   production   of   transgenic   canola   containing   15%   ricinoleic   acid   is   currently  under  way.   and   500   kg/ha   without   adequate   moisture.  Average  Indian  yields  are  about  1000  kg/ha.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 102   long-­‐term.     5.  the  major  producer  of  the  Bahia  state.   is   negotiating   with   the   Brazilian   Embrapa   (Empresa   Brasileira   de   Pesquisa   Agropecuaria)   and   with   EBDA   (Empresa   Baiana   de   Desenvolvimento   Agricola)   the   introduction   of   new   genetic   varieties   of   castor   oil   plant  in  Irece.   Some   improved   open-­‐pollinated   varieties   in   Brazil   yield   1.  These  hybrid  seeds  have  been  shipped  to  China  and  plantation  studies  have   been   carried   out   across   various   regions   of   China   for   identification   of   the   most   successful  hybrids  for  Chinese  soil  and  climatic  conditions.   FDL   set   up   a   joint   venture   with   a   partner   in   China   to   encourage   experimentation.300   kg/ha.  while  the   cake  retains  the  rest.   Atofina  (now  Arkema)  to  introduce  genetic  varieties  of  castor-­‐oil  plant  (March.   FDL   America   for   the   development   of   high   yield   hybrid   seeds.000  kg/ha.  alternative  and  possibly  genetically  engineered  crops  can  make  important   contributions   in   the   industrial   and   agricultural   sectors if   they   can   compete   in   the   marketplace  with  traditional  crops.   with  exceptional  yields  up  to  5.  but  it  should  be  noted  that  these  yields  have  been  registered   only  for  some  limited  growth  areas.   Atofina  (now  Arkema)    FDL  Co-­‐operation  for  hybrid  castor  seeds  -­‐   FDL  has  set  up  a   castor   seed   joint   venture   project   with   Atofina   (now   Arkema)   in   China   to   try   to   and  reduce  the  raw  material  cost  of  castor  oil  for  Atofina.7  Yields  for  Castor  Seeds  and  Castor  Oil  from  Seed     Castor  Seed  Yield     Average   seed   yields   range   from   900 1000   kg/ha   under   irrigation.   research  and  development  of  castor  seed  planting  within  China  for  the  past  six  years.   and   has   utilised   their   knowledge  for  the  identification  of  suitable  hybrid  seeds  for  experimentation  within   China.

 based  on  observations.   except   in   cases   where   people   come   in   direct   contact  with  castor  meal.   there   have   not  been  any  significant  instances  of  intercropping  in  the  context  of  castor.     How  resistant  is  the  crop  to  salinity?     o The  castor  crop  can  grow  in  soils  with  a  reasonable  amount  of  salinity.  it  can   be  said  that  the  safety  precautions  taken  are  only  minimal.  Even  in  these  cases.  castor  has  primarily  been   used  as  an  annual  crop.   the   yield   decreases  significantly  over   the  years.8  Castor  Cultivation  FAQ     We  have  provided  brief  answers  to  some  frequently  asked  questions  related  to  castor  crop   cultivation.  farmers  use  the  castor  meal  as  a  fertilizer  and  in  these  cases   they  spread  the  meal  in  the  farms.  it   can  be  said  that  there  is  no  major  risk  for  the  person  using  the  castor  meal  as   a   fertilizer.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     Is  spreading  castor  meal  as  fertilizer  not  a  problem  to  those  who  spread  it?     o In  some  cases.     Is  harvesting  done  manually  or  is  it  automated?     o Most  harvesting  done  in  India  is  manual  in  nature.   though   it   is   advisable   to   wear   safety   gloves   and   any   other   protection  required  by  law.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 103     5.     Why  is  castor  an  annual  crop  while  it  is  actually  a  perennial?     o It   has   been   found   that   of   the   castor   crop   is   grown   as   a   perennial.  no  specific  safety   procedures   have   been   found.   While   crop   rotation   is   done   in   a   significant   manner.   CastorOil.     What   are   the   safety   laws   that   are   followed   in   the   castor   industry     especially   in   areas  where  people  come  in  contact  with  the  seeds  and/or  castor  meal?     o Based  on  observations  at  castor  farms  and  oil  mills  in  India.     Intercropping  of  castor  with  other  plants?     o Intercropping  refers  to  growing  more  than  one  crop  at  the  same  place  at  the   same   time.  As  a  result.  From  our  interactions  with  the  farmers.

 how  deep  should  we  sow?     o Castor  plant  can  be  raised  by  direct  sowing  or  by  planting  of  nursery  raised   seedlings.  seeds  are  planted  60   by  90  cm  apart.    In  direct  sowing.  if  any.  seeds  in  mechanized  countries   are  planted  4 7.  2 4  seeds  per  hole.     What  are  the  spacing  recommendations  for  sowing  castor?     o After  the  seedbed  has  been  deeply  cultivated.     CastorOil.   if   any.     Is  direct  sowing  preferred  for  castor?  If  yes.  Taiwan  etc.  and  about  50  cm  apart  within   rows  (some  varieties  can  be  planted  just  25  cm  apart).  From  our   interactions  and  discussions  with  the  castor  oil   industry  professionals.   it   can   be   stated   that   few.     o For  unmechanized  societies  that  prefer  larger  varieties.  the  seeds  are  usually  planted  in  a  row  with  a   depth  of  4-­‐7  cm.     How  is  soil  fertility  maintained?     o The   two   primary   activities   understaken   for   soil   fertility   are   the   use   of   fertilizers  &  crop  rotation     Is  there  a  danger  to  the  flora  and  fauna  in  the  region  owing  to  the  toxicity  of  castor   beans?     o Castor  beans  need  to  be  consumed  in  order  for  the  toxicity  to  affect  human   benigs  or  animals.in  has  had  with  vendors  in  the  last  few  years.     Is  organic  castor  oil  produced  anywhere?     o Based  on  interactions  CastorOil.  and  then  thinned  to  one  plant.  there  have  been  few.   companies   have   made   efforts   to   produce   organic  castor  oil.  Countries  that  use  castor  meal  as  fertilizer   in  a  significant  way  are  countries  such  as  Korea.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 104     What  are  the  fertilizers  commonly  used  for  castor  crop  cultivation?     o The  fertilizers  used  most  commonly  are  Diammonium  Phosphate  and  Urea.  cases  of  human  or  animal   mortality  owing  to  accidental  consumption  of  castor  beans.     Provide  more  details  on  castor  meal  as  fertilizer     o It  is  used  extensively  as  fertilizer.5  cm  deep  in  rows  1  m  apart.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .

  In   case   of   soil   moisture   deficiency   at   flowering   stage.  it  requires  only  about  half  the  amount  of  fertilizers   CastorOil.  and  pesticides  are  required  for   the  castor  crop  when  compared  to  other  energy  and  food  crops?     o Castor   crop   requires   significantly   less   inputs   than   many   other   energy   and   food  crops.  the  plant  is   used  as  an  annual  crop.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   it   has   been   observed  that  it  responds  very  well  to  irrigation.   can   extract   water   from   considerable   depth   in   the   soil.     o Furrow  irrigation  is  preferred.  water.  but  some  states  such  as  Gujarat  have  reported  yields  in  excess  of   5000   Kg/ha.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 105     What  are  the  recommendations  with  regard  to  water  management  and  irrigation   for  castor  cultivation?     o Castor   is   usually   grown   under   rainfed   conditions.   The   official   data   for   India   suggests   an   average   yield   of   about   1000  kg  of  seeds  per  hectare  per  year.  it  usually  behaves  as  an  annual  in  the  temperate  regions  and  its   seed  yield  decreases  significantly  after  the  first  year.  For  good  yields.      When  does  the  first  harvest  start  for  castor?     o The  first  harvest  is  on  the  6th  month  and  every  other  month  thereon.  but  adoption  of  sub-­‐irrigation  has  been  found   to  reduce  weed  problems.      What  is  the  average  oil  content  in  castor  seed?     o The  seeds  contain  about  48-­‐50  percent  oil  by  weight.  Castor.  wherever  possible   two   to   three   heavy   irrigations   may   be   given.   However.  Though  it  is  a   perennial.     What  are  the  average  seed  yields  from  the  castor  plant?     o Average  seed  yields  range  from  900 1000  kg/ha  per  annum   under  irrigated   conditions.  being  a  deep-­‐rooted   crop.      When  does  the  first  flowering  start  for  the  castor  plant?     o Flowering  starts  early  in  the  life  of  castor.  For  instance.     What  is  the  lifespan  of  the  castor  plant?     o For  all  commercial  purposes.   essentially   one   irrigation   may   be   provided.   Irrigation   may   thus  be  relatively  heavy  and  less  frequent.  As  a  result.  The  first  flowers  normally  open  40 70  days  after  sowing.   In   heavy  rainfall  areas  proper  drainage  is  essential.     To  what  extent  are  inputs  such  as  fertilizer.  castor  is  an  annual  plant.

 different  from  the  seeds   harvested?  If  yes.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 106   required   for   sunflower   (for   a   similar   area)   and   less   than   20%   of   fertilizers   required  for  crops  such  as  groundnuts  or  sorghum.       SUMMARY       Castor  does  well  in  the  soil  which  is  not  fit  for  valuable  commercial  and  food  crops.   though   higher  yields  have  been  reported.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  what  are  these  grades  and  what  are  the  prices?     o The   seeds   that   are   used   for   sowing   for   the   castor   crop   are   different.  However.   Average   seed   yields   range   from   900 1000   kg/ha   under   irrigation.  It  can  be   grown  on  a  wide  range  of  soils.   and   belong  to  the  high  yield  variety  (usually  hybrid  seeds).     CastorOil.  provided  they  are  fairly  deep  and  well  drained.   a   minimum   amount   of   water.   fertilizer   and   maintenance.   the   plant   requires.  to   produce   good   yield.     Are  the  seeds  used  for  sowing  of  special  grade/  variety.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 107   6  -­‐  Castor  Oil  End  Uses     This  chapter  comprises  the  following  topics     Current  End  Uses  for  Castor  Oil  and  Derivatives    6.   pharma.2.3   Future  Possible  End-­‐uses  and  End  User  Industries  for  Castor  Oil  and  Derivatives    6.  lubricants.  grease.   hydraulic   brake   fluids.   is   in   the   manufacture   of   polyamide   11   (Nylon   11).   surfactants.1.     Castor   oil   is   increasingly   finding   application   in   the   manufacture   of   polyurethane   foams.         CastorOil.  flypapers.   The   commercially   available   polyamide  made  from  castor  oil  is  Arkema's  (earlier  Atofina)  Rilsan   Nylon   11.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   rubber   chemicals.1.   outside   the   lubricants   markets.   paints.1.2.   perfumery   products.  The  polyurethane  is  produced  from  polyols  based  on  castor  oil.1   o End  Uses    by  Castor  Oil  Grade  /  Derivative    6.2   o Other  Possible  Future  Uses    6.2.1   o Castor  Oil  as  a  Feedstock  for  Biodiesel    6.   surface   coatings   and   inks.2   o Biopolymers  and  Castor  oil  -­‐  6.   telecom   &   engineering   plastics.   polymers.   polishes.2   o Use  of  Castor  Oil  in  High-­‐end  Derivatives    6.     The   world's   largest   single   use   of   castor   oil   in   one   product.     Companies  such  as  BASF  produce  plastics  from  renewable  resources  which  contains   about  60  per  cent  sebacic  acid    a  derivative  of  castor  oil.3       HIGHLIGHTS       Castor  oil  and  its  derivatives  today  find  major  application  in  soaps.1   o Castor  Oil  &  Castor  Oil  Derivatives  Uses    By  Industry    6.  and  cosmetic  derivatives.

1.1  Current  End  Uses  for  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives     Castor  oil's  application  range  is  very  wide.  soaps.   polishes.         6.  paints   and  lubricants  industries  consume  approximately  25000  T.   polyurethanes).  From  the  attractive  uses  such  as  cosmetics  to  the   areas  of  national  security  involving  engineering  plastics.   nylon   6-­‐10.  35000  T  and  25000  T  respectively.   flypapers.     Castor  oil  has  been  long  used  as  a  plasticizer  for  celluloid  and  in  lacquers  but  the  blown  oil   has  been  discovered  to  perform  better.   pharma.   in   addition   to   other   chemical   derivatives   and   medicinal.  Also  called  Sulfated  castor  oil  and  Turkey  Red   CastorOil.   perfumery   products.  inks.  paints  (varnishes  ).  of  the  total  consumption  of  about  85000  T  per  year.  bio-­‐degradable  and  eco-­‐ friendly.1  End  Uses    by  Castor  Oil  Grade  /  Derivative     Blown  Castor  Oil     Blown   castor   oil   is   a   potential   replacement   for   phthalates   and   is   used   primarily   as   a   plasticizer  for  lacquers.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 108   6.  hydraulic  fluids  and  leathers.   surface   coatings   and   inks.   surfactants.  jet  engine  lubricants  and  polymers   industry.   thus  making  it  perfect  for  bath  oil  products.  polymers  (basic  ingredient  in   the   production   of   nylon   11.   humectant   for   soap   products).   pharmaceutical  and  cosmetic  derivatives.     The  chemical  structure   of   castor  oil  affords  a  wide  range  of   reactions  to  the  oleochemical   industry  and  the  unique  chemicals  that  can  be  derived  from  it.  Some  of  these  derivatives  are   on   par   with   petrochemical   products   for   use   in   several   industrial   applications.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   they   are  considerably  superior  since  they  are  from  renewable  sources.   telecom   &   engineering   plastics   (polyamide   11).   rubber   chemicals.  hydraulic  brake  fluids.     Castor   oil   and   its   derivatives   today   find   major   application   in   soaps   (bind   ingredients   in   cosmetic   and   soap   formulas.     -­‐wise  Castor  Oil  Consumption  by  End-­‐use  Industry     Industry   Percentage   Soaps   30   Paints   40   Lubricants  &  Derivatives   30   Total   100   Source:  based  on  data  from  2005  to  2007.  grease.  adhesives.     Sulfonated  Castor  Oil     Sulfonated  castor  oil  is  castor  oil  that  has  been  treated  so  that  it  is  fully  dispersible  in  water.   In   fact.   lubricants   (jet   engine   lubricants).

  adhesives  and  inks.     BP  Grade  Castor  Oil     This  grade  is  used  in  pharmacy  &  medicinal  applications  in  Great  Britain     European  Pharmacopia  Grade     European   Pharmacopia   Grade   refers   to   the   castor   oil   specifications   as   laid   down   by   the   European  Pharmacopia  standards.   It   is   also   used   in   formulating   lubricants.   This  means  that  the  oil  will  combine  with  the  water  in  the  tub.   on   sulfonation   to   the   hydroxyl   group.   in   paper   industry   for   defoaming.   Typical   applications   include   use   in   making   urethane   coatings.     CastorOil.   As   such.     It  is  the  only  oil  that  will  completely  disperse  in  water.   it   is   an   active   wetting   agent   (a   chemical   agent   capable   of   reducing   the   surface   tension   of   a   liquid   in   which   it   is   dissolved).  softeners.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  in  paints.  and  dyeing  assistants.   long-­‐chain   alkyl   ricinoleates  produce  surface-­‐active  compounds.  the  ability  of  castor  oil   and   some   of   its   derivatives   to   wet   surfaces   make   them   useful   as   excellent   carriers   of   pigments  and  dyes.  for  instance.     Being   an   anionic   surfactant.     It   is   of   medium   viscosity   and   is   usually   used   in   bath   oil   recipes   along   with   fragrance   or   essential  oils.     Alternatives  to  sulfonated  castor  oil       Recent   research   has   shown   that.  This  grade  also  finds  use  in  urethane  blowing  and  urethane  molding.     For   instance.  This  grade  is  used  in  pharmacy  &  medicinal  applications   in  the  European  Union.   it   is   used   to   emulsify   essential   oils   so   that   they   will   dissolve   in   other   water-­‐ based  products  or  for  super-­‐fatting  liquid  soap  if  you  want  the  soap  to  remain  transparent.     Urethane  Grade  Castor  Oil     Urethane   Grade   Castor   Oil   is   a   refined   grade   of   castor   oil   for   specific   applications   that   require   minimum   moisture.  shows   the  best  surface-­‐active  behavior  and  seems  to  be  much  better  than  that  of  sulfonated  castor   oil.  in  pharmaceuticals  as  undecylenate.     Sulfonated   castor   oil   is   also   used   in   agriculture   as   organic   manure.  producing  a  milk  bath.  It  is  a  surfactant  and  therefore  makes   a  wonderful  base  for  bath  oil  as  it  mixes  well  with  water.  inks  and  in  lubricants.  Tetradecyl  ricinoleate.  Generally.  and  not  leave  those  little  oil   bubbles  floating  on  the  top  of  the  water.  or  in  shampoos.   it   is   used   extensively  in  dyeing  and  in  finishing  of  cotton  and  linen.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 109   Oil.   it   was   the   first   synthetic   detergent   after   ordinary   soap.

 coatings.     If   DCO   is   epoxidized.     DCO   can   be   converted   to   dehydrated   castor   fatty   acid   by   hydrolysis   and   distillation.  This  grade  is  hence  used  in   the  lubricant  industry  in  a  significant  manner.  appliance   finishes.   good   drying   properties.  It  is   the  grade  used  by  the  pharmaceutical  industry  in  the  USA.  the  resulting  product.  caulk  sealant.   Used  in  polymer  coating  applications     CastorOil.  enamels.   The   drying   oils   owe   their   value  as  raw  materials  for  decorative  and  protective  coatings  to  their  ability  to  polymerize   abrasion   resistance   films.  In   commercial  manufacture  of  dehydrated  castor  oil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   filtered   and   then   degummed   has   the   unique   lubricating   properties  of  castor  without  the  excessive  buildup  and  carbon.   the   product   can   be   evaluated   in   poly   (vinyl)   compounds   as   a   plasticizer/stabilizer  giving  rise  to  the  possibility  that  epoxidized  castor  oil  may  be  capable  of   replacing  epoxidized  soybean  oil.  enamels.   This   (dehydrated  castor  fatty  acid)  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  alkyd  resins.     First  Pressed  Degummed  Grade     Castor   oil   that   is   first   pressed.   The   advantages   claimed   in   surface   coating   applications   include   excellent   odor   and   heat   bleachability.     The  vulcanization  of  DCO  with  sulphur  has  been  reported:  factice.  has   been  found  to  be  a  rubber  additive  with  anti-­‐ozonant  and  good  flow  properties.   enamels.     Dehydrated  Castor  Oil     DCO  can  be  used  to  improve  the  quality  of  house  paints.       Ethoxylated  Castor  Oil     Ethoxylated  castor  oil  is  a  nonionic  surfactant  having  many  industrial  applications.   primers   and   inks.  and  lack  of  after-­‐yellowing.     By  far  the  most  important  coatings  use  of  castor  oil  is  in  the  form  of  dehydrated  castor.  the  aim  is  to  produce  the  most  valuable   material   for   use   as   a   drying   oil.     DCO  has  advantages  over  tung  oil  because  it  is  non-­‐yellowing.   Alkyd   resins   in   turn   are   used   for   paints.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 110   Castor  Oil  USP     Castor  Oil  USP  Grade  refers  to  the  castor  oil  prepared  in  conformity  with  the  USP  norms.   lacquers   and   varnishes  with  high  gloss.   Dehydrated   castor   oil   is   now   recognized   as   an   individual   drying   oil   with   its   own   characteristic   properties   and   advantages.  sealants  and  inks.  caulks.   more   uniform   polymer   structure.  good  adhesion  and  wetting  qualities.  and  making  varnishes.   It  is  used  as  primary  binder  for  house  paints.   This  oil  also  works  well  in  clear  varnishes  and  hard  finish  coatings.

 Sometimes.  hair  dressing.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 111   Used  in  the  wool  scouring  industry.   It   is   used  as   a   high   hydroxyl   castor   based   wax.  it  finds  use  in  cosmetics.  polishes.   pressure   mould   release   agent   in   the   manufacture   of   formed   plastics   and   rubber   goods.  but  it  is  soluble  in  hot  solvents.   improved   heat   stability   and   improved  dropping  points.  The  addition   of   12   HSA   enhances   the   overall   performance   with   better   texture.  as  it  is  an  excellent  cleaning  agent  for  grease  and   oil   Used  in  corrosion  lubricants     HCO     Hydrogenated   castor   oil   (HCO)   or   castor   wax   is   a   hard.   which  are  growing  to  be  the  largest  segment  of  the  grease  market.  In  addition.     When   reacted   with   an   ester.   as   a   wax  ingredient.   plastics   lubrication   and   as   a   raw   material   for   the   synthesis   of   more   complex   chemicals.   candles  and  crayons.  carbon  paper.   It   is   produced  by  adding  hydrogen  in  the  presence  of  a  nickel  catalyst.   12   HSA   provides   a   hard   finish   for   the   automotive   and   small   appliance  industries.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .PDF     12-­‐HSA     12   HSA   is   used   in   grease   manufacture.     Hydrogenation   of   castor   oil   accounts   for   the   largest  single   use   of   castor   oil   for   a   standard   commodity.     Hydrogenated  castor  oil  is  also  utilized  in  the  manufacture  of  waxes.  It  simplifies  the  grease  manufacturing  process  because  it  no  longer   requires  milling  and  homogenization  steps  that  were  normally  used  with  lithium  type  greases.   It   is   perfect   for   metal   drawing  lubricants  and  multipurpose  industrial  greases.  HCO  made  its  debut  in  greases  as  a  replacement  for   traditional  soap  thickeners.   It   is   this   insolubility   that   makes   HCO   valuable   to   the   lubricants   markets.  These  greases  have  excellent   heat  tolerance  like  the  sodium  greases  and  the  water  resistance  of  calcium  greases.   polarity   and   surface   wetting   properties.  ointments.com/inks/download/Castor_Wax_Tec_Bulletin.crayvallac.  HCO  is  used  as  a  paint   additive.  potassium  and  calcium.     Some   new   uses   of   HCO:   HCO   based   rheology   modifiers     see   the   web   page   -­‐   http://www.  and  in   the  preparation  of  hydroxyl-­‐stearic  acid  and  derivatives.     Both   HCO   and   12   HSA   have   enjoyed   popularity   with   the   growth   of   lithium   complex   greases.     Thus  it  is  no  surprise  that  HCO  is  mainly  used  for  coatings  and  greases  where  resistance  to   moisture.  The  early  use  of  HCO  in  greases   was  to  improve  texture  and  oxidative  stability  of  greases  exposed  to  high  sheer  stress  with   little  effect  on  structure  or  consistency.  oils  and  other  petrochemical  products  is  required.     The  HCO  is  insoluble  in  water  and  most  organic  solvents.  sodium.  It  is   water   resistant   while   retaining   lubricity.   CastorOil.   brittle   wax   that   is   insoluble.

    In  rubbers:  12-­‐HSA  functions  as  an  activator  and  internal  lubricant  for  natural  and  synthetic   rubbers.   however.   which   is   a   crystalline   solid.   and  is  effective  in  maintaining  a  healthy  balance  of  intestinal  and  vaginal  flora.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 112     12  HSA  soaps  are  used  in  mineral  oil-­‐based  multipurpose  greases  making  it  possible  for  grease   to  fill  the  requirements  of  a  variety  of  needs  in  the  automotive  and  truck  greases.   In   the   last   50   years.     Most   organic   fatty   acids   are   fungicidal   and   have   been   used   for   centuries   as   antimicrobial   agents.   The   product   is   then   treated   with   ammonia   to   give   x-­‐ aminoundecanoic   acid.   Aminoundecanoic   acid   is   the   starting   material  for  nylon-­‐11.   and   as   topical   and   systemic   antifungals.   originally   in   the   manufacture   of   soaps.  It  may   be  incorporated  into  cold  creams  and  vanishing  creams  to  give  a  jelly-­‐like  feeling.   they   have   found   use   both   in   vitro   as   yeast   and   mold   inhibitors   in   food   stuffs.   burning.   and   relieves   itching.     Undecylenic  Acid     Undecylenic   acid   has   a   long   history   as   antifungal   drug.   For   example.     In   paints:   12-­‐HSA   is   reacted   with   acrylic   esters   to   produce   hard.     When   undecylenic   acid   is   treated   with   hydrogen   bromide   in   a   non-­‐polar   solvent   in   the   presence   of   peroxide.   durable   thermosetting   polymers   used   in   high-­‐quality   automotive.     Related  Chemical  Reactions     (CH2=CH(CH2)8COOH)  Undecylenic  Acid    HBr    BrCH2.     In  cosmetics:  12  HSA  may  be  used  for  gelling  liquid  petroleum  to  produce  brilliance.   Undecylenic   acid   has   been  shown  to  be  approximately  six  times  more  effective  as  an  antifungal  than  caprylic  acid.   ringworm.CH2(CH2)8COOH    NH3    H2N(CH2)10COOH  (w-­‐Aminoundecanoic  Acid)     Specific  applications  of  undecylenic  acid:     CastorOil.   industrial   appliance   and   metal   decorative   finishes.   it   is   used   against   fungal   skin   infections   such   as   athlete's   foot.   It   is   also   used   in   the   treatment  of  psoriasis.     Undecylenic  acid  is  a  natural  fungicide  and  is  FDA  approved  in  over-­‐the-­‐counter  medications   for  skin  disorders  or  problems.   and   Candida   albicans.   Undecylenic   acid   is   an   economical   antifungal   agent   and   is   the   active   ingredient   in   many   topical   over-­‐the-­‐counter   antifungal   preparations.  It  is  the  active  ingredient  in  medications  for  skin  infections.   and   irritation.   It   is   used   to   treat   some   types   of   fungus  infections.   reverse   Markownikoff   addition   occurs   and   the   main   product   is   x-­‐ bromoundecanoic   acid.CH2(CH2)8COOH     BrCH2.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 113   An   active   ingredient   in   many   topical   over-­‐the-­‐counter   antifungal   preparations   like   the   (tinea   pedis),   diaper   rash,   and   effective   against   denture   stomatitis   and   herpes.   Several  studies  have  demonstrated  that  undecylenic  acid  is  4-­‐5  times  as  powerful  an   antifungal  agent  as  caprylic  acid  in  the  same  dosage.   Undecylenic   acid   and   its   derivatives   have   a   bi-­‐functionality:   surfactant   as   well   as   natural  bio-­‐resistance  properties.   Biocide  in  soaps  and  deodorants   Surfactant  in  hair  lotions.   Starting  material  for  Nylon-­‐11   Malodorous/foul   smelling   paper   mill   effluents   can   also   be   deodorized   by   treating   them   with   an   effective   deodorizing   amount     such   as   an   alkyl   or   polyoxyalkylene   ester   of   undecylenic   acid,   for   example   methyl   undecylenate   or   polyoxyethylene   undecylenate.   Malodorous   animal   feeds   can   be   deodorized   by   treating   them   with   an   effective   foodstuff  deodorizing  amount  of  polyoxyalkylene  ester  of  undecylenic  acid.   There  are  instances  where  malodorous  liquid  animal  manures  &  sewage  sludges  are   deodorized  by  treating  the  sample  with  a  polyoxyalkylene  ester  of  undecylenic  acid.     Biochemistry  and  Pharmacokinetics  for  Undecylenic  Acid     Wyss   et   al   demonstrated   more   than   50   years   ago   that   the   greater   the   number   of   carbon   atoms  in  the  fatty  acid  chain,  the  greater  the  fungicidal  activity,  up  to  the  point  exceeding   eleven  carbon  atoms,  where  solubility  becomes  the  limiting  factor.  Although  the  fungistatic   and   fungicidal   effects   of   fatty   acids   have   been   well   documented,   they   can   be   somewhat   irritating  to  mucous  membranes  in  certain  people,  and  commonly  used  fatty  acids  such  as   caprylic   and   undecylenic   acids   have   an   objectionable   taste   and   odor.   Consequently,   the   calcium,  magnesium,  and  sodium  salts  of  these  fatty  acids  have  been  offered  as  reasonable   alternatives.   Undecylenate   salts   have   been   shown   to   possess   as   much   as   four   times   the   fungicidal  effect  of  undecylenic  acid,  and  may  be  over  30  times  more  effective  than  caprylic   acid.  Unfortunately,  the  antifungal  effects  of  these  fatty  acid  salts  are  more  sensitive  to  pH   than   the   free   fatty   acids.   When   tested   over   a   pH   range   from   4.5   to   6.0,   the   antifungal   activities   of   both   undecylenic   acid   and   calcium   undecylenate   are   quite   pronounced;   the   minimal   inhibitory   concentration   of   calcium   undecylenate   against   Candida   albicans   is   200   ppm   at   pH   6.0.   However,   above   pH   6.0,   the   calcium   salt   is   less   active   than   the   free   acid,   perhaps  due  to  the  suppression  of  ionization  of  the  salt  at  higher  pH  levels.     Mechanism  of  Action     At   least   one   of   the   mechanisms   underlying   its   anti-­‐fungal   effect   is   its   inhibition   of   morphogenesis   of   Candida   albicans.   In   a   study   on   denture   liners,   undecylenic   acid   in   the   liners  was  found  to  inhibit  conversion  of  yeast  to  the  hyphal  form.  Hyphae  were  associated   with  active  infection.  The  authors  speculated  on  possible  mechanisms  including  interference   with  fatty  acid  biosynthesis,  which  can  inhibit  germ  tube  (hyphae)  formation.  Medium-­‐chain   fatty   acids   have  also   been   shown   to   disrupt   the   pH   of   the   cell   cytoplasm   by   being   proton   carriers.    

CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil    

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 114   Undecylenic  Acid  for  Specific  Clinical  Applications     Vaginal/Gastrointestinal   Candidiasis   -­‐   Undecylenic   acid   has   been   shown   to   be   effective   in   preventing  fungal  overgrowth  associated  with  vaginal  and  gastrointestinal  candidiasis  via  its   fungicidal  activity.     Thrush   -­‐   Since   undecylenic   acid   acts   systemically,   oral   administration   can   inhibit   or   even   prevent  oral  candidiasis,  or  thrush.     Dermatomycoses   -­‐   Undecylenic   acid   is   the   active   ingredient   in   Desinex[R]   cream   and   a   number  of  other  over-­‐the-­‐counter  antifungals.  It  is  responsible  for  the  antifungal  effect  of   these   medications   against   such   organisms   as   Candida   albicans,   Trichophyton   species,   Epidermophyton  inguinale,  and  Microsporum  audouini.     Herpes   Simplex   Infection   -­‐   Undecylenic   acid   has   been   shown   to   have   antibacterial   and   antiviral  properties  in  vitro  and  is  effective  topically  against  the  herpes  simplex  virus  in  both   animals  and  humans.     Denture   Stomatitis   -­‐   Candida   albicans   is   a   major   cause   of   denture   stomatitis,   an   inflammation   of   the   tissues   underlying   dentures.   The   organism   exists   in   two   cellular   morphologies   -­‐-­‐   the   round   yeast   form   found   in   asymptomatic   carrier   states   and   the   branching  hyphal  form  found  in  active  infections.  Resilient  liners  are  frequently  used  to  treat   denture   stomatitis,   and   it   has   been   demonstrated   that   liners   containing   undecylenic   acid   completely   inhibited   the   conversion   of   the   yeast   form   of   Candida   albicans   to   the   hyphal   form,  thereby  inhibiting  proliferation  of  the  yeast.     Undecylenic  Acid  Minor  Derivatives  (Source:  Arkema  Inc)     Undecylenic  Acid  -­‐  Ammonium  Derivatives   o Undecylenamidopropyl  betaine:  C11  betaine.   A  very  mild,  active  surfactant  with  a  dual  water  and  oil  solubility.   Especially  suited  to  use  in  anti-­‐dandruff  shampoos.   A  good  viscosity  regulator.     Undecylenic  Acid  -­‐  Ethanolamide  Derivatives   o Ethanolamide   derivatives   are   both   oil-­‐   and   water-­‐soluble   and   hence   can   easily  be  formulated:   High  water  solubility  and  high  surfactant  properties  for  haircare  uses.     Undecylenic  Acid  -­‐  Undecylenamide  MEA   o Good  fungicidal  and  bactericidal  properties,  that  can  be  added  to:   Shampoos  and  other  products  to  provide  foam  stabilization,  viscosity   control...   Soaps  to  provide  emolliency,  firmness  and  fungicidal  properties   Pharmaceutical   creams   and   oils   where   fungicidal   properties   are   important  

CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil    

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 115   Bubble   bath   products   and   shampoos,   especially   anti-­‐dandruff   shampoos   Shaving  creams  and  after-­‐shave  lotions.     Undecylenic  Acid  -­‐  Undecylenamide  DEA   o Same   applications   as   for   undecylenamide   MEA,   and   additionally,   any   use   in   which  increased  water  solubility  is  required   Thickener  and  refatting  agent  for  special  formulations   Foam  stabilization  and  viscosity  control  of  detergent  formulations   Suitable  for  foot  and  skincare  preparations   Additive  for  anti-­‐dandruff  shampoos.     Undecylenic  Acid  -­‐  Sulfosuccinate  Derivatives   o Disodium  Undecylenamido  MEA-­‐Sulfosuccinate   Contains  the  powerful  solubilizing  sulfonate  group   A  very  mild  anionic  surfactant  both  to  skin  and  eyes  recommended  for   application   in   baby   shampoos   and   cleaning   creams   for   its   good   skin   compatibility   Anti-­‐dandruff   activity:   2%   active   disodium   mono-­‐undecylenamido   MEA-­‐sulfosuccinate  is  effective  in  the  reduction  of  itching,  scaling  and   dandruff  associated  with  seborrhea  capitis.    

Methyl  12-­‐HSA  

 
Methyl   12-­‐HSA   is   an   ester   that   is   efficient   in   extending   the   lubrication   life   of   grease.   Greases   made  with  the  product  can  be  formulated  to  higher  drop  points,  and  they  experience  both  less   bleeding   and   improved   oxidative   stability   .The   development   of   these   products   was   most   beneficial   in   the   grease   processing   area   due   to   avoidance   of   milling   and   homogenizing,   less   shearing  and  overall  uniform  consistency.     Methyl   12-­‐HSA   is   usually   sold   in   the   liquid   form   and   is   widely   used   in   the   continuous   grease   process.  It  has  a  lower  melt  point  than  12-­‐HSA  and  is,  therefore,  easier  to  handle  in  the  liquid   form.     Main  Applications     Solid  pigment  dispersant  for  colour  concentrates  used  in  plastics,  inks  and  coatings   Mold  lubricant  and  release  agent  in  plastic  extrusion,  molding  and  calendaring   Plasticizer  -­‐  coupling  agent  for  hot  melt  adhesives  and  textile  printing  compounds   Processing  aid  for  rubber,  plastics  and  polymers   Used  in  high  temperature  greases  

 
Heptaldehyde  
  Undecylenic   acid   and   Heptaldehyde   are   starting   materials   for   a   number   of   perfumery   compounds  &  for  flavours  and  fragrances      

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Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 116   Uses   o Chemical  intermediates  for  perfumes  and  flavours   o Used  in  perfumery  in  the  form  of  compounds  jasmine  aldehyde  (alpha  amyl   cinnemic  aldehyde)  and  coconut  aldehyde   o Also   used   in   the   manufacture   of   heptyl   alcohol,   heptonoic   acid   etc.,   which   have  subsequent  usage  in  various  industries   o Used  in  rubber  industry  in  the  preparation  of  vulcanization  accelerators   o Used  as  solvent  in  rubber  &  plastics  industries   o Also  used  for  emulsifiers  &  plasticizers   o Heptaldehyde   &   undecylenic   acid   are   used   to   make   key   aroma   chemicals   used   in   perfumes.   An   important   aroma   chemical   is   undecylenic   aldehyde,   reportedly  even  used  in  Chanel  perfumes.  

  Heptyl  Alcohol  
  Used  as  chemical  intermediates  for:                    Perfumes  and  flavours  (with  fruit  taste)                    Polymer  plasticizer                  Used  in  toilet  preparations  and  detergents.  
               

 

Undecanoic  Acid  
  Used   as   chemical   intermediates   for   perfumes/flavors,   for   instance,   macrocyclic   musks   Used  to  prepare  ointments  with  dermatophilic  activity.    

Undecylenic  Aldehyde  
  Undecylenic   acid   is   an   unsaturated   carboxylic   acid.   Undecylenic   aldehyde   is   used   to   formulate   perfumes.   Undecylenic   aldehyde   is   one   of   the   commonly   used   ingredients   in   perfumery.   Its   end   applications   include   soaps,   detergents,   beauty   care   products   &   household  products.    

Undecylenic  Alcohol  
  Undecylenic  alcohol  is  a  common  ingredient  in  flavours  and  fragrances.  Odour  description:   floral,  ozone,  waxy.    

Calcium  Undecylenate  
  Calcium   undecylenate   is   the   calcium   salt   of   undecylenic   acid.   It   is   derived   by   the   vacuum   distillation  of  castor  oil.     The  antifungal   properties  of  medium  chain  fatty   acid   increase  as  the  chain   lengthens,  and   peak  at  11.    

CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil    

  No   side   effects   or   adverse   reactions   with   preparations   containing   undecylenic   acid   and   its   zinc   salt   (formulations   of   foot   powder   with   20%   ZnUDA   and   2%   UDA   in   talcum).  broad-­‐spectrum  antifungal.  as  well  as  relieves  itching.  calcium  undecylenate  is  an  extremely  effective.   The   fungicidal   effect   of   undecylenate  salts  have  been  shown  to  be  four  times  higher  than  that  of  undecylenic  acid.   Excellent  skin  bio-­‐affinity  due  to  their  amphiphile  structure.  burning  and   irritation     For  both  zinc  and  calcium  undecylenate  salts     The   fungicidal   effect   of   undecylenate   salts   have  been   shown   to   be   four   times   higher   than   with  undecylenic  acid.  due  to  their  capacity  to  fix  sulphur   Metal  working  fluids  (lubricity  for  anti-­‐wear  additive  when  sulfurized)   Fat  liquors  for  leather  treatment   Concrete  mold  release  agents   Grease  and  lubrication  formulations   Anti-­‐foam  agents     CastorOil.     Calcium  undecylenate  is  an  extremely  effective.   broad-­‐spectrum  antifungal.     Zinc  Undecylenate     Undecylenic  acid  and  its  zinc  salts  are  used  for  the  treatment  and  prevention  of  superficial   fungus  infections  of  the  skin.   Topical  calcium  undecylenate  is  specifically  used  on  the  skin  to  treat  fungus  infections.     Both   zinc   &   calcium   undecylenate   salts   are   used   as   fungicides.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 117   An  11  carbon  mono-­‐unsaturated  fatty  acid.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  primarily  tinea  pedis.   (Source:  Arkema  Inc)     Methyl  Undecylenate     Used  as  chemical  intermediates  for:   Cosmetics/pharmaceuticals   Anti-­‐odor  formulations     Ethyl  Undecylenate     Used  as  a  flavouring  agent     Esterols     Esterols  are  used  in/for:     Bitumen  emulsions  (Esterol  11)   Machining  oils.  well-­‐tolerated.

  Ricinoleic   acid   is   used   also   as   a   bactericide.   a   valuable   aroma  compound   Methyl   ricinoleate   has   the   potential   to   be   used   as   a   fuel   additive   to   enhance   the   performance   of   environmentally   friendly   fuels.   yeasts.  These  chemicals  are  on  par   with  petrochemical  products  for  use  in  several  industrial  applications.   Generally.   A   new   class   of   biodegradable   polyanhydrides   based  on  ricinoleic  acid  has  been  synthesized     Ricinoleic   acid   is   effective   in   preventing   the   growth   of   numerous   species   of   viruses.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  personal  products.     Primary  uses  include.   Ricin  acts  as  a  blood  coagulant   Macrolactones  and  polyesters  can  be  derived  from  ricinoleic  acid   Ricinoleic  acid  has  been  used  in  contraceptive  jellies   Used  in  soaps.  amine  compounds.   Ricinoleic   acid   is   not   found   in   any   other   substance.   bacteria.  skin  inflammation.   this   fatty   acid   now   affords   a   wide   range  of  reactions  enabling  the  formation  of  several  derivatives.  abrasions.     Used  in  dispersion  of  pigments  and  dyes.   metal  working  compounds.   Used  in  resins.   Ricinoleate  soaps  have  been  patented  as  algaecides  for  aquaculture  systems.  and   chronic   pruritus   (itching).  Synthesis  occurs  both  in  the  isolated  embryo  and  the   endosperm.  inks  and  cosmetics.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 118   Ricinoleic  Acid     Castor   oil's   effectiveness   is   probably   due   in   part   to   its   unusual   chemical   composition   -­‐   a   triglyceride   of   fatty   acids   with   almost   90   percent   of   that   fatty   acid   content   consisting   of   ricinoleic   acid.  thermosetting  acrylics  and  non-­‐drying  plasticizing  esters.   keratoses.     Ricinoleic  acid  is  shown  to  be  synthesized  in  the  immature  castor  bean  seed  only  after  3-­‐4   weeks  from  the  time  of  fertilization.   and   molds.   Hence.     Methyl  Ricinoleate     Alkyl   ricinoleates   and   alkyl   12-­‐hydroxy   stearates   such   as   methyl   ricinoleate   are   important  ingredients  in  various  cosmetics  and  toiletries   Some   microorganisms   can   transform   methyl   ricinoleate   int -­‐decalactone.   Poly   (anhydrides)   is   hydrolytically   degradable   polymers   which   have   been   used   as   vehicles   for   controlled   delivery   of   drugs.  unsaturated  fatty  acid  is  thought  to  be  responsible  for  castor   oil's  remarkable  healing  abilities.   It's   successful   as   a   topical   treatment   for   ringworm.   fungal-­‐infected  finger-­‐   and  toenails.  germicides  and  textile   processing  agents.   Quaternary   ammonium   compounds   based   on   ricinoleates   and   hydroxy   stearates   have   been  used  in  for  cosmetics  skin  and  hair  care.  emulsifiers.   for   these   conditions   the   affected   area   is   wrapped   each   night   in   a   castor   oil-­‐soaked   cloth.  industrial  lubricants.  plastics.     While   known   chiefly   as   a   purgative   a   few   decades   ago.  acne.   and   the   high   concentration  of  this  unusual.  coatings.   washing   wounds   with   ricinoleic   acid   at   prescribed   dilution   levels   is   sometimes   recommended.   As   part   of   ongoing   research   efforts   on   CastorOil.  esters  in  cutting  oils.

  the   Zn2+   ion   is   almost   completely   shielded   by   the   oxygen   ligands.  zinc  ricinoleate  traps  and  absorbs  the  odour  molecules  produced   by  skin  bacteria.  it   so   that   they   cannot   be   released   into   the   atmosphere   and   cause   the   characteristic   sweaty   smell.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  While  Zinc  ricinoleate  is  in  aqueous  solution.   When   mixed   with   amines.     The  precise  mechanism  of  this  process  is  not  known.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 119   biodiesel   fuels.  and  this  results  in  a  weakening   of  the  electrostatic  shield.  and  for  epoxy   resin  systems     Zinc  Ricinoleate     The   zinc   salt   of   ricinoleic   acid.  Like  a  sponge.   hydraulic   fluids.   Sebacic  Acid  and  its  derivatives  such  as  Azelaic  acid  have  a  variety  of  industrial  uses  in   plasticizers.   lubricants.   methyl   ricinoleate   has   been   tested   as   a   potential   lubricity   additive   for   petroleum  diesel.     Zinc  ricinoleate  is  also  used  as  a  fungicide.   has   other   applications   in   the   manufacture   of   extrusion   plastics.  This   results  in  a  structural  change.  A  large  number  of  esters  can  be  obtained  from  thousands  of  potential  starting   materials.   polyurethane  resins  and  synthetic  rubber.   etc.  Based  on  some  simulation  studies.   Methyl  ricinoleate  is  a  low-­‐temperature   plasticizer  for   rubber   polymers.   Sebacic   acid   can   give   a   very   effective   water   soluble   corrosion  inhibitor  for  metal  working  fluids.  Instead.   zinc   ricinoleate   finds   use   in   the   deodorants   industry   as   a   sensitizer.   isosebacic   acid.  the   following   were   observed:   In   the   vacuum   and   oil   phase   structures.   Sebacic   Acid   is   also   used   as   an   intermediate   for   aromatics.  and  will  not  interfere  with  the  natural   flora  of  the  skin.  and  this  structural  change.   They   are   used   in   the   synthesis   of   polyamide   and   alkyd   resins.     Zinc  ricinoleate  does  not  inhibit  normal  perspiration.  emulsifier  and  stabilizer     Sebacic  Acid     Sebacic   Acid   was   named   from   the   Latin   sebaceus   (tallow   candle)   or   sebum   (tallow)   in   reference  to  its  use  in  the  manufacture  of  candles   One  of  the  largest  uses  of  Sebacic  Acid  is  in  the  manufacture  of  Nylon  6-­‐10.  Sebacic  acid  and   hexamethylene   diisocyanate   react   through   condensation   polymerization   to   produce   Nylon  6-­‐10.   cosmetics.   An   isomer.   polyesters.   CastorOil.  results  in  an  increase   of  the  solubility  and  adsorption  activity  of  Zinc  ricinoleate.  it  is  surmised.   candles.   Structural   transitions   are   caused   by   the   interaction  of  Zinc  ricinoleate  with  water-­‐solvent  molecules.  In  other  words.   antiseptics   and   painting   materials.  it  is  possible  for  the   nucleophilic  attack  of  odor-­‐active  compounds  to  the  relatively  unprotected  Zn2+  atom.   It   is   used   as   a   corrosion   inhibitor   in   metalworking   fluids   and   as   a   complexing   agent   in   greases.  it  chemically  binds  unpleasant  odorous  substances  in  such  a  way  that   they  are  no  longer  perceptible.   adhesives.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 120   Lithium  hydroxystearate  complex  greases  often  utilize  dibasic  acids  such  as  sebacic  acid  for   the  more  unusual  performance  parameters.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   The   esters   of   sebacic   acid   also   are   used   as   plasticizers   for   vinyl   resins   and   in   the   manufacture  of  dioctyl  sebacate  -­‐  a  jet  lubricant  and  lubricant  in  aircooled  combustion   motors.  leatherette.  alcohol.     Dibutyl   Sebacate   (DBS)   -­‐   Di-­‐n-­‐bibutyl   Sebacate   (DBS).   and   electrical   insulation  dissolve  in  hydracarbons.  Its  fine  particle  size   allows   it   to   be   added   to   the   grease   during   the   cool   down   period   with   no   additional   processing.  ether.  used  in   food   &   pharma   industry   as   packing   material   It   is   also   used   as   cold   resistant   plasticizer   for   synthetic  resin  and  synthetic  rubber.  This  product  is  widely  used  as  rocket  propellant.  automobiles  and  equipment  exposed  to  arctic  conditions.   which  were  developed  for  specific  performance  criteria  under  varying  conditions.   DMS/DBS   (dimethyl   sebacate/dibutyl   sebacate)   are   synthetic   base   stocks   that   can   replace   the   mineral   oils   for   environmentally   friendly   applications.   dissolves   ethanol  and  ether.  Being  non-­‐toxic.  Examples:   DOS  (dioctyl  sebacate)  is  very  functional  in  low  temperature  formulations  and  DSS  (disodium   sebacate)  has  been  used  to  replace  sodium  nitrites  in  aluminum  greases.     Sebacic  Acid    Summary  of  Applications     Application  sector   Nature  of  application     Nylon   Nylon  6.   thin  film.   nitrocellulose.   ethyl   cellulose   and   synthetic  rubber  industries  as  plasticizer  and  suitable  for  cold  resistant  cables.   DOS   or   DMS   in   complexed   greases   improve   workability   and   low   temperature   properties   particularity   for   applications  in  aircraft.  etc.       It   is   mainly   used   by   PVC.   is   a   transparent   oil   liquid.   chloroethylene   copolymer.   lightproof.  sheet  material.   Two  derivatives  of  sebacic  acid  are  used  in  a  range  of  applications  as  well.  These  greases  require  the  esters  of  sebacic  acid.10     Dimethyl  sebacate     Dioctyl  sebacate   Plasticizer   Dibutyl  sebacate   Diisopropyl  sebacate       Heat  resistance  lubricant  oil     Lubricant     Derivatives     Miscellaneous     Epoxy  solidified  agent   Sebacic  anhydride   Synthetic  lubricating  grease     Azelaic  acid   Isosebacic  acid(Isomer)     Perfumery   Pharmaceuticals   CastorOil.  trucks.         Dioctyl  Sebacate  (DOS)  -­‐   Dioctyl  Sebacate  (DMS)  a  transparent  light  yellow  oil  liquid  with  a   distinct   smell   This   product   with   low   volatility   and   high-­‐resistant.  benzene  and  other  organic  solvents.

 solvent.  it  is  used  as  fiber  oil   Used   in   producing   the   plastic   plasticizer   and   synthetic   perfume.   as  raw  material  for  perfume.   plasticizers  for  laminated  glass.     N-­‐Heptanoic  acid     n-­‐heptanoic  acid  is  used  primarily:   in   the   form   of   esters:   industrial   lubricants   (aviation.   other   uses   include   CastorOil.  medicine  and  lubricating  grease.   dehydrater  and  antibubbling  agent   In   coal   industry.  and  preservative.   ointments.   plasticizer   for   medicine   capsules.   It   can   be   used   as   a   possible   alternate   for   2-­‐ethylhexanol   or   isooctyl   alcohol   in   the   preparation  of  diesters.   foods.  it  is  used  in  cosmetics   and  pharmaceuticals  as  a  bacteriostat  and  fungistat   Used  in  pet  flea  shampoo     Glycerine     Glycerine   is   used   in   cosmetics.   moistener.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   pharmaceuticals.   elixirs.   dioctanol  adipate  (DCA).   In   farming   chemical   industry   too.   refrigeration.   antifreeze   and   certain  energy  uses.   humectant.   The   refined   derivative   can   be   used   to   produce   plasticizers   such   as   dioctanol   phthalate   (DCP).  monomeric  and  polymeric  plasticizers.   and   a   variety   of   personal   care   and   oral   care   products.  sweetener.  tracer  for  butter  etc.   finds   uses   as   a   frother   in   mineral   flotation.   and   bodying   agent   in   tinctures.).   as  chemical  intermediate  in  the  synthesis  of  emollient  agents:   o in  personal  care:  propylene  glycol  diheptanoate  &  stearyl  heptanoate   o in  pharmaceutical  gel:  neopentylglycol  diheptanoate.   it   is   used   as   floatation   agent.   in  the  form  of  salts:  for  aqueous  anticorrosion.   It   is   used   as   a   solvent.   In   some   countries  the  caproic  acid  is  used  to  produce  ethyl  caproate  -­‐  a  kind  of  flavor.   and   syrups.   as   well   as   in   other   applications   including   animal   seed.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 121   2-­‐Octanol     2-­‐Octanol   is   the   main   raw   material   for   some   esters.     Allyl  Undecyclenate     A  white.   etc.   it   is   used   as   floatation   agent   &   for   producing   emulsifiers   In  chemical  fiber  industry.     Uses  of  glycerine  by  industry     Food  and  beverages  -­‐  Humectant.   Pharmaceuticals   -­‐   Solvent.  water-­‐soluble  powder  that  decomposes  above  200°C.   The   refined   2-­‐Octanol   is   used   as   a   raw   material   to   produce   caproic   acid.

  and   weaving  operations.   Rubber  and  plastics  -­‐  Lubricant  and  plasticizer  for  plastic.   Paper   and   printing   -­‐   Plasticizer.   Lubricants  -­‐   Because  of  its  nontoxic  character.  which  are  used   in   radios  and  neon   lights.  plastics.   Urethane  polymers   -­‐   Fundamental   chemical   component   of   polyethers   for   urethane   foams.   Nitration  -­‐  Used  to  make  nitroglycerine.   candy   (e.   anesthetics.   alkyd  resins  also  an  important  constituent  of  many  printing  inks.       Agriculture     Used  in   a.     Details  of  industry  used  in  &  the  castor  products  used  in  that  industry.   sizing.   Cosmetics   and   toiletries   -­‐   Humectant.  and  telecommunications.   skin   creams  and  lotions.   aviation.   Surface   coatings   -­‐   Used   in   the   manufacture   of   alkyd   resins.  and  carrier  for  antibiotics  and  antiseptics.   which   are   important   components  of  surface  coatings. Fertilisers    Organic  Fertilisers     Castor  Products  &  Derivatives  Used   a.   Tobacco   -­‐   Keeps  tobacco   moist   and   soft   to   prevent   breaking   and   crumbling   during   processing.   Cremophor.   knitting.   and   emollient   in   toothpaste.  ensures  freshness  in  packaged  cigarettes  and  other  tobacco  products.   gargles.   chocolate).  shaving  preparations.   twist   setting.g.   electrical.  and  makeup.   electronics..   Electrical   and   electronics   -­‐   Widely   employed   in   manufacturing   electrolytes   for   electrolytic  condensers.  used  in  lubricants  for  food  and  other   machinery  where  product  purity  is  essential.  which  is  the  usual  explosive  in  dynamite  and   a  cardiovascular  agent.   vehicle.   also   known   as   polyoxyethylated   castor   oil.   It   is   used   in   the   following   industries:   automobile.   lozenges.2  Castor  Oil  &  Castor  Oil  Derivatives  Uses    By  Industry       Castor   oil   has   over   1000   patented   industrial   applications.   flavorings.   cough   remedies.   humectant.   lubricates   many   kinds   of   fibers   in   spinning.   Textiles   -­‐   Conditioning   agent   used   widely   in   lubricating.   drug.     CastorOil.1.  used  with  other  ingredients  in  specialty  treatments  such  as  grease-­‐proofing.   is   also   used  in  the  foodstuff  industry.  and   in  processes   for  electrodeposition  and  treatment  of  metals.   ear   infection   remedies.   and   softening   yarn   and   fabric.   cosmetics.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 122   suppositories.   food.   manufacturing.   and   lubricant   in   the   manufacture   of   paper. Castor  Meal     Food     Food   grade   castor   oil   is   used   in   additives.   and   in   packaging.   as   a   mold   inhibitor.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     6.  deodorants.

Plastic  Films   e. Methyl  12-­‐HSA   b. Defoamer   c.  Synthetic  Fibers  &  Resins   d. Sulfonated  Castor  Oil  /  Turkey  Red  Oil   c. Dyeing  Aids   c. Food  Grade  Castor  Oil   b. Flavourings   d. Polyamide  11  (Nylon  11)   b. Textile  Finishing  Materials   b. Water  Proofing  Additive   d. Synthetic  Resins   g. Polyoxyethylated  Castor  Oil     Textile  Chemicals       Used  in   a. Paper  Coatings       Castor  Products  &  Derivatives  Used   a. Flypapers   b. Food  Packaging     Castor  Products  &  Derivatives  Used   a. Glycerine     Plastics  &  Rubber       Used  in   a. Ethoxylated  Castor  Oil   b. Polyurethane  Foam   d. Surfactants   b. Methyl  12-­‐HSA     Paper       Used  in   a. Coupling  Agents   CastorOil. Nylon. Polyamide  6   c. Plasticizers   h. Synthetic  Detergents   e. Viscosity  Reducing  Additives   c.  Pigment  Wetting  Agents     Castor  Products  &  Derivatives  Used   a.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     . Surfactants. Adhesives   f.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 123   Used  in   a.

Deodorants     Castor  Products  &  Derivatives  Used   a.  deodorants.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  and  many   other  personal  hygiene  and  beauty  products.   Undecylenic   acid   is   also   used   in   cosmetics   and   is   the   active   ingredient   in   over-­‐the-­‐counter   medications   for   skin   infections  and  relieves  itching. Castor  Wax   e. Shampoos   e. Ricinoleic  Acid   d. Methyl  Ricinoleate   e. Perfumery  Products   b.  hair  oil's  (increases  hair  luster).   Cosmetic   manufacturers   use   castor   oil   and   its   derivatives   in   formulating   non-­‐comedogenic   cosmetics   (cosmetics   that   don't   exacerbate   or   contribute   to   acne)   and   emollients   (softens). Sebacic  Acid   f.  lipsticks. Ethyl  Heptoate   k.     Used  in   a.  lubricants.  burning.     Castor  Products  &  Derivatives  Used   a.   and   continues   to   play   an   important   part   in   the   production   of   soaps   and   cosmetics.   creams   (tretinoin). Zinc  Ricinoleate   f. Lipsticks   c. 12-­‐HSA   b. Polishes   f.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 124   i.       Castor   oil   has   been   used   in   skin   care   products   for   centuries.  and  irritation.   lip   gels. Undecylenic  Acid   i.  sunscreens. Castor  Oil   b. Heptyl  Acetate     CastorOil. Undecylenic  Acid   d. Hair  Tonics   d. Heptaldehyde   c. Heptanoic  Acid   h. Heptyl  Alcohol   j.   perfumes.   shampoos. Heptaldehyde   g. Undecylenic  Acid   g. Glycerine     Polyols   Cosmetics  &  Perfumeries     Castor   oil   and   derivatives   are   used   in   soaps. Castor  Oil  Esters   c. Emulsifiers   g.

Wetting  &  Dispersing  Additives     Castor  Products  &  Derivatives  Used   a. Paint  Strippers   f. Plasticizer  for  Coatings   c. Expectorant   h. Hydrogenated  Castor  Oil      Paints.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     . Calcium  Undecylenate   f. Glycerine   b. Lacquers   e.  Inks  &  Additives     Used  in   a. Emulsifiers   f. Additives  &  Excipients     Castor  Products  &  Derivatives  Used   a. Polyols     Pharmaceuticals     Used  in   a. Varnishes   d. Antidandruff   c. Castor  Oil  Esters   b. Enanthic  Anhydride   e. Encapsulants   g. Polymers  for  Electronics  &  Telecommunications   b. Polyurethanes   c. Undecylenic  Acid   c. Antihelmintic   b. Insulation  Materials       Castor  Products  &  Derivatives  Used   a. Zinc  Undecylenate   d. Inks   b. Emollient   e. Adhesive  Removers   g. Laxatives  &  Purgative   i. Cathartic   d. Polyols   b. Dimer  Acid   CastorOil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 125   Electronics  &  Telecommunications     Used  in   a. Glycerine   c.

Heptanoic  Acid   f.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   diesel. Dimer  Acid   b.   and   race-­‐car   engines.   to   result   in   a   sulfur-­‐free. Hydraulic  Fluids   f.   Castor   oil   is   also   one   of   the   preferred   lubricants  for  model  aircraft.   the   degummed   variety   of   castor   oil   is   the   preferred   grade.     Biotransformation   of   vegetable   oils   through   the   use   of   enzymes   as   catalysts   has   been   a   matter  of  intense  investigation  nowadays.   with   a   higher-­‐cetane   number   fuel   CastorOil. Racing  Car  Lubricants   e. Hydroxy  Amide  Waxes   h. Dehydrated  Castor  Oil  (DCO)     Lubricants     Vegetable  oils. Ricinoleic  Acid   c. Aircraft  Lubricants   c.   Castor   oil   has   better   low   temperature   viscosity   properties   and   high   temperature   lubrication   than   most   vegetable   oils. Sebacic  Acid   j. Castor  Oil   f.  The  lubricants  company  Castrol  took  its  name  from  castor  oil.  the  possibility  of  using  biodiesel  as   an   additive   to   mineral   diesel.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 126   d. Lubricating  Grease   b. Ethoxylated  Castor  Oil     Bio-­‐fuels         Castor  oil.  owing  to  its  chemical  structure  can  be  used  as  a  bio-­‐fuel  in  place  of  petrol-­‐based   fuels.  due  to  their  good  lubricity  and  biodegradability  are  attractive  alternatives  to   petroleum-­‐derived  lubricants.  but  oxidative  stability  and  low  temperature  performance  limit   their   widespread   use.   likely   because   it   doesn't   dissolve   natural-­‐rubber   seals.   For   most   of   the   lubrication   purposes. Fuel  Additives   h.   Castor   oil   is   the   preferred   lubricant   for   bicycle   pumps. 12  Hydroxy  Stearic  Acid   i. Corrosion  Inhibitors       Castor  Products  &  Derivatives  Used   a. Heavy  Duty  Automotive  Greases   g.   making   it   useful   as   a   lubricant   in   jet. Jet  Engine  Lubricants   d. Blown  Castor  Oil   e.  Furthermore. Hydrogenated  Castor  Oil   g.     Used  in   a. Castor  Oil  Esters   d. Ricinoleic  Acid   e.

 cosmetic.  Cremophor  EL  is  a  synthetic.  This  is  a  direct  way  of  producing  triglycerides.   which   is   rich   in   ricinoleic   acid   (a   hydroxylated   fatty   acid).   Cremophor   EL   is   a   registered   trademark   of   BASF   Corp.   Therapeutically.  by  simple  dehydration  of  the  acid.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     For   instance.  so  most  active  ingredients  are  combined  with  excipients  or  additives  such  as   Cremophor  EL     Castor  oil.  Its  utility  comes  from  its   ability  to  stabilize  emulsions  of  nonpolar  materials  in  aqueous  systems.  is  added  to  many  modern  drugs.  an  anti-­‐fungal  agent   CastorOil.  Cremophor  EL  is  an   excipient   or   additive   in   drugs.   due   to   their   nutritional   and   therapeutic   properties.7).  It  is  prepared  by  reacting  35  moles  of  ethylene  oxide  with  each   mole  of  castor  oil.  emollients  or  solubilizers   for  toiletry.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 127   from  a  renewable  resource  has  motivated  the  biomodification  of  vegetable  oils  towards  the   reduction  of  environmental  investments  and  import  needs.     Medicinal  Uses  of  Castor  Oil     The   United   States   Food   and   Drug   Administration   (FDA)   has   categorized   castor   oil   as   "generally  recognized  as  safe  and  effective"  (GRASE)  for  over-­‐the-­‐counter  use  as  a  laxative.   the   natural   matrix   of   fats   and   oils.   with  its  major  site  of  action  the  small  intestine.  or  a  castor  oil  derivative  such  as  Cremophor  EL.  These  benzoate  esters  of  ricinoleic  acid  and  hydroxy  stearic  acid  are  double   esters  having  a  fatty  acid  group  at  the  respective  -­‐-­‐COOH  group  and  a  benzoate  group  at   the  -­‐-­‐OH  group.   modern   drugs   are   rarely   given   in   a   pure   chemical   state.   for   its   version   of   polyethoxylated  castor  oil.   and   benzoate   esters   of   octyl   hydroxy   stearate   are   used   in   a   number   of   industries.   benzoate   esters   of   cetyl   ricinoleate.   Of   the   many   ways   of   producing   synthetic   CLAs.     Therapeutically.   Castor  based  benzoate  esters  -­‐   Castor-­‐based  benzoate  esters.  near  production  sites.   the   most   attractive   is   chemical   conversion   of   castor   oil.   There   is   growing   interest   in   these   molecules.  hair  and  skin  care  formulations.   including:     Miconazole.  These  esters  are  useful  as  vehicles  or  carriers.   modern   drugs   are   rarely   given   in   a   pure   chemical  state.   benzoate   esters   of   hydrogenated   castor   oil.     Other  End  Products  Where  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives  are  Used       Sealants   Components  for  Shatterproof  Safety  Glass   Embalming  Fluid   Metallic  Salts   Since  it  is  has  a  relatively  high  dielectric  constant  (4.  nonionic  surfactant.   One   of   the   key   ways   of   using   castor   oil   is   to   produce   conjugated   linoleic   acids   (CLAs).  highly  refined  and  dried  castor  oil   is  sometimes  used  as  a  dielectric  fluid  within  high  performance  high  voltage  capacitors.  including  benzoate  esters   of   castor   oil.   so   most   active   ingredients  are  combined  with  excipients  or  additives.   Converting   crude   CLA-­‐rich   castor   oil   should   be   possible  on  an  industrial  scale.

  fulvestrant  has  anticancer  activity  at  least  as  good  as  tamoxifen.  USP).   Emulphor:  A  polyethoxylated  castor  oil  drug  vehicle.  Castor  oil.   It's   also   used   in   the   treatment   of   Psoriasis.  USP)   Diazepam  injection.   Teniposide  (VM-­‐26)  has  been  widely  used  in  the  treatment  of  small  cell  lung  cancer.   Cremophor  EL  is  a  Castor  oil  surfactant  used  as  a  vehicle  for  formulation  of  a  variety   of  poorly  water-­‐soluble  agents.  a  mitotic  inhibitor  used  in  cancer  chemotherapy   Sandimmune  (cyclosporine  injection.  and  the  main  ingredient  of  VM-­‐26  solvent   (vehicle)  is  PECO  (Cremophor)..   polyoxyl   60   hydrogenated   Castor  oil)   Xenaderm  ointment.  For  example.  a  gel   used  to  create  or  maintain  the  acidity  of  the  vagina  (comprises  acetic   acid/oxyquinoline/ricinoleic  acid    vaginal)   Polyethylene   glycol   (PEG):   Peg-­‐40   is   a   hydrogenated   Castor   oil   used   in   pegylation.   Cremophor   from   castor   oil   is   a   chemomodulator   and   a   MDR   reversing  agent  used  in  anti-­‐cancer  drugs.   candida   albicans.   etc.  breast  cancer.   Taxol  (paclitaxel)   Sandimmune  (cyclosporine  injection.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 128   Paclitaxel.  and  relieves  itching.  including  paclitaxel.   Pegylation   is   now   an   established   method   for   increasing   the   circulating   half-­‐life   of   protein   and   lipsomal   pharmaceuticals.   ringworm.  and  trypsin   Aci-­‐Jel.  superseded  by  lipid  emulsion  alternative  (Diazemuls)   Vitamin  K  injection     Anti-­‐cancer  Drugs     An   obstacle   to   successful   chemotherapy   and   cancer   treatment   is   multidrug   resistance   (MDR).  an  HIV  protease  inhibitor   Saperconazole.  and  is  superior  to   tamoxifen   in   some   models.   Undecylenic   acid   also   has   anti-­‐ CastorOil.   Fulvestrant   is   a   pure   antiestrogen.  etc.  and  irritation.   Cremophor  minimizes  the  negative  effects  of  radiation  chemotherapy.   Fulvestrant   requires   intramuscular   administration   in   a   proprietary  formulation  of  Castor  oil  and  alcohols.  burning.  an  immunosuppressant  drug  widely  used   in  connection  with  organ  transplant  to  reduce  the  activity  of  the   patient's  immune   system   Nelfinavir  mesylate.  The  efficacy  of  paclitaxel  against   some   tumors   may   be   aided   by   its   administration   in   a   vehicle   solution   containing   Cremophor.   Pegylation   agents   are   beneficial   for   patients   with  cancer.  a  topical  treatment  for  skin  ulcers  is  a  combination  of  Balsam   Peru.  a  triazole  antifungal  agent  (contains  Emulphor  EL   -­‐719P.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   malignant  lymphoma.   an   immunosuppressive   drug   (contains   HCO-­‐60.   In   in   vivo   and   in   vitro   breast   cancer   models.     Antifungal  Drugs     Undecylenic   acid   is   the   active   ingredient   in   over-­‐the-­‐counter   medications   for   skin   infections.  it's  used  against   fungal   skin   infections   (mycosis)   such   as   athlete's   foot.  a  castor  oil   derivative)   Prograf.

    6.     Heart  &  Blood  Pressure  Drugs     Digoxin  with  Cremophor  helps  the  heart  and  is  used  to  treat  certain  heart  conditions.   which   might  then  turn  into  labor.  By  creating  strong  and   spasmodic   cramps   of   the   intestines   (which   lie   around   and   above   the   uterus   at   the   end   of   pregnancy)   it   might   cause   a   reflexive   cramping   and   spasms   of   the   uterine   muscle.  which  causes   uterine   irritability   and   then   labour.     Organ  Transplant  Drugs     Cyclosporin   is   considered   to   be   the   best   immunosuppressive   molecule   in   transplantation  (10A)  and  it  gets  help  from  its  vehicle  Cremophor.   It   could   also   encourage   the   onset   of   labour   by   stimulating   the   release   of   prostaglandins   from   the   inflammation   of   the   intestines.  This  application  of  castor  oil  has  not   been  well  studied    surprising  considering  how  long  this  old  remedy  has  been  in  use.   and   be   merely   an   unpleasant  placebo.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   Cutaneous  alternariosis  treated  with  miconazole  and  10  ml  of  Cremophor  EL.3  Use  of  Castor  Oil  in  High-­‐end  Derivatives       There  are  a  few  companies  that  use  castor  oil  to  develop  a  range  of  derivatives.  It  is  thought  to  act  in  one  of  several  possible  ways.   although   there   are   some   who   believe   that   it   increases  the  risk  of  meconium  passage  in  the  infant.   lastly.     Use  of  Castor  Oil  to  Encourage  Onset  of  Labour     Castor   oil   has   a   long   history   of   being   used   by   women   to   encourage   the   onset   of   labour   during  pregnancy.   it   may   have   no   real   connection   to   the   onset   of   labor   at   all.   And.     While   the   effectiveness   of   castor   oil   to   encourage   the   onset   of   labor   is   scientifically   questionable.1.  It  might  also  work  by  having  a  dehydrating  effect.   The   diluent   Cremophor   contributes   to   the   antiproliferative   effects   of   the   taxane   paclitaxel     Human  Immunodeficiency  Virus  (HIV)  Protease  Inhibitors     Saquinavir  (SQV)  with  Cremophor  is  a  HIV  specific  protease  inhibitor.  etc.  warts.  cold  sores.     Some  prominent  companies  and  their  use  of  castor  oil  derivatives  are  given  below:       Arkema     Main  Line  of  Business:  Industrial  and  speciality  chemical  company     Corporate  Headquaters:  Cedex.  France     CastorOil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 129   bacterial   and   anti-­‐viral   properties   that   are   effective   on   viral   skin   infections   such   as   the  herpes  simplex  virus.   it   is   generally   considered   safe.

    Pebax  Rnew®   to  manufacture   its  sports  equipment.  Smith  Optics.  as  an  additive  or  in  blends  with  other  polymers  or   rubbers.  It  can  also  be  reinforced  with  various  fillers.  which  can  be  used  by  the  perfumes  and  cosmetics.  Arkema  and  Scarpa  Research  &  Development  teams   have  closely  collaborated  on  the  design  of  a  ski  boot  more  eco-­‐aware:  the  Scarpa  Hurricane.   physical.   is   partially   made   from   non-­‐edible   renewable   resource.solarplastics.com/solarplastics/client/materials_pdf/Elf_Atofina_Nylon_11-­‐ 12_pro.   Pebax®   stands   for   polyether   block   amide.     Arkema   also   uses   many   alcohols.   These   properties   have   led   designers   to   select   Rilsan®  polyamides  for  industries  as  diverse  as  electrical  cables.  and  comparisons   with  other  polymers  for  specific  applications       http://www.  and  pneumatic   and  hydraulic  hose.   pharmaceutical  or  leather  industries.   The   pebax®   range   enables   to   bridge   the   gap   between   thermoplastics   and   rubbers.       Rilsan®   PA   resins   have   earned   a   preferred   material   status   in   the   most   demanding   applications   due   largely   to   their   excellent   combination   of   thermal.   extrusion.  Performance   products   unit   is   involved   in   technical   polymers.4  billion  (2010)     The   vinyl   products   unit   includes   chlorine/soda   and   PVC.   speciality   chemicals   (Ceca).   Vinyl   Products.   Industrial   Chemicals   and   Performance   Products.   It   is   present   in   over   80   countries   with   13.   extrusion   blow   molding   or   rotomolding.   Rilsan®   PA   resins   can   be   processed   by   injection   molding.  Processing  ease  is   another   major   benefit   of   Rilsan®   polyamide   resins.  food.   CastorOil.   chemical   and   mechanical  properties  resulting  in  an  outstanding  cost  performance  ratio.   Industrial   chemicals   business   is   involved   in   acrylics.800   employees  and  sales  of  around  Euro  4.  fluorochemicals  and  hydrogen  peroxide.     Castor  Oil  End  Use:  Nylon  11         Polyamide   11   (PA   11)   or   Nylon   11   is   a   polyamide   bioplastic   and   is   produced   by   Arkema   under   the   tradename   Rilsan   from   castor   beans.   acids   and   other   by-­‐products   of   the  Rilsan®   and   Pebax   Rnew®  manufacturing  processes.   blown   film   extrusion.  automotive.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   vinyl   compounds   and   pipes   and   profiles   (Alphacan).  thiochemicals.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 130     Background:   Arkema   is   made   up   of   three   business   segments.  Mizuno.   This   high   durability   thermoplastic   elastomer.   Pebax®   is   plasticizer   free   and   belongs   to   the   engineering   polymers   family.   polymethyl   methacrylate  (PMMA).   additives.     Here's  a  detailed  page  (PDF)  on  Rilsan  PA  11  properties  and  specifications.   Pebax®  Rnew  is  made  up  of  block  copolymers  consisting  of  a  sequence  of  polyamide  11  and   polyether  segments.PDF       Prominent  users  of  Arkema   :  SCARPA.   castor   oil.   and   organic  peroxides.   Supplied   in   powder   or   pellet   form.  It  can  be  used  pure.

    MIZUNO.  USA     Background:   six   Verbund   sites   and   close   to   385   production   sites   worldwide   serves   customers   and   partners  in  almost  all  countries  of  the  world.  Poly  etherol     BASF  produces  the  following  two  products  from  castor  oil:  Ultramid®  BALANCE.   in   which   Pebax®   Rnew   is   used.com       BASF     Main  Line  of  Business:  Chemical  Company     Corporate  Headquarters:  New  Jersey.  which  brings  1.     Sony  has  leveraged  its  expertise  in  material  research  to  make  a  unique  soccer  ball  built  to   ains.6  times  higher  durability   than  conventional  soccer  balls.     .   an   eyewear   manufacturing   company   has   unveiled   new   sunglasses   collection   that   uses   Rilsan®   Clear   G830   Rnew.   has  announced  the  use  of   the   Inspire  5.     Smith   Optics.7  billion  and  income  before  special  items  of  approximately   The  BASF  portfolio  comprises:   Chemicals   Plastics   Performance  Products   Functional  Solutions   Agricultural  Solutions   Oil  &  Gas     Castor  Oil  End  Use:  Ultramid®  BALANCE.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  and  Wave  Nirvana  5.   In  2009.   This   ball   features   a   dual   layered  surface.   This   is   based   to   the   extent   of   about   60   per   cent   on   sebacic   acid.     Website:  www.  Wave  Creation  10.  one  of  them  being  in  Pebax®  Rnew.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 131   This  prototype  was  presented  at  the  ISPO  08  and  it  was  the  first  biobased  ski  boots  of  the   market.  a  bio-­‐renewable  sourced  polymer  derived  from  castor   oil.   a   renewable   raw   CastorOil.  a  polyamide   6.   A   total   of   20   newsunglass   frame   models   are   made   entirely  of  Rilsan®  Clear  G830  Rnew.  These  footballs  will  be  distributed  by  NGOs  -­‐   UNDP  (United   Nations   Development   Programme)   and   JICA   (Japan   International   Cooperation   Agency)   -­‐   during  and  after  the  2010  World  Cup.arkema.  a  leader   in  running  footwear  and  apparel  technology.10.  BASF  posted   .

  Rhodia   currently   generates   thirty   one   percent   of   its   sales   with   products   that   respond   to   the   desire   of   customers   and   consumers  for  sustainable  solutions.com       Rhodia     Main  Line  of  Business:  Specialty  Chemical  Producer         Corporate  Headquarters:  Boulogne-­‐Billancourt.  specifically  suited  to  the  manufacture  of  flexible  tubes  for  the  power-­‐assisted   control  systems  market  and  fittings  and  adapters  for  the  engine  fuel  systems  market.   including   automotive.     Besides  Ultramid®.  is  called  Lupranol®  BALANCE  50  It  is   the   only   NOP   that   can   be   used   as   a   100%   drop-­‐in   for   any   other   conventional   slab   polyol.     Castor  Oil  End  Use:  Nylon  6/10.  A  large  part  of  this  biomass  is  used  in  the  production  of  Mattresses  by  Elastogran.  associated  costs  and  emissions.  Rhodia  SA  introduced  a  new  nylon  6/10  range  of  materials  made  in  part  from   castor  oil.   which   in   automotive   construction.  Technyl®  eXten     In  Nov  2009.  This  means  that  up  to  25  per   cent   of   the   weight   in   the   polyure   thane   slabstock   foam   can   be   replaced   with   renewable   resources.  Paris.   Lupranol  Balance  50  is  based  on  a  content  of  31  %  castor-­‐oil.       -­‐performance   alternatives.     Background:   Rhodia   develops   and   produces   specialty   chemicals.   for   example.  health.basf.     significant   reduction   in   the   environmental   impact   related   to   its   production   from   raw   materials  of  plant  origin  (i.  BASF  and  Elastogran  research  and  development  experts  have  succeeded   in  the  development  of  a  poly  etherol  made  of  castor  oil.     It   provides   added-­‐value   products   and   high-­‐performance   solutions   to   diversified   markets.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 132   material   derived   from   castor   oil.  personal  and  home  care.  consumer   goods   and   industrial.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  flavors  and  fragrances.e.     Website:  www.     The   new   product   is   made   up   of   31%   castor   oil.  a  50%  reduction  in  greenhouse  gas  emissions).  without  impairing  the  performance  of   the  foam.   allows   savings   in   weight.   through   its   six   global   enterprises.     CastorOil.  electronics.   A   finished   mattress   made   with   Lupranol®   BALANCE  contains  up  to  24%  by  weight  of  castor  oil.   This   established   and   now   revitalized   material   combines   product   properties   such   as   good   lowtemperature   impact   resistance   with   a   relatively   low   density   for   a   polyamide.   Mattresses  made  up  of  almost  25%  renewable  raw  material.  This  very  high  percentage  of  renewable  raw  material  in  the  finished  product  is  a   breakthrough  in  the  realm  of  polyurethane  base  products.

 and  is  now  set  to  be  commercialized.   A   good   example   is   its   very   good   resistance   to   salts.rhodia.  The  company  is  headquartered  in  the  Netherlands.  with  a  high  rate  of  crystallization   enabling  high  productivity.   life   protection   and   housing.       The   company   is   targeting   auto   industry   with   the   new   bio-­‐based   performance   materials   in   response  to  demand  from  auto  customers  for  more  environmentally  friendly  materials.  The  material  has  low  moisture  absorption  and  excellent  chemical   and  hydrolysis  resistance.    one    increase  the  service  life  of  its  AA   and  AAA  ranges  of  alkaline  batteries  by  up  to  50%.V.  Technyl®  eXten  has  has  a  higher  level  of  performance  than   conventional  engineering  plastics.     CastorOil.   Because   of   its   low   moisture   absorption.  It  has  also  reduced  carbon  footprint:  the  production  of  a   ton  of  this  product  requires  20%  less  non-­‐renewable  resources  than  the  production  of  a  ton   of  conventional  polyamide  with  equivalent  performance  properties.  Ltd.   pharmaceuticals.  which  makes  it  highly  suitable  for  various  demanding  applications.   produced  in  part  from  castor  oil.       Website:  www.   The   product   is   involved   in   final   approvals   by   several   customers   in   the   automotive  industry.   -­‐chain  polyamide  whose  properties  make  it  suitable   for   demanding   applications   such   as   those   in   the   automotive   and   electrical   markets.700  people  worldwide.   for   instance   in   the   automotive   and   electrical   markets.   such   as   calcium   chloride.   has   been   developed  by  DSM.   electrical   and   electronics.  high-­‐performance   engineering   plastic.   Approximately   70%   of  the  polymer  consists  of  building  blocks  derived   from  castor   oil  as   a   renewable   resource.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 133   In   April   2010.   DSM   has   annu 22.  with  locations   on  five  continents.     According  to  the  company.10.   It   combines  the  benefits  of  a  high  melting  point  of  ca.   Its   end   markets   include   human   and   animal   nutrition   and   health.   The   new   material.  250 oC.   Rhodia   announced   the   launch   of   Technyl®   eXten   using   polyamide   6.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     Castor  Oil  End  Use:     .  an  engineering  plastic     In  A -­‐based.   creates   solutions   that   nourish.com           DSM     Main  Line  of  Business:  A  life  sciences  and  materials  sciences  company     Corporate  Headquaters:  Heerlen.   coatings   and   paint.   automotive.   personal   care.  Netherland       Background   -­‐   Royal   DSM   N.   protect   and   improve   performance.  Technyl®eXten.   which   is   based   on   polyamide   (PA)   410.  DSM  is  listed  on  Euronext  Amsterdam.  is  already  helping  Rocket  Electric  Co.       -­‐performance   polyamide   with   excellent   mechanical   properties.

    In   2002.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .6  trillion  yen   (US$50  billion)  for  the  fiscal  year  ended  March  31.   Headquartered  in  Tokyo.       Website:  www.     To  address  this  need.  This  new   bio-­‐based  polymer  is  used  for  small  components  of  notebook  PCs  and  mobile  phones.  Fujitsu  has  succeeded  in  developing  a  prototype  of  certain   notebook   PC-­‐cover   components   with   an   exceptionally   high   bio-­‐content   of   60-­‐80%.  2010.   With   approximately   170.  what  has  been  needed   is   the   development   of   a   new   bio-­‐based   polymer   with   a   higher   bio-­‐content   that   features   superior  flexibility  and  is  suitable  for  mass-­‐production.  in   order   for  plant-­‐based  materials  to  be  used  more  widely  in  Fujitsu  products.  However.   the   polymer   maintains   good   impact-­‐ resistance  and  thus  it  is  hoped  that  the  material  could  eventually  be  used  in  PC  chasses  and   other  larger  components.  Fujitsu  Limited  reported  consolidated  revenues  of  4.  Moreover.   Fujitsu   started   using   bio-­‐based   polymers   based   on   polylactic   acid.com       Fujitsu  Limited     Main  Line  of  Business:  ICT-­‐based  business  solutions  provider     Corporate  Headquarters:  Tokyo.   made   from   materials  including  corn.   Fujitsu   combines   a   worldwide   corps   of   systems   and   services   experts   with   reliable   computing   and   communications   products   and   microelectronics   to   deliver   added   value   to   customers.  such   as  connector  cover.  Fujitsu  and  Fujitsu  Laboratories  worked  with  a  major  French  chemical   company.  Japan     Background:  Fujitsu  is  a  provider  of  ICT-­‐based  business  solutions  for  the  global  marketplace.     Castor  Oil  End  Use:  Polyamide-­‐11  (PA-­‐11)     Fujitsu  Limited  and  Fujitsu  Laboratories  Limited  have  developed  a  new  polymer  with  a  high   bio-­‐content  that  uses  castor  oil  extracted  from  the  seeds  of  the  castor  bean.   the   resulting   new   material   has   sufficient   flexibility   to   withstand   repeated   bending   without   causing   the   whitening   that   often   occurs   when   such   materials  are  strained.  Arkema.fujitsu-­‐general.000   employees   supporting   customers   in   70   countries.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 134   Website:  www.  which  is  derived  from  castor  oil.com       CastorOil.  The  new  bio-­‐ based  polymer  features  superior  flexibility  that  can  withstand  repeated  bending.  in  the  chassis  of  the  FMV-­‐BIBLO  notebook  PC.       By   weakening   the   interaction   of   the   chain   molecule   in   PA-­‐11   and   relaxing   the   stereo-­‐ regularity   of   their   organization.dsm.  and  succeeded  in  developing  a  new  bio-­‐based  polymer  plastic  that  has  as   its  principal  component  polyamide-­‐11  (PA-­‐11).   Even   after   adding   high-­‐density   fillers   to   increase   strength.

  systems   and   components  for  all  the  world's  major  automakers.   is   then   added   to   the   substance   to   produce   the   resin."   said   Akio   Shikamura.  The  newly  developed  radiator  tank  is  more  than  seven  times  more   resistant  to  calcium  chloride  and  can  be  produced  at  lower  cost  compared  to  conventional   products  designed  for  cold  regions.   Global   consolidated   sales   totaled   US$32.  it   was   previously   difficult   to   develop   a   resin   with   a   high   percentage   of   plant-­‐derived   ingredients.0   billion   for   fiscal  year  ended  March  31.     Castor  Oil  End  Use:       DENSO   Corporation   has   developed   a   plant-­‐derived   resin   radiator   tank   using   an   organic   compound  derived  from  castor-­‐oil  tree.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  An  additive.       The  plant-­‐derived  resin  radiator  end  tank  which  can  be  found  in  some  2009  Toyota  Camrys   has  earned  the  Most  Innovative  Use  of  Plastics  award  in  the  Environment  Category  from  the   Society  of  Plastics  Engineers  (SPE)  Automotive  Division  for  Toyota  and  partners  DENSO  and   DuPont  Automotive.  according  to  the  company.   the   cost   increases   for   on-­‐board   devices   that   need   to   be   resistant   to   calcium-­‐ chloride.  DENSO  started  mass-­‐producing  this  new  product  in   the  spring  of  2009  for  vehicles  sold  worldwide.  such  as  glass   fiber.   Since   engine   compartment   components.  Japan     Background:   DENSO.   Plant-­‐derived   ingredient   comprises   about   40   percent   of   the   eco-­‐friendly   resin.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 135   DENSO     Main   Line   of   Business:     Supplier   of   advanced   automotive   technology.   systems   and   components     Corporate  Headquarters:  Aichi  prefecture.  operates  in  33  countries  and  regions  with   approximately   120.       The  eco-­‐friendly   polymer   -­‐   DuPont   Kabushiki   Kaisha.  2010.       Generally.   a   supplier   of   advanced   automotive   technology.  such  as  the  radiator  tank  need  to  be  extremely  heat  resistant  and  durable.  DENSO  aims  to  incorporate  the  new  resin  into  a  wide   range   of   products   in   an   effort   to   reduce   the   use   of   limited   oil   resources.  managing  officer  responsible  for  DENSO's  Thermal  Systems  Business  Group.globaldenso.  "In  addition  to  increasing  installations  of  the   new  radiator  tank  to  more  vehicles.       Website:  www.  which  is  contained  in  large  amounts  in  snow-­‐melting  agents  dispensed  on  the  road   in  many  colder  regions.000   employees.   reduce   CO 2   emissions   during   a   product's   life   cycle   and   help   prevent   global   warming.com       CastorOil.   is   produced   by   a   chemical   reaction   between   two   organic   compounds  that  are  derived  from  castor-­‐oil  tree  and  petroleum.

  ELANTAS   Electrical   Insulation.       Corporate  Headquarters:  Michigan.  Products  made  by  companies  in  the   ALTANA  Group  are  sold  in  over  100  countries  worldwide.  In  this  backdrop.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   The   product   range   includes   additives.     ALTANA       Main  Line  of  Business:  Specialty  chemical  producer     Corporate  Headquarters:  Germany     Background:    The  name  ALTANA  represents  a  global  specialty  chemical  group.   ALTANA   offers   matching   speciality   products   for   coating   manufactures.   health   and  safety  performance.   paint   and   plastic   processors.  the  company  is  using  more  ecofriendly  products   in  chemical  production  and  one  of  the  products  under  research  for  producing  chemicals  is   castor  oil.   it  is  the  second  largest  chemical  manufacturer   in  the  world  by   revenue  (after   BASF)   and   as   of   February   2009.  advanced  materials.  Dow  Chemicals  along  with  Royal  Castor  Products  Ltd.   the   printing   and   cosmetic   industries.     ALTANA   develops.   produces   and   sells   innovative   products   in   the   specialty   chemicals   business.   Foreign  business  accounts  for  84%  of  its  total  turnover.   and   the   electrical   and   electronic   industry.   special   coatings   and   adhesives.  Royal  Castor  has  has  a  joint  venture  with  a  Japanese  company  for   manufacturing  high-­‐end  castor  derivatives  and  an  exclusive  tie-­‐up  with  an  Italian  company   for  speciality  products.  a  Gujarat-­‐based  company   have   signed   a   commitment   to   conduct   research   in   sustainable   bio-­‐based   products   and   solutions  using  castor  oil.  USA     Background:   The   Dow   Chemical   Company   is   an   American   multinational   corporation.   Dow   later   extended   its   operations   to   include   the   automotive   and   agricultural   sectors   along   with   a   Polyurethane  system  development  center  and  other  commercial  offices.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 136   Dow  India     Main  Line  of  Business:  Production  of  specialty  chemical.   effect   CastorOil..   and   ACTEGA   Coatings   &   Sealants.     Castor  Oil  End  Use:     In   1995.   As   of   2007.   ECKART   Effect   Pigments.   the   third-­‐largest   chemical   company   in   the   world   by   market   capitalization  (after  BASF  and  DuPont).     polystyrene.  It  com-­‐prises   the  holding  company  ALTANA  AG  and  four  operating  divisions:  BYK  Additives  &  Instruments.   They  have  currently  43  operational  companies  and  47  application  and  research  laboratories   worldwide.   Dow   opened   its   first   representative   office   in   New   Delhi   in   1963.  agrosciences   and  plastics.   the   Dow   Chemical   Company   set   important   goals   to   improve   environment.

  Raw   material   involved   in   polyurethane  is  castor  oil  derivative.net)  is  a  manufacturer  of  metallic  pigments  for  the  paints  and  coatings   industry.com       BioSolar     Main  Line  of  Business:  Solar  cell  manufacturer.70  and  $1  per  square  foot.  The  company  uses  castor  oil  as  one  of  the  ingredient  in  its  lipstick.actega.  are  typically  made   from  petroleum  products.         Website:  www.  USA     Background:  BioSolar.   such   as   injection   molding   and   thin-­‐film   roll-­‐to-­‐roll.   their   backsheets   will   cost   25   percent   less   than   conventional  backsheets.       these  backsheets  are  made  from  a  biobased  polyamide  resin  made  from  castor  beans  and   cotton.  BioSolar  is   the  first  company  to  introduce  a  new  dimension  of  cost  reduction  by  replacing  petroleum-­‐ based   plastic   solar   cell   components   with   durable   bio-­‐based   components.  has  developed  a  breakthrough  technology  to  produce  bio-­‐based   materials   from   renewable   plant   sources   that   will   reduce   the   cost   per   watt   of   solar   cells.   sealants   and   compounds.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 137   pigments.   Through   the   advanced   manipulation   of   bio-­‐based   polymers.altana.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     According   to   the   company.  amorphous  silicon   or  other  solar  technologies.  BioSolar  makes  solar  energy  a  true  green  source  of  energy.  Inc.   and   testing   and   measuring  instruments.   lightweight   concrete   industries   and   the   cosmetics  industry.eckart.   the   graphic   arts   industry.   substrate   layer.       ACTEGA   Rhenania   (www.   BioSolar   intends   to   produce   robust   bio-­‐ based  components  that  meet  the  stringent  thermal  and  durability  requirements  of  current   solar  cell  manufacturing  processes.     Castor  Oil  End  Use:  BioBacksheet     Backsheets.       ECKART  (www.   the   plastics.   BioSolar  can   help  reduce   the   cost   per   watt   through   the   use   of   its   lower   cost   bio-­‐based   materials.   impregnating   resins   &   varnishes.  which  are  a  protective  layer  on  photovoltaic  solar  modules.       Castor  Oil  End  Uses:  Polyurethane  and  Lipstick     materials  in  some  of  the  products  they  produce.   backsheet  as  well  as  module  and  panel  components.  which  cost  between  $0.   to   create   superstrate   layer.  The  company   CastorOil.com)   has   developed   a   novel   series   of   solvent-­‐free   polyurethane   adhesives   for   laminates   to   be   used   in   packaging.   Most  of  the  solar  industry  is  focused  on  photovoltaic  efficiency  to   reduce  cost.       BioSolar   materials   can   be   used   directly   in   conventional   manufacturing   systems.     Corporated  Headquarters:  California.  Whether  solar  cells  are  produced  using   crystalline  silicon.   By   removing   petroleum  from  solar  cells.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 138   claims   that   in   addition   to   being   less   expensive   and   more   sustainable,   its   single-­‐layer   construction   avoids   the   delamination   problem   conventional   petroleum-­‐based   backsheets   may  have.  The  proces  starts  with  used  cotton  rags  and  turns  them  into  a  film  of  cellulose,  a   natural  fiber  and  then  the  film  is  blended  with  a  type  of  nylon  made  from  castor  beans.  The   tests  conducted  by  the  company  at  the  National  Renewable  Energy  Laboratory  shows  that   flexible  plastic  backsheet  lasts  longer.     Website:  www.biosolar.com     Castor  Derivatives  in  Deodorants  and  Body  Lotions     The   castor   derivative   zinc   ricinoleate   is   used   as   a   key   ingredient   in   the   manufacturing   of   deodorants   and   body   lotions.   Prominent   companies   that   use   zinc   ricinoleate   as   a   key   ingredient  are:  Lavera,  Avene  &  Janson    

Lavera  
  Main  Line  of  Business:  Organic  cosmetic  company     Corporate  Headquarters:  Washington,  USA     Background:  Lavera  is  natural  cosmetics  manufacturer  that  offers  a  complete  system  of  skin   and   body   care   specially   formulated   for   allergy   sufferers   and   sensitive   skin   (Neutral).   They   use  plant  based  products  in  their  products.  They  received  the  "Innovation  Prize  of  the  Year"   award  in  Europe  at  the  Biofach    the  largest  natural  product  expo  worldwide    several  years   in  a  row.     Castor  Oil  End  Use:  Zinc  ricinoleate  and  hydrogenated  castor  oil     The   company   uses   zinc   ricinoleate   as   one   of   the   ingredients   in   its   deodorant   and   body   lotion.  It  uses  hydrogenated  castor  oil  in  its  sunscreen  lotion  production.       Website:  www.lavera.com      

Avene    
Main  Line  of  Business:  Dermatology  and  hydrotherapy     Corporate  Headquarters:  New  Jersy,  USA     Background:  Since  1743,  when  the  first  Hydrotherapy  Center  was  built  near  the  Sainte-­‐Odile   spring,   the   vocation   of   Avène   has   never   changed:   The   Hydrotherapy   Center   is   entirely   dedicated  to  dermatology.  The  therapeutic  properties  of  Avène  Thermal  spring  water  have   been   used   at   the   Hydrotherapy   Center   to   address   a   variety   of   dermatological   conditions   such  as  atopic  dermatitis,  psoriasis,  eczema  and  burns.       Castor  Oil  End  Use:  Uses  zinc  ricinoleate  in  its  deodorant  production    

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Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 139     Website:  www.aveneusa.com    

  Jason    
Main  Line  of  Business:    Natural  cosmetics     Corporate  Headquarters:  Boulder,  Colorado     Background:  Since  1959,  JASON  Natural  Products  has  been  the  leading  purveyor  of  pure  and   natural  products  for  skin,  body,  hair  and  oral  health  for  the  whole  family,  giving  consumers   effective,   environmentally-­‐friendly   alternatives   to   mass-­‐produced,   synthetic   chemical   products.   It   features   over   200   products   which   are   manufactured   using   pure   organic   ingrediants.       Castor  Oil  End  Use:  Uses  zinc  riciloneate  in  hand  and  body  lotion  and  deodorants.       Website:  www.jason-­‐natural.com      

6.2   Future   Possible   End-­‐uses   and   End   user   Industries   for   Castor   Oil   and   Derivatives  
  1.  Biopolymers   2.  Biofuels   3.  Others    

6.2.1  Biopolymers  and  Castor  oil  
  The   use   of   oleochemicals   in   polymers   has   a   long   tradition.   One   can   differentiate   between   the   use   as   polymer   materials,   such   as   linseed   oil   and   soybean   oil   as   drying   oils,   polymer   additives,  such  as  epoxidized  soybean  oil  as  plasticizer,  and  building  blocks  for  polymer,  such   as   dicarboxylic   acids   for   polyesters   or   polyamides.   Considering   the   large   market   for   polymers,  the  share  of  oleochemically  based  products  is  relatively  small  -­‐  or,  in  other  terms  -­‐   the  potential  for  these  products  is  very  high.     Oleochemicals  for  Polymers  -­‐  Selected  Examples       Product/Use   Source   Polymer  materials       Polymerized  soybean  oil,  castor   oil   Drying  oils   Soybean  oil,  Castor  oil   Polymerized  linseed  oil   Linoleum   Linseed  oil   Polymer  additives       Epoxides   Stabilizers,  Plasticizers   Soybean  oil   Soaps  (Ba/Cd,  Ca/Zn)   Stabilizers   Stearic  acid   Fatty  acid  esters,  -­‐  amides,   Lubricants   Rapeseed  oil  

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Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 140   waxes   Building  blocks  for  polymers   Dicarboxylic  acids   Ether-­‐/ester  polyols  

  Polyamides,  Polyesters,  Alkyd   Resins   Polyurethanes  

  Tall  oil,  Soybean  oil,  Castor  oil   Sunflower  oil,  Linseed  oil,  Oleic   Acid  

Source:  Karlheinz  Hill,  Pure  Appl.  Chem.,  Vol.  72,  No.  7,  pp.  1255 1264,  2000  

  Building  Blocks  for  Polymers-­‐based  on  Natural  Oils   Natural Fats and Oils Oleic Acid Caustic Oxidation Sebacic Acid Ozonolysis Dimerization Oxidation/Epoxidatio n Epoxy Ring Opening E Oleochemical Polyois
Polyurethanes

Azelaic Acid Polyamides
Nylon  6.9   Nylon  6.6.9  

Dimer Fatty Acid Polyamido amines
Epoxy  curing  agents  

Polyurethanes
Laminating     Adhesives  

Non-nylon Polyamides
Hotmelt    Adhesives   Printing  Ink  Resins  

Linoleum Radiation Curing Acrylates

Modification of Epoxy Resins

Karlheinz  Hill,  Pure  Appl.  Chem.,  Vol.  72,  No.  7,  pp.  1255 1264,  2000     Development   of   new   bio-­‐materials   and   applications   continues   at   a   strong   pace   despite   practical   obstacles   such   as   high   prices,   limited   production   capacity,   and   the   lack   of   an   infrastructure  for  effective  composting.  New  materials  and  modifying  agents  are  expanding   biopolymers'   reach,   particularly   in   the   case   of   polylactic   acid   (PLA).   Efforts   are   focused   on   boosting  mechanical  and  thermal  properties  so  biopolymers  can  be  effective  alternatives  to   less  costly  commodity  materials.       Polylactic   acid   (PLA),   a   biopolymer   originating   from   corn   sugar   fermentation   is   one   of   the   most  popular  biopolymers.  Two  other   biopolymers  with  a  much  longer  commercial  history   are   latex   rubber   and   nylon-­‐11   (made   from   a   by-­‐product   of   castor   oil).   The   latter   two   are   applied  in  only  a  small  fraction  of  the  millions  of  polymer  products  in  global  commerce.  The   good  news  is  that  more  biopolymers  are  approaching  commercial  viability  for  a  long  list  of   familiar  and  unfamiliar  objects.    

 

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Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 141   Europe  is  the  largest  market  for  biopolymers,  with  60%  of  total  production  centered  there.   Average  global  growth  is  12.6%  per  year,  and  the  overall  market   is  expected  to  grow  from   114   million   lb   in   2005   to   206   million   lb   by   2010.   Most   of   that   usage   will   still   be   in   two   applications:  compost  bags  and  loose-­‐fill  packaging.     The  quest  for  bio-­‐sourcing  of  plastics  has  also  brought  back  a  castor  oil-­‐sourced  polyamide.   For   instance,   BASF   produced   a   nylon   6.10   about   50   years   ago   but   the   product   was   discontinued.   Now,   with   growing   interest   in   producing   plastics   from   renewable   resources,   the   company   has   reintroduced   the   material.   It   contains   about   60   per   cent   sebacic   acid   -­‐   derived   from   castor   oil.   It   has   a   relatively   low   density   for   a   polyamide,   good   low   temperature   impact   strength   and   good   dimensional   stability   because   of   its   low   water   absorption  and  BASF  says  it  is  suitable  for  typical  nylon  6  applications.     6.2.1.1  Biopolymers  in  Durables       While  biodegradable  plastics  such  as  PLA  have  made  strong  penetration  so  far  in  disposable   consumer  packaging,  durable  applications  may  not  be  that  far  behind.  Japanese  companies   are  using  biopolymers  in  auto  interior  parts  and  cell  phone  and  computer  housings.     Mitsubishi   Motors   Corp.   and   the   Aichi   Industrial   Technology   Institute   have   developed   a   biopolymer   of   polybutylene   succinate   (PBS)   and   bamboo   fiber   for   auto   interiors.   PBS   is   made   from   1,4-­‐butanediol   (a   petrochemical)   and   succinic   acid   (a   product   of   fermenting   sugar   cane   or   corn).   The   fiber-­‐reinforced   material   is   said   to   provide   greater   rigidity   and   strength.       Meanwhile,   Fujitsu   Ltd.   and   Fujitsu   Laboratories   Ltd.,   Tokyo,   have   chosen   Rilsan   nylon   11   from   Arkema   for   notebook   PCs   and   cell   phones.   Based   on   castor   oil,   nylon   11   is   typically   used  in  automotive  tubing  and  air-­‐brake  hose.  Formulations  contain   60%  to  80%  nylon  11   with  high-­‐density  fillers  for  increased  strength.  Previously,  the  Fujitsu  companies  developed   a   notebook   PC   housing   based   on   PLA   and   PLA/polycarbonate   blends   (the   latter   in   cooperation  with  Toray  Industries).  This  was  its  FMV  BIBLO  notebook  PC  series,  which  it  had   manufactured  using  a  material  called  Ecodear.  For  its  current  product,  Fujitsu  is  developing   a  castor  oil  derived  PA  11  plastic  with  Arkema,  which  is  more  flexible  and  will  help  expand   its  use  of  bio-­‐plastics  in  notebook  computers.  The  material  can  withstand  repeated  bending   thanks  to  scientists  weakening  the  interaction  of  the  chain  molecule  in  PA  11  and  relaxing   the  stereoregularity  of  their  organisation.  The  improved  durability  means  its  prototypes  of   PC   cover   components   consist   of   60-­‐80   percent   of   the   new   bioplastic,   an   unprecedented   achievement   to   date.   (Reference   URL   from   Fujitsu   -­‐   http://www.fujitsu.com/global/news/pr/archives/month/2006/20061207-­‐01.html     &   based   on  a  July  2007  news  report)     In  Dec  2008,   Toyota  announced  plans  to  use  plant-­‐derived  plastic  in  more  vehicle  models,   starting   with   hybrids   next   years.   The   company   said   that   it   will   use   a   variety   of   materials   (polylactic   acid,   plant-­‐derived   polyester,   castor   oil   derivatives   and   more)   to   make   seat   cushions,   sun   visors,   trunk   liners,   door   trim,   scuff   plates   and   other   interior   parts.   In   2009,   the  company  hopes  for  bioplastic  to  account  for  60  percent  of  the  interior  parts  of  vehicles   it's  used  in.  

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 1  carbon.   produced   using   bio-­‐polymers   derived   from   the   castor   oil   plant.  it  is  expected  that  there  will  be  a  simultaneous   demand  for  the  suitable  grades  of  castor  oil.     Polyols  can  be  reacted  with  diisocyanates  to  make  polyurethanes.   and  one  with  four  is  a  tetrol  and  so  on.  This  contains  a  polyurethane  foam  that  partially  utilized  castor  oil   (The  other  88  percent.   is   in   the   pre-­‐ production  phase.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  1  oxygen).     In   Feb   2009.     6.   one   of   its   first   product   offerings.   French   nylon   yarn   specialist   SOFILA   announced  in  March  2010  that  it  had  developed  a  new  commercially  available  range  of  high   performance   nylon   yarns.  a  manufacturer  of  opencell  foam  insulation   products  introduced  castor-­‐based  spray  foam  insulation.com  ).  The  main  use  of  polymeric  polyols  is  as  reactants  to   make  other  polymers.   a   San   Francisco   retailer   that   calls   itself   "the   eco-­‐friendly   mattress   store.     An  isocyanate  is  a  functional  group  of  atoms   N=C=O  (1  nitrogen.  though.  solar  cells  manufacturer  BioSolar  announced  that  it  planned  to  use  biomass  in   solar   panel   components   in   an   effort   to   reduce   the   costs   of   solar   cells.  These  yarns  have  been  presented  at  Premiere  Vision  in  Paris  last  year  and  were  under   trial  (as  of  March  2010)  by  major  French  and  European  textile  brands.2  Castor  Oil  Polyurethane     Castor  oil  is  increasingly  finding  application  in  the  manufacture  of  polyurethane  foams.   Keetsa.   yarns.  is  still  petroleum-­‐based)     After   two   years   of   research   and   development.  BioSolar  will  use  primarily   recycled   cotton   in   combination   with   natural   polymers   derived   from   castor   bean   oil   in   its   BioBacksheet  product.  for  instance  in  hosiery   and  socks.  according  to  the  company.  Any   organic  compound  which  contains  an  isocyanate  group  may  also  be  referred  to  in  brief  as  an   CastorOil.2.     Polyols   are   compounds   in   which   multiple   hydroxyl   functional   groups   are   available   for   organic   reactions.   a   BioBacksheet."   announced   it   was   selling   mattresses   made   from   a   material   it   enthusiastically   promotes  as  "BioFoam".   thus   replacing   petroleum-­‐based   solar   panel   components   with   durable   biomass-­‐based   plastic   materials.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 142     In  Dec  2008.  ICYNENE  LD-­‐R-­‐ -­‐ based  foam  insulation  and  air  barrier  material  that  reduces  the  need  for   petroleum-­‐based   polyols.  A  molecule  with  two  hydroxyl   groups  is  a  diol.   one  with  three  is  a  triol.1.     In  Jan  2009.   The   product   was   made   using   castor   oil   and   exceeds   United   States   Department   of   Agriculture  (USDA)  requirements  for  a  rapidly  renewable  product.  The  product  forms  the  bottom  layer  of  most  crystalline  silicon  (c-­‐Si)  solar   cells a  layer  traditionally  comprised  of  petroleum-­‐based  plastics.  (  www.icynene.  Icynene  Inc.  The   polyurethane  is  produced  from  polyols  based  on  castor  oil.   According   to   BioSolar.     With  the  growth  in  the  biopolymers  industry.

    Features  of  Castor  Oil  Based  Polyurethane      Superior  to  PPG  (Polypropylene  Glycol)  or  polyester  in  water  and  hydrolysis  resistance    Superior  to  PPG  or  polyester  in  insulation    Lower  viscosity  than  Polybutadiene  or  Polyester     One   of   the   most   challenging   issues   of   polyurethane   flooring   is   heat   and   humidity.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 143   isocyanate.4  %   Extender  pigment:  23.  outside  the  lubricants  markets.0  %   Dehydrating  agent:  10.  adhesives.   An   isocyanate   may   have   more   than   one   isocyanate   group.  mattresses.  automotive  seats  and  so  on.3  Nylon     Nylon  11     The  world's  largest  single  use  of  castor  oil  in  one  product.  fibers.1  %   Pigment:  5.     The   hope   is   that   using   renewable   resources   feedstocks   such   as   castor   oil   for   polyols   and   subsequently   polyurethane   production   will   reduce   the   demand   on   non-­‐renewable   fossil   fuels   currently   used   in   the   chemical   industry   and   reduce   the   overall   production   of   carbon   dioxide.3  %   Crosslinker:  100.0   Formulation  rate:  3/1     6.     CastorOil.2.0  %   Deformer:  0.   An   isocyanate   that   has  two  isocyanate  groups  is  known  as  a  diisocyanate.  Castor  oil  is  the  only  commercially-­‐available  natural  oil  polyol  that  is  produced   directly  from  a  plant  source:  all  other  natural  oil  polyols  require  chemical  modification  of  the   oils  directly  available  from  plants.  the  most  notable  greenhouse  gas.     There  are  a  limited  number  of  naturally  occurring  vegetable  oils  (triglycerides)  which  contain   the  unreacted  hydroxyl  groups  that  account  for  both  the  name  and  important  reactivity  of   these  polyols.     A  typical  polyurethane  formulation:     Composition     Polyol:  61.     Polyurethane  is  ultimately  used  to  make  elastomeric  shoe  soles.1.  foam  insulation  for   appliances.  These  diisocyanates  are  reacted  with   castor  oil  polyols  in  the  production  of  polyurethanes.  The  commercially  available  polyamide  made   from  castor  oil  is  Arkema's  (earlier  Atofina)  Rilsan  Nylon  11.   The   urethane  produced  from  castor  oil  is  stable  under  high  heat  and  humidity.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .3  %   Wetting  agent:  0.  is   in  the  manufacture  of  polyamide  11  (Nylon  11).

 nuts  and  bolts.  etc.  bumpers.   and   remains   the   choice   polymer   of   high   tech   industries   for   the   manufacture  of  parts  requiring  optimum  reliability.  screws.   printing   components   (press   rollers).  6-­‐6  and  6-­‐10.     The  process  to  make  Nylon  11  from  castor  oil  is  quite  involved  and  includes  several  reaction   steps.  protection  of  materials  for  construction  and   public  works  (cladding.  brake  lines).  but  briefly.  soundproofing   walls.  its   parent   company.  Nylon  11  has  the  lowest  melting  point.     CastorOil.  Rilsan  ®  has  become  a  pioneer   in   many   diverse   areas.CH2(CH2)8COOH    NH3    H2N(CH2)10COOH  (w-­‐Aminoundecanoic  Acid)     Compared  to  its  predecessors.   stadium   seating.  Uses  of  Rilsan  ®  include:     Polyamides  11  and  12  (Rilsan  ®):  automotive  parts  (fuel  lines.   lowest   specific   gravity   and   the   lowest   moisture   absorption.  Arkema  controls   the  entire  production  chain  for  Rilsan  ®  A  and  B  thanks  to  the  resources  of  TotalFinaElf.   etc.   reverse   Markownikoff   addition   occurs   and   the   main   product   is   x-­‐ bromoundecanoic  acid.  This  is  then  treated  with  ammonia  to  give  x-­‐aminoundecanoic  acid.   methyl   undecylenate   and   a   small   amount   of   fatty   acids.  Nylon  6.     Wide-­‐ranging  powders  and  application   processes  accommodating  various  types  of  support   have  made  Rilsan  ®  the  choice  material  for  coating.   sheathing   for   control   cable.   garden   furniture.  With  its  extensive  and  wide-­‐ranging  properties.  it  is  as  follows:     Castor   oil   is   converted   to   methyl   ricinoleate   by   treatment   with   methyl   alcohol.   and   Costacem.     When   undecylenic   acid   is   treated   with   hydrogen   bromide   in   a   non-­‐polar   solvent   in   the   presence   of   peroxide.   It   is   also   resistant   to   acid   and   alkaline   reagents   or   oxidizing   agents.  pneumatic  brake  lines   for   heavy   goods   vehicles.   These   qualities   of   castor   oil   are   of   particular   importance  in  its  use  in  high  quality  engineering  plastics  and  in  durable  protective  coatings.).   Methyl   ricinoleate   is   pyrolysed   at   high   temperature   yielding   heptaldehyde.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 144   The  world's  only  producer  of  polyamide  11  using  amino-­‐undecanoic  acid.   which  is  a  crystalline  solid.  haberdashery  (hooks.   its   subsidiary   specialising   in   the   production   of   seeds   for   castor  plants.   hydraulics   and   oil   industry   (offshore   extraction).in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  Aminoundecanoic  acid  is  the  starting  material  for  nylon-­‐11.   aviation   parts   (alkaline  battery  trays).  heating  pipes  and  fittings.   components   for   precision   mechanical   and   electrical   industries.   flexible   tubing   for   compressed   air.  buckles).   water   pipes.   pipelines   and   various   equipment   (dishwasher   baskets.   Thermoplastic  polyamide  coating  powders  (Rilsan  ®):  protection  of  automotive  parts   (clutch  controls.   air-­‐conditioning   ducts).   Methyl   undecylenate   is   hydrolysed   to   produce   undecylenic  acid.  aluminium  profiles.CH2(CH2)8COOH   (x-­‐ bromoundecanoic  acid)     BrCH2.       Nylon  11  has  been  produced  from  11-­‐aminoundecanoic  acid.     (CH2=CH(CH2)8COOH)   Undecylenic   Acid     HBr     BrCH2.   refrigerator   shelves.

 and  BASF  says  it  is  suitable  for  typical   Nylon  6   applications  and  those  where  nylon  6  has  shown  limitations.  Physical.     Polyamide  from  BASF     The  quest  for  bio-­‐sourcing  of  plastics  has  brought  back  a  castor  oil-­‐sourced  polyamide  from   BASF's   old   chemistry   notebooks.  thermal  and  mechanical  properties   CastorOil.  2.     Nylon  6/10     At  the  end  of  2009.  The  new  grade  is  being  sold  as  Pebax  RNew  in  25  to  72D  hardness.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   All   elastomers   were   characterized  by  conventional  methods.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 145   Structure  of  Nylon-­‐11  /  Polyamide-­‐11.   Ricinoleic  acid-­‐based  biopolymers  as  drug  carriers  -­‐  Polyanhydrides  synthesized  from   pure  ricinoleic  acid  half-­‐esters  with  maleic  and  succinic  anhydrides  have  been  shown   to   possess   desired   physicochemical   and   mechanical   properties   for   use   as   drug   carriers.4-­‐butane  diol  were  prepared  and   cured   using   toluene   diisocyanate   dimer   as   crosslinking   agent.         Arkema   has   now   extended   the   technology   into   TPEs   (thermo   plastic   elastomers)   by   producing  a  grade  of  its  Pebax  polyether  block  amide  with  the  nylon  block  using  the  nylon   11  chemistry.   Biocompatibility   studies   have   demonstrated   their   toxicological   inertness   and  biodegradability.4-­‐toluene  diisocyanate  and  1.  the  company  announced  that  it  was  introducing  a  new  nylon  6/10  range   of  materials  made  in  part  from  castor  oil.  Transesterification   of  high  molecular  weight  PLA  with  pure  ricinoleic  acid  and  repolymerization  of  those   oligomers   by   condensation   resulted   in   multiblock   P   (PLA-­‐RA)   copolyesters   of   molecular  weights  between  6000  and  14000.   Millable   polyurethane   elastomers   based   on   difunctional   castor   oil   and   poly   (propylene  glycol).   Lactic  Acid  and  Ricinoleic  Acid  Based  Copolyesters   -­‐   Copolyesters  based  on  purified   ricinoleic  (RA)  and  lactic  (LA)  acids  with  different  RA:LA  ratios  have  been  synthesized   by   thermal   polycondensation   and   by   transesterification   of   high   molecular   weight   poly(lactic  acid)  (PLA)  with  ricinoleic  acid  and  repolyesterification.   Produced   from   Sebacic   acid.   and   if   made   from   renewable   sources   they   will   have   low   cost   and   biodegradability   which   are   of   importance.       Research  &  Trends  in  Castor  Oil  Based  Biopolymers     Castor   oil   based   polyurethane   adhesives   for   wood-­‐to-­‐wood   bonding   -­‐   Most   adhesives   are   polymeric   adhesives.   In   view   of   these   properties   research   is   being   done   on   polyurethane   (PU)   adhesives   from   different   polyester  polyols  obtained  from  castor  oil.  with  good  low  temperature  impact  strength  and  good  dimensional   stability  because  of  its  low  water  absorption.   this   has   a   relatively   low   density  for  a  polyamide.

  Abhijit   B.  Issue  .   D.  Year:  2002)   Electrical  characterization  of  castor-­‐oil  resins  -­‐   Several  Brazilian  research  works  have   shown   that   new   materials.c.  thin  films  and  circular  plates  of  1-­‐2  mm  thickness.  to  utilize  castor  oil  in  the  preparation  of  polyesteramide   resins.   Their   mechanical   properties   are   also   presented   and   discussed     (Source:   Gonzaga.   Conference   Record   of   the   1998   IEEE   International   Symposium   on   Volume  1.  In  this  work.   d.   Dabhade..   sealing   air   leakages   and   tissue   adhesion.   R.A.   Castor   oil   was   first   converted   into   dehydrated   castor   oils   (DCO)   to   improve   drying   characteristics.   Shende.  using  the  same  fabrication   techniques.     Can  castor  oil  become  an  efficient  bio-­‐fuel  and  bio-­‐diesel?     This  question  is  answered  by  analyzing  the  following:     Characteristics  of  oils  or  fats  affecting  their  suitability  for  use  as  fuel   Characteristics  of  efficient  bio-­‐fuels  and  bio-­‐diesels   CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .c.   Recently.   Jadhav.   1998.P.C.1)     6.  succinic  and  adipic  acids  in   presence  of  xylene  as  azeotropic  solvent.   Electrical   Insulation.   This   section   analyses   this   issue   in   detail.   Murakami.  Tests  for  a.   N-­‐   bis   hydroxethyl)   castor   oil   amide}   of   mixed   fatty   acids   using   0.  7-­‐10  Jun  1998  Page(s):181  -­‐  185  vol.   Shrikant   B.  permittivity.  The  resins  obtained  were  then  analysed  for   its   physico-­‐chemical.  sebacic.   film   performance   properties   and   resistance   to   various   chemicals     (Source:   Author(s):   Pradeep   G.   including   haemostasis.   based   on   polyurethane   resins   derived   from   castor   oil.   In   the   last   few   years.   biocompatible   and   having   the   capacity  of  reacting  with  amino  groups  present  in  the  biological  molecules.   Chierice.   efforts   have   been   made   to   develop   a   biodegradable   urethane-­‐based   bioadhesive   based   on   castor   oil   containing   free   isocyanate   groups.   Polyesteramide  resins  from  dehydrated  castor  oil  and  various  dibasic  acids  -­‐  Attempt   has  been  made  in  this  study.   Internal   insulators   and   conductor   covers   are   among   their   main   applications.   there   has   been   a   growing   debate   on   whether   castor   oil   can   be   an   effective   biofuel   (biodiesel)   stock..   This   material   presents   the   advantage   of   being   biodegradable.5   per   cent   sodium   methoxide  as  a  catalyst  and  converted  to  polyesteramide  resins  after  reacting  with   various  dibasic  acids  such  as  phthalic  anhydride.2.  Journal:  Pigment  &  Resin  Technology.2  Castor  Oil  as  Feedstock  for  Biodiesel     Castor  oil.  of  these  resins  were   made  and  electrically  characterized.  owing  to  its  chemical  structure  has  the  potential  to  be  used  as  a  bio-­‐fuel  in  place   of   petrol-­‐based   fuels.  electrical  breakdown..  This  could  in  fact  be  expected  because  of   their  stable  physical  and  chemical  properties.   Investigation   of   these   properties   showed   that   the   elastomers  could  be  tailor  made  in  order  to  fulfill  industrial  needs  (based  on  a  2003   research  paper).R.   insulation   resistance   and   dissipation   factor   show   that   these   materials   are   very   good   insulators.   Altafim.   G.   have  had  great  success  in  the  medical  field.   C.   DCO   was   then   converted   into   diethanolamide   {(N.O.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 146   of   elastomers   were   studied.   Modification  of  the  biopolymer  castor  oil  with  free  isocyanate  groups  to  be  applied   as   bioadhesive   -­‐   June   2006   -­‐   Surgical   adhesives   have   been   used   for   several   applications.

  Flash   point   varies   inimum   flash   point   temperatures   are   required   for   proper  safety  and  handling  of  diesel  fuel.     Iodine  Numbers  for  some  plant  oils  (before  conversion  into  biodiesel)   Coconut  oil:  10   Rapeseed  oil:  94-­‐120   Soybean  oil:  117-­‐143   Sardine  oil:  185   Castor  oil:  60-­‐70     Iodine   Numbers   after   conversion   to   biodiesel   through   transesterification   (approximate   values):   Rapeseed  Methyl  Ester  (Rapeseed  Biodiesel):  97   Rapeseed  Ethyl  Ester  (Another  variety  of  Rapessed  biodiesel):  100   CastorOil.     Flash  Point  (FP)  -­‐   The  flash  point  temperature  of  diesel  fuel  is  the  minimum  temperature  at   which   the   fuel   will   ignite   (flash)   on   application   of   an   ignition   source.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  Heat  of  Combustion    Heating  Value  or  Heat  of  Combustion.     Melt  Point  or  Pour  Point  -­‐   Melt  or  pour  point  refers  to  the  temperature  at  which  the  oil  in   solid  form  starts  to  melt  or  pour.     Iodine   value   (or   Iodine   number)   is   commonly   used   as   a   measure   of   the   chemical   stability   properties   of   different   biodiesel   fuels.  is  the  amount   of  heating  energy  released  by  the  combustion  of  a  unit  value  of  fuels.     Cloud   Point   -­‐   The   temperature   at   which   oil   starts   to   solidify   is   known   as   the   cloud   point.   While   operating   an   engine   at   temperatures   below     cloud   point.   absorbed  by  100  grams  of  given  oil.   The   Iodine   value   is   determined   by   measuring   the   number  of  double  bonds  in  the  mixture  of  fatty  acid  chains  in  the  fuel  by  introducing  iodine   into  100  grams  of  the  sample  under  test  and  measuring  how  many  grams  of  that  iodine  are   absorbed.   Iodine   absorption   occurs   at   double   bond   positions   -­‐   thus   a   higher   IV   number   indicates  a  higher  quantity  of  double  bonds  in  the  sample.     Calorific  Value.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 147   How  does  the  bio-­‐diesel  derived  from  castor  oil  rate  on  the  above  aspects?       Characteristics  of  Oils  Affecting  their  Suitability  for  Use  as  Fuel     The   following   aspects   need   to   be   considered   while   evaluating   a   plant   oil   feedstock   for   biofuel.  In  cases  where  the  temperatures  fall  below  the  melt  point.  measured  in  grams.  greater  potential  to  polymerise   and  hence  lesser  stability.   the  entire  fuel  system  including  all  fuel  lines  and  fuel  tank  will  need  to  be  heated.   heating   will   be   necessary  in  order  to  avoid  waxing  of  the  fuel.     Iodine  Value  (IV)  -­‐   Iodine  Value  (IV)  is  a  value  of  the  amount  of  iodine.

 petrol  and  diesel  fuels  give  comparable  energy  by  weight.   resulting   in   leakage   or   increased   wear.     Sulfur  Percentage  -­‐   The  percentage  by  weight.     Ash   content   for   bio-­‐fuels   is   typically   lower   than   that   for   most   coals.  which  may  contain  toxic  metals   and   other   trace   contaminants.  but  are  important  for  reasons  such  as  environmental  impact  etc.     Viscosity    Viscosity  refers  to  the  thickness  of  the  oil.   Oils   that   are   denser   contain   more   energy.   High   concentrations  of  these  materials  can  cause  injector  tip  plugging.   biomass   ash   may   be   used   as   a   soil   amendment   to   help   replenish  nutrients  removed  by  harvest.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 148   Soy  Ethyl  Ester  (Soy  biodiesel  variety  1):  123   Soy  Methyl  Ester  (Soy  biodiesel  variety  2):  133   Castor  methyl  ester:  60  (estimate)       One   can   hence   see   that   the   process   of   transesterification   (conversion   of   plant   oil   into   biodiesel)  reduces  the  iodine  value  by  a  small  extent.     For   example.  of  sulfur  in  the  fuel  Sulfur  content  is  limited   by  law  to  very  small  percentages  for  diesel  fuel  used  in  on-­‐road  applications.   the   shorter  the  delay  interval  and  the  greater  its  combustibility.  and  is  determined  by  measuring  the   amount  of  time  taken  for  a  given  measure  of  oil  to  pass  through  an  orifice  of  a  specified  size.   Viscosity  affects  injector  lubrication  and  fuel  atomization.  Unlike  coal  ash.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     The   higher   the   cetane   number.     Potassium  Percentage  -­‐  The  percentage  by  weight  of  potassium  in  the  fuel     Characteristics  of  Efficient  Bio-­‐fuels  and  Bio-­‐diesel     What  are  the  most  desirable  values  for  biodiesel.  combustion  deposits  and   injection  system  wear.   noise   and   exhaust   smoke.   Fuel   atomization   is   also   affected   by   fuel   viscosity.     Density     Is   the   weight   per   unit   volume.  increased  exhaust  smoke  and  emissions.  for  the  above  characteristics?  This   section   provides  the  details.    Fuels  with  low  Cetane  Numbers   will   result   in   difficult   starting.     CastorOil.  but  diesel  is  denser  and   hence  gives  more  energy  per  litre.  These  are:     Ash   Percentage   -­‐   Ash   is   a   measure   of   the   amount   of   metals   contained   in   the   fuel.   Diesel   fuels   with   high   viscosity   tend   to   form   larger   droplets   on   injection   which   can   cause   poor   combustion.  There  are  other  aspects/characteristics  which  do  not  have  a  direct  bearing  on  the   performance.   and   sulfur   content   is   much  lower  than  that  for  many  fossil  fuels.   The  aspects  listed  above  are  the  key  aspects  that  determine  the  efficiency  of  a  fuel  for  diesel   engines.   In   general.     Aniline   Point/Cetane   Number   (CN)   -­‐   Is   a   relative   measure   of   the   interval   between   the   beginning   of   injection   and   autoignition   of   the   fuel.   diesel   engines   will   operate  better  on  fuels  with  cetane  numbers  above  50.  Fuels  with  low  viscosity  may  not   provide   sufficient   lubrication   for   the   precision   fit   of   fuel   injection   pumps.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 149   Biodiesel  is  noteworthy  for  its  similarity  to  petroleum-­‐derived  diesel  fuel.15   39   3100   15   <10   <6   (3)   (4)   CastorOil.     Engine  Manufactures  Association  (EMA)  Recommended  Guideline  on  Diesel  Fuel       Property   Flash  Point.  ppm  max   Distillation  %  Vol.   with   higher   ignition   stability.4   0.   Water.   This   characteristic   also   makes   them   easier   to   process   thermochemically   into   higher-­‐value   fuels   such  as  methanol  or  hydrogen.   nearly   all   kinds   of   biomass   feedstocks   destined   for   combustion  fall  in  the  range  15-­‐19  GJ/T.  °C   Microbial  Growth   Test  Method   D  93   D1744   D2276  or  D5452   D  86       D  445   D  482   D  2622   D  130   D  613   D  4737   D  524   D  287   D6078(2)   D  2274   CRC  Rating   %  Flow  Loss   D2500  or  D4539     FQP-­‐1A  EMA     #1  DF(1)   38   200   10     272   288   1.05   3b   50   45   0.  10%  residue  max.15   43   3100   15   <10   <6   (3)   (4)   FQP-­‐1A  EMA   #2  DF(1)   52   200   10     332   355   1.  ppm  max   Sediment.g.   Accelerated  Stability.  the  values  for  most  woody   materials  are  18-­‐19  GJ/T  (7750-­‐8200  Btu/lb).   Both   of   these   liquid   fuels   have   lower   vapor   pressure   and   flammability   than   their   petroleum-­‐based   competitors     an   advantage   in   some   cases   (e.  %  max.  40  °C   Ash.   Lubricity.  g.3  -­‐  2.  min.  Recovery.     However.   in   contrast   to   their   fairly   uniform   physical   properties.   biomass   fuels   are   rather   heterogeneous  with  respect  to  their  chemical  elemental  composition.   For   example.  min.  max.     Despite  their  wide  range  of  possible  sources.  For  most  agricultural  residues.  max.  but  its  sulfur  and  ash  contents  are  also  very   low.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .01   0.   Detergency  -­‐  L10  Injector   Depositing  Test   Low  Temperature  Flow.  mg/L  max.9  -­‐  4.  biomass  feedstocks  are  remarkably  uniform  in   many   of   their   fuel   properties.   Rams  Carbon.g.  there  are  many  kinds  of  coals  whose  gross  heating  value  ranges  from  20  to  30  GJ/T   (gigajoules   per   metric   ton).1   0.  °C  min.   However.05   3b   50   45   0.  %  max.   Kinematic  Viscosity.  engine  starting  at  cold  temperatures).   Bioethanol   has   only   about   70%   the   heating   value  of  petroleum  distillates  such  as  gasoline.  °C   90%.  max.  while  at  the  same   time   having   negligible   sulfur   and   ash   content.   API  Gravity.   Copper  Corrosion.  min.  max.     Most   biomass   materials   are   more   reactive   than   coal.   Sulfur.   Cetane  Index.01   0.   use   in   confined   spaces   such  as  mines)  but  a  disadvantage  in  others  (e.   95%.   compared   with   feedstocks   such   as   coal   or   petroleum.  the  heating  values   are  even  more  uniform    about  15-­‐17  GJ/T  (6450-­‐7300  Btu/lb).   Cetane  Number.

9-­‐6.   in   some   countries   of   Europe   the   upper   limits   have   been   stipulated   at   around   120.  the  better  the  fuel  will   be  as  a   biodiesel.050  maximum   1.  perhaps  does  not).   One   can   hence  see  that  castor  oil  biodiesel  easily  passes  this  test  (while  soy  biodiesel.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   and  all  the  other  biodiesel  contenders  amongst  vegetable  oils  have  cetane  numbers  slightly   lower  than  that  for  castor  oil       Oil   Cetane  Number   Linseed   27.020  maximum   0.  castor  oil  has  one  of  the  highest  cetane  numbers  amongst  vegetable  oils  (about  42).  90%   o recovered)   D  1160   360  maximum   C     How  does  bio-­‐diesel  derived  from  castor  oil  rate  on  the  above  aspects?     This   section   looks   at   the   values   for   biodiesel   derived   from   castor   oil   for   each   of   the   characteristics  described  in  the  previous  sections.6   Bay   33.  2003a)     Properties   Test  Methods   Flash  Point  (closed  cup)   D  93   Water  &  Sediments   D  2709   o Kinematic  Viscosity  (40 C)   D  445   Sulfated  Ash   D  874   Sulphur   D  5453   Cetane  Number   D  613   o Cloud  Point   D  2500   C   Carbon  Residue   D  4530    %  mass   Acid  Number   D  664   mg  KOH/g   Free  Glycerine   D  6584   %  mass   Total  Glycerine   D  6584   %  mass   Phosphorus  Content   D  4951   %  mass   Distillation  Temperature   (atmospheric  equivalent   temperature.0   0.  the  cetane  number  falls  in  the  range  45-­‐ 65).  whose  iodine   value  is  about  120.  This  is  quite  an   acceptable  value  for   biodiesel.  and  the  cetane  number  of  castor  oil  biodiesel  is  in  acceptable  range  for  diesel  engines.   In  fact.   The   Cetane   Number   of   most   biodiesel   fuels   are   higher   than   petro-­‐diesel   (cetane   number   of   petro  diesel  is  about  45.     Iodine  Value:  The  transesterified  castor  oil  has  an  iodine  value  of  about  85.   the   better   is   the   fuel   as   a   diesel.6   Limits   130.         Cetane   Number:   The   higher   the   cetane   number.050  maximum   0.001  maximum   Units   o C   %  volume   mm2/s   %  mass   %  mass     CastorOil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 150     Biodiesel  Requirements  (ASTM.0  minimum   0.  while  for  most  biodiesel.80  maximum   0.05  maximum   47  minimum   Higher  than  that  for  petro-­‐ diesel   0.020   0.240   0.  The  lower  the  iodine  value.   While   most   countries   do   not   have   mandatory   upper   limits   for   iodine   value.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 151   Walnut   Cottonseed   Almond   Peanut   Wheat   Poppyseed   Sunflowerseed   Rapeseed   Corn   Soybean   Sesameseed   Safflowerseed   Castor   Olive   Hazelnut  
Note:  These  numbers  were  determined  using  ASTM  D163  

33.6   33.7   34.5   34.6   35.2   36.7   36.7   37.5   37.5   38.1   40.4   42   42.3   49.3   52.9  

    Melting  Point:  5ºC.  This  is  acceptable  for  diesel  engines.         Solidification  Point    Castor  oil  has  a  very  low  solidification  point  (-­‐12ºC  to  -­‐18ºC).  This  is  a   positive  characteristic  for  colder  climates,  since  it  implies  that  the  biodiesel  from  castor  oil   solidifies  fewer  times  than  those  biodiesels  with  higher  solidification  points.         Density:   Castor   oil,   before   transesterification   has   a   density   of   0.956-­‐0.963   g/ml   (@   20   degrees  C.  The  conversion  into  alkyl  esters  decreases  the  density  by  a  small  extent,  hence   one   can   expect   the   castor   oil   based   biodiesel   to   have   a   density   of   about   0.9   g/ml.   (Comparative  values  are  approx  0.74  g/ml  for  gasoline  and  0.85    g/ml  for  diesel).  While  the   castor  oil  biodiesel  has  a  density  somewhat  higher  than  petro-­‐diesel,  this  is  unlikely  to  be  a   bottleneck  as  the  difference  is  not  very  high.         Flash  Point:  260oC.  It  compares  favourably  with  other  vegetable  oils.         Cloud  Point:  <  -­‐7oC;  within  acceptable  range.     Pour  Point:  At  a  pour  point  of  about  -­‐32  degrees  C,  it  compares  well  with  other  plant  oils,   and  is  acceptable  in  diesel  engines.     Ash  content:  Castor  oil  has  an  ash  content  of  about  0.02%     Sulfur  %:  is  less  than  0.04%       Potassium:  Negligible       Heating  value:  39.5  GJ/T.  At  this  number,  it  compares  favourably  with  most  vegetable  oils.   Petro-­‐based   diesel   &   gasoline   have   heating   values   of   approximately   45   GJ/T.   Hence,   one   could  say  that  most  biodiesel,  including  that  from  castor,  have  heating  values  that  are  about   10%  lower  than  that  for  gasoline  or  petro  diesel.    

CastorOil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil    

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 152     Water,  ppm  max    Biodiesel  prepared  from  castor  oil  have  a  water  content  of  about  1300   ppm.   This   is   much   higher   than   the   maximum   limit   prescribed   by   EMA   for   diesel   fuel   (200   ppm).     Sediment    Refined  castor  oil  grades  are  available  that  have  sediment  at  less  than  10  ppm     API  Gravity    With  a  specific  gravity  of  0.96,  castor  oil  has  an  API  Gravity  of  about  15.9     Lubricity     Numerous   studies   on   the   effects   of   vegetable   oil   methyl   esters   on   diesel   fuel   lubricity   have   shown   an   increase   in   lubricity   associated   with   the   addition   of   these   esters.   Castor   oil   and   its   esters   are   known   for   their   excellent   lubricity,   and   it   is   above   the   EMA   minimum  specification  limit.     Carbon  Residue    A  B100  from  castor  oil  has  a  carbon  residue  %  of  0.037%     Acid  Number    Castor  oil  has  a  maximum  acid  number  of  1.5  mg  KOH/g,  and  experiments   suggest  that  some  specific  grades  of  castor  oil  can  have  acid  numbers  less  than  0.8  (around   0.6).     Phosphorus  Content    Castor  oil  has  less  than  0.001  %  phosphorus  by  weight     Distillation  Temperature    Castor  oil  boiling  point  is  313oC,  which  is  less  than  the  maximum   distillation  temperature  required  by  ASTM  (360 oC)     Free  Glycerine    Based  on  some  tests  done  on  biodiesel  from  castor  (both  methyl  and  ethyl   esters),   the   biodiesel   contains   about   1%   free   glycerine.   This   is   much   higher   than   the   maximum  prescribed  by  ASTM  (0.02%)     Viscosity:  Castor  oil  in  its  raw  form  is  one  of  the  most  viscous  of  oils  (9.5    10.0  dPa.s  @  20   degress  C    about  990  cP;  Viscosity,  St  by  test  method  ASTM  D1545  is  in  the  range  of  6.3   -­‐   8.9).   The   other   plant   oils,   in   themselves,   have   viscosities   much   higher   than   those   for   gasoline  and  petro-­‐diesel.  Castor  oil  has  a  viscosity  of  over  100  times  that  of  petro-­‐diesel!       Absolute  or  Dynamic  Viscosity  of  Some  Common  Fluids     Absolute  or  dynamic  viscosity  of  some  common  liquids  at  a  temperature  of  27 oC  is  indicated   below:     Fluid           Absolute  Viscosity  (N  s/m2,  Pa  s)   Alcohol,  ethyl  (ethanol)     0.0011   Alcohol,  methyl  (methanol)     0.00056   Alcohol,  propyl       0.0019   Benzene         0.0006   Castor  Oil         0.650   Ether           0.00022   Ethylene  Glycol       0.016  

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Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 153   Glycerine         0.950   Heptane         0.00038   Kerosene         0.0016   Linseed  Oil         0.033   Octane         0.00051   Propane         0.00011   Propylene         0.00009   Toluene         0.00055   Turpentine         0.0014   Water,  Fresh         0.00089       From   the   above   analysis,   one   can   hence   see   that   viscosity   could   be   a   major   bottleneck   in   castor  oil  becoming  a  biodiesel.  However,  this  high  viscosity  can  be  considerably  reduced  by   subjecting  the  vegetable   oils  to  the  process  of  transesterification.  Transesterification  is  the   process  most  commonly  used  for  converting  plant  oil  into  biodiesel.       We  have   some  data  for  the  kinematic  viscosity  of  transesterified  castor  oil.   One  study  has   estimated  that  the  B100  biodiesel  from  castor  oil  has  a  kinematic  viscosity  of  15.98  mm 2/s.   Another   study   puts   the   kinematic   viscosity   of   castor   oil   methyl   esters   and   castor   oil   ethyl   esters   in   the   same   range   (13.23   and   16.14   mm2/s   respectively).   The   kinematic   viscosity   numbers   for   castor   biodiesel   is   significantly   higher   than   what   it   is   for   other   vegetable   oils   that  are  biodiesel  contenders,  as  well  as  much  higher  than  what  is  specified  by  ASTM  (1.9-­‐6   mm2/s).   At  the   same   time,   it   has   been   said   that   if   the   castor   oil   biodiesel   is   blended   with   petro-­‐diesel  in  suitable  ratios,  the  overall  viscosity  should  be  within  acceptable  range.  A  B10   and  B20  castor  oil  biodiesel  are  estimated  to  have  4.54  and  4.97  mm2/s  respectively  as  the   kinematic   viscosity.   (Reference   URLs:   http://www.icrepq.com/full-­‐paper-­‐icrep/222-­‐ barajas.pdf   ,   http://www.biodiesel.org/resources/reportsdatabase/reports/gen/20000501_gen-­‐308.pdf  )     A  research  done  in  2006  says  the  following  about  COEE  (castor  oil  ethyl  esters)  and  COME   (castor   oil   methyl   esters)     defined  by  the  standard  EN  14  214.  The  viscosities  are  more  than  twice  as  high  as  the  limit   biodiesel  that  has  been  produced  from  plant  oils)  (Reference  URL:     (http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112724331/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0  )       At  the  same  time,  from  the  news  articles  and  information  gathered  from  around  the  world   (and   especially   from   Brazil),   it   does   appear   that   the   viscosity   of   biodiesel   prepared   from   castor  oil  is  within  acceptable  limits  for  use  in  diesel  engines.     Some  studies  (done  in  2007)   have  also  thrown  up  questions  on  the  thermal  and  oxidative   degradation  of  castor  oil  biodiesel.  The  heating  of  vegetable  oils  can  cause  complementary   decomposition   reactions,   in   which   the   results   can   also   lead   to   the   formation   of   polymeric   compounds.   Research   was   carried   out   to   study   the   degradation   process   of   biodiesel   in   different  temperatures  and  exposure  times.  The   degradation   process  of  biodiesel  affected   its   thermogravimetric   and   calorimetric   profiles,   indicating   the   formation   of   intermediary   compounds.   The   spectroscopic   data   of   degraded   biodiesel   suggested   oxidative  

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Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 154   polymerization,   confirming   thermal   data.   In   the   degraded   biodiesel   at   210   C   for   48   h,   the   formation   of   gum   occurred,   indicating   that   oxidative   polymerization   was   completed.   This   was  however  a  preliminary  research  and  more  research  needs  to  be  done  in  order  to  verify   if  these  results  could  affect  the  biodiesel  properties  overall.     Cost  of  Castor  Oil       The  final,  and  possibly  one  of  the  most  important,  aspects  to  be   considered   is  the  cost.  If   one  were  to  take  the  current  prices  of  the  various  plant  oils  as  a  measure  of  the  input  cost,   the  following  is  what  emerges  as  data:       The   following   were   the   spot   prices   for   the   various   oils   in   India   in   June,   2008   in   US   $   /   T   (using  a  conversion  of  Indian  Re  /  US  $  =  43  Rs  /  US$)       Castor  Oil  (commercial  grade)    1400   Groundnut  Oil/Peanut  Oil    1150   Mustard  Oil    960   Palm  Oil      1200   Refined  Soy  Oil    1400     While   the   above   list   does   not   provide   data   for   all   the   vegetable   oils   that   are   biodiesel     market,  and  in  addition  its  prices  are  highly  volatile.     Evaluation  Table  for  Castor  Oil  as  Biodiesel  Candidate     A  comparison  on  various  parameters  is  made  for  castor  oil  properties  with  those  suggested   for   suitable   diesel   fuel   as   well   for   biodiesel.   Refer   to   the  above   section   for   more   details   of   comparison     Parameter   Suitability  of  castor  oil   Iodine  Value   Suitable   Less  than  minimum   Cetane  Number   prescribed   Melting  Point   Suitable   Solidification  Point   Suitable   Slightly  higher  than  diesel,  but   this  is  unlikely  to  pose   Density   problems   Flash  Point   Suitable   Cloud  Point   Suitable   Pour  Point   Suitable   Ash  Content   Suitable   Sulfur  Percetange   Suitable   Potassium   Suitable   Slightly  less  than  diesel,  but   Heating  Value   within  acceptable  limits  

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    Higher  than  prescribed   Suitable   Suitable   Suitable   Suitable   Suitable   Suitable   Higher  than  prescribed   Suitable   Higher  than  prescribed   CastorOil.   some   experiments   suggest  that  the  transesterified  castor  oil  could  be  made  to  have  a  viscosity  that  is  close  to   acceptable  limits.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   As   noted   earlier.   and   its   volatile   and   high   prices   make   it   an   unlikely   contender   to   be   a   significant   contributor   for   the   biofuel   industry   for   the   foreseeable  future.     Addendum  1:  How  is  castor  oil  converted  into  bio-­‐diesel?     The  most  common  process  of  converting  castor  oil  into  a  product  that  can  be  used  as  diesel   is  the  same  as  what  is  used  in  the  case  of  converting  other  similar  vegetable  oils  into  diesel.   The  process  is  called  transesterification.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 155   Water  Content   Sediment   API  Gravity   Lubricity   Carbon  Residue   Acid  Number   Phosporus  Content   Free  Glycerine   Distillation  Temperature   Viscosity           From  the  above  table.  from  our  studies  it  appears  that  the  real  bottleneck   would  be  the   kinematic   viscosity.   as   the   other   three   parameters   could   possibly   be   controlled   during   the   transesterification  process  or  by  employing  other  processes.  it  is  clear  that  one  of  the  major  scientific  impediments  to  castor   oil   being   a   biodiesel   feedstock   is   its   high   viscosity.  castor  oil  can  theoretically  be  a  candidate  for  bio-­‐ diesel.  it  can  be  seen  that  the  four  parameters  on  which  castor  oil  does  not   have  values  in  the  prescribed  limits  are:     Cetane  Numbers   Water  Content   Glycerine   Kinematic  Viscosity     Of  the  above.  its  limited  production  (less  than  1%  of  the  total  amount  of  vegetable  oils).       Assuming   transesterified   castor   oil   biodiesel   can   have   an  acceptable   kinematic  viscosity.  rising   demand   in   diverse   non-­‐fuel   applications.  while  there  are  some  others  which  are  not  conclusive.   based  on  the  above  facts  and  analysis.     From  other  studies  as  well.     However.

 particularly  at  short  reaction  times.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   K2CO3.   K2CO3.   the   use   of   methoxides   or   acids   produced   the   highest   yields   of   FAEE   and   such   reactions   attained   reversibility  after  ca.   particularly   at   short   reaction   times.  side  reactions.   NaOH.       Transesterification   largely   eliminates   the   tendency   of   the   plant   oils   and   fats   to   undergo   polymerisation   and   auto-­‐oxidation.   and   CaCO3)   to   obtain   an   overview   of   the   typical   yields   of   FAEE   obtainable   from   the   transesterification   of   castor   oil.   HCl.   and   CaCO3   can   be   considered.   H2SO4.  Although  both  compounds  were  insoluble  in  the  reaction  medium.  from   a  chemical  standpoint.   The   significant   difference   between   the   two  catalytic  systems  is  that  with  hydroxide  catalysts.  the  active  species  in  both  systems  were  the  ethoxide  ions  formed  by   virtue   of   the   large   excess   of   EtOH   in   the   medium.   Among   the   catalytic   systems   studied.   CastorOil.   the   former   was   a   relatively   effective   catalyst   whereas  the  latter  showed  no  catalytic  activity  even  after  10  h  of  reaction.   KOCH3.     The  results  clearly  show  that  acid  catalysis  is  relatively  effective  for  the  ethanolysis  of  castor   oil.  as  that   of  methyl  acetate  and  ethyl  alcohol  to  form  ethyl  acetate  and  methyl  alcohol.     Potassium  and  calcium  carbonates  were  also  tested  as  catalysts.  6 8  h.     Methoxide  ions  appeared  to  be  more  efficient  catalysts  than  hydroxide  ions  although.  potassium  and  calcium  carbonates  were  also   tested  as  catalysts.   Several   conventional   catalytic   systems   were   used   (including   KOH.   though   NaOH   is   one   of   the   most   widely   used   catalysts   for   transesterification.   In   all   cases   the   highest   conversion   yields   were   achieved   following   long   (>5   h)   reaction   times.  Although  both  compounds   were   insoluble   in   the   reaction   medium.  Several   conventional   catalytic   systems   such   as   KOH.     Some  useful  research  info  on  biodiesel  from  castor  oil     The   following   is   an   excerpt   from   a   transesterification   research   using   alternative   catalysts.   H2SO4.  as  a  consequence.   done  in  2006:     Transesterification   of   castor   oil   in   the   presence   of   acid   and   alkali.   NaOCH3.  as  has  already  been  reported.   In   a   recent   experiment   involving  the  transesterification  of  castor  oil.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 156   Transesterification   refers   to   a   reaction   between   an   ester   of   one   alcohol   and   a   second   alcohol  to  form  an  ester  of  the  second  alcohol  and  an  alcohol  from  the  original  ester.  the   former   was   a   relatively   effective   catalyst   whereas   the   latter   showed   no   catalytic   activity   even  after  almost  ten  hours  of  reaction.   KOCH3.  such  as  hydrolysis  and   saponification.   and   also   reduces   the   viscosity   of   the   oil   to   about   the   same  as  petroleum  diesel.     Results   from   some   recent   studies   show   that   acid   catalysis   is   relatively   effective   for   the   ethanolysis   of   castor   oil.     Transesterification  of  castor  oil    like  the  transesterification  process  for  other  oils    is  done   by  the  reaction  castor  oil  with  methanol  (or  ethanol)  in  the  presence  of  a  catalyst.   NaOH.   NaOCH3.   HCl.  may  diminish  the  yield  of  ester.  water  molecules  are  produced  during   the  formation  of  the  active  species.

 Departamento  de   Química.  is  smaller  than  1.1021/ef050016g.7%.   The   volatilization   of   biodiesel   starts   and   finishes   under   inferior   temperatures   than   the   beginning   and   final   volatilization   temperatures   of   castor   oil.biodiesel.  Biodiesel  was  obtained  with  methyl  alcohol  and   characterized   through   several   techniques.  in  other  words.   It   is   of   remarkable   influence   in   the   mechanism   of   atomization  of  the  fuel  spray.  once  the  flow  index.  acid-­‐catalyzed  transesterification  reactions  exhibit  an   important  advantage  in  that  the  performance  of  the  acid  catalyst  is  not  strongly  affected  by   the   presence   of   FFA   in   the   oil.   Gas   chromatography   indicated   methyl   ester   content   of   97.  but  this  drawback  can  be  corrected  by  means  of  blends  of  both  components   at   different   proportions.gov.  m.   castor   oil   biodiesel.   This   work   aims   at   assessing   the   rheological   behavior   of   castor   oil.  Brazil.   The   viscosity   data   indicated   that   the   heat   treatment   leads   to   a   degradation  of  the  samples  accompanied  by  an  increase  of  the  viscosity.  Laboratório  de  Combustíveis.  Natal.   The   degraded   samples   presented   a   pseudoplastic  behavior.   .   acid   catalysts   can   simultaneously   catalyze   both   esterification  and  transesterification     Reference:  http://www.  Moreover.   the   measurement   of   the   internal   flow   resistance   of   a   liquid.  João  Pessoa.  Rio  Grande  do  Norte.  probably  because   of   interactions   with   intermediary   compounds.  DOI:  10.  This   property   is   also   reflected   in   the   combustion   process.  Brazil  Energy  Fuels.   and   undegraded   and   degraded   biodiesel   at   different   exposure   times   and   temperatures.  Paraíba.  pp  2185 2188.  2005)   Thermoanalytical  characterization  of  castor  oil  biodiesel  -­‐  2007     A   work   wishing   to   provide   a   thermoanalytical   and   physical-­‐chemistry   characterization   of   castor  oil  and  biodiesel  was  done  in  2007.  19   (5).  Lagoa  Nova.   Strategies   involving   acid   catalysis   might   provide  a  promising  solution  to  this  problem  since  it  has  recently  been  demonstrated  that   on  an  industrial  scale  acid-­‐catalyzed  production  of  biodiesel  can  compete  economically  with   base-­‐catalyzed  processes.   constitutes   an   intrinsic   property   of   vegetable   oils.  Biodiesel  was  obtained  with  methyl  alcohol  and   CastorOil.  in  the  operation  of  the  injection  system.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18403364     Rheological  behavior  of  castor  oil  biodiesel    Jul  2005     Viscosity.   In   fact.br/docs/JAOCSMeneghetti2006.   Castor   oil   biodiesel   presents   viscosity   higher   than  diesel  oil.  and   -­‐   Universidade  Federal  da  Paraíba.   Biodiesel  data  are  very  close  to  the  volatilization  temperatures  of  conventional  diesel     Reference:  http://cat.  Departamento  Química.  CEP  59072970.   one   may   conclude   that   the   production   of   biodiesel   by   ethanolysis  of  castor  oil  may  be  improved  through  further  development  and  optimization  of   appropriate   catalytic   systems   and   processes.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 157     Based   on   the   results   presented.  2005.   -­‐  Universidade  Federal  do  Rio  Grande  do  Norte.   whose   efficiency   depends   the   maximum   power   developed   by   the   engine.pdf       Another   research   done   in   2007   on   the   thermoanalytical   characterization   of   castor   oil   biodiesel      work  wishing  to  provide  a  thermoanalytical  and  physical-­‐chemistry  characterization  of   castor  oil  and  biodiesel  was  done  in  2007.inist.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  Publication  Date:  July  8.

  initially.     In   Aug   2008.   However.     Alternative   Energy   in   Castor   Beans   in   Brazil   -­‐   May   2008   -­‐   The   state-­‐run   Brazilian   Enterprise   for   Agricultural   Research   (EMBRAPA)   is   experimenting   with   castor   oil   as   biodiesel  feedstock  at  its  labs  in  the  northeastern  city  of  Campina  Grande.   behind   India   and   China.  The  castor-­‐oil  plant  is  easy  to  grow  and  is  resistant  to  drought.  Following  are  some  of  the  initiatives  that  are  being  taken  in  order  to  explore  the   viability  of  castor  oil  as  a  biodiesel  feedstock.   This   is   especially   true   of   poor   countries   in   Africa   and   South   America.   of   biodiesel   produced   from   castor   seed   oil.  viable  to  be  exported  to  cold  European  regions.  Data.  Nuggets     While   castor   oil   is   unlikely   to   be   a   significant   contributor   to   the   biodiesel   industry   for   the   foreseeable  future.5   tons   of   castor  beans  per  hectare.  Brazilian  output  of  500.  which  makes  it   an  ideal  crop  for  the  extensive  semi-­‐arid  region  of  northeast  Brazil.  (See   abstract   here   -­‐   http://cat.  A  clear  signal  that  Brazil  plans  to  move  towards  biodiesel  would  jump-­‐start  the   recovery  of  the  castor-­‐oil  crop.     pilot  program  in  castor  oil  viability  as  an  energy  alternative.000  tons  in   2007.   providing   income   for   15   million  people  in  Brazil's  poorest  region.   in   Brazil.   For   example.   according   to   reports.   even   be   improved   by   the   addition   of   castor   seed   oil   as   a   raw   material.   A   2007   research   paper)     Addendum  2:  Castor  Oil  as  Biofuels    Facts.   Gas   chromatography   indicated   methyl   ester   content   of   97.   Biodiesel  data  are  very  close  to  the  volatilization  temperatures  of  conventional  diesel.   making   it   compliant   with   the   European   standard.   Petrobras   Biocombustível   of   Brazil   reaffirmed   that   it   will   continue   producing  Biodiesel  from  castor  oil  despite  the  fact  that  castor  oil  does  not  qualify  on   2   of   the   22   parameters   (   the   two   being   specific   gravity   and   viscosity   )   set   for   biodiesel   by   the   National   Petroleum   Agency   (NPA)   of   Brazil.   The   volatilization   of   biodiesel   starts   and   finishes   under   inferior   temperatures   than   the   beginning   and   final   volatilization   temperatures   of   castor   oil.  as  pointed  out  earlier.7%.  in   fact.   In   fact.  compared  to  the  global  average  of  750  kilos  per  hectare.  For  decades.  in  specific  cases  and  regions  it  could  play  a  limited   role   as   a   biodiesel   feedstock.   And   castor   beans   could   become   a   farming   alternative.   Petrobras   Biocombustível   clarified   early   Aug   2008   that   its   plans   were   not   affected   by   the   NPA   Resolution   dated   March   19   al   had   always   been   to   use.   and.  (May  2008)   CastorOil.   the   Resolution   7   by   the   NPA   prohibits   the   usage.  Brazil  was  the  world  leader  in   producing   and   exporting   castor   oil.inist.000  tons  in  the  late  1980s  fell  to  about  100.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   blends  of  up  to  30%  castor  seed  oil  as  raw  material.   adding   30%   castor   seed   oil   to   soybean   oil   improves   the   quality   of   the   biodiesel   that   is   produced.  in  Paraíba   state.   thus.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 158   characterized   through   several   techniques.  The  company  further  stated  that  a  few  important  properties  will.   but   has   fallen   to   third   place.  That  area  holds   some   four   million   hectares   of   appropriate   land   that   could   yield   up   to   1.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18403364.  The  usage  of  30%  castor  seed  oil   to  the  company.

 thereby   avoiding   dependence   on   a   single   buyer.  in  the  State  of  Ceara   with   local   partners   the   AVINA   Foundation.   promoting   public   and   private   sector   investment   within   the   renewable   energy   market.  little  attention  has  been  paid  to  the  Amazonian   region.8  million  tonnes  of  jatropha  and  castor  seeds  a  year.  several  jatropha   projects   are   underway   across   the   West   African   nation.000   hectares   of   jatropha   or   castor   oil   will   be   enough   to   produce  between  15  and  23  million  litres  of  biodiesel  per  year.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 159     Ivory  Coast  diversifies  into  biofuels  production  (Jul  2008)  -­‐   Ivory  Coast  is  diversifying   into   the   booming   market   for   biofuels   by   growing   the   jatropha   &   castor   plants.   the   poorest   region   in   the   country.  depending  on  price.  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  ther  is  a  high  potential  for  bio-­‐diesel  production  from   palm   oil   to   replace   fossil   diesel   that   power   generators   in   hundreds   of   off-­‐grid   communities   (with   total   subsidies   for   the   transportation   of   fuel   diesel   going   up   to   about   US$1.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   and   the   national   petrol   firm.   In   Toumdi   in   centre   of   the   country.   According   to   the   co-­‐ordinators.   The   project   is   supporting   the   creation   of   access   of   locally-­‐   owned   small-­‐scale  renewable  energy  projects  to  financial  markets.2   billion   in   2005).  training  small  farmers  in  Itatira.   which   intends   to   produce   enough   oil   to   make   biofuel   domestically.  enough   to   make   705.   Jatropha   and   castor   oil   plants  can  grow  on  any  type  of  land  and  this  is  a  project  which  will  help  redress  the   social   imbalance   caused   by   cocoa   and   coffee.  to  sell  the   oil  to  either  bio-­‐diesel  producers  or  to  those  who  use  the  oil  for  lubrication.   where   the   castor   bean   is   very   well   adapted  to  the  arid  areas.   Petroci.   to   make   biodiesel.   The   project   is   supporting   the   creation   of   access  of  locally  owned  small-­‐scale  renewable  energy  projects  to  financial  markets.  a  privately-­‐owned   firm.   The   project   involves   around   70.  promoting   public   and   private   sector   investment   within   the   renewable   energy   market.000   farmers.  Until  now.  and  collaborating  with  partners  to  identify  and  secure  sources  of  capital  and   markets.   and   is   seen   producing  a  total  of  1.  they  would  have  the  option.   Part   of   the   program   focuses   in   the   Northeast.   To   take  advantage  of  a  global  trend  toward  alternatives  to  fossil  fuels.  In  addition.     Biofuel  from  Castor  Beans  in  Brazil  (March  2008)   -­‐   Brazil  recently  launched  a  major   bio-­‐diesel   program   that   will   start   in   2008   with   2%   bio-­‐diesel   added   to   fossil   fuel-­‐ derived   diesel.600   tonnes   of   biofuel.   Small-­‐scale   processing   of   castor   beans   at   a   facility   owned   by   the   local   farmers   would   allow   them   to   capture   the   value   added   from   processing.   According   to   them.000   hectares   from   2009.   CastorOil.  and  collaborating  with  partners  to  identify  and  secure  sources   of  capital  and  markets.   Significant   incentives   are   already   in   place.   with   emphasis   on   the   production   of   bio-­‐diesel   from   castor   bean   oil.   LGF   has   also   started   preliminary   work   on   biodiesel   from   a   native   Amazonian   palm   tree   that   is   under   commercial   production  in  the  State  of  Maranhão.   LaGuardia   Foundation   (LGF)   has   initiated   a   castor   bean   oil   producers  association.   Associação   Caatinga   and   the   Brazilian   National   Environment   Fund.   which   only   grow   in   some   soils.   Oil   produced   by   pressing   jatropha   and   castor   seeds   will   be   sold   to   the   Ivorian   Refinery   Company.   5.  is  producing  seeds  for  a  project  to  grow  jatropha  and  castor  plants  on  100.   the   Ivory  Coast  Reneweable  Energies  Development  Agency  (ADERCI).     Fiorello   H.

 noted  that.  Karl  James.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 160   The   LGF   approach   will   also   increase   distribution   efficiencies   through   decentralized   production   of   vegetable   oil   and   biodiesel.  The  partnership  should   be  concentrated  mainly  in  the  production   of  biodiesel.   the   capital  of  Ghana.   and   ensuring   that   the   added   value   of   the   agricultural   residues   (fertilizer   and  animal  feed)  remains  with  the  small  farmers.  Global  Energy  announced  it  had  successfully  completed  sowing  5.  which  may  be  obtained  from  castor  seeds  and  pine  seeds.   The   project  entails  planting  and  harvesting  castor  for  the  production  of  non-­‐edible  oil  for   the  bio-­‐diesel  industry  and  for  other  uses.  (4)  It  can  be  produced  on  varied  scales  from   large  scale  farms  to   cottage  industries.  The  castor  farming  initiative  is  located  in   southern  Ethiopia."  He  added.     African   Countries   in   Co-­‐operation   with   Brazil   on   Castor   Biodiesel   -­‐   March   2007   -­‐   Morocco   became   the   first   Arab   country   in   North   Africa   to   establish   a   partnership   with   the   Brazilian   Agricultural   Research   Corporation   (Embrapa)   office   in   Accra.     CastorOil.  plants  of  the   region  that  are  resistant  to  lack  of  rain.  the  chairman  of  Petrojam  Ethanol  Limited."  The  castor  bean  is  considered  complementary  to  ethanol  for   many   reasons:   (1)   It   is   not   a   food   product.  Libya  is  another  Arab  country  that  may  make   use  of  the  Embrapa  office  in  Africa.  approximately  350  km  south  of  the  capital  of  Addis  Ababa.  (3)  It  is  not  prone  to  larceny.   One   of   the   reasons   is   that   the   natural   conditions   in   the   country   could   be   suitable   for   the   growth   of   castor   crop.  "There  are   plans   for   a   major   commercial   plant   to   be   constructed   and   many   persons   are   now   preparing  their  lands  for  the  castor  bean.   (Based   on   a   2008   news   report)     Jamaica   To   Use   Castor   Bean   as   a   Biofuel   -­‐   August.   (2)   It   is   well   known   in   Jamaican   agriculture.   The   initiative   is   run   by   energy   company   Global   Energy   Ethiopia.  some  90%  of  the  land  has  reached  a  germination   stage  of  over  96%.   2007   -­‐   Castor   oil   has   been   identified  as  a  viable  biofuel  to  be  produced  locally  and  used  as  a  cost-­‐effective  way   to  cut  Jamaica's  growing  energy  bill  -­‐  an  opportunity  that  has  not  escaped  the  private   sector.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  the  Libyan  embassy   in   Ghana   has   already   shown   interest   in   a   partnership   in   the   area   of   irrigated   agriculture.   involving  thousands   of  small  farmers   in  the   rural  areas.     Castor   biofuel   farming   started   in   2008   in   Ethiopia.   who   are   also   conducting   a   research   and   development  programme  to  create  new  varieties  of  castor  with  better  yields.  According  to  the  researcher.     Some  companies  in  the  Dominican  Republic  are  exploring  growing  castor  and  using   castor   oil   as   biodiesel.  "We  believe  that  large  areas  of   rural   Jamaica   could   be   quickly   transformed   into   attractive   economic   zones   where   independent   small   land   owners   are   engaged   in   the   production   of   an   agricultural   good   for   which   there   is   a   ready   market   at   a   price   that   should   provide   satisfactory   return  for  their  efforts.  In  July   2008.  Just  six   months  after  launching  the  project.000  hectares   of   Chinese   hybrid   castor   seeds   for   its   alternative   energy   project   in   Ethiopia.   eliminating   long   distance   transportation   of   raw   agricultural   products.

  When   the   project   is   completely   operational   it   will   produce   800   liters  daily.   local   authorities   and   a   consortium   of   privately-­‐owned   thermoelectric   power   plants.   Ethiopia.  camelina.   Japan   showed   significant   interest   in   importing   castor   oil   to   produce   biodiesel.  Embrapa  is  working   to   develop   commercial   varieties   of   castor   beans   with   higher   levels   of   oil   output   -­‐   around  60  percent  of  the  weight  of  the  beans  -­‐   and  is  also  working  on  varieties  that   can   be   planted   below   300   meters   above   sea   level.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  2006)  -­‐   Using  grant  money   from  the  federal  government.5  million  reais)  has  been  invested  by  the   state.  including  winter  annuals  like  canola.  Brazil   launched  efforts  to   produce   a   biodiesel   fuel   on   an   industrial   scale   using   the   castor-­‐oil   plant.  officially  published  figures  for  castor   yield  in  India  are  lesser    only  about  1000  pounds  per  hectare)     The  Myanmar  government  plans  to  implement  a  project  to  grow  castor  bean  plants   2006  news)     In   2006.  summer  annuals  such  as  castor  and  sunflower   and   perennials  such  as  tung  and  tallow  trees.  So  far.000  (1.         CastorOil.   26   associations   in   total   for   all   Fedis   and   Midega   Region.  castor  beans  can  supply  up  to  141  gallons  of  castor   oil  per  acre.   The   land   lease   agreement   secures   the   company  8.   Ethiopia.  (The  yield  data   provided  are  by  the  researchers  from  the  USA.  Mississippi  State  has  begun  conducting  research  on  a   number  of  alternative  crops.  hesperis.  Castor  has  attracted  the  attention  of  MSU   researchers   because   with   its   oil   content   at   50   percent   and   its   relatively   high   crop   yield  of  1.   black  mustard.     Brazil  Starts  Biodiesel  Drive   -­‐   August  2004    In  Aug  2004.   state   of   Ceará.  crambe  and  flax.000  hectares  of  government  land  for  castor  cultivation  for  45  years.   the   project   is   producing   350   liters   daily   of   biodiesel.   Germany.   Quixeramobim  is  a  town  in  the  semi-­‐arid  region  of  the  Brazilian  Northeast  where  70   hectares   are   being   cultivated.   signed   a   land   lease   agreement   with   Oromia   State   and   a   collaboration   agreement   with   the   peasant   Associations   (Community   Farming).  But  other  states  like  Paraíba  stand  to  gain  from  the  government  bill  that  will   set  biodiesel  levels  in  regular  petroleum  diesel  sold  at  the  pump  at  2  percent.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 161   A  new  project  has  been  financed  by  FEP  Ethiopia  for  castor  oil  based  biodiesel  (2007)     This   is   for   a   castor   plant   for   biofuel   production   in   Oromia   State.  That  compares  to  50  to  60  gallons  per  acre  for  soybeans.695  pounds  per  acre.   At   the   moment.  castor  bean  producers  may  soon  be  eligible  to  sell  carbon  credits.     Castor  Oil  is  a  new  source  for  biodiesel  in  the  USA?  (Jun.   FEP   Ethiopia   PLC.   The   northeast   state   of   Bahia   is   output.  a  total  of  US$  508.   a   fully   owned   subsidiary   of   Flora   EcoPower   Holding   AG.  A   Brazilian  industry  professional  estimates  that  40  percent  of  the  biodiesel  produced  in   the  country  in  the  coming  years  could  come  from  castor  beans.     A  December  2004  Report  from  Brazil  -­‐   imported  diesel.   A   pilot   project   has   been   underway   for   two   months   in   Quixeramobim.

com)  signed  an  agreement.     According   to   one   school   of   thought.  the  non  biofuel  consumers  of  castor  oil  today   are   willing   to   paying   for   castor   oil   a   price   that   is   above   what   would   be   currently   economically  viable  for  the  fuel  segment  to  pay.   conducted   a   Life   Cycle   Assessment   (LCA)   of   biodiesel   production   from   castor   bean   varieties.  the   first  of  a   total   of   six   projects   -­‐   four   in   Piaui   and   two   in   Ceara   states     that   involve   the   cultivation  of  the  castor  plant.  The  total  production  of  castor  oil  is  less  than  500.   and   the   real   estate   developer  the  Lev  Leviev  Group  (www.  bagged  an  order  for  supply  of   biodiesel   worth   Rs   25   crore   (US$   6   million)   to   Indian   Oil   Corporation   (IOC)   in   Aug   2004.ormat.   plant   breeding   company   Evogene   (www.  Leviev  already  owns  mining  concessions   substantial   experience   in   biofuel   R&D.  India.  Ethanol  needs  to  be  anhydrous  for  it  to  be  blended  with  gasoline  for   fuel  use.   producing   anhydrous   ethanol   that   can   be   used   for     production   of   ethyl   esters  biodiesel.     Three   Israeli   companies   -­‐   alternative   energy   company   Ormat   (www.  This  method  however  has  not  been  employed  by  anyone  formally.   made   from   castor   oil   and   soy   oil.  to  produce  biodiesel  from  castor  oil.   the   company   announced   that   the   LCA   of   biodiesel   produced   from   castor   bean   varieties   reduced   CastorOil.  in   2008.     Brazil.     Can   castor   oil   be   used   in   the   production   of   anhydrous   ethanol?   Castor   oil   freely   dissolves   in   alcohol.  the  world's  second  largest  producer  of  soybean.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   and   Evogene   is   a   world   leader   in   plant   genetics   and   breeding.   castor   oil   is   the   best   substance   for   producing   biodiesel  because  it  is  the  only  one  that  is  soluble  in  alcohol.000  T  per  annum  and   given  its  use  in  a  number  of  industries.  so  one   can  say  this  is  more  a  theoretically  possibility.   the   other   main   issue   is   its   low   availability.evogene.  and  does  not  require   heat  and  the  consequent  energy  requirement  of  other  vegetable  oils  in  transforming   them  into  fuel.  The  company  has  already  started  in  Canto  do   Buriti  (Piaui).  which  is  a  raw  material  for  biodiesel  production.thelevievgroup.   2004   -­‐   Brasil   EcoDiesel   will   transform   the   Brazilian   Northeast   region   into   a   large   biodiesel   producer.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 162   Gujarat  Oleo  Chem  Ltd  (GOCL)  based  in  Mumbai.  GOCL  planned  to  use  castor  oil  as  feedstock  for  production  of  biodiesel.000  ha  area.com).     Brazil   Northeast   region   to   produce   biodiesel   with   castor   oil   -­‐   March.  passed  a  bill  (in  2004)  making   it   compulsory   to   produce   a   2%   bio-­‐diesel   fuel   blend.     China  is  exploring  major  investments  in  Brazil  to  produce  both  ethanol  and  castor  oil   or  biodiesel  for  shipment  to  China     While  specific  gravity  and  viscosity  could  be  some  of  the  issues  to  be  dealt  with  while   considering   castor   oil   as   a   biofuel   feedstock.  Each   project  demands  investments  of  R$15mil  for  the  cultivation  of  a  52.   This   means   that   in   theory   castor   oil   can   be   used   in   ethanol   production   to   separate   the   distilled   ethanol   from   the   5%   or   more   of   water   it   will   contain.   Evogene   Ltd.   In   Apr   2010.com).

 The  company  has  pioneered  the  production  of  biodiesel  on   a   commercial   scale   in   Brazil.   the   development   of   new   intensive   agricultural   production   chains   and   the   encouragement   of   family   farming.   resource   production   processes   using   internally   designed   and   built   equipment.     Fertibom   (http://www.   jatropha   and   other   vegetable   oil   as   a   feedstock.  The  production  of  vegetable  oil   from   oilseeds   intended   exclusively   for   industrial   consumption.  Its  activities  are  based  on  cost-­‐efficient  industrial  and   logistics  processes   and   an   innovative   and   diversified   model   for   the   sourcing   of   raw   materials   through   direct   purchases   in   the   vegetable   oil   market.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 163   greenhouse  gases  (GHG)  emissions  by  90%  compared  to  petroleum  diesel  in  the  U.   The   -­‐GMO   crops   with   dramatically   improved   productivity   and   improved   land   and   water-­‐use   efficiencies.       Results  showed  that  Evogene's  castor  bean  biodiesel     Reduces  net  GHG  emissions  by  90%  in  the  U.com.  and  more  than  75%  in  Brazil   compared  with  conventional  diesel.   technology.brasilecodiesel.kaiima.   such   as   castor   plant   and  jatropha.   with   an   emphasis   on   the   promotion   of   human   and   social   development.         Brasil  Ecodiesel  (www.fertibom.     Exceeds   the   GHG   savings   achieved   with   soybean   biodiesel.   aimed   at   increasing   crop   yields   to   4-­‐5   ton/ha   on   semi-­‐arid   lands  -­‐-­‐   focusing   on   Texas   and   Brazil.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   with   reductions   for  the  U.  The  extraction  of   vegetable  oil  and  the  process  of  producing  biodiesel  through  transesterification  have   generated  by-­‐products  of  significant  economic  value.  petrochemicals  and  other  products.  the  Brazil  Ecodiesel  has  projects   for  the  expansion  of  the  capacity  of  its  plants  and  which  will  happen  according  to  the   needs  of  the  market.   The   results   are   based   on   Evogene's   objectives   for   castor   bean   varieties.  if  grown  in  non-­‐arable  or  marginal  land.  have  generated  additional  income   by  marketing  them   in  the  form   of   organic  fertilizer  and  to  reduce  operating  costs  by  using  biomass  to  generate  heat  for   its   own   biodiesel   production   process.S.S.   -­‐transgenic   biotechnology   platform   developed   in   2002   that   induces   clean   polyploidy   in   plants   CastorOil.com.  In  order  to  maintain  market  leadership  in  Brazil.000   m3.   National   agency   of   petroleum.com)   is  a  next  generation  seed  and  breeding  company.   The   company   entered   into   an   agreement   with   the   state   of   Piauí   for   the   installation   of   a   castor   plant   production   center   based   on   family   farming.br   )   is   an   agribusiness   organisation   in   Brazil.  The  biodiesel  is  produced  from  castor  and  other  oilseeds  using  ethyl  or   methyl  alcohol  through  its  innovative  process  called  T-­‐max.   The   company   maintains   six   operational  plants  with  a  combined  annual  biodiesel  production  capacity  of  640.br)   according   to   the   ANP.   Brasil   Ecodiesel   also   intends   to   develop  new  crops  of  castor  plant  to  achieve  greater  productivity.S.   The   production   of   biodiesel   also   generates   significant  amounts  of  glycerin  that  can  be  used  to  generate  heat  or  can  be  sold  to   third  parties  for  use  in  cosmetics.   with   castor.  of  43%  compared  to  soybean.       Kaiima   (www.

 The  product  has   been  approved  by  the  EU  for  food-­‐contact  applications  and  is  expected  to  find  future   uses  in  toys  and  medical  equipment.   In   January   2010.   Castor   oil   is   one  of  the  few  lubricants  that  blend  with  alcohol..   It   includes   a   proprietary  set  of  protocols  and  methods  that  direct  the  active  chemicals  used  in  the   genome-­‐multiplication  process  away  from  the  sensitive  DNA.   The   company   claims   that   its   technology   provides   advantages   including   higher   plant   yield.  will  make  fuel  from  castor   we  economically  competitive  with  the  price  of  petroleum.   The   market  transgenic  jatropha  and  castor  bean  clones  that  confer  resistance  to  salinity   and  drought.   greater   biomass   accumulation.   enhanced   photosynthesis   and   other   features.   thus   keeping   the   plant   fertile   and   genetically   stable.il)   is   an   Israeli   company   with   more   than   30   years   experience  in  plant  propagation  and  biotechnology.   Oil-­‐modified  alkyd  type  resin  based  on  secondary  esters  of  castor  oil   Use  of  castor  oil  in  preparation  of  oil-­‐based  binders   Use  in  castor  oil  in  treating  some  unique  gland  ailments   Acetoacetylated  castor  oil  in  coatings  applications  -­‐   Acetoacetate  esters  from  castor   oil  are  being  tried  to  formulate  thermosetting  coating  compositions.  Grindsted  Soft-­‐ N-­‐Safe  from  is  made  from  fully  hardened  castor  oil  and  acetic  acid.  The  biodiesel   strategy  involves  breeding  castor  varieties  that  can  yield  up  to  10  tons  of  seeds  (or  5   tons  of  oil)  per  hectare  per  year  compared  to  the  global  average  of  between  1-­‐1.   proprietary   genomic-­‐based   breeding   technologies   to   develop   high-­‐yielding   energy   crops  for  the  production  of  biodiesel.       6.3  Other  Possible  Future  End  Uses  for  Castor  Oil  &  Derivatives     Castor  oil  based  polyurethane  adhesives   Lubricant   for   ethanol   fuel   -­‐   Ethanol   has   no   lubricating   characteristics.  The  company  expects  that  these  high  yields.   multiplying   the   number   of   chromosomes   found   in   the   plant).  and  in  the  laboratory  production   of   tissue   culture   plants.  This  might  lead  to  castor  oil  being   a  major  lubricant  for  the  ethanol  fuel  market.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 164   (i.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .2.  This  material  presents  the  advantage  of  being  biodegradable.e.co.  biocompatible   and   having   the   capacity   of   reacting   with   amino   groups   present   in   the   biological   CastorOil.   unlike   past   methods   for   inducing   polyploidy.  including   haemostasis.5   tons  of  seeds.  Recent  research   has  tried  to   produce   a   biodegradable   urethane-­‐based   bioadhesive   containing   free   isocyanate   groups.  sealing  air   leakages  and  tissue  adhesion.  and  biomass  energy.  which  stays  unharmed.     Modification  of  the  biopolymer  castor  oil  with  free  isocyanate  groups  to  be  applied   as  bioadhesive  -­‐  Surgical  adhesives  have  been  used  for  several  applications.  This  food-­‐grade  plasticizer   for  flexible  PVC  has  been  developed  as  an  alternative  to  phthalates.  bioethanol.       Rahan   Meristem   (www.rahan.   Food   Grade   Plasticizers     In   July   2005.   Denmark's   Danisco   A/S   announced   it   has   developed  a  non-­‐phthalate  plasticizer  based  on  castor  oil.   the   company   was   reported   to   have   announced  its  plans  to  engage  in  developing  protocols  for  the  mass  propagation  and   genetic   transformation   of   castor   beans   and   jatropha   to   produce   biodiesel.

  Uurethane   based   on   castor   oil   (CO)   was   synthesized   by   reaction   of   the   molecule  with  isophorone  diisocyanate  (IPD)  for  developing  this  product.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 165   molecules.   food.   It   is   used   in   the   following   industries:   automobile.     SUMMARY       Castor   oil   has   over   a   thousand   patented   industrial   applications.   aviation.       CastorOil.   electrical.   castor   oil   is   being   investigated   for  its  use  in  producing  bioplastics.   drug.   and   telecommunications.   manufacturing.   electronics.   Recently.   plastics.   cosmetics.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .

    The  prices  of  castor  seeds  are  volatile  and  this  volatility  is  present  intra-­‐year  as  well   as  inter-­‐year.  It  exports  about  15.       CastorOil.4   Castor  Seed  Factoids    7.1   Castor  Seeds  Prices  &  Trends    7.5       HIGHLIGHTS         India  is  the  largest  producer  of  castor  seeds  in  the  world  with  China  and  Brazil  being   the  next  two.2   Castor  Seeds  Packaging  &  Storing    7.3   Castor  Seed  Varieties    7.000  T  of  castor  seeds  per  year.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 166   7  -­‐  Castor  Seeds     This  chapter  comprises  the  following  topics     Castor  Seeds  Production  &  Supplies  -­‐  7.

  It   has   large   leaves   which   are   long-­‐stalked.  both  without  petals.     World  Castor  Seed  Production     Production  ('000  T)   Yield  (T/ha)   Harvest  Area  ('000/ha)   Harvest   2008-­‐ 2007-­‐ 09-­‐ 2008-­‐ 2007-­‐ 09-­‐10   2008-­‐ 2007-­‐ Country     Season   09-­‐10(F)   09   08     10(F)   09   08   (F)   09     08   Brazil     Jun-­‐Sept   92   123   94   0.2  Castor  Seeds  Production  &  Supplies     India   is   the   largest   producer   of   castor   seeds   in   the   world   with   China   and   Brazil   being   the   next   two.97   185   1383   186   1469   183   1409   Note:  F-­‐  Forecast   Source:  ISTA  Mielke.08   0.   oval.76   0.  The  castor  fruits  are  spherical  capsules  which  become   hard  and  brittle.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  Oil  World.   the   castor   oil   plant   can   vary   greatly   in   its   growth   habit   and   appearance.  Germany.1  Introduction  to  Castor  Seeds     Although   monotypic.   shiny.     The   fruit   is   a   spiny.62   0.15   210   830   220   900   210   860   Other   Countries       Total         115   1277   117   1405   112   1366   0.   suckering   perennial   shrub   which   can   reach   the   size   of   a   small   tree   (around   12   m).63   0.  The  seed  capsule  has  thick  walls.   it   exports   about   15.86   1.     CastorOil.   but   it   is   not   hardy.92   0.  on  an  average.   It   is   a   fast-­‐growing.   greenish   capsule   with   large.   alternate  and  palmate  with  coarsely  toothed  segments.9   1.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 167   7.06   0.     The  inflorescence  of  the  castor  plant  consists  of  an  erect  panicle  with  female  flowers  at  the   top  and  male  flowers  at  the  bottom.81   1.   bean-­‐like   seeds   with   variable   brownish  motling.58   0.   India   is   also   the   largest   exporter   of   castor   seeds.     7.6   158   163   156   China  PR   India     Sep  -­‐  Jan   Nov  -­‐   Mar   190   880   190   975   170   990   0.96   0.  Terminating  stems  are  panicle-­‐like   inflorescences   of   green   monoecious   flowers.  is  spiny  and  contains  3  cocci.  Each  coccus   contains  one  seed.61   0.000   T   of   castor  seeds  per  year.   the   stalked   female   flowers   above   the   male   flowers  below.

Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 168   7.5  in  chapter  5.3  Castor  Seeds  Prices  &  Trends     The  prices  of  castor  seeds  are  volatile  and  this  volatility  is  present  intra-­‐year  as  well  as  inter-­‐ year.5  Rs  per  US$  by  end  of   2007.5  Castor  Seeds  Varieties  &  Hybrids     Please  see  section  5.4  Castor  Seeds  Packaging  &  Storing       Castor  seeds  are  large  and  occupy  considerable  space  in  the  storehouse.     The  normal  packing  is  either  50  Kgs  or  70  Kgs.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  back  to  about  50  Rs  per  US$  by  end  of  2008.     CastorOil.     7.  and  the  products  are  usually  packed  in   gunny  bags.  and  hovering  about  45  Rs  per  $  by  Mar   2010!)     7.     Average  Prices  for  Castor  Seeds     The  average  spot  prices  provided  for  specific  months  over  a  3  year  period  to  demonstrate   the  increase  and  volatility  in  prices     Year   Average  Price  ($  /  T)   2005  May   400   2005  Nov   330   2006  Mar   340   2006  Jul   340   2006  Nov   400   2007  Mar   460   2007  Jul   480   2007  Nov   500   2008  Mar   600   2008  Jul   700   2008  Nov     650   2009  Mar   490   2009  Jul   540   2009  Nov     640   2010  Mar   640     The   above   prices   also   have   factored   in   the   volatility   of   the   Indian   Re   /   US   $   which   saw   a   change  of  over  20%  during  this  period  (45  Rs  per  US  $  in  2004  to  39.       It   is   recommended   that   castor   seeds   be   dried   to   5-­‐6%   moisture   content   before   storing.

6  Castor  Seed  Factoids     o Some  areas  in  the  state  of  Gujarat  in  India  claim  to  produce  a  yield  of  6  T  of  seeds   per  hectare  (about   2500  Kg  per  acre).Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 169   7.  while   according  to  published  figures.   the   average  yield  in  India  is  only  about  1  T  per  hectare   o It  is  possible  to  store  castor  seeds  for  about  5  years.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  as  long  as  the  seeds  are  kept   in  a  cool  and  dry  place   CastorOil.

3   Toxicity  in  Castor  Meal    8.000   MT   of   castor   meal   for   the   period   2007-­‐2008.6       HIGHLIGHTS       Castor  meal  is  one  of  the  most  useful  natural  manures.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 170     8  -­‐  Castor  Meal     This  chapter  comprises  inputs  on  the  following  topics     Castor  Meal  Uses    8.00.   About   1.1   Castor  Meal  Composition    8.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  in  the  form  of  fertilizers  and  as  fuel.     When  compared  to  other  oilseed  meals  such  as  rapeseed  mean  and  soymeal.  castor   meal  is  much  cheaper.     India   exported   about   330.4   Energy  Content  in  Castor  Meal    8.2   Castor  Meal  Supply  &  Demand    8.       CastorOil.     The  two  primary  uses  of  castor  meal  today  are  as  fertilizer  and  as  fuel.5   Castor  Meal    Other  Points    8.000  tons  are  consumed  within  the  country.

2  Castor  Meal  Composition     Nutrient  Content  of  Deoiled  Castor  Cake  /  Meal     A  typical  composition  of  castor  residue/meal  is  as  follows:     80-­‐85%  (The  organic  matter  consists  of  proteins  about  32-­‐33%.  ash  content    about  6%)   Nitrogen   5  %   Phosphourous  (as  P205)   2  %   Potassium   Moisture   Oil  Content     1.  Improves  soil  fertility  and  productivity.  It  also  has  traces  of  nutrients  like  Manganese.  improves  yield  &  quality  of  the  farm  produce     4.  Protects  plants  from  nematodes  and  termites     Main  Uses  of  Castor  Meal     The  two  primary  uses  of  castor  meal  today  are  as  fertilizer  and  as  fuel     8.  Provides  all  the  major  &  minor  nutrients  necessary  for  better  plant  growth     2.   Zinc  and  Copper.5  %   10%  max.   CastorOil.   Organic  Matter   fibers  about  25-­‐30%.  It  is  enriched  with  the  three  big  elements  vital  and  conducive  to  the  proper  growth  of   crops  -­‐  Nitrogen.     Advantages       1.25  %  -­‐  1.  approx.1  Castor  Meal  Uses     Castor  meal   -­‐   the   residue  obtained  from   castor  cake   -­‐   is  one  of  the  most  versatile  natural   manures.  Helps  in  increasing  the  nutrient  uptake  by  plants     3.   0.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 171   8.  approx.7%  max.  thus  making  it  a  balanced  fertiliser.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .  Phosphorus  and  Potassium.     It   is   organic   manure   that   enhances  the   fertility   of   the   soil   without   causing   any   damage   or   decay.

  1948 1976).  and  isoleucine.   the   increase   has   over   400%.000  MT  of   castor  meal  for  the  period  2007-­‐2008.S.   Manganese.  depending  on  the  season  and   the  supply-­‐demand  scenario.  Copper  etc.4%).   Brazil   and   Europe   are   the   other   major   consumers.     8.6%  P2O5..I.   Magnesium.   China.seaofindia.   castor   cake   cannot   be   used   as   cattle   fodder   because   of   its   toxicity.  2.2%  K2O  -­‐  C.  Phosphoric  Acid   (2.000   tons  are  consumed  within  the  country.000   tons   of   castor   meal   in   2006-­‐2007.com/oilmeal_data/oilmealdata_march_2010.pdf       The  price  of  castor  meal  ranges  between  $70-­‐$80  per  T  (FOB).   According   to   estimates   by   the   industry.   Zinc.   Sulphur.3  Castor  Meal  Supply  &  Demand     India   exported   approximately   2.     CastorOil.6%  N.     Indian  Castor  Meal  Exports       Year   Exports  (in  MT)   2003-­‐04   65   2004-­‐05   70   2005-­‐06   200   2006-­‐07   205   2007-­‐08   330   2008-­‐09   204   2009-­‐10   240   Source:  http://www.     Castor  meal  is  an  excellent   fertilizer   because  of   high  content  of  N  (6.   Most   of   these   consumers.  Potash  (1%)  and  moisture  retention.   About   1.   Calcium.     While  the  castor  meal  exports  also  fluctuate  in  tune  with  the  castor  oil  trading  market.   Iron.     (One  published  manural  value  for  castor  cake  is:  6.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     ..   Between   2006-­‐2007   and  2007-­‐2008  alone.00.     South   Korea   and   Taiwan   are   the   leading   importers   of   castor   seed   meal.R.  and  1.  in  the  form  of  fertilizers  and  as  fuel.   It   has   an   ideal   amino   acid   profile   with   moderately   high   Cystine.   Vietnam.55%).  primarily  from  India.   with   the   exception  of  Brazil.     The  protein  content  of  castor  seed  meal  varies  between  21-­‐48%  depending  upon  the  extent   of   decortications.  the  increase  has  been  over  60%!  India  exported  about  330.     While   it   is   rich   in   proteins.  import  almost  all  their  consumption.   mithionine.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 172   It   also   contains   some   micro   nutrients   viz.   00.  India   has   seen   a   dramatic   increase   in   the   exports   of   castor   meal   in   the   period   2003-­‐2008.

  The  dark.   adults   may   require   eight   or   more.     When  the  cake  is  steamed.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     Some  methods  for  the  detoxification  of  the  cake  have  been  attempted.  the  method   used  to  detoxify  castor  seed  involves  fermentation.   While   children   could   die   from   the   intake   of   as   few   as   three   beans.  These  include     Treatment  with  ammonia.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 173   8.   When   injected.  introduced  in  the  1990s.  it  is  noteworthy  that  none  of  the  toxic  components  is  carried  into   the  oil.  It  has  been  claimed   that   DDCM   can   be   safely   used   as   animal   feed.  which  is  also  present  in  lower  concentrations   throughout   the   plant.   It   is   claimed   that   the   extraction   process  is  done   in  such  as  way  that   due  to  the   action   of   heat.4  Toxicity  in  Castor  Meal     The  castor  cake  is  mainly  used  as  a  fertilizer.  However.  The  seeds  are  first  dehulled  and   boiled   in   water   for   about   18   hours.  In  this  case.  The   fermented   seeds   are   then   mashed   by   pounding   using   a   mortar   and   pestle.   extreme   caution   and   experimentation   are   desirable  before  the  cake  is  fed  to  farm  animals.     Although  the   use  of  detoxified  cake  as  cattle  feed  has  been   reported  in  a  few  cases  using   one   or   more   of   the   methods   explained   above.  mashed  product  is  allowed  to  mature  for  a  further  period  of  five  days  after   which  it  is  packaged  for  sale.     CastorOil.  together  with  some   base  solubles.  lime  and  heat.   The   toxicity   of   raw   castor   beans   is   well-­‐known.   The   boiled   seeds   are   cooled   and   wrapped   together  with  leaves  and  allowed  to  ferment  in  the  fire  place  for  about  five  days.     Another   method   of   detoxifying   castor   seed   meal   involved   the   wet   mixing   with   sal   seed  meal  so  that  the  toxic  constituents  of  castor  seed  were  neutralized  by  tannins.  the  ricin  is  detoxified  and  the  allergen  is  inactivated.  a  poison.   Microbiological   studies   have   shown   that   the   bacteria   involved   are   spore-­‐forming   bacteria.   though   reports   of   actual   poisoning   are   relatively   rare.   even   a   small   dose   of   ricin   may  cause  toxic  symptoms.     About  the  ricin     The  castor  seed  coat  contains  ricin.  It  is  unsuitable  as  an  animal  feed  because  of   the  presence  of  toxic  protein  called  ricin  and  toxic  allergen  often  referred  to  as  CBA  (castor   bean  allergen).  especially  members  of  the  genus  Bacillus     Detoxified   and   deallergenized   castor   meal   (DDCM)   is   a   by-­‐product   of   an   extraction   process  of  the  castor  bean  in  Thailand.  It  is  believed  that  most  of  the  detoxification  takes  place   during   fermentation   and   it   leads   to   the   elimination   of   the   toxic   factors.  the  castor  meal  is  rendered  non-­‐toxic.   some   people   in   parts   of   South-­‐Eastern   Nigeria   have   long   developed   a   method  for  treating  and  detoxifying  the  unextracted  seed.   This   is   followed  by  addition  of  ash  from  burnt  palm  kernel  husk  which  gives  it  a  dark  colour.  caustic  soda.     In   addition.

  are   heterodimeric   glycoproteins.     8.  However.  Use  of  ricin   as  an  adjuvant  has  potential  implications  for  developing  mucosal  vaccines.   also   known   as   holotoxins.  but  not  to  the   cancer  cells.  covalently  connected  by  a  single  disulfide  bond  to  a  Ricin  B  chain   that  is  catalytically  inactive.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 174   Ricin   is   classified   as   a   Type   2   ribosome   inactivating   protein   (RIP).  castor  meal  is  today  used   in  some  cases  as  a  cost  effective  fuel.   rapeseed  meal  etc.  thus  greatly  increasing  their  immunogenicity.   Type   2   RIPs.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .     Many  plants  such  as  barley  have  the  Ricin  A  chain  but  not  the  B  chain.     The   Ricin   A   Chain   is   an   N-­‐glycoside   hydrolase   composed   of   267   amino   acids.   Type   2   RIPs   consist   of   a   Ricin   A   chain   that   is   functionally   equivalent  to  a  Type  1  RIP.  and  the  significant  demand  that  emanates  for  its  use  as  organic  fertilizer  implies   that  the  impact  of  castor  meal  on  the  biomass/biofuels  industry  is  insignificant.  and  given  its  reasonably  good  energy  content.     The   Ricin   B   Chain   is   a   lectin   composed   of   262   amino   acids   that   is   able   to   bind   terminal   galactose  residues  on  cell  surfaces.5  Energy  Content  in  Castor  Meal     The  calorific  value  of  deoiled  castor  cake  is  about  4200  Kcal  per  kg.  barbell-­‐like  structure  lacking  alpha-­‐ helices   or   beta-­‐sheets   where   individual   lobes   contain   three   subdomains.  The  three  domains  form  a  pronounced  cleft  that  is  the  active  site  of  RTA.  Given  the  fact  that  the   cost   of   castor   meal   /cake   is   lower   than   those   of   other   equivalents   such   as   soy   meal.   Whereas   Type   1   RIPs   consist   of   a   single   enzymatic   protein   chain.  as  Ricin  A  is  of  extremely  low  toxicity  as  long  as   the  B  chain  is  not  present.  the  limited  quantities  in  which  castor  meal   is  available.     Potential  medicinal  use  of  ricin     Ricins   may   have   therapeutic   use   in   the   treatment   of   cancer.   At   least   one   of   these   three   subdomains   in   each   homologous   lobe   possesses   a   sugar-­‐binding   pocket   that   gives  RTB  its  functional  character.   to   specifically   target   and   destroy  cancer  cells:  Ricin  could  be  linked  to  a  monoclonal  antibody  to  target  malignant  cells   recognized  by  the  antibody.  RTB  form  a  bilobal.  People  do  not  fall  ill   from  eating  large  amounts  of  such  products.   It   has   three   structural  domains  with  approximately  50%  of  the  polypeptide  arranged  into  alpha-­‐helices   and  beta-­‐sheets.   Both   Type   1   and   Type   2   RIPs   are   functionally   active   against   ribosomes   in   vitro.  Another  promising  approach  is  to  use  the  non-­‐toxic  subunit  of  ricin  as  a  vehicle   for  delivering  antigens  into  cells.     Modification  of  ricin  is  believed  to  be  possible  to  lessen  its  toxicity  to  humans.  but  serves  to  mediate  entry  of  the  A-­‐B  protein  complex  into  the   cytosol..   however  only  Type  2  RIPs  display  cytoxicity  due  to  the  lectin  properties  of  the  B  chain.     CastorOil.

 However.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 175   8.  primarily  from  India.   rheological   and   functional  properties  of  fatty  acids.     When  compared  to  other  oilseed  meals.  potash  and  moisture  retention.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .       SUMMARY       Castor   meal   is   an   excellent   fertilizer   because   of   the   high   content   of   nitrogen.  according  to  suppliers  in  India.  Vietnam.   Most   of   these   consumers.     In  the  last  three  years  (2005-­‐2008).   Brazil   and   Europe   are   the   other   major   consumers.  China.  It  is  used  as  fuel  as  well.         CastorOil.   phosphoric   acid.  castor  meal  is  much  cheaper  than  rapeseed   meal  and  soymeal.   emulsifier   production   or   edible   fat   and   triglyceride   biomanufacturing.   with   the   exception  of  Brazil.  import  almost  all  their  consumption.  India  is  the  largest  exporter  of   castor  seed  meal.  and  South  Korea  and  Taiwan  are  the  leading  importers.6  Castor  Meal    Other  Points     For   the   time   being.   castor   bean   presscake   is   not   widely   used   as   it   contains   toxic   proteins  and  allergens.  castor  meal  saw  a   price  variation  in  the  range  $40-­‐$150  per  T     The   countries   to   which   castor   meal   is   mostly   exported   from   India   are   Korea   and   Taiwan.   which   improves   the   nutritional.  the  lipase  it  also  contains  could  be  used  for  various   applications:   stereoisomer   separation.

1   o Castor  Oil  Storage    9.2.6   CastorOil.2.1.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 176       9  -­‐  Castor  Oil  Distribution  &  Logistics     This  chapter  comprises  inputs  on  the  following  topics     Castor  Oil  Storing  &  Packaging    9.1   o Castor  Oil  Packaging    9.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .3   o Density  &  Volume  Expansion    9.2.2.1.3     Castor  Oil  Transportation  &  Logistics    9.1   o Transport    9.2.1.2.4   o Cargo  Securing    9.5   o Risk  Factors  &  Loss  Prevention    9.2   o Cargo  Handling    9.2   o Distribution  from  Farms  to  Refinery    9.2   o Castor  Oil  Shelf  Life    9.

 Lipid  oxidation  occurs  when  the  double  bonds  in   the  fatty  acid  react  with  oxygen  to  form  peroxides  -­‐   this  changes  the  chemical  nature  of  the   oil.   There   are   many   factors   which   influence   the   rate   of   oxidation   in   foods:   fatty   acid   composition.1  Distribution  from  Farms  to  Refinery     The   process   mentioned   below   is   representative   of   a   typical   distribution   of   castor   seeds   in   India.   Used  in  retail  form.  pro-­‐oxidants.1.   traders   buy   the   castor   seeds   through   an   auction   process.  castor  oil  has  a  shelf  life  of   about  12  months.1  Castor  Oil  Storing  &  Packaging     9.  oxygen  concentration.  and  the  presence  of   antioxidants.in  -­‐  Home  of  Castor  Oil     .   copper.   placing   the   oil   in   an   opaque   container.   manganese.   CastorOil.   cobalt.   iron.  free  fatty  acids  versus  the  corresponding  acylglycerols.g.     9.   it   is   prone   to   an   undesirable  reaction  called  lipid  oxidation.1  Castor  Oil  Storage     Because   the   castor   oil   contains   double   bonds   in   its   lipid   structure.  castor  oil  is  stored  in  a  controlled  environment..1.   There  are  many  traders  who  do  this  in  each  city.  That  includes   removing   oxygen.   and   nickel).  castor  oil  is  usually  sold  in  small  packs.   storing   the   oil   in   a   cool   place.Comprehensive  Castor  Oil  Report 177     9.   temperature.3  Shelf  Life     Under  normal  temperatures  and  conditions.  refrigeration  after  opening  is  recommended     9.1.   removal   of   pro-­‐oxidants   (e.       Owing  to  the  above  reasons.     Sea  Transport  -­‐  Castor  oil  is  usually  packed  in  steel  drums  (200/225  Kg)  while  transported  by   sea   in   containers.     o Castor  seeds  are  bought  to  the  auction  place  from  the  farms   o At   the   auction   place.2  Packaging     Packaging  Options     In  retail.   and   possibly   adding  antioxidants.  radiant  energy  (visible  and  ultraviolet  light).   Many   suppliers   have   started   using   fl